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On knowing and not knowing about obeah. This essay introduces Obeah: knowledge, power, and writing in the early Atlantic World , a special issue responding to recent scholarly interest in obeah and related creole and African-derived medical and religious practices common among enslaved Africans in the pre-emancipation Caribbean. It describes obeah and the epistemological conundrum it posed for colonists in the global Atlantic world, outlining possibilities for how scholars might study the texts that represent these practices. We position this special issue at the confluence of several recent interdisciplinary scholarly conversations: the essay (INTO), reconfiguration of relations between religion and how to a transfer School of Business & Management, science, reconsiderations of colonial archives and their representation of subordinated peoples, and new scholarship about obeah, a medical and religious complex employed by enslaved Africans, primarily in the West Indies. In recent years, scholars of the early Atlantic world have demonstrated the inseparability of religion and science for the inhabitants of that world.
Historians of science have reconceived the how to write an easy of Gloucestershire (INTO), disciplines as fields that were not stable and separate by the end of the Enlightenment but as stabilizing entities that defined themselves by drawing upon techniques from other fields. 1 1. On the disciplines, see the a-g list George Brown College, essays in Siskin and Warner, This is Enlightenment and Lenoir, “Discipline of Nature.” View all notes Indeed, recent studies of key religious and scientific figures, from how to write Jonathan Edwards and Cotton Mather to Benjamin Franklin and Francis Daniel Pastorius, have shown that these men integrated multiple fields to produce their intellectual work. 2 2. See, for a few examples, Rivett, Science of the Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the Spirits . View all notes And, as James H. Sweet’s study of African healer Domingos Alvares shows, lesser known healers likewise combined what we could now call medicine and religion. These fields were mutually constitutive and interconnected, shaping and partitioning the Atlantic World in writing paper University Pacific its denominational and epistemological contours. 3 3. Essay University (INTO)! See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . For a compelling introduction to current scholarly work on these intersections, see “Religion and Medicine in American Literature,” a recent special issue of Literature and Medicine coedited by writing University of the Pacific, Kelly Bezio and Ashley Reed. View all notes.
Meanwhile, other scholars have begun to explore new methods for reading colonial archives and new strategies for recovering and studying the write essay University of Gloucestershire, knowledge and George College, beliefs of how to an easy essay of Gloucestershire, unfree and minority peoples. Scholars such as Ann Laura Stoler, Joseph Epstein, and independent coursework Schools, Betty Joseph – the latter two focusing in particular on Caribbean archives – position archiving as an ongoing process that produces documents with histories and itineraries of their own rather than stable, complete entities with secure meanings. Thus, these scholars, as Stoler puts it, read “along the grain,” in order to uncover how “[c]olonial archives were sites of an easy essay (INTO), command – but of essay writing, countermand as well.” 4 4. See Stoler, Along the Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of Colonial Rule and Joseph, Reading the East India Company . View all notes While maintaining a skeptical awareness of the ways that imperial archives sought to define and discipline its subjects and sources, these scholars also show that archives represent moments in which attempts at how to University of Gloucestershire discipline failed, when people were caught off guard, anxious, and a-g list George Brown College, uncertain. An Easy Of Gloucestershire! One culmination of these insights about disciplinarity and independent coursework Fairmont Private, colonial archives is found in studies of obeah, which have instigated a vibrant, interdisciplinary conversation about forms of power and knowledge in the Caribbean. How To Write Essay University Of Gloucestershire! Scholars from anthropology, history, literary studies, and religious studies have recognized the key role that obeah played in shaping the world that colonists and Africans inhabited and the texts that represented that world. Revising earlier scholarship that, utilizing a transparent reading of essay School, colonial texts, dismissed obeah as African superstition and black magic, scholars from how to University Jerome Handler and Kenneth Bilby to Tim Watson and Diana Paton have shown how obeah and paper of the Pacific, its representations allowed colonists and Africans alike to claim rhetorical, legal, and epistemological power. 5 5. How To Write An Easy Of Gloucestershire! For early studies of obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and Patterson, Sociology of Slavery. Of The! These scholars, to varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of revealing accurate information about African belief and knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against European epistemological categories, from “religion,” to “witchcraft,” to “Africa.” They also emphasized the essential Africanity of how to write essay (INTO), obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into the West Indies. Essay Vrije Universiteit! Handler’s and Bilby’s co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by showing that the term “obeah” and its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Africans’ practices. See Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use” and “Obeah.” Their studies established the foundation for scholarship of the past decade or so, which has developed Handler’s and Bilby’s methodological skepticism of how to an easy University of Gloucestershire, colonial texts to examine the ways in which colonial accounts of write essay Vrije, obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and legal aims.
See, for example, Aravamudan, “Introduction”; and how to write essay (INTO), Richardson, “Romantic Voodoo”; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, “Witchcraft, Law, Poison”; the independent Fairmont Private, essays in write of Gloucestershire Paton and Forde, Obeah and Other Powers ; and Browne, “‘Bad Business’ of Obeah.” View all notes. Co-edited by two literary scholars whose scholarly work focuses on a-g list George College, medicine and on religion, respectively, this special issue joins and how to write University of Gloucestershire (INTO), expands these conversations, by research essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, analyzing previously unconsidered archives about obeah, by accounting for the disciplinary work that colonial accounts of write an easy of Gloucestershire (INTO), obeah performed by managing African women’s bodies, and by tracing how the power of coursework Fairmont Private, religion and science manifests itself in the Atlantic World. As all of the articles in this special issue demonstrate, the archive on write an easy, obeah contains accounts, reports, and documents that register and circulate epistemological anxieties that sometimes remained outside colonists’ textual and political control. The texts recording such anxieties occupy a space that is writing helper University part of write an easy University (INTO), this archive yet that also extends beyond it. It is this space – one that is experiential, bureaucratic, material, and how to write essay, textual – that the articles in write essay University of Gloucestershire this special issue investigate and that, we argue, manifests colonial attempts to transform obeah into a-g list George College a set of how to an easy essay (INTO), knowable practices, on Schools, the one hand, and the range of practices, beliefs, and how to write essay of Gloucestershire, knowledge that Africans employed as a form of power in essay Sevenoaks the Atlantic World, on the other. In this introduction, we describe obeah and the epistemological conundrum it posed for colonists in the global Atlantic World before discussing some of the ways in which obeah and textual forms are entangled.
As we think this special issue demonstrates, this entanglement offers a particularly productive site at which to analyze obeah’s powers and the representation of write an easy University of Gloucestershire (INTO), those powers. How to write the history of obeah. “Obeah” refers to Private a set of practices employed by Africans for ends that enslaved peoples perceived as socially useful, from healing and revenge, to protection and rebellion. These practices were constituted by what we would now designate as separate medical and religious components: the knowledge and an easy University (INTO), application of paper University of the Pacific, herbal remedies; singing or chanting prayers or powerful words; a diagnosis of physical ailments; and mediation with non-human powers. For Africans, however (and for many European colonists as well), these practices did not belong in separate categories but were mutually constitutive. This was the University (INTO), case because natural and supernatural, human and nonhuman realms were not perceived as separate but as realms that mutually influenced one another. Neither were the practices associated with obeah simply “good” or “bad”; obeah practitioners accessed neutral supernatural forces and attempted to employ those forces to accomplish various goals. As Dianne Stewart points out, obeah is a-g list Brown a “protean institutional structure encompassing ethnic and Pan-African religious cultures, which co-author an African-derived understanding of mystical power as the capacity to use energy dynamically.” 6 6. Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. View all notes Indeed, Stewart finds that obeah took a variety of how to an easy, forms, even being “reasserted under the mask of Christianity” during the Fairmont Private, 1831 Baptist Rebellion in write an easy essay (INTO) Jamaica. 7 7. Stewart, Three Eyes , 103–104. View all notes.
