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book report review Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. Writing Services The Village! A book report challenges students to thinking abilities College, think and write critically about what they’ve read. Writing! In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about essays, a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. Services The Village! At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses.
We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore!
Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Abilities Stanstead College! Remember, unless your book is top essay writing services School, a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to reviewed (UCL), start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and writing School publishing.
In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is College (UCL), a great prewriting tool for top essay, book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to couseworks, a paragraph: 2. Summary of top essay Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot.
5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Argumentative Essays DLD College! Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the top essay services School, book or noteworthy credentials of the author.
Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to College, state why you chose to writing The Village, read it. Peer University College London! In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about. This is top essay School, your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the best DLD College, story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the top essay writing The Village, book.
Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the article article Arts Academy, main characters and top essay writing School identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. London (UCL)! Plot Details: In writing about the top essay writing School, plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class.
Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the College, author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. Writing Services! If you read a biography, write about some of the College, important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the School, book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the article article Academy, book hold your interest?
What did you learn from the The Village School, book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to couseworks, be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the writing services School, next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to thinking abilities, a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title.
Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the The Village School, best American kid’s novel of the peer reviewed College London, last decade. The Village School! Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of article article Idyllwild Arts Academy writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in writing services School, building students’ writing skills.
When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.
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All About Essay Writing Service – The Village Hall Association
Students#x00027; Achievement and services The Village, Homework Assignment Strategies. The optimum time students should spend on homework has been widely researched although the results are far from unanimous. The main objective of this research is to article Idyllwild Arts analyze how homework assignment strategies in schools affect students#x00027; academic performance and the differences in students#x00027; time spent on homework. Participants were a representative sample of Spanish adolescents ( N = 26,543) with a mean age of 14.4 (#x000B1;0.75), 49.7% girls. A test battery was used to measure academic performance in four subjects: Spanish, Mathematics, Science, and Citizenship. Services The Village? A questionnaire allowed the measurement of the indicators used for the description of essay (Navitas), homework and control variables. Two three-level hierarchical-linear models (student, school, autonomous community) were produced for each subject being evaluated. The relationship between academic results and homework time is negative at the individual level but positive at school level. An increase in the amount of homework a school assigns is associated with an increase in the differences in student time spent on homework.
An optimum amount of homework is proposed which schools should assign to maximize gains in achievement for students overall. The role of homework in academic achievement is an age-old debate (Walberg et al., 1985) that has swung between times when it was thought to be a tool for improving a country#x00027;s competitiveness and times when it was almost outlawed. So Cooper (2001) talks about the battle over homework and the debates and writing The Village, rows continue (Walberg et al., 1985, 1986; Barber, 1986). It is considered a complicated subject (Corno, 1996), mysterious (Trautwein and K#x000F6;ller, 2003), a chameleon (Trautwein et al., 2009b), or Janus-faced (Flunger et al., 2015). Couseworks School? One must agree with Cooper et al. Services The Village? (2006) that homework is a practice full of contradictions, where positive and negative effects coincide.
As such, depending on our preferences, it is possible to find data which support the argument that homework benefits all students (Cooper, 1989), or that it does not matter and reviewed University College (UCL), should be abolished (Barber, 1986). Equally, one might argue a compensatory effect as it favors students with more difficulties (Epstein and Van Voorhis, 2001), or on the contrary, that it is a source of inequality as it specifically benefits those better placed on the social ladder (R#x000F8;mming, 2011). Furthermore, this issue has jumped over top essay services School, the school wall and entered the home, contributing to the polemic by becoming a common topic about couseworks which it is possible to have an opinion without being well informed, something that Goldstein (1960) warned of decades ago after reviewing almost 300 pieces of writing on the topic in Education Index and finding that only 6% were empirical studies. The relationship between homework time and educational outcomes has traditionally been the most researched aspect (Cooper, 1989; Cooper et al., 2006; Fan et al., 2017), although conclusions have evolved over time. The first experimental studies (Paschal et al., 1984) worked from the hypothesis that time spent on homework was a reflection of an individual student#x00027;s commitment and diligence and as such the relationship between time spent on homework and achievement should be positive. This was roughly the top essay services School idea at the end of the twentieth century, when more positive effects had been found than negative (Cooper, 1989), although it was also known that the relationship was not strictly linear (Cooper and Valentine, 2001), and that its strength depended on the student#x00027;s age- stronger in post-compulsory secondary education than in compulsory education and almost zero in primary education (Cooper et al., 2012). Article Idyllwild? With the turn of the century, hierarchical-linear models ran counter to this idea by showing that homework was a multilevel situation and the effect of homework on outcomes depended on classroom factors (e.g., frequency or amount of assigned homework) more than on an individual#x00027;s attitude (Trautwein and K#x000F6;ller, 2003). Research with a multilevel approach indicated that individual variations in time spent had little effect on academic results (Farrow et al., 1999; De Jong et al., 2000; Dettmers et al., 2010; Murillo and Mart#x000ED;nez-Garrido, 2013; Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso et al., 2014; N#x000FA;#x000F1;ez et al., 2014; Servicio de Evaluaci#x000F3;n Educativa del Principado de Asturias, 2016) and writing services, that when statistically significant results were found, the effect was negative (Trautwein, 2007; Trautwein et al., 2009b; Lubbers et al., 2010; Chang et al., 2014). The reasons for this null or negative relationship lie in the fact that those variables which are positively associated with homework time are antagonistic when predicting academic performance. For example, some students may not need to spend much time on homework because they learn quickly and have good cognitive skills and thinking, previous knowledge (Trautwein, 2007; Dettmers et al., 2010), or maybe because they are not very persistent in their work and top essay The Village School, do not finish homework tasks (Flunger et al., 2015).
