How to write an autobiography essay Seneca College
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roe vs wade essay Because neither interest is compelling before the second trimester, the State may not regulate abortion in the first trimester either to preserve the woman’s health or to protect the how to Seneca life of the unborn child. Id . at 163. Essay Persuasive Macquarie? After the first trimester, however, the how to write Seneca State may regulate the performance of an what in writing School abortion, but only for the purpose of preserving the woman’s health, not for the purpose of protecting the life of the unborn child. After viability, the State may regulate, and even prohibit, abortion to protect the life of the unborn child, except when the performance of the abortion is necessary to preserve the life or health of the how to write essay College woman. Help Writing? Id . at 164-65 (summarizing holdings).
The abortion statutes challenged in Roe , which prohibited abortion throughout pregnancy except to save the how to write an autobiography essay life of the mother, did not conform to the Court’s “trimester” framework. Accordingly, they were declared unconstitutional. Id . at 164. In Roe , the Court also held that an unborn child is not a “person” as that word is used in § 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment and, therefore, is not protected by either the how to write an effect essay Due Process Clause or the Equal Protection Clause, id . at 156-59, a holding from an autobiography Seneca College which no Justice on the Court – then or since – has dissented. In Roe’s companion case of articles Anthony’s High School, Doe v. Bolton , 410 U.S. 179 (1973), decided the same day as Roe , the write Seneca College Court struck down various procedural requirements imposed by a Georgia abortion statute based on § 230.3 of the Model Penal Code (that the abortion be performed in a licensed and accredited hospital, that the procedure be approved by the majority of a medical staff committee of the hospital, and that two other physicians in addition to the attending physician certify that the abortion was necessary for one of the reasons specified in write essay Appleby College, the statute).
3 410 U.S. at 192-200. The Court also rejected a vagueness challenge to what remained of the substance of the statute after major provisions of the how to write Seneca statute had been declared unconstitutional by a federal district court. Id . at 191-92. 4 Both Justice Byron White and Justice William Rehnquist dissented from the opinions in what in writing Roedean, Roe and write an autobiography essay Seneca, Doe striking down the Texas and Georgia abortion statutes. Roe , 410 U.S. at 171 (Rehnquist, J., dissenting); Doe , 410 U.S. at 221 (White, J., dissenting from both opinions); id . at 223 (Rehnquist, J., dissenting).
I. The Origins of a Constitutional Right ^ top. Roe , as noted in the Introduction, was based on the right of privacy. As Roe itself acknowledged, however, “[t]he Constitution does not explicitly mention any right of privacy. 410 U.S. at 152. Nevertheless, in a line of decisions going back to the late nineteenth century, “the Court has recognized that a right of help a college Independent College, personal privacy, or a guarantee of certain areas or zones of privacy, does exist under the Constitution. Id . This right of privacy, “founded in the Fourteenth Amendment’s concept of personal liberty, the Court in Roe held, “is broad enough to encompass a woman’s decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy. Id . at 153. The roots of how to write, a right of thinking The University of Birmingham, personal privacy have been found in the U.S. Constitution in how to Seneca, the following places: in the free speech guarantee of the First Amendment, which has been held to protect the possession of pornography in one’s home, Stanley v. Help A College Essay Chelsea Independent College? Georgia , 394 U.S.
557, 564 (1969); in the Fourth Amendment, which secures the right of the people against “unreasonable searches and how to write Seneca, seizures of help a college Independent College, their “persons, homes, papers and effects, and the Fifth Amendment, which prohibits compulsory self-incrimination, see Boyd v. How To An Autobiography Essay Seneca College? United States , 116 U.S. 616, 630 (1886) (Fourth and Fifth Amendments protect against all governmental invasions “of the sanctity of a man’s home and the privacies of what in writing, life”); in the Ninth Amendment, which preserves other rights not enumerated in the Constitution, Griswold v. Connecticut , 381 U.S. How To Write Essay Seneca College? 479, 486 (1965) (striking down statute prohibiting use of contraceptives by married couples) (Goldberg, J., concurring) ; in the “penumbras (shades) of the Bill of thinking of Birmingham, Rights as a whole, Griswold , 381 U.S. at 484-85 ; and in the liberty language of the Due Process Clause of § 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment, Meyer v. Nebraska , 262 U.S. 390, 399 (1923) (striking down a state statute forbidding the teaching of any subject in any language other than English, or the write essay teaching of write College, modern foreign languages below the eighth grade). The right of privacy, the Court in Roe noted, also has “some extension to activities relating to marriage, . How To Seneca College? . . procreation, . What Roedean School? . . family relationships, . . . and how to essay Seneca, child rearing and education. 410 U.S. at college level Warminster School, 152-53 , citing the following cases: Loving v. Virginia , 388 U.S. 1, 12 (1967), recognizing liberty interest in marrying the person of one’s choice; Skinner v. Oklahoma , 316 U.S. 535, 541-42 (1942), striking down statute mandating sterilization of certain recidivists; Eisenstadt v. Baird , 405 U.S. 438 (1972), striking down statute prohibiting distribution of contraceptives to unmarried persons; Prince v. Write Essay? Massachusetts , 321 U.S.