While obeah had a material existence among African communities, it also possessed separate but related meanings in colonial texts. There, the term “obeah” originated in the early eighteenth century as a word Europeans in essay the Caribbean applied to African practices that, they acknowledged, acted powerfully on peoples’ bodies and minds. As Jerome Handler and how to essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), Kenneth Bilby have pointed out, “‘Obeah’ became a catch-all term for a range of supernatural-related ideas and essay IUBH School, behaviors that were not of European origin and which [whites] heavily criticized and condemned.” 8 8. Handler and how to write essay University of Gloucestershire, Bilby, “On the Early Use,” 87. View all notes In the early eighteenth century, colonists variously compared obeah to folk medicine, superstition, and healing practices; after Tacky’s Rebellion in 1760 (in which an obeah man allegedly gave rebels a potion to protect them from planters’ bullets), they increasingly connected obeah to witchcraft and to poison in research Vrije Amsterdam the British and French West Indies, respectively. As Diana Paton has shown, different European epistemologies and encounters with African practices are responsible for these varying definitions of obeah. 9 9. See Paton, “Witchcraft, Poison, Law.” View all notes. Colonists primarily experienced obeah through its effects: ill or frightened slaves, people who refused to how to (INTO) work, and outright rebellions inspired by seemingly mysterious leaders. As they sought to explain these phenomena, they recounted Africans’ reports that an obeah practitioner was behind a particular event and, later, speculated that obeah was to blame for Fairmont unusual happenings. In doing so, colonists also sought to incorporate obeah into how to essay University European epistemologies, with the goal of identifying the natural causes that, they argued, were the primary powers at work in the world. In the British West Indies, they applied natural philosophical methodologies for describing preternatural phenomena, or those with occult – hidden or unknown – causes in order to account for obeah practitioners, their actions, and the resulting effects. How To Write Research Essay Vrije Amsterdam! The analysis of preternatural phenomena had a long history in England, where such events had possessed a reputation for being aligned with magic and divination since the sixteenth century.
Because preternatural phenomena had invisible causes, they fell somewhere between supernatural, or divine, phenomena (which also lacked visible causes) and natural phenomena (which were also said to be result of how to write an easy essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), actions by created beings, from humans to angels and a transfer IUBH School of Business, devils). In the how to write an easy essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), course of the seventeenth century, however, preternatural phenomena were “naturalized”; that is, their angelic and essay writing Monash, demonic causes were excluded, leaving only natural or human causes as possibly responsible for the preternatural, even when those causes were undiscoverable (and they often were). 10 10. Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. How To Essay University Of Gloucestershire! View all notes At the how to write a transfer School, same time, preternatural phenomena came to play a key role in the Baconian project of collecting unusual natural particulars in order to how to an easy (INTO) gain insights into the hidden workings of nature. By the eighteenth century, philosophers began to how to write research Universiteit argue that their work did not extend to seeking out supernatural causes; one’s focus was more properly restricted to write an easy of Gloucestershire (INTO) natural causes, those that could be verified by multiple witnesses and essay writing helper University, tests. Preternatural phenomena could be part of such projects, for their natural causes could, ideally, be discovered and analyzed.
Notwithstanding this confidence in the possibility of discovering hidden natural causes, philosophers found it no easy or straightforward task to how to write essay University locate and paper University Pacific, decipher them. Write An Easy Essay University (INTO)! As Lorraine Daston points out, natural and supernatural causes were not mutually exclusive, and natural causes were not mechanistic (but indeed could seem quite unnatural, extending to include the imagination and wondrous events). 11 11. See Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. View all notes As a result, philosophers worried less about whether they would mistake divine and demonic causes for one another than whether they would be deceived into categorizing a phenomenon as supernatural when it was not. Thus if colonial writers drew on established natural philosophical methods to guide them in analyzing preternatural phenomena and in locating their natural causes, the how to essay IUBH School of Business, discovery of the causes for such events was by no means a straightforward process with an assured end. And, unlike their counterparts in Europe, colonists were immersed in worlds with ontologies that did not recognize divisions between natural and supernatural worlds but whose explanations for phenomena extended to include non-human as well as human agents.
12 12. See Brown, Reaper’s Garden , and Wisecup, “Knowing Obeah.” View all notes Colonists faced the how to write of Gloucestershire (INTO), challenge of incorporating obeah into eighteenth-century empirical epistemologies and consequently of discovering and representing its natural causes in a context in which those practicing and drawing on obeah did not recognize divisions between natural and supernatural causes. As Katharine Gerbner explains in her contribution to this issue, Afro-Caribbean people likewise faced the challenge of incorporating colonists into writing paper University Pacific their epistemologies: enslaved Africans in Jamaica called Moravian missionary George Caries “obea,” a term that he defined as a “Seer,” a seemingly surprising turn given obeah’s connotations with Afro-Caribbean practices, especially witchcraft. Write An Easy Essay University! Significantly, as Gerbner shows, Caries’ case shows that obeah was not only a practice but also the “frame through which Afro-Caribbeans interpreted European religious and medical practice,” a frame that requires us to understand European natural historical and religious practices as encompassed within the category of obeah. Colonists addressed the challenges of representing obeah by arguing that even if enslaved people ascribed obeah’s powers to supernatural forces, a natural cause for University its effects existed and how to write of Gloucestershire (INTO), could be discovered. How To Write Essay Amsterdam! They developed several strategies for discovering and describing these causes: they linked obeah’s apparent power to Africans’ allegedly faulty understandings to essay suggest that Africans mistook as supernatural what were only Sevenoaks School hidden natural causes. Colonists also represented themselves as capable of discovering these true, if invisible, natural causes in obeah men’s materials. How To Write An Easy Essay! For example, Edward Long suggested that, while Africans feared obeah men’s ability to wield “magic,” such alleged “supernatural powers” were “only the natural operations of some poisonous juice, or preparation.” 13 13. Essay Of Argumentation School! Long, History of Jamaica , 416.
View all notes Similarly, James Grainger noted that Africans believed in how to write an easy University of Gloucestershire (INTO) “magic spells,” and he called on poetry to: “Transpierce the gloom, which ignorance and fraud/Have render’d awful; tell the write IUBH School, laughing world/Of what these wonder-working charms are made.” 14 14. Essay! Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384–386. View all notes By exposing the natural causes behind “wonder-working charms,” colonists would prove obeah to be a phenomena that could be brought into the light, studied, and explained with recourse to natural causes. Such knowledge of obeah would likewise allow colonists to control its effects – to limit the circulation of and knowledge about “some poisonous juice,” for example. However, colonists also discovered that investigating and describing obeah practitioners’ materials rarely led them to how to a transfer IUBH School of Business natural causes. For example, after confidently charging the muses with revealing the components of obeah practitioners’ “wonder-working charms,” Grainger went on to list those components: Colonial accounts of obeah from the mid-eighteenth to the nineteenth century exhibit this same pattern: an insistence that obeah is decipherable in terms of natural causes and an enumeration of material objects with ostensibly natural properties, in addition to a description of those objects as obtaining power as a combination or mixture. 16 16.
For an how to write an easy essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO) important reading of essay Sevenoaks, obeah’s combinatory powers, see Dillon, “Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment.” View all notes These powerful mixtures exist both within colonial texts and in the material practices of enslaved Africans. For example, in one of the earliest British printed accounts of obeah, Griffith Hughes described the “Magical Apparatus” of an “Obeah Doctor”: “two Earthen Basons, a Handful of different Kinds of Leaves, and a Piece of Soap.” 17 17. Hughes, Natural History , 15. View all notes By the how to essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), end of the essay Monash, eighteenth century, lists of obeah materials had become a trope in British colonial descriptions of obeah. Bryan Edwards wrote that obeah included the practice of “hanging up feathers, bottles, eggshells, c. c. in order to intimidate Negroes of a thievish disposition from plundering huts, hog-styes, or provision-grounds.” 18 18. Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial , 87. How To Write An Easy Essay Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! View all notes Meanwhile, in a text that spawned numerous accounts of obeah and that has been central to scholarly analyses, including several in this introduction and in this special issue more broadly, physician Benjamin Moseley explained that “OBI, for the purposes of bewitching people, or consuming them by lingering illness, is made of grave dirt, hair, teeth of sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax.” 19 19. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171.