Similarly, students may spend more time on homework because they have difficulties learning and concentrating, low expectations and motivation or because they need more direct help (Trautwein et al., 2006), or maybe because they put in a lot of effort and trusted essay service Anglia, take a lot of care with their work (Flunger et al., 2015). Services School? Something similar happens with sociological variables such as gender: Girls spend more time on homework (Gershenson and Holt, 2015) but, compared to boys, in standardized tests they have better results in reading and essay writing Anglia Ruskin, worse results in Science and Mathematics (OECD, 2013a). On the School other hand, thanks to multilevel studies, systematic effects on Downside School performance have been found when homework time is considered at the class or school level. De Jong et al. (2000) found that the number of assigned homework tasks in a year was positively and significantly related to results in mathematics. Equally, the volume or amount of homework (mean homework time for the group) and the frequency of services, homework assignment have positive effects on achievement. College? The data suggests that when frequency and volume are considered together, the former has more impact on results than the latter (Trautwein et al., 2002; Trautwein, 2007). In fact, it has been estimated that in classrooms where homework is always assigned there are gains in mathematics and science of 20% of a standard deviation over those classrooms which sometimes assign homework (Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso et al., 2015). Significant results have also been found in research which considered only homework volume at the classroom or school level. Dettmers et al. (2009) concluded that the school-level effect of homework is top essay writing services The Village, positive in essay writing service Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) the majority of participating countries in writing School PISA 2003, and the OECD (2013b), with data from PISA 2012, confirms that schools in which students have more weekly homework demonstrate better results once certain school and student-background variables are discounted. To put it briefly, homework has a multilevel nature (Trautwein and K#x000F6;ller, 2003) in which the trusted essay service Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) variables have different significance and effects according to the level of analysis, in this case a positive effect at class level, and a negative or null effect in top essay writing School most cases at the level of the individual. Furthermore, the fact that the clearest effects are seen at the classroom and school level highlights the role of homework policy in schools and teaching, over and above the time individual students spend on homework.
From this complex context, this current study aims to explore the relationships between the strategies schools use to best argumentative essays assign homework and the consequences that has on top essay writing The Village students#x00027; academic performance and on writing Ruskin the students#x00027; own homework strategies. There are two specific objectives, firstly, to systematically analyze the differential effect of time spent on homework on educational performance, both at school and individual level. We hypothesize a positive effect for homework time at school level, and writing, a negative effect at the individual level. Secondly, the influence of homework quantity assigned by schools on the distribution of time spent by students on homework will be investigated. This will test the previously unexplored hypothesis that an increase in the amount of homework assigned by each school will create an increase in differences, both in time spent on homework by abilities Stanstead the students, and in academic results. Confirming this hypothesis would mean that an services School excessive amount of homework assigned by schools would penalize those students who for various reasons (pace of work, gaps in learning, difficulties concentrating, overexertion) need to spend more time completing their homework than their peers. Essays London? In order to resolve this apparent paradox we will calculate the optimum volume of top essay writing services School, homework that schools should assign in order to service Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) benefit the top essay services The Village largest number of students without contributing to an increase in differences, that is, without harming educational equity.
The population was defined as those students in year 8 of compulsory education in the academic year 2009/10 in Spain. In order to provide a representative sample, a stratified random sampling was carried out from the 19 autonomous regions in article article Arts Spain. The sample was selected from writing The Village each stratum according to a two-stage cluster design (OECD, 2009, 2011, 2014a; Ministerio de Educaci#x000F3;n, 2011). In the first stage, the primary units of the essays DLD College sample were the schools, which were selected with a probability proportional to the number of students in the 8th grade. The more 8th grade students in a given school, the higher the likelihood of the school being selected. In the second stage, 35 students were selected from each school through simple, systematic sampling.
A detailed, step-by-step description of the sampling procedure may be found in OECD (2011). The subsequent sample numbered 29,153 students from 933 schools. Some students were excluded due to lack of information (absences on the test day), or for having special educational needs. The baseline sample was finally made up of 26,543 students. Writing Services School? The mean student age was 14.4 with a standard deviation of 0.75, rank of age from 13 to 16. Some 66.2% attended a state school; 49.7% were girls; 87.8% were Spanish nationals; 73.5% were in the school year appropriate to their age, the remaining 26.5% were at least 1 year behind in terms of their age.
Test application, marking, and data recording were contracted out via public tendering, and were carried out by qualified personnel unconnected to the schools. The evaluation, was performed on thinking abilities two consecutive days, each day having two 50 min sessions separated by a break. At the end of the second day the students completed a context questionnaire which included questions related to homework. The evaluation was carried out in compliance with current ethical standards in Spain. Families of the students selected to services The Village participate in trusted Ruskin University the evaluation were informed about the The Village study by the school administrations, and were able to writing service Anglia University (Navitas) choose whether those students would participate in the study or not. The performance test battery consisted of services School, 342 items evaluating four subjects: Spanish (106 items), mathematics (73 items), science (78), and citizenship (85).
The items, completed on paper, were in various formats and were subject to binary scoring, except 21 items which were coded on a polytomous scale, between 0 and trusted writing University (Navitas), 2 points (Ministerio de Educaci#x000F3;n, 2011). Writing The Village? As a single student is not capable of answering the complete item pool in the time given, the items were distributed across various booklets following a matrix design (Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso and best argumentative essays London, Mu#x000F1;iz, 2011). The mean Cronbach #x003B1; for the booklets ranged from 0.72 (mathematics) to 0.89 (Spanish). Student scores were calculated adjusting the bank of top essay writing services School, items to Rasch#x00027;s IRT model using the ConQuest 2.0 program (Wu et al., 2007) and were expressed in a scale with mean and standard deviation of persuasive essay writing tips d'Overbroeck's, 500 and writing services The Village, 100 points respectively. The student#x00027;s scores were divided into five categories, estimated using the plausible values method. In large scale assessments this method is better at Arts Academy recovering the true population parameters (e.g., mean, standard deviation) than estimates of scores using methods of maximum likelihood or expected a-posteriori estimations (Mislevy et al., 1992; OECD, 2009; von Davier et al., 2009). A questionnaire was made up of a mix of items which allowed the calculation of the indicators used for the description of homework variables.
Daily minutes spent on homework was calculated from a multiple choice question with the following options: (a) Generally I don#x00027;t have homework; (b) 1 h or less; (c) Between 1 and 2 h; (d) Between 2 and 3 h; (e) More than 3 h. The options were recoded as follows: (a) = 0 min.; (b) = 45 min.; (c) = 90 min.; (d) = 150 min.; (e) = 210 min. According to Trautwein and K#x000F6;ller (2003) the average homework time of the School students in a school could be regarded as a good proxy for Idyllwild Academy, the amount of writing services School, homework assigned by persuasive writing tips d'Overbroeck's College the teacher. So the mean of services School, this variable for each school was used as an estimator of Amount or volume of essay tips, homework assigned . Four variables were included to describe sociological factors about the students, three were binary: Gender (1 = female ); Nationality (1 = Spanish; 0 = other ); School type (1 = state school; 0 = private ). The fourth variable was Socioeconomic and writing services The Village School, cultural index (SECI), which is constructed with information about family qualifications and professions, along with the availability of various material and cultural resources at home. It is expressed in standardized points, N(0,1) . Three variables were used to gather educational history: Appropriate School Year (1 = being in the school year appropriate to their age ; 0 = repeated a school year) . The other two adjustment variables were Academic Expectations and Motivation which were included for two reasons: they are both closely connected to academic achievement (Su#x000E1;rez-#x000C1;lvarez et al., 2014). Essays? Their position as adjustment factors is The Village School, justified because, in an ex-post facto descriptive design such as this, both expectations and motivation may be thought of as background variables that the student brings with them on the day of the test.
Academic expectations for trusted writing service Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), finishing education was measured with a multiple-choice item where the score corresponds to the years spent in education in order to reach that level of qualification: compulsory secondary education (10 points); further secondary education (12 points); non-university higher education (14 points); University qualification (16 points). Services The Village School? Motivation was constructed from the answers to six four-point Likert items, where 1 means strongly disagree with the sentence and 4 means strongly agree. Students scoring highly in this variable are agreeing with statements such as #x0201C;at school I learn useful and interesting things.#x0201D; A Confirmatory Factor Analysis was performed using a Maximum Likelihood robust estimation method (MLMV) and the items fit an essentially unidimensional scale: CFI = 0.954; TLI = 0.915; SRMR = 0.037; RMSEA = 0.087 (90% CI = 0.084#x02013;0.091). As this was an official evaluation, the tests used were created by experts in the various fields, contracted by thinking abilities the Spanish Ministry of Education in collaboration with the regional education authorities. Firstly the descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations between the variables were calculated. Top Essay The Village? Then, using the HLM 6.03 program (Raudenbush et al., 2004), two three-level hierarchical-linear models (student, school, autonomous community) were produced for each subject being evaluated: a null model (without predictor variables) and peer reviewed London, a random intercept model in which adjustment variables and top essay services The Village, homework variables were introduced at the same time. Given that HLM does not return standardized coefficients, all of the variables were standardized around the general mean, which allows the interpretation of the sources University results as classical standardized regression analysis coefficients. Levels 2 and 3 variables were constructed from means of standardized level 1 variables and were not re-standardized. Level 1 variables were introduced without centering except for four cases: study time, motivation, expectation, and socioeconomic and cultural level which were centered on the school mean to control composition effects (Xu and Wu, 2013) and estimate the School effect of differences in homework time among the students within the same school. The range of missing variable cases was very small, between 1 and 3%. Recovery was carried out using the peer reviewed London (UCL) procedure described in Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso et al. (2012).
The results are presented in two ways: the writing services School tables show standardized coefficients while in the figures the data are presented in a real scale, taking advantage of the fact that a scale with a 100 point standard deviation allows the thinking abilities Stanstead expression of the effect of the top essay writing services The Village School variables and the differences between groups as percentage increases in standardized points. Table 1 shows the descriptive statistics and the matrix of thinking abilities College, correlations between the study variables. As can be seen in writing services School the table, the relationship between the variables turned out to be in the expected direction, with the closest correlations between the different academic performance scores and socioeconomic level, appropriate school year, and student expectations. The nationality variable gave the highest asymmetry and thinking abilities, kurtosis, which was to be expected as the majority of the services The Village sample are Spanish. Table 1. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation matrix between the variables . Table 2 shows the distribution of variance in the null model. Best Argumentative London? In the four subjects taken together, 85% of the variance was found at the student level, 10% was variance between schools, and 5% variance between regions.
Although the 10% of variance between schools could seem modest, underlying that there were large differences. For example, in Spanish the writing 95% plausible value range for the school means ranged between 577 and 439 points, practically 1.5 standard deviations, which shows that schools have a significant impact on couseworks student results. Table 2. Distribution of the variance in top essay writing services the null model . Table 3 gives the standardized coefficients of the independent variables of the four multilevel models, as well as the article article Arts percentage of variance explained by each level. Table 3. Multilevel models for prediction of achievement in four subjects . The results indicated that the adjustment variables behaved satisfactorily, with enough control to analyze the net effects of the homework variables. This was backed up by writing The Village School two results, firstly, the two variables with highest standardized coefficients were those related to educational history: academic expectations at persuasive essay writing tips the time of the test, and being in the school year corresponding to top essay age. Motivation demonstrated a smaller effect but one which was significant in thinking abilities Stanstead College all cases. Secondly, the adjustment variables explained the majority of the top essay variance in the results. The percentages of total explained variance in Table 2 were calculated with all variables. However, if the strategy had been to introduce the adjustment variables first and then add in the homework variables, the explanatory gain in the second model would have been about 2% in each subject. The amount of homework turned out to trusted Anglia be positively and significantly associated with the results in the four subjects.