View all notes. Writing in the 1750s, Hughes suggested that the obeah man used his “Magical Apparatus” as a cover for his real strategy of hiding “Pieces of broken Glass, Nails, and Splinters of Stones” on the woman’s body and pretending to pull them out with the strength of his concoction. 20 20. Hughes, Natural History , 15. View all notes For Hughes, obeah entailed using various material objects to deceive one’s patients; the true source of essay of argumentation, obeah’s power was the woman’s mind or imagination, which was convinced first that she was ill and second that the obeah man had successfully cured her. How To Write University! Interestingly, by the 1790s when Edwards and Moseley were writing, accounts of the process with which obeah practitioners deceived patients had all but disappeared from colonial reports, leaving only the list of the materials in the obeah man’s magical apparatus.
Colonists’ focus on the objects in obeah practitioners’ apparatuses can be seen as enacting the empiricist principle that nature could be known by a close and careful examination of writing University Pacific, things themselves. Knowledge was produced not through recourse to texts but by experiencing or interacting with things in the world. 21 21. See Mack, “Horace Walpole.” View all notes The lists in colonial texts attempt to make obeah into something that readers can sense, observe, and thus convert into knowledge, and essay University of Gloucestershire, these lists further suggest that obeah’s causes are available through an Brown observation of its materials. However, far from demystifying obeah, the texts attest to the ways in which obeah exceeds empiricism: as the examples above show, the lists do not uncover obeah’s hidden natural causes but instead display something of how obeah’s power works, that is, how the objects that constitute obeah have a power that exceeds their individual parts. Considering the “grave dirt, hair, teeth of sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax” was unlikely to how to write an easy (INTO) lead observers to any conclusions about obeah’s natural causes. 22 22. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171. Fairmont Private! View all notes Instead, these textual collections mirrored the an easy essay University (INTO), process whereby obeah practitioners gathered objects into mixtures whose power exceeded the sum of their parts and that drew on both natural and supernatural worlds for write research Vrije their efficacy. Colonists’ representations of obeah, intended to demystify and discover its causes, remained in thrall to those practices, replicating them and circulating their representations throughout the Atlantic World. Indeed, as J. Alexandra McGhee shows in her article, obeah could “infect” colonial minds, texts, and performances, and how to essay University, these representations of obeah highlighted concerns about the effects of tropical climates on colonial bodies and minds and coursework Fairmont Private Schools, about the difficulties of how to write an easy University of Gloucestershire, maintaining order on plantations.
Writers attempted to allay these fears by aligning obeah with multiple physical diseases, including yaws and yellow fever, even as doing so further transmitted dangerous representations of writing paper University of the Pacific, obeah and how to essay of Gloucestershire, indicated obeah’s power over colonists. Colonists’ failure to a-g list Brown locate obeah’s natural causes is manifested formally, in hybrid texts whose generic mixtures reflect the an easy University (INTO), assemblages out of which obeah was constituted – its collections of natural objects, chants, “jargon,” and ceremonies. 23 23. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. View all notes In The Sugar-Cane , for example, Grainger added scientific footnotes to his poetic text, in which he stated that obeah men carried a staff marked with “frogs, snakes, c. The blacks imagine that its blow, if not mortal, will at least occasion long and troublesome disorders.” 24 24. School! Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143–144.
View all notes Grainger attributed the power of the obeah man’s staff to Africans’ “belief in write essay University of Gloucestershire magic,” thus contradicting his poetic description of obeah as composed of natural and supernatural elements to support instead the argument that obeah’s powers could be attributed to Africans’ imaginations. But Grainger also admitted that obeah men could “do good” on plantations as long as they were supervised by plantation owners. 25 25. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. View all notes By placing prose footnotes that acknowledged obeah’s usefulness and how to Universiteit Amsterdam, that attributed it to Africans’ imaginations alongside his poetic list of obeah’s materials and description of their preternatural powers, Grainger formally represented the write essay of Gloucestershire, debate over obeah’s powers and of argumentation School, the ways in which obeah escaped Euro-colonial epistemological categories.
The poetic and scientific forms in The Sugar-Cane register colonists’ attempts to discover obeah’s natural causes and to how to write an easy essay (INTO) categorize obeah as irrational knowledge that preyed on write IUBH of Business, unsuspecting or naive Africans even as these forms also represent colonists’ recognition that obeah was a powerful, valuable phenomena constituted out of mixtures of natural and preternatural powers. Similarly, in his 1800 novel Obi: or the History of Three-Fingered Jack, William Earle mixed the an easy of Gloucestershire, form of the epistolary novel with footnotes, in order to writing Monash University represent multiple explanations of obeah’s powers. The novel depicts the capture and execution of an obeah man, and write University of Gloucestershire (INTO), Earle inserted 11 pages of footnotes below the obeah man’s story. 26 26. Of Argumentation! See Earle, Obi , 72. An Easy Essay University! The Broadview edition omits some of Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in these should consult the essay Monash, 1800 London edition (published by Earle and Hemet) or the 1804 Worcester edition (published by Isaiah Thomas). Write An Easy Essay (INTO)! View all notes These footnotes include a long description of obeah’s qualities copied from the accounts of historians Bryan Edwards and Edward Long. While the footnotes allow the narrative of Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Euro-colonial triumph over obeah to proceed undeterred, they also represent moments when colonists failed to categorize obeah or to explain it in terms of natural causes, thus introducing preternatural powers into how to write an easy essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO) the novel.
In Earle’s novel, the obeah man is successfully captured and executed, and obeah is a practice that can be eradicated by killing its practitioners. However, in the footnotes, which recount instances in which colonists failed to control or explain obeah, it remains a power that exceeds and escapes colonial epistemologies, one that cannot be controlled by attending to natural causes. As Janelle Rodriques argues in her contribution to this issue, obeah appears in colonial narratives as a strongly disruptive force, one that unravels the categories and forms of social authority it often is invoked to independent coursework Schools support. Finally, we might see the novels in which obeah plays a key role, such as Maria Edgeworth’s gothic novel Belinda (1801) and how to write an easy (INTO), romances such as Victor Hugo’s Bug-Jargal (1826) and Cynric Williams’s Hamel, the Obeah Man (1827) as evidence of colonists’ failure to account for obeah in natural or civil histories or legal reports. As Tim Watson has pointed out, the “attempt to a-g list George Brown College narrate the Caribbean from the point of how to write essay University of Gloucestershire, view of plausibility, verifiability, and reason – realism, in other words – turns into of argumentation Sevenoaks School the very forms it seeks to how to an easy of Gloucestershire avoid: romantic narrative and its cognates, the gothic, the sentimental, and the melodrama.” 27 27. Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. View all notes As obeah moved from how to write Universiteit Amsterdam medical treatises and natural histories into gothic novels and romances, its formal trajectory attested to colonists’ failure to locate natural causes for the forms of power they encountered in how to essay University the Caribbean.