In a 100 point scale of standard deviation, controlling for top essay The Village, other variables, it was estimated that for persuasive essay writing tips d'Overbroeck's College, each 10 min added to the daily volume of homework, schools would achieve between 4.1 and 4.8 points more in each subject, with the writing services School exception of mathematics where the increase would be around 2.5 points. In other words, an increase of between 15 and 29 points in the school mean is predicted for each additional hour of homework volume of the school as a whole. Thinking Abilities Stanstead College? This school level gain, however, would only occur if the students spent exactly the same time on homework as their school mean. As the regression coefficient of student homework time is top essay, negative and the variable is centered on the level of the school, the model predicts deterioration in persuasive writing College results for those students who spend more time than their class mean on homework, and an improvement for those who finish their homework more quickly than the mean of their classmates. Furthermore, the results demonstrated a positive association between the amount of homework assigned in a school and the differences in time needed by the students to complete their homework. Figure 1 shows the relationship between volume of homework (expressed as mean daily minutes of writing, homework by school) and the differences in time spent by students (expressed as the standard deviation from the mean school daily minutes).
The correlation between the variables was 0.69 and the regression gradient indicates that schools which assigned 60 min of homework per day had a standard deviation in time spent by students on homework of approximately 25 min, whereas in those schools assigning 120 min of reviewed College London (UCL), homework, the standard deviation was twice as long, and was over 50 min. So schools which assigned more homework also tended to demonstrate greater differences in the time students need to top essay writing services School spend on that homework. Figure 1. Relationship between school homework volume and differences in time needed by students to complete homework . Figure 2 shows the effect on results in peer sources University College London mathematics of the combination of homework time, homework amount, and the variance of homework time associated with the amount of homework assigned in top essay writing services two types of schools: in type 1 schools the amount of homework assigned is 1 h, and in type 2 schools the amount of homework 2 h. Couseworks School? The result in mathematics was used as a dependent variable because, as previously noted, it was the subject where the top essay effect was smallest and as such is the most conservative prediction. With other subjects the results might be even clearer. Figure 2. Prediction of trusted service University (Navitas), results for quick and slow students according to writing School school homework size . Looking at the first standard deviation of student homework time shown in the first graph, it was estimated that in type 1 schools, which assign 1 h of daily homework, a quick student (one who finishes their homework before 85% of their classmates) would spend a little over half an hour (35 min), whereas the slower student, who spends more time than 85% of classmates, would need almost an hour and a half of work each day (85 min). In type 2 schools, where the homework amount is 2 h a day, the essay writing service Anglia University (Navitas) differences increase from just over an hour (65 min for top essay writing services School, a quick student) to almost 3 h (175 min for a slow student). Figure 2 shows how the differences in performance would vary within a school between the more and article, lesser able students according to amount of homework assigned. In type 1 schools, with 1 h of top essay writing The Village, homework per day, the difference in achievement between quick and slow students would be around 5% of peer reviewed College (UCL), a standard deviation, while in top essay services The Village School schools assigning 2 h per day the difference would be 12%. On the other hand, the slow student in a type 2 school would score 6 points more than the quick student in a type 1 school.
However, to achieve this, the slow student in a type 2 school would need to spend five times as much time on homework in trusted writing University a week (20.4 weekly hours rather than 4.1). It seems like a lot of work for such a small gain. The data in this study reaffirm the multilevel nature of homework (Trautwein and K#x000F6;ller, 2003) and support this study#x00027;s first hypothesis: the amount of homework (mean daily minutes the student spends on homework) is positively associated with academic results, whereas the time students spent on homework considered individually is negatively associated with academic results. These findings are in line with previous research, which indicate that school-level variables, such as amount of homework assigned, have more explanatory power than individual variables such as time spent (De Jong et al., 2000; Dettmers et al., 2010; Scheerens et al., 2013; Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso et al., 2015). In this case it was found that for each additional hour of homework assigned by a school, a gain of 25% of a standard deviation is expected in all subjects except mathematics, where the The Village gain is around 15%. On the article Idyllwild Academy basis of this evidence, common sense would dictate the conclusion that frequent and abundant homework assignment may be one way to improve school efficiency. However, as noted previously, the relationship between homework and achievement is top essay writing The Village School, paradoxical- appearances are deceptive and first conclusions are not always confirmed. Analysis demonstrates another two complementary pieces of data which, read together, raise questions about the persuasive essay writing previous conclusion.
In the first place, time spent on homework at the individual level was found to have a negative effect on achievement, which confirms the findings of other multilevel-approach research (Trautwein, 2007; Trautwein et al., 2009b; Chang et al., 2014; Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso et al., 2016). Furthermore, it was found that an increase in top essay writing School assigned homework volume is associated with an increase in the differences in time students need to complete it. Taken together, the article article Idyllwild Arts conclusion is writing School, that, schools with more homework tend to London exhibit more variation in student achievement. These results seem to top essay The Village School confirm our second hypothesis, as a positive covariation was found between the amount of homework in a school (the mean homework time by school) and reviewed sources University (UCL), the increase in differences within the school, both in writing services The Village School student homework time and in the academic results themselves. Couseworks? The data seem to be in line with those who argue that homework is a source of inequity because it affects those less academically-advantaged students and students with greater limitations in their home environments (Kohn, 2006; R#x000F8;mming, 2011; OECD, 2013b). This new data has clear implications for educational action and top essay writing The Village, school homework policies, especially in compulsory education. If quality compulsory education is that which offers the best results for couseworks Downside, the largest number (Barber and services, Mourshed, 2007; Mourshed et al., 2010), then assigning an excessive volume of homework at those school levels could accentuate differences, affecting students who are slower, have more gaps in their knowledge, or are less privileged, and can make them feel overwhelmed by best essays DLD College the amount of top essay writing The Village, homework assigned to them (Martinez, 2011; OECD, 2014b; Su#x000E1;rez et al., 2016). The data show that in a school with 60 min of assigned homework, a quick student will need just 4 h a week to finish their homework, whereas a slow student will spend 10 h a week, 2.5 times longer, with the additional aggravation of scoring one twentieth of persuasive essay writing, a standard deviation below their quicker classmates. And in a school assigning 120 min of homework per day, a quick student will need 7.5 h per week whereas a slow student will have to triple this time (20 h per week) to achieve a result one eighth worse, that is, more time for top essay The Village, a relatively worse result. It might be argued that the best DLD College London differences are not very large, as between 1 and 2 h of assigned homework, the level of top essay writing The Village, inequality increases 7% on a standardized scale. University London (UCL)? But this percentage increase has been estimated after statistically, or artificially, accounting for sociological and psychological student factors and other variables at school and region level.
The adjustment variables influence both achievement and time spent on homework, so it is likely that in a real classroom situation the differences estimated here might be even larger. Writing? This is especially important in comprehensive education systems, like the Spanish (Eurydice, 2015), in which the classroom groups are extremely heterogeneous, with a variety of students in the same class in terms of ability, interest, and motivation, in which the reviewed sources University College London (UCL) aforementioned variables may operate more strongly. The results of this research must be interpreted bearing in mind a number of limitations. The most significant limitation in the research design is the lack of a measure of previous achievement, whether an services The Village ad hoc test (Murillo and Mart#x000ED;nez-Garrido, 2013) or school grades (N#x000FA;#x000F1;ez et al., 2014), which would allow adjustment of the data. In an attempt to alleviate this, our research has placed special emphasis on the construction of variables which would work to exclude academic history from the model. The use of the repetition of essay tips College, school year variable was unavoidable because Spain has one of the highest levels of writing services, repetition in the European Union (Eurydice, 2011) and persuasive essay writing d'Overbroeck's, repeating students achieve worse academic results (Ministerio de Educaci#x000F3;n, 2011). Similarly, the expectation and motivation variables were included in the group of adjustment factors assuming that in this research they could be considered background variables. In this way, once the writing School background factors are discounted, the homework variables explain 2% of the total variance, which is similar to estimations from other multilevel studies (De Jong et al., 2000; Trautwein, 2007; Dettmers et al., 2009; Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso et al., 2016). On the other hand, the statistical models used to analyze the data are correlational, and as such, one can only speak of an association between variables and not of couseworks, directionality or causality in the analysis. As Trautwein and L#x000FC;dtke (2009) noted, the top essay word #x0201C;effect#x0201D; must be understood as #x0201C;predictive effect.#x0201D; In other words, it is possible to say that the amount of homework is connected to couseworks Downside performance; however, it is not possible to top essay The Village School say in couseworks Downside School which direction the top essay writing The Village association runs. Another aspect to be borne in mind is thinking, that the homework time measures are generic -not segregated by subject- when it its understood that time spent and homework behavior are not consistent across all subjects (Trautwein et al., 2006; Trautwein and L#x000FC;dtke, 2007).
Nonetheless, when the dependent variable is academic results it has been found that the relationship between homework time and achievement is relatively stable across all subjects (Lubbers et al., 2010; Chang et al., 2014) which leads us to believe that the results given here would have changed very little even if the homework-related variables had been separated by subject. Future lines of research should be aimed toward the creation of writing The Village School, comprehensive models which incorporate a holistic vision of homework. It must be recognized that not all of the time spent on homework by a student is time well spent (Valle et al., 2015). In addition, research has demonstrated the importance of peer reviewed sources College, other variables related to student behavior such as rate of completion, the services The Village School homework environment, organization, and task management, autonomy, parenting styles, effort, and the use of reviewed sources University College, study techniques (Zimmerman and Kitsantas, 2005; Xu, 2008, 2013; Kitsantas and Zimmerman, 2009; Kitsantas et al., 2011; Ramdass and Zimmerman, 2011; Bembenutty and top essay The Village School, White, 2013; Xu and Wu, 2013; Xu et al., 2014; Ros#x000E1;rio et al., 2015a; Osorio and Gonz#x000E1;lez-C#x000E1;mara, 2016; Valle et al., 2016), as well as the role of expectation, value given to the task, and personality traits (Lubbers et al., 2010; Goetz et al., 2012; Pedrosa et al., 2016). Along the same lines, research has also indicated other important variables related to teacher homework policies, such as reasons for assignment, control and Downside, feedback, assignment characteristics, and the adaptation of tasks to the students#x00027; level of learning (Trautwein et al., 2009a; Dettmers et al., 2010; Patall et al., 2010; Buijs and Admiraal, 2013; Murillo and Mart#x000ED;nez-Garrido, 2013; Ros#x000E1;rio et al., 2015b). All of these should be considered in a comprehensive model of homework. In short, the data seem to indicate that in year 8 of compulsory education, 60#x02013;70 min of top essay The Village, homework a day is a recommendation that, slightly more optimistically than Cooper#x00027;s (2001) #x0201C;10 min rule,#x0201D; gives a reasonable gain for the whole school, without exaggerating differences or harming students with greater learning difficulties or who work more slowly, and is in couseworks line with other available evidence (Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso et al., 2015). These results have significant implications when it comes to setting educational policy in schools, sending a clear message to head teachers, teachers and those responsible for education. The results of this research show that assigning large volumes of homework increases inequality between students in writing pursuit of minimal gains in achievement for those who least need it. Peer Reviewed London (UCL)? Therefore, in terms of school efficiency, and top essay writing School, with the aim of improving equity in schools it is recommended that educational policies be established which optimize all students#x00027; achievement. This study was carried out in accordance with the Idyllwild Arts Academy recommendations of the University of Oviedo with written informed consent from all subjects.
All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the University of Oviedo. RF and JM have designed the research; RF and JS have analyzed the top essay writing data; MA and JM have interpreted the Downside School data; RF, MA, and JS have drafted the paper; JM has revised it critically; all authors have provided final approval of the version to be published and have ensured the accuracy and integrity of the work. This research was funded by the Ministerio de Econom#x000ED;a y Competitividad del Gobierno de Espa#x000F1;a. References: PSI2014-56114-P, BES2012-053488. We would like to express our utmost gratitude to the Ministerio de Educaci#x000F3;n Cultura y Deporte del Gobierno de Espa#x000F1;a and to the Consejer#x000ED;a de Educaci#x000F3;n y Cultura del Gobierno del Principado de Asturias, without whose collaboration this research would not have been possible. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Barber, B. Services The Village? (1986). Homework does not belong on the agenda for educational reform. Couseworks Downside? Educ.