The formal mixtures that define the literatures of obeah replicate textually the ontological mixture that constituted obeah for both colonists and enslaved peoples. For colonists, combining poetic verses or the novel with footnotes allowed them to represent the confusing set of practices they confronted in obeah: the presence of how to write research, objects with properties that could be identified in terms of how to an easy, natural causes alongside practices and powers that they categorized as preternatural. Africans’ bodies were central to these contests over power: as Jeffrey Cottrell’s contribution shows, colonial writers responded to essay Monash University the material practices and powers of African women’s bodies by imagining obeah as an an easy essay of Gloucestershire increasingly powerful force and by developing ever more complex strategies for independent Private Schools maintaining control over enslaved women’s bodies. As each text imagines the removal of obeah from the how to essay University, Caribbean, it both acknowledges obeah’s immense power and attempts to subordinate it by exercising control over African bodies. So, too, did writing about obeah offer colonial authors the chance to paper of the meditate on the vulnerability of white bodies; as Justine Murison demonstrates in write essay University (INTO) this issue, representing obeah forced these writers to confront the conflicted relation between the disenchanted minds they imagined themselves to Sevenoaks possess and how to an easy University of Gloucestershire (INTO), the unsettling openness that marked the bodies of those inhabiting the pre-emancipation Caribbean world. The literatures of obeah represent and recirculate, for their readers in Europe and for colonists in Fairmont the Caribbean, some of those powers even as they seek to identify and categorize (and thus reduce) them. The power of obeah in the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Atlantic World thus resided both in the natural and supernatural worlds that Africans accessed with material and spiritual practices and in the formal mixtures of colonial texts. Indeed, for colonists and for European readers, obeah’s power was located precisely in the assemblage of obeah practices and colonial representations of how to an easy of Gloucestershire, obeah – at a point that Stephan Palmie describes as “a singularly dense mesh of social praxis with its representation.” 28 28. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 317. View all notes.
What, then, does it mean to try to account for obeah’s power in the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Atlantic World, located as it is at the intersection of social practice and independent, literary and cultural representation? Like other subaltern formations, obeah’s early history was largely chronicled in (INTO) print by Brown, colonial writers, 29 29. Discussions of obeah could be found in colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and missionary writings, many of which circulated in excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and chapbooks and (INTO), served as the basis for fictional and theatrical works about obeah in the colonies. Many of these discussions figured within larger accounts of the escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for essay writing a detailed survey of the an easy essay of Gloucestershire, many iterations of Jack’s story, see Paton, “The Afterlives of Three-Fingered Jack.” Srinivas Aravamudan’s introduction to William Earle’s Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an Sevenoaks extensive overview of literary accounts of write essay of Gloucestershire, obeah. Diana Paton’s online archive Obeah Histories (www.obeahhistories.org) also offers an essential introduction to obeah’s textual record, past and present. View all notes many of whom had complex, limited, or frankly hostile relations to the practices they described. How To Research Universiteit! 30 30.
While obeah’s colonial chroniclers often used discussions of obeah to advance stridently negative ideas about enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans’ knowledge of herbal and medicinal preparations – which were often classed with obeah – with respect and how to an easy essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), even deference. Colonial dismissals of obeah took multiple and varied forms in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, from knowing dismissal of enslaved Africans’ supposed credulity, to panicked fear of write research Vrije Amsterdam, a well-camouflaged poison, to how to of Gloucestershire open respect for what Susan Scott Parrish describes as “the slave fully initiated into the secrets of nature,” persons who could skillfully negotiate the West Indies’ natural and sometimes supernatural worlds. See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. Write A Transfer Essay IUBH School Of Business & Management! View all notes Any attempt to access the social practices that colonial observers called “obeah,” then, has to contend with the limits of an easy University of Gloucestershire, these source materials, the ways in which their “dense mesh” of practice and independent coursework Private, representation entangles historical fact in colonial fantasy. How To Essay University Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! As Palmie puts it, “much of what our evidence actually tells us is that their masters or social superordinates (including anthropologists) strongly believed that slaves, peasants, and workers might believe in essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam such things.” 31 31. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 326. View all notes Seeking evidence of how to an easy University, obeah in the historical record, in other words, scholars find instead a prototype of the colonial mind and the fears that animated it.
This enmeshment of practice and representation enjoins those who would seek to trace obeah’s powers to adopt a radical modesty; since those who believed in coursework Schools and practiced obeah did so “in ways that largely escape the documentary record,” 32 32. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. View all notes Palmie argues, one of the most important things we can learn about obeah is “what we, in fact, do not (and possibly cannot) know about it.” 33 33. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333. View all notes. We find ourselves in full and enthusiastic agreement with Palmie, and with others like him, in an easy essay University of Gloucestershire his insistence that we not take the source materials that record obeah’s presence in how to write essay Universiteit the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Atlantic as transparent accounts of obeah practices or the beliefs that motivated them. Yet we are also motivated by recent scholarly work that insists, as Simon Gikandi does, that “the figure of the slave could come to complicate what an write essay University of Gloucestershire archive meant.” 34 34. Quoted in Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and Hopwood, “Obeah and the Early Caribbean Digital Archive,” in this special issue.
View all notes As the how to write School, founders of the Early Caribbean Digital Archive observe in how to University (INTO) their contribution to write essay this issue, we must attend both to the knowledges these sources seek to create and write essay of Gloucestershire, the ones they seek to make inaccessible. University Of The Pacific! We think that it might be possible to work modestly with these sources while also recognizing their limits – to turn to this archive for something other than an write essay account of praxis that can stand apart from the representation that harbors it. A-g List George! If these representations do not offer direct transcripts of the social practices they claim to how to University of Gloucestershire (INTO) chronicle, their formal failures register the pressure of obeah’s powers, the ways in which genres such as natural history and romantic and essay, gothic fictions were pushed to their epistemological limits as colonial authors tried to render social formations they only dimly understood. 35 35. Here we think of Christopher Iannini’s insistence that genre forms have an epistemology.
See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 23–25. View all notes Likewise, the fact remains that the source materials that remain for how to contemporary scholars also served as loci at which European, Caribbean, and American audiences came into relation with obeah and powers like it. As they read about obeah in medical treatises, newspaper articles, and chapbooks, or saw it travestied in pantomimes or cartoons, audiences throughout the Atlantic found their bodies assembled together with obeah’s unfamiliar powers, through the conduit of the medium that brought obeah to them. Holding a newspaper or a chapbook in their hands, or joining the audience of one of the pantomimes that told of slave revolutions fueled by obeah rituals, readers and viewers opened themselves, if only for a moment, to experiencing obeah as part of the essay Sevenoaks School, material world in which they read and that they shared with others. 36 36. Here we’re interested in the way in which obeah works like the empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes – crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. See Bennett, 21–22. How To Essay University (INTO)! We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for one important account of the Pacific, many misuses to which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to Do Things with Books . On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations.” View all notes Obeah may have been something they rejected or accepted, something to which they turned for practical knowledge of how to write (INTO), West Indies life or simply for gothic amusement, but in George each of these cases coming to know it meant enacting the habits and postures and behaviors that fit newspapers and pantomimes into their worlds. If these sources can never give us obeah practices in an easy of Gloucestershire (INTO) pure, unadulterated form – obeah in its own right, in essay writing helper Monash its intimate connection to the historical actors who used it, revised it, and believed in it – what they may offer us is a portrait of how to an easy of Gloucestershire, how those practices and beliefs registered within the Atlantic World, of the entanglements and affiliations that grew up around them.
We can find in these sources, in other words, the outlines of the assemblages they sought to generate – the felt texture of the common world into which they imagined readers, colonial authorities, and obeah practices and practitioners. 37 37. Our thinking on this point has been spurred by the scholarly turn toward the new materialisms and actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in work by Jane Bennett and Bruno Latour. University! This second form of assemblage generated by the errand to how to an easy essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO) write about obeah shares with Bennett’s assemblages the sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the agency of an assemblage might arise from “the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of many bodies and forces”; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latour’s insistence that sociality consists in paper University an ever-changing network of associations (see, for how to write essay instance, Reassembling the Social ). Essay! View all notes. We would suggest, then, that the assemblages that grew up around and how to write an easy, through these colonial accounts might themselves offer one way to learn more about of argumentation Sevenoaks obeah and write (INTO), powers like it. Here we think that literary and literary-historical scholarship of the kind this special issue presents has something distinctive to offer interdisciplinary-minded scholars who are interested in these questions. How To Write Research Essay Vrije Amsterdam! 38 38. Literary scholars who have written extensively about obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and both of the editors of how to write an easy University of Gloucestershire (INTO), this special issue, among others. View all notes Our turn in this direction is motivated, at least in part, by the by now well-recognized asymmetries between historians’ and literary scholars’ treatment of each other's’ work.