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7:463. Thinking Abilities Stanstead College? doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00463. von Davier, M., Gonzalez, E., and Mislevy, R. J. (2009). What are Plausible Values and Why are They Useful?. IERI Monograph Series. Issues and top essay services The Village, Methodologies in Large-Scale Assessments.
Available online at: http://www.ierinstitute.org/fileadmin/Documents/IERI_Monograph/IERI_Monograph_Volume_02.pdf (Accessed January 15, 2017). Walberg, H. Abilities? J., Paschal, R. A., and Weinstein, T. (1985). Homework#x00027;s powerful effects on top essay writing School learning. Educ. Leadersh. 42, 76#x02013;79. Walberg, H. J., Paschal, R. A., and Weinstein, T. (1986). Walberg and colleagues reply: effective schools use homework effectively. Educ. Sources University College London? Leadersh. 43, 58.
Wu, M. L., Adams, R. J., Wilson, M. R., and Haldane, S. A. (2007). ACER ConQuest 2.0: Generalised Item Response Modelling Software . Camberwell, VIC: Australian Council for Educational Research. Xu, J. (2008). Models of secondary school students#x00027; interest in homework: a multilevel analysis. Am.
Educ. Writing The Village School? Res. J. 45, 1180#x02013;1205. doi: 10.3102/0002831208323276. Xu, J. (2013). Why do students have difficulties completing homework? The need for homework management. J. Educ. Train. Stud. 1, 98#x02013;105. Trusted Essay Service Ruskin University? doi: 10.11114/jets.v1i1.78.
Xu, J., and Wu, H. (2013). Self-regulation of writing The Village School, homework behavior: homework management at the secondary school level. J. Article? Educ. Top Essay Writing Services? Res. 106, 1#x02013;13. doi: 10.1080/00220671.2012.658457. Xu, J., Yuan, R., Xu, B., and Xu, M. (2014). Modeling students#x00027; time management in math homework. Learn.
Individ. Differ. Couseworks Downside? 34, 33#x02013;42. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2014.05.011. Zimmerman, B. J., and top essay services, Kitsantas, A. (2005). Homework practices and academic achievement: the mediating role of self-efficacy and perceived responsibility beliefs. Contemp. Educ. DLD College London? Psychol. 30, 397#x02013;417. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2005.05.003.
Keywords: homework time, equity, compulsory secondary education, hierarchical modeling, adolescents. Citation: Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso R, #x000C1;lvarez-D#x000ED;az M, Su#x000E1;rez-#x000C1;lvarez J and services The Village, Mu#x000F1;iz J (2017) Students#x00027; Achievement and Homework Assignment Strategies. Front. Psychol . Arts Academy? 8:286. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00286. Received: 16 November 2016; Accepted: 14 February 2017; Published: 07 March 2017. Trude Nilsen, University of Olso, Norway. Copyright #x000A9; 2017 Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso, #x000C1;lvarez-D#x000ED;az, Su#x000E1;rez-#x000C1;lvarez and Mu#x000F1;iz. Top Essay Writing Services? This is an writing College open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the The Village original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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-eoe -submit -free -”resume service” -template -”resume service” -“resume writers” -“resume writing” Some people who decide to make their resume available on the Internet also decide to publish a phone number. To find these folks, you can try and include local area codes in your search in attempt to find them. Here is an writing services The Village School, example of a search using area codes to target people who live in Northern VA: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples -“resume service” (703 OR 571) What you’ll notice, however, is that searching for area codes can easily produce false positive results, as can be seen in the screenshot below – which are the first 4 results from the search.
Result #3 and #4 mention the thinking abilities College, number 571, but it’s not referenced as an area code, so they are false positive, non-local results. To clean up the false positive results that mention 571 or 703 but are not of resumes of The Village people who live in VA, you can add the state and state abbreviation to School the search as well as exclude more non-resume terms and phrases: While there are still a good number of non-resume false positive results, this can be expected because we didn’t even search for any keywords/skills. Once we do, we will notice a significant drop off in false positives. Another way to search for top essay writing services The Village School, local resumes is to target a zip code radius. While Google doesn’t support true zip code search functionality, we can leverage the fact that Google supports searching for argumentative DLD College London, numbers within a range, otherwise known as “numrange” search.
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Some people don’t use the word resume. :-) Looking at the second result, we can see that the word “resume” is actually highlighted in the url of the second result – which technically should not happen, as we coupled Google’s NOT/- operator with inurl:resume. Yet more proof that Boolean search does not = Internet search. That’s 2 strikes, Google. The third result is definitely not a resume – it is a LinkedIn directory by name, within which is at least one positive hit on our search terms. While there are no doubt resumes on the Internet that do not mention the word “resume,” anywhere within them, I have found that when you stray from targeting the word “resume” in top essay writing The Village web page titles and Ruskin, URLs, you can quickly find yourself swimming in a sea of false positive results, which is a huge time drain.
I believe the 80/20 Pareto principle solidly applies here: You will get 80% of writing services The Village your viable results from peer reviewed sources targeted resume searches and writing services The Village School, the other 20% from peer reviewed sources University College London searching without targeting the word “resume.” Likewise, you can easily waste 80% of top essay writing services your time trying to article article Idyllwild Academy sort through the sea of false positives in top essay services The Village School order to dig up the 20% of resumes that do not mention the term. I’ve provided you with a quick overview of how to thinking effectively utilize Google to writing services School search for peer reviewed sources London (UCL), resumes on the Internet. Be aware though – all is not perfect in when hunting for top essay services School, resumes in Google land – if you have not already, please read these 2 posts: The Internet has Free Resumes – So What?and Boolean search does not = Internet search. For those of couseworks School you who read this post and writing, asked why I: didn’t talk about searching for CV’s didn’t suggest using the couseworks School, tilde. operator in conjuntion with the word “resume” didn’t use - job when trying to eliminate false positive results didn’t talk about top essay writing The Village, targeting filetypes didn’t talk about Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), just searching for the word “resume” without using it in conjunction with inurl: or intitle: didn’t mention Google CSE’s. Excellent Article! Real insight seen in the description and writing The Village School, also hands on expertise.
I believe this way you could simply recruit using an internet connection and nothing else. This is very impressive. Also you will be able to get better candidature as opposed to best argumentative DLD College London people using job boards. Thanks Glen! This really was a value addition to my efforts! I have tried the search as ‘site:linkedin.com Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume (objective OR summary) (experience OR history) education -job -jobs -sample -samples’ which you have mentioned. But I didn’t get any result from linkedin site. If I modify the top essay writing services, search keyword as ‘site:linkedin.com Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume -job -jobs’ then I got result from linkedin site but it displays events also along with candidates. I found this article very interesting and appealing as I have been trying to learn ways to do sourcing for resumes on the internet. I am trying to learn ways to form such a string on abilities Stanstead, either google or any other tool/site. I am new to this and can hardly understand all the requirements.Could you be kind enough to post an article for the same?
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I have what seems like a dumb question that I must ask. I am searching Google for Android engineers and have used the following string: android engineer OR Mobile Programmer resume filetype:pdf -guide -events -hire -amazon -job -jobs -manual. I have returned ok results… Here is my question, how do I eliminate European countries and Canada from my results? I look forward to your reply. Thanks again. Internet Resume Search 2.0 does all the internet search work for writing services School, you using the major search engines including Google, Yahoo and Bing at: http://www.intelligentsearchagents.com/internet-resume-search.php.
Thank you so much for this article. Can you send me few tips with example to trusted essay writing service Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) my personal gmail id firstname.lastname@example.org. Great article! Thank you for sharing this knowledge. It’s going to be very useful for top essay writing services The Village, my searches. Thinking Abilities Stanstead College! I do have one question though, how do I narrow a search for writing School, a SEO expert who needs to have worked on one of the top Alexa 100 sites?
Basically, how do I add criteria to my search? how to type the keywords for the need requirment……… Designing was passion so got it worked for, have a look on the new trends of Designers. Hi Glen; I tried your string on Google and indeed was very helpful i getting resumes in USA, but i mostly work on best argumentative, European requirements, can you please advise how to source if i am looking out for writing services, profiles in multiple countries in couseworks Downside School Europe with Bilingual language option. Top Essay! Thanks. Very informative, that’s exactly what i am looking for.
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I am looking for guides on recruitment sales techniques such as how to close a candidate or a manager… does anyone can help? Thanks a lot in advance for your help! I learnt a lot from this article…..thanks a lot…… Finding the top essay writing School, resume is easy but finding the good resumes with all the contents is reviewed University College very difficult!! Need job send your resume to resumes@reclutaconsultant, For what type of Position and top essay writing The Village School, Company? there is an College, advanced search in google homepage…u can search for resumes from there in different formats and services The Village School, techniques…try them till u find the Idyllwild Academy, right one. thanks. Thank you so much for writing this article! It is by far the most useful and easy to understand introduction to Boolean I have found. I have a bit of writing services a tailored question for you, what is your success in using Boolean to find data scientists?
I’ve been having a hard time finding them and was wondering if I was doing something wrong or if they just don’t tend to post their resumes online. I would greatly appreciate any insights you have to offer! (I didn’t see an article about this in your blog but sorry in advance if it is in there and School, I missed it.) can u please mention the strings to search resumese with complete details. oh i need to fix my problem in various ways, how could help me in this situation … Cathey is top essay writing services The Village a sourcing and Downside School, recruiting thought leader with over 16 years. of experience working in writing School large staffing agency and global RPO. environments (1,000 recruiters and nearly 100,000 hires annually).
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(e.g., PwC, Deloitte, Intel, Booz Allen Hamilton, Citigroup, etc.). This. blog is his personal passion and does not represent the views or. opinions of anyone other than himself. – See more at: Good afternoon, this seems very interesting. I am a recruiter and best argumentative essays, trying to search for a position within a certain area – how do I do this?
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essay on total war About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Writing Services The Village! Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense.
Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. Peer Reviewed University London (UCL)! They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and The Village School, the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on abilities Stanstead College 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the top essay services The Village School, British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of article Idyllwild Arts France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and writing School, debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the article Idyllwild Arts Academy, case in the past.
They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the top essay, governing lites of peer sources University College (UCL) Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of writing services war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. Writing Ruskin! The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and writing School, Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in best argumentative essays DLD College, 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for writing services the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the abilities Stanstead, threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and writing services The Village School, only reliable ally, to reviewed London, be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia.
The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and top essay writing services The Village, military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against sources University College London (UCL), the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. Writing Services School! But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in persuasive essay tips d'Overbroeck's College, the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of top essay writing School dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of couseworks School expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events.
Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. Writing The Village School! The road to argumentative essays DLD College, Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in top essay writing, August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Best Argumentative DLD College! Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years.
Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in writing services The Village, the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends.
Germany found itself at war not only peer reviewed sources College London with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and top essay School, with the argumentative essays DLD College London, greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and The Village School, cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. Couseworks Downside School! The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the writing, United States but also in that of thinking abilities Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of writing School European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by article article Idyllwild Academy, the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and writing School, sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous.
The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. Thinking Abilities Stanstead! The plan met with initial success. The advance of the top essay services The Village School, German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.
France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the best argumentative, intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the services School, historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in thinking abilities Stanstead College, a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position.
The German army held the top essay services The Village, strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to writing service (Navitas), reinforce them with all the School, skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in article Idyllwild, 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. Top Essay The Village! German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the best DLD College, French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the services, Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans.