Eric Slauter has argued that the differences between literary scholars and historians – and, in recent years, the Sevenoaks, willingness of literary scholars to an easy essay University (INTO) cite historians compared to the general paucity of citations from historians to of argumentation literary scholars, a differential he terms the “trade gap” – depend at least in part on a differing approach to source materials (they historicize different things). Yet Elizabeth Maddock Dillon insists that what’s really at play here is “a large area of noncoincidence between the aims and desires of an easy essay of Gloucestershire, literary studies and historical studies,” one that focuses literary scholars’ attention on independent coursework Private, “an essential aspect of the community generated by the advent of an Atlantic World: namely a set of signifying practices (and erasures) that shaped the how to University of Gloucestershire, world we inhabit today.” 39 39. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. View all notes Dillon’s insistence on the primary concern of literary scholars with aesthetics – in particular, with “the analysis of essay writing, form and genre” – registers her insistence on two twinned principles: that the political realm in which we come to live together is strongly shaped by signifying practices, and that literary scholars are particularly well positioned to explain these practices’ power and significance. 40 40. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. View all notes For Dillon, as for many other literary scholars, the structures and write essay of Gloucestershire, patterns that guide representation matter because they shape the terms on Brown College, which people sensed and perceived the world they shared in write (INTO) common, the sites at which they could become social beings. As Cindy Weinstein and Chris Looby put it: “ aesthetic [becomes] a usable term precisely because its history involves the research Amsterdam, discipline of how to write an easy essay, a careful attention to surfaces and Sevenoaks School, appearances, to write an easy University the sensible textures of things, and its history also preserves the conviction that social and political life always has a sensory and perceptual dimension.” 41 41. Weinstein and Looby, “Introduction,” 8. View all notes. We are interested, then, in the ways in which these archives record how colonial writers sought to make obeah sensible – to weave it into the Atlantic World readers and independent Fairmont Schools, practitioners shared. Take again, for write an easy University instance, one of the most widely circulated late-eighteenth-century accounts of obeah and its powers, Benjamin Moseley’s description of obeah in his 1799 Treatise on Sugar . 42 42.
In addition to its appearance in essay Universiteit Amsterdam the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in multiple iterations of longer works published in London, excerpts of Moseley’s discussion of obeah appeared in newspapers in Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and write an easy essay University, Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from The Royal Gazette . See Carey and Paton, “Histories of Three-Fingered Jack” and Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations,” 737 n. 21. View all notes As we discuss above, Moseley’s account offers a classic representation of obeah-as-assemblage, listing the ostensibly natural objects that an obeah might contain and making visible the ways in which obeah’s powers confound empiricist modes of observation. Moseley’s text also , and essay paper University Pacific, paradoxically, opens up the an easy essay (INTO), possibility that we can see how colonial authors sought to orient their readerships to the phenomenon they were describing – the way that the tenuous project of making obeah knowable, with all its limits, also sought to teach audiences how to essay Monash University understand how obeah figured into the world in which they lived. Here is the full passage in which Moseley’s list of an obeah’s contents appears: OBI, for an easy essay (INTO) the purposes of bewitching people, or consuming them by lingering illness, is made of grave dirt, hair, teeth of how to write a transfer, sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax, the hearts of write an easy University, birds, and some potent roots, weeds, and how to write IUBH School of Business, bushes, of which Europeans are at this time ignorant; but which were known, for the same purposes, to how to an easy of Gloucestershire the ancients. Certain mixtures of these ingredients are burnt; or buried very deep in the ground; or hung up a chimney; or laid under the threshold of the door of the party, to of argumentation School suffer; with incantation songs, or curses, performed at midnight, regarding the aspects of the how to an easy University, moon … A negro, who thinks himself bewitched by Universiteit, OBI, will apply to an Obi-man, or Obi-woman, for cure. […] I saw the OBI of the famous negro robber, Three fingered JACK, the terror of Jamaica in 1780 and 1781. How To Write An Easy Essay! […] His OBI consisted of the end of a goat’s horn, filled with a compound of grave dirt, ashes, the blood of a black cat, and human fat; all mixed into how to School & Management a kind of paste. A black cat’s foot, a dried toad, a pig’s tail, a slip of parchment of how to University of Gloucestershire (INTO), kid’s skin, with characters marked in blood on it, were also in his Obian bag. 43 43. Moseley, Treatise , 171–173. How To Write Research! View all notes. Essay Of Gloucestershire! In moments such as these we see not what obeah was in its own right, but rather the web of relations to which colonial authors thought it belonged. Turning an eye toward these texts’ aesthetic properties shows how they seek to invest their audiences in essay of argumentation Sevenoaks what is, at its heart, an orienting project: one in an easy University of Gloucestershire (INTO) which the powers that these texts struggle and sometimes fail to how to write Amsterdam trace back to the natural world are still brought into their readers’ everyday lives in some form.
When he lists the raw ingredients that compose an obeah, Moseley asks his readers to how to see the single objects he has extracted from it – a slip of parchment, an eggshell, a feather – as individual representatives of larger categories of familiar objects. As he makes the obeah’s disaggregated components available to sense perception, Moseley renders obeah, in some senses, ordinary – part of the background of objects one encounters in one’s everyday life. Yet mixed into these moments of recognition are a set of descriptions that cannot be directly verified through the senses: one has no way to know that what Moseley describes as “the blood of a black cat” came from a cat that was not brown or gray, or that it came from a cat at all. Writing Monash! These are the moments at which, as we’ve noted above, the how to write (INTO), text veers toward the romantic and especially gothic modes that Tim Watson discusses. And they are the moments in a-g list George Brown College which obeah’s recognizability as a part of the material world metropolitans and colonials shared relied both on the familiarity of material objects and the legibility of particular genres and tropes: the mythical powers of grave dirt, the magical efficacy of essay University (INTO), a black cat. Reading obeah, in other words, meant knowing it as a part of other stories, as something that could be recognized in the fictions and narratives that circulated in one’s culture.
As they cross-pollinated obeah with the gothic, in particular, these texts aligned it with a cluster of possibly-real, possibly-imaginary dangers, horrors, and thrills that, when they appear in fictive texts, become at write IUBH of Business & Management once part of how the world might be and essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), something that might be imaginary, unreal. In other words, they teach readers to adopt an attitude of coursework Fairmont Schools, provisionality, to perceive obeah as something of interest that may or may not be real. At first glance, this provisionality might appear to be something obvious, something secular moderns can take for granted. Yet here we do well to remember that the forms of essay, recognition and orientation Moseley’s text chronicles had to be brought into a-g list George Brown College being. And this, we think, is part of what a distinctively literary take on obeah may offer scholars interested in the legacy of these and other powers – a better understanding of the social formation and write an easy (INTO), embodied orientations that grew up, tenuously and imperfectly, to try to integrate them into the Atlantic World. If we agree with Palmie that “the ‘other powers’ wielded by essay writing paper University, the subaltern other do not easily yield to ‘objective knowledge,’ unless the essay University of Gloucestershire, observer herself … agrees to come under its influence,” then one way we might begin to a transfer essay School & Management apprehend those powers is within the web of how to write essay (INTO), influences, literary and otherwise, that shaped those who would have encountered them in the past.
45 45. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 325. View all notes To do so may be to recognize, as the contributors to this special issue do, that our knowledge of obeah’s past may be a particularly entangled history – one in which praxis and representation can never stand fully apart. We thank the editors of Atlantic Studies for fostering and supporting this special issue, as well as Kelly Bezio, Tim Cassedy, Gabriel Cervantes, Nora Gilbert, Melissa Gniadek, Lucia Hodgson, Giffen Maupin, Dahlia Porter, Debapriya Sarkar, and Daniel Walden for their feedback on this introduction. Of Argumentation! No potential conflict of write essay University of Gloucestershire, interest was reported by the author. Writing Helper! Toni Wall Jaudon is an assistant professor of English at write an easy essay of Gloucestershire Northwestern University. Her essays have appeared in American Literature and American Literary History . Currently, she is at work on a study of the liveliness of religious objects in the nineteenth-century Americas. Kelly Wisecup is an assistant professor of English at Brown College Northwestern University. She is the author of Medical Encounters: Knowledge and Identity in Early American Literatures (University of Massachusetts Press, 2013) and the editor of “Good News from how to write an easy essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO) New England” by Edward Winslow: A Scholarly Edition (University of Massachusetts Press, 2014). 1. On the disciplines, see the essays in Siskin and Warner, This is Enlightenment and Lenoir, “Discipline of Nature.” 2. See, for a few examples, Rivett, Science of the essay of Business & Management, Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the Spirits . An Easy University Of Gloucestershire! 3. See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . For a compelling introduction to current scholarly work on these intersections, see “Religion and Medicine in American Literature,” a recent special issue of Literature and Medicine coedited by Kelly Bezio and essay writing helper Monash, Ashley Reed. 4. See Stoler, Along the Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of Colonial Rule and Joseph, Reading the East India Company . How To Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! 5. Research Essay Vrije Amsterdam! For early studies of obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and Patterson, Sociology of Slavery.
These scholars, to varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of revealing accurate information about an easy University (INTO) African belief and knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against European epistemological categories, from “religion,” to a-g list George College “witchcraft,” to “Africa.” They also emphasized the essential Africanity of obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into the West Indies. Handler’s and Bilby’s co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by showing that the term “obeah” and its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Africans’ practices. Essay Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! See Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use” and “Obeah.” Their studies established the foundation for scholarship of the past decade or so, which has developed Handler’s and of argumentation, Bilby’s methodological skepticism of colonial texts to examine the ways in which colonial accounts of obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and legal aims. See, for example, Aravamudan, “Introduction”; and Richardson, “Romantic Voodoo”; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, “Witchcraft, Law, Poison”; the essays in Paton and Forde, Obeah and Other Powers ; and Browne, “‘Bad Business’ of Obeah.” 6. Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. Write Essay University Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! 7. Brown College! Stewart, Three Eyes , 103–104. 8. Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use,” 87. 9. See Paton, “Witchcraft, Poison, Law.” 10. Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. 11.
See Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. 12. See Brown, Reaper’s Garden , and Wisecup, “Knowing Obeah.” 13. Long, History of how to write (INTO), Jamaica , 416. 14. A-g List Brown College! Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384–386. 15. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.387–392. 16. For an important reading of obeah’s combinatory powers, see Dillon, “Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment.” 17.
Hughes, Natural History , 15. 18. Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial , 87. Write! 19. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171. Essay Helper Monash! 20. Hughes, Natural History , 15. 21. See Mack, “Horace Walpole.” 22. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171.
23. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. 24. Write Essay! Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143–144. 25. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. 26. See Earle, Obi , 72.
The Broadview edition omits some of Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in these should consult the 1800 London edition (published by Earle and Hemet) or the essay University, 1804 Worcester edition (published by Isaiah Thomas). 27. Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. 28. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 317. 29. Discussions of write an easy University of Gloucestershire, obeah could be found in colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and missionary writings, many of which circulated in excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and chapbooks and served as the basis for fictional and essay of argumentation Sevenoaks School, theatrical works about an easy essay University of Gloucestershire obeah in the colonies. Many of these discussions figured within larger accounts of the escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for a detailed survey of the many iterations of essay Sevenoaks, Jack’s story, see Paton, “The Afterlives of Three-Fingered Jack.” Srinivas Aravamudan’s introduction to William Earle’s Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an extensive overview of literary accounts of obeah. Diana Paton’s online archive Obeah Histories (www.obeahhistories.org) also offers an essential introduction to obeah’s textual record, past and write an easy University of Gloucestershire, present. 30.
While obeah’s colonial chroniclers often used discussions of obeah to a-g list Brown advance stridently negative ideas about enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans’ knowledge of write essay, herbal and medicinal preparations – which were often classed with obeah – with respect and even deference. Colonial dismissals of obeah took multiple and varied forms in the late eighteenth and essay of argumentation School, early nineteenth centuries, from knowing dismissal of enslaved Africans’ supposed credulity, to panicked fear of an easy essay University, a well-camouflaged poison, to open respect for what Susan Scott Parrish describes as “the slave fully initiated into the secrets of nature,” persons who could skillfully negotiate the West Indies’ natural and sometimes supernatural worlds. See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. 31. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 326. 32. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. 33. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333. 34.
Quoted in Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and Hopwood, “Obeah and the Early Caribbean Digital Archive,” in this special issue. How To Write Essay Amsterdam! 35. Here we think of an easy, Christopher Iannini’s insistence that genre forms have an epistemology. See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 23–25. 36. Here we’re interested in the way in which obeah works like the empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes – crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. See Bennett, 21–22. We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for one important account of the many misuses to which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to Do Things with Books . On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations.” 37. Our thinking on this point has been spurred by the scholarly turn toward the new materialisms and actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in work by Jane Bennett and Bruno Latour.
This second form of assemblage generated by the errand to School write about obeah shares with Bennett’s assemblages the sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the agency of an assemblage might arise from “the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of many bodies and how to write essay (INTO), forces”; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latour’s insistence that sociality consists in an ever-changing network of associations (see, for instance, Reassembling the Social ). 38. Literary scholars who have written extensively about obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and both of the editors of this special issue, among others. College! 39. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. 40. Write Essay University (INTO)! Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. 41. Weinstein and Looby, “Introduction,” 8. 42. In addition to how to write Amsterdam its appearance in how to write essay the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in multiple iterations of how to write & Management, longer works published in London, excerpts of Moseley’s discussion of obeah appeared in newspapers in Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from The Royal Gazette . Of Gloucestershire! See Carey and Paton, “Histories of Three-Fingered Jack” and Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations,” 737 n. Write Research Essay Universiteit! 21. 43. Moseley, Treatise , 171–173.
44. Writing about the minkisi used among the BaKongo, Wyatt MacGaffey underscores how ritually empowered African objects garnered their force from deliberate processes of how to write an easy University of Gloucestershire, assemblage. See “African Objects,” especially 126, and “Fetishism Revisited,” 173. For an account of the cross-pollination between Kongo minkisi and conjuring practices among Atlantic Africans in the Georgia and Vrije, South Carolina Lowcountry, see Young, “ Minkisi ”. Note also, however, the concerns Stephan Palmie raises about attempts to divine the African origins of the an easy of Gloucestershire (INTO), diverse and historically specific practices that evolved among enslaved Africans in School the Americas (see, especially, the introduction to Africas of the Americas ). What is clear from Moseley’s account is how deeply invested he was in disassembly as a way of working against the power that the write an easy essay (INTO), obeah seemed to bear. 45.
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essay romance love About Love And Romantic Love. Romantic love is a deep emotional, sexual and spiritual recognition and regard for the value of another person and relationship. Romantic love can generate many powerful feelings. It can provide a profound ecstasy, and a deep suffering when frustrated.
To some people, romantic love is irrational. Romantic love can seem like an emotional storm. This paper is an easy University of Gloucestershire (INTO), really a collection of experiences, thoughts, readings, and the result of my discussions with people falling in and out of love. I began writing on this topic in a-g list College, 1989. I was first inspired to write About Romantic Love when I first read a book by Nathanial Brandon on the topic of romantic love. I revise or add something to this collection of thoughts several times a year. I am most inspired to write when I meet someone in love or someone feeling crushed when their love was lost. I have had countless experiences talking to people who believe romantic is followed by write an easy essay University of Gloucestershire disillusionment. These people come to writing paper University Pacific believe that romantic love is a false hope. They began their relationship with romantic feelings.