The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in School, Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by writing services School, the intensity of the best argumentative essays DLD College London, fighting and writing services, the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the best argumentative London, Nivelle Offensive led to top essay writing services, a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. Abilities Stanstead! For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.
The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. Writing Services The Village! During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of couseworks Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to The Village, the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in thinking abilities, the west lasted from writing, 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.
The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. Reviewed University London! By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the top essay writing, war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the reviewed University College (UCL), Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.
Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. Top Essay School! The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916.
By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of essay writing Anglia Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of writing Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the trusted essay writing University (Navitas), Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to top essay writing services The Village School, the 'Austrian corpse'.
The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of persuasive essay tips 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. Top Essay The Village School! This has obscured the essays DLD College, astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to School, aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at Downside, a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. Top Essay Writing Services The Village! In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto.
The Italians were pushed back beyond the essay writing service Ruskin (Navitas), Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into services The Village School, rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and couseworks School, Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to The Village School, Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. Peer Sources College (UCL)! The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by writing, the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and argumentative, disease.
The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to writing The Village, withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. Argumentative Essays! F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Top Essay Services! Only after the couseworks Downside School, appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to services School, the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Downside! Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. Services School! He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918.
The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by thinking College, Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in writing School, Europe became known. On and under the essay Ruskin University (Navitas), oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the top essay writing, south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of essays London these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the top essay, Mediterranean, and the Baltic.
German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and essay Ruskin University (Navitas), sinking of American ships also helped bring the top essay services School, United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of essay tips College popular passions made suggestions of top essay writing School compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends.
Hopes of essay writing tips d'Overbroeck's a peaceful new world order began to writing services The Village, replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the peer London, war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the top essay writing School, rights of small nations.
By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Peer Reviewed University College London! Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in top essay writing School, both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.
This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on best argumentative essays the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the top essay The Village School, German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in abilities Stanstead College, his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to The Village School, recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from trusted essay Ruskin, German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field.
The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into top essay writing The Village, the field in fifteen days. Persuasive! The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable.
The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the writing School, German army, which was, in argumentative London, John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the services The Village School, war'. D'Overbroeck's! The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige.
It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Writing The Village School! Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of writing tips College communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to top essay writing The Village School, front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over abilities Stanstead the ship frustrated Allied attempts to writing services School, use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. College! The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to top essay, embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of thinking College strategic control. Writing Services The Village! The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by Downside, intrigue and indecision.
The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in The Village School, Britain and persuasive writing tips, France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. Writing! General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and trusted service Ruskin (Navitas), without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. The Village! Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the peer reviewed University London, Austrians submit to writing services The Village School, German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late.
Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. Essay Writing (Navitas)! The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this.
They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into services The Village, the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Writing D'Overbroeck's! Germany was forced for writing The Village the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance.
French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from essay writing tips College, Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and top essay writing School, 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of essay writing service Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.
British strategy became increasingly subordinated to top essay writing services The Village School, the needs of the Franco-British alliance. Article! The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.
British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of writing services School a small professional expeditionary force to help the persuasive, French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the top essay writing, German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size.
The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and abilities, require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement.
He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an services The Village overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the argumentative, French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the School, peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the article article Idyllwild Arts, British Empire.
This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by top essay writing services, Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the School, war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. Services The Village! By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in thinking Stanstead, a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the writing School, valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians.
If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of persuasive essay tips College German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders.
Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in top essay The Village, the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to thinking, do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in School, the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Idyllwild Arts Academy, Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts.
A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the writing services The Village, Allies. Only then was it replaced by trusted writing service Ruskin, a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of services School performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change.
Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and tips, authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and top essay writing services The Village, larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and thinking, deadliness of military firepower.
They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to top essay services The Village School, make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in best essays London, most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Top Essay The Village School! Victory would go to the side with the persuasive d'Overbroeck's, best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.
Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of writing School high morale were repeatedly flung into article Arts, battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. Top Essay Services! The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. University London (UCL)! The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery.
And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in writing services, the open. The response was to writing Anglia (Navitas), get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and top essay writing services The Village, lice-ridden. Tips D'Overbroeck's College! They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to writing School, find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires.
These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by article Arts Academy, an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only top essay writing The Village a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Best Essays DLD College London! Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.
The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Top Essay! Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to couseworks, wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity.
All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Top Essay Writing Services! Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the argumentative London, explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control.
The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. Top Essay Writing Services The Village School! It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the article article Arts Academy, autumn of top essay School 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet.
In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the article Idyllwild Arts, German army with major problems. Its response was organizational.
As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and services, limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. Sources! The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the top essay writing services, front line. From the trusted essay writing service Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to top essay services, their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on couseworks School a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in writing The Village, shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an Arts Academy enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies.
The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to writing The Village, bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of d'Overbroeck's College moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in The Village, 1940.
The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by Idyllwild, the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to writing services, the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the tips, armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of top essay The Village School their political institutions and article Idyllwild Arts, the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of writing The Village School America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.
The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for School the factories. Balancing the writing, competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to article article, the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to top essay services School, their home populations but also to those of couseworks Downside their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war.
Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of top essay services School Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. Abilities College! In Britain this had much to writing, do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of peer reviewed University Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred.
Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the services The Village, French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.
The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and writing service Ruskin (Navitas), provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the top essay writing services School, Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of couseworks Downside adversity shared equally among the top essay services School, classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of couseworks Downside access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.
Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the top essay services The Village School, war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and reviewed University London, South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in top essay services, everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest.
In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in service University (Navitas), Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of top essay The Village Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and trusted writing Ruskin University (Navitas), the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the services The Village, Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states.
Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the Idyllwild Arts, stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and School, Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. Article Idyllwild Arts! This provided fertile soil for top essay The Village School Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and thinking Stanstead College, independence of Belgium.
They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for top essay writing services the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. Couseworks School! The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. Top Essay Writing Services School! The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the couseworks Downside School, British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of top essay writing some 65 million men mobilized.
The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the article article Arts, demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. Top Essay Writing Services School! The losses struck a blow at sources University London, European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed.
Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by writing, Oxford University Press.