They had dreams for their future. They felt that life was finally rewarding and worthwhile. But eventually the relationship began to fall apart. It was a painful experience. They remember when they were in love. They feel tortured by their inability to see how or why their love was lost. Despite these experiences, people are still drawn to something they seldom reach. It is a profound longing.
A desire that is how to write essay (INTO), difficult to extinguish. Romantic love is not something that must crumble when faced with practical realities. Romantic love is not something just for youth. Before going further, I should talk about the institution of marriage. One kind of marriage is the utilitarian marriage . In this type of marriage there is an a-g list George absence of how to an easy essay (INTO), mutual involvement or passion.
This type of marriage is a-g list Brown College, usually held together by social, financial or family considerations. In a utilitarian marriage the relationship is made tolerable by long separations, community activities and usually infidelity. The other kind of an easy essay (INTO), a marriage is the intrinsic marriage . Write Research Essay Universiteit Amsterdam! In this type of marriage there is passionate emotional and sexual involvement. The experience of life is shared. An Easy Essay University Of Gloucestershire! The relationship is considered more fulfilling and interesting than any social activity. Paper Pacific! In this relationship there is a tendency to avoid activities resulting in separations. Marriage itself does not create or sustain romantic love. To love someone, and for write an easy of Gloucestershire (INTO) that love to endure, requires the ability to see that person with clarity. For example, we have all seen how some people will idealize or glamorize their partners. They exaggerate their good qualities, and they ignore and avoid considering significant differences and potential problems.
Why do they do this? Many reasons, but mostly because they need to see the independent, person in this idealized way. People can fall in love with the idea of a person who doesn#146;t really exist and then hope the relationship will endure. Most people never learn how to sustain a loving relationship. The reason is simple. Nobody showed them. The mere fact that a man and woman feel love toward each other does not guarantee they will be able to how to University (INTO) create a joyful and rewarding life.
Love does not automatically teach a person communication skills. A-g List George Brown College! Love does not teach a person how to resolve a conflict. Love does not teach people how to weave their love into the rest of their life. For most people who fall in love, a time will come when they sense the beginning of problems. They know that romantic love can produce great joy and happiness. An Easy Essay University Of Gloucestershire! But with time, they begin to feel more alone. They experience self-doubt and they feel the consequence of their unmet needs. They begin to see the other person more like they truly are and not what they needed them to be. They usually begin to find faults in essay helper University, others and they may become jealous, angry, bitter, sarcastic or cynical.
Many will separate or remain together in misery. They will often have children and how to an easy University try to raise a family in write a transfer School of Business & Management, an effort to revive the relationship or to feel better. Many will have an affair. When they separate or divorce, some will get involved in another relationship too quickly. They try to find some way to ease the how to essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO), pain. They idealize this new person in how to write essay Universiteit, their life and the cycle starts over.
They say to write an easy of Gloucestershire (INTO) themselves, I'll never be hurt like that again. The exact origin of the desire to love is difficult to comprehend, but can be appreciated in many ways. When a man and woman encounter each other in midst of essay of argumentation Sevenoaks School, love they seek intimate contact. In a general sense, love is a response to how to an easy of Gloucestershire (INTO) something we intimately value. Romantic love is the experience of writing University Pacific, joy in how to write an easy of Gloucestershire (INTO), the presence of how to a transfer & Management, a loved one, joy in being close to a loved one, and joy in our interaction with a loved one. Someone we love enters the room. Our eyes and heart light up.
We look at this person. We feel a growing feeling of joy within us. We reach out and touch their hand. Essay University (INTO)! We feel happy and fulfilled. I believe we all have a profound need to find things in the world we care about and IUBH feel inspired by.
Life is worthwhile - at any age - when we find something worth pursuing. Psychologists have long recognized that both children and adults need something in how to write an easy (INTO), their environment that is a source of pleasure. Maybe pleasure is a not the best word, but we do have a need to explore those things which are interesting and exciting. We search for that which will charm us and bring us in touch with the awe and wonder we experienced when we were children. We know that children are curious and adventurous. But the most important need of children and adults seems to be the expression of how to write essay, their true nature -- Being who we truly are is important. I first learned about who were are from my friend and how to an easy essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO) mentor Sterling Ellsworth. He called it our Real Self, our identity and essay helper Monash University our true nature. Our Real Self and how to essay (INTO) the nature of people is quit clear when we observe children.
Any parent can readily see that children are inherently lovable and capable. And for children to grow into healthy adjusted adults, they need to be treated as lovable and how to IUBH of Business & Management capable beings. An Easy Essay University! They also need to express their lovable and a-g list George Brown College capable nature. From the moment of how to an easy of Gloucestershire, birth we begin looking for lights that will brighten our journey, provide us with purpose and meaning, and make our struggle worthwhile. It is here that we can begin to understand another important expression of romantic love. Romantic love is a powerful way to express our capacity to how to love and to write an easy University be loved. It is a way to focus our energy, our curiosity, and our desire for coursework Schools adventure. Write Essay University (INTO)! Romantic love is a source of pleasure and inspiration and is worth pursuing. Romantic love is a blessing of life. Romantic love confirms our lovable and capable nature. At the essay helper, very core of Romantic Love I have observed and discovered a number of important dynamics at work.
To live successfully is to put ourselves into how to write University of Gloucestershire (INTO), the world; to give expression to our thoughts, our values, and our goals. School & Management! Whenever we express our personality, we make known our values, our intelligence, our sense of life, our rhythm and temperament. Each of us express ourselves in our behavior - - how we act and what we say. Whatever we express in our behavior can be reflected back by the response and the behavior expressed by others. We see how others respond if we are paying attention. The way they act, how they look at us, the way they speak to us, and especially the ways in which they don't respond. When we encounter a person who thinks as we do, and notices what we do, and values what we do, we experience a strong feeling of contact with that person. In loving you, I see in you a part of me that is also you.. I also see in write an easy essay, you something that is how to write a transfer of Business & Management, really me. And there is you, a person of many qualities-- a person who is a mystery-- a person I am drawn to.
All life - by how to an easy essay of Gloucestershire it's very nature - entails a possibility of defeat. Because of how to a transfer IUBH School of Business, this, we find pleasure and reassurance in the expression of life. Sharing our life and participating in life is reassuring that life is write an easy essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO), possible. Romantic love is an essay of argumentation School intense sharing and reassurance that life is possible. So we find pleasure in the experience of life which endure.
We take comfort in the experience of this. How To! This comfort is a greater gift than any explicit words or advice: The sight of a lovable person. The awareness of a capable child. There is something in each of us that finds pleasure in watching the healthy assertiveness in essay writing paper University of the, a child make his way into the world. Finding ourselves romantically in love is always associated with a hope that it will endure. The agony of not being recognized or seen by others is a source of many problems and insecurities.
When we are seen by others, there is always some element of self-discovery available to us. The first time we feel loved, there is an enormous pleasure and excitement in finding someone who sees and values us. A sustained experience of visibility in an easy University, any relationship that goes to any significant depth will generate self-discovery and expanded awareness. The desire to be seen and understood are inseparable. When we are told we are loved, there is something in us that feels joy. And there is write IUBH School of Business, something in us that wants to know what others see. The desire for visibility is related to our desire to be understood. For any individual, blind love may help numb or settle anxiety, but it will not answer our hunger to be seen and understood. People who feel misunderstood will often go to great lengths to be seen. Being visible does not always lead to love.
But love devoid of visibility is an illusion. People often confuse the desire to be validated with a desire to be seen. Visibility and validation are not the same. We have all known people with low self-esteem. In every case there is an excessive preoccupation with gaining approval and avoiding disapproval. There is an excessive desire for essay of Gloucestershire validation and support. People naturally confuse the need to feel good about themselves (self-esteem) with a need to be seen (visibility). How To School & Management! The desire to be validated is not healthy when it becomes more important than honesty, integrity, or any expression of our lovable and capable nature.
The desire to be validated is not a sign of low self-esteem. But people with good self-esteem do not run around acting super normal, hiding their faults, showing off, or trying to impress people just to be validated. An Easy Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! The more they take pride in Fairmont Private, who they are, and the more they act in a way that makes them proud, the more eager they are to be seen for write essay University (INTO) who we are. Self-esteem means confidence in our capable nature, and it means confidence in a loveable identity. We are not mistakes. How To Research Universiteit! Mistakes are how we learn. We are all inherently loveable and capable.
We may not be treated that way. We may even come to believe we are not lovable and capable because of the way people treat us. An Easy Of Gloucestershire! All love endures between people who recognize their lovable and capable nature and that nature in the others. When we feel lovable and capable we want others to see us as we truly are -- not who we pretend to be. We look to University see if they can see and communicate to us their discovery of who we really are. We want people to essay (INTO) see and value the identity we were born with and what we have grown to become. We want people to see us and Sevenoaks School treat us as lovable and capable.
In romantic love, two people see each other in a unique way.. And they experience each other in a deeper and more complete way than any other relationship. We are more than human. We are beings of a specific gender. Contained in every human is the awareness of how to (INTO), being male or female. Essay Of Argumentation School! It is an integral and intimate part of our self-concept and our identity. We are not merely human beings. We also experience ourselves as male and female. Our sexual identity is rooted in the reality of our biological nature. Our sexuality is not simply our physical maleness or femaleness. Our sexual identity is the experience of our maleness and our femaleness.
The polarity of male and female generates a dynamic tension. Essay Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! These differences can be complementary and provide a window into aspects of ourselves that were never known.. Our sexual identity is central to who we are. Essay Of Argumentation! We not only want to how to write essay of Gloucestershire (INTO) be seen by others as a certain kind of human being. We want to be seen as a man or woman. Despite the many differences between men and women, we can compliment each other in many basic, mysterious and a-g list George Brown wonderful ways. As far as I can tell, masculinity is the expression of how to essay, man's belief that the creation of how to write a transfer essay IUBH School of Business & Management, a woman was natures most brilliant idea. An Easy Essay Of Gloucestershire! And femininity is the expression of women's belief that the creation of man is natures most brilliant idea.
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Desire is born. And desire leads to write an easy actions which result in pleasure and joy. If we are frightened or angered by our differences, love withers. Fascination, attraction, or passion may be born at first sight. But love requires curiosity, patience, acceptance and seeing people for who they truly are. This usually takes time. A soul mate is a person who shares our sense of life. When we encounter another person, we encounter the presence of that person's sense of life. Sometimes we can quickly sense something about the other person's sense of life, how he or she feels about himself or herself, the joyfulness in their approach to a-g list life, or the defensiveness and fearfulness they endure.
We can sense in people their level of enthusiasm, optimism, excitement or even their dread with life. Our sense of how to (INTO), life reflects many conscious and unconscious values. It reflects our broadest and deepest attitudes, and is grounded in a-g list Brown College, our conclusions about the how to write essay (INTO), world, about life and about ourselves. Essay Of The! When we are not allowed to express our lovable and capable nature, and when we are treated as unlovable and incapable beings, we develop a sense of life in which the world is not open to our thoughts, is unconcerned about our feelings, and how to write essay of Gloucestershire unaffected by our actions. Our sense of life can also reflect a strong and helper healthy self-esteem, a clear sense of value in how to an easy essay University, our life, and a conviction that our world is College, open to our lovable and write essay (INTO) capable nature. Or it can reflect the torture of self-doubt, embittered resentment, tragic defiance, complaining resignation, aggressive impotence, a perverse sense of martyrdom, a view of the world that is how to write Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, sordid and senseless, or the anxiety that we may live in a world were we are unlovable and incapable. There are potential problems whenever a couple have a different sense of life. It is write University of Gloucestershire, essential that people in love fully recognize, appreciate and accept differences in their sense of writing of the Pacific, life. Even when they don't, things can still go well initially - - especially when people put their best foot forward.
Eventually the difference in how to write University, your sense of life will surface with unexpected results. People eventually stop pretending or begin to notice with time how you really are. Our sense of life and essay writing paper Pacific our approach to life develops with the write essay (INTO), first expression of our Real Self. It matters how our parents respond and it matter how other people treat us. Essay Pacific! It matters if parents treat us as unlovable or incapable. It matters if our parents treat each other as lovable and capable. When people treat us like we are unlovable and incapable, and when they treat each other that way, life can become a grudging responsibility where people may become no more than objects or a means to an easy essay University of Gloucestershire an end, and new relationships are formed on the basis of social economics.
We may begin to value ourselves not for essay writing Monash University who we are, but for how we look, what we can do and what we have or own. We may develop a sense of life where we shrink our awareness, blame others, give up their responsibilities, or we may come to write an easy essay University (INTO) believe that life is University of the, no longer an adventure in which every moment offers the opportunity to learn. When two people who respond to life in radically opposing ways meet, a potential barrier to romantic love may be formed. The second principle involves the similarities and differences between people. The most basic similarity is that a man and how to (INTO) a woman are both are human. The most basic difference is that people are male or female. In romantic love, a man and woman must experience their differences, at least to some degree, as mutually enriching, and as capable of drawing out untapped awareness and potential in each other. Their intimacy is an adventure resulting in expanded consciousness and the profound sense of being alive. The key is whether the couple experience their differences as complementary or antagonistic. This will depend on the willingness and ability of both people to write essay Vrije appreciate and find value in the other person. Romantic love offers us the possibility self-discovery through deep contact with another.
If you are in love, you might ask yourself, What part of myself does my lover bring me into fresh contact with? How do I experience myself in this relationship? When I am with my lover, what feels most alive within me? Most people possess an inherent biological rhythm that is easy to write of Gloucestershire (INTO) feel but difficult to describe when you don't know what to look for. This rhythm and energy is deeply connected to whether or not romantic love actually ignites or endures. Rhythm and energy can be observed in our speech patterns, emotional responses and body language. Closely related is the observation that some people are naturally more or less energetic than others - -physically, emotionally or intellectually. Some people move, feel, think faster or slower depending on the circumstance and their environment. Some people are impulsive or impatient. They may even experience a different sense and relationship to time. Sometimes two people meet and are on the verge of falling in love.
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When this fails couples begin to look for faults in each other. Essay Writing Paper University! As the relationship begins to fail, they may begin to explain their problems in terms of the alleged faults. They remain unaware of a deeper reasons for their discomfort and an easy essay University acceptance of differences. When a man and woman meet and feel in sync, there can be an exhilarating experience of harmony and that their relationship is right. Being in sync is an experience of knowing the of argumentation School, other in a very special sense. Both may resonate to how to write (INTO) a marvelous kind of rhythm. Once you are aware of this phenomena, and notice it in your relationships, you can better understand why people are attracted and irritated by each another. Essay Of The Pacific! Rhythm and energy are the means to explore difference and similarities and to gain a deeper harmony and compatibility. Another essential principle to understanding romantic love is the concept of A private universe.
Two people in an easy University of Gloucestershire (INTO), love can create a private universe out of their sense of Monash University, individuality, their similar sense of life, their differences and similarities, their rhythm and energy, and University the capacity to make meaningful contact with each other. This universe can be shared with silent understandings, unspoken words, humorous signals, and focused glances. Conversations and physical contact become wondrous, exciting and writing Monash University safe. Romantic love is write, based on shared sight and is shaped by happiness. Immature love is based on shared blindness, and is merely a fortress against pain. Romantic love is a sanctuary, and a source of nourishment and energy.
Sometimes romantic love is the only point of write research Vrije Amsterdam, certainty, and the only thing that is solid and real in the midst of chaos and an easy of Gloucestershire ambiguity.