158, 166 (1944), recognizing authority of parents over their children, but upholding child labor laws as applied to the children of Jehovah’s Witnesses who were distributing religious literature in creative of Birmingham, exchange for voluntary contributions; Pierce v. Society of Sisters ,268 U.S. 510, 535 (1925), striking down statute mandating public education of children between the ages of eight and sixteen; and Meyer v. Nebraska (holding described above). II. Write An Autobiography Essay College? Critique of Roe’s Privacy Theory ^ top. The Supreme Court’s reliance on what are articles in writing Roedean School privacy theory to support a right to abortion is how to write an autobiography, problematical at help writing a college essay Chelsea Independent, several levels. How To An Autobiography Essay Seneca College? First, as the Court itself recognized, Roe , 410 U.S. at 152, the Constitution itself “does not expressly mention any right of privacy.” To be sure, as Justice Hugo Black noted in his dissent in Griswold v. Connecticut , 381 U.S. 479, 508-10 (1965) (Black, J., dissenting), various provisions of the Bill of Rights protect specific privacy interests, for example, the First Amendment’s right of associational privacy, the Fourth Amendment’s protection against unreasonable searches and seizures and the Fifth Amendment’s prohibition of compelled self-incrimination. But the in writing Roedean School Constitution does not create a general right of privacy. See , e.g ., Katz v. United States , 389 U.S.
347, 350 (1967) (Fourth Amendment, which “protects individual privacy against certain kinds of governmental intrusions,” “cannot be translated into a general constitutional ‘right to privacy’”). How To An Autobiography? Recognition of a “general constitutional ‘right to privacy’” cannot be reconciled with the care with which the college Framers of the Bill of how to write an autobiography essay Seneca, Rights described the specific rights that were being secured. Second, the concept of “privacy” is amorphous and chameleon (or, in Justice Black’s words, “broad, abstract and ambiguous,” Griswold , 381 U.S. at 509 ). Roe’ s attempt to collect cases under the magazine Saint Anthony’s rubric of “privacy” – a term that does not even appear in most of the cases cited – simply creates an artificial common denominator among a very disparate and essay, largely unrelated group of cases that have nothing to do with the subject of abortion, as the Court in Roe freely admitted: “The situation [involving a pregnant woman and her unborn child] . Writing Essay? . . is inherently different from how to write an autobiography Seneca marital intimacy, or bedroom possession of magazine High School, obscene material, or marriage, or procreation, or education, with which Eisenstadt and Griswold , Stanley , Loving , Skinner , and Pierce and Meyer were respectively concerned.” 410 U.S. at 159 (emphasis added). 6 If a pregnant woman’s decision whether or not to carry her pregnancy to term is “inherently different” from all of the “privacy” cases on which the Court relied, then it is difficult to how to essay Seneca understand how those cases could possibly support recognition of Roedean, a right to obtain an abortion. Third, most of the cases Roe cited in support of its privacy theory were decided under one or another of the provisions in the Bill of Rights. Roe itself, however, derived the right of privacy (and a subsidiary right to abortion) from the liberty language in how to an autobiography essay Seneca College, the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, 410 U.S. at 153, not from any of the specific guarantees set forth in the Bill of Rights.
That directly contradicted the Court’s express refusal, only a few years earlier in Griswold , 381 U.S. at 481-82, to articles Anthony’s School rely upon the Due Process Clause in postulating a right of privacy. Fourth, even with respect to the Due Process Clause, the Court no longer examines substantive due process claims (of which, more below) through the lens of how to write an autobiography essay Seneca, privacy, and that includes the creative thinking The University of Birmingham subject of abortion. In reaffirming the how to write essay College “core holding” of creative thinking The University of Birmingham, Roe – that the State may not prohibit abortion before viability for how to write College any reason or after viability if the pregnant woman’s life or health would be endangered by continuing the what Roedean School pregnancy – the Court, in Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 846-53 (1992), relied upon the liberty language of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, not upon privacy theory. 7 See also Cruzan v. Director , Missouri Dep’t of Health , 497 U.S. 261, 279 n. 7 (1990) (analyzing right to refuse unwanted medical treatment “in terms of essay Seneca College, a Fourteenth Amendment liberty interest, rather than under a “generalized constitutional right of privacy”). Focusing more particularly on the Fourteenth Amendment, § 1 thereof provides, in relevant part, that no State shall “deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law . . Articles Anthony’s High? . .” As its language suggests, the Due Process Clause is write essay Seneca College, concerned with the process by which a person may be deprived of life, liberty or property, not the substance of the essay persuasive University law authorizing such deprivation. See Lawrence v. Texas , 539 U.S. 558, 592 (2003) (Scalia, J., dissenting) . It was never the intent of the how to write an autobiography College Framers of the Fourteenth Amendment that the Due Process Clause would serve as a battering ram to knock down statutes the substance of which offended the sensibilities of a majority of Justices who happen to sit on the Supreme Court from time to time. See Raoul Berger, Government by Judiciary The Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment (Liberty Fund 2d ed.
1997) 221-39, 273-306. 8 Despite its focus on process, the Due Process Clause, at various times in our history, has been given substantive content, resulting in the invalidation of state laws thought to be inconsistent with prevailing understandings of help essay Chelsea College, “liberty.” The paradigmatic case in this area, before Roe v, Wade was decided in how to write an autobiography Seneca, 1973, is Lochner v. New York , 198 U.S. 45 (1905). In Lochner , the Supreme Court, over the vigorous dissent of Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., held that state legislation setting limits on the number of hours a person could work in a bakery daily (ten hours) and weekly (sixty hours) violated the liberty of an employer to contract with his employees on terms that were mutually agreeable to them. A College College? The notion that the essay College Due Process Clause has substantive (as opposed to only procedural ) content bedeviled constitutional adjudication for a generation, until it was laid to rest, at an effect Appleby, least with respect to how to write an autobiography College the review of social and economic legislation, in West Coast Hotel v. Parrish , 300 U.S. 379 (1937), which upheld a minimum wage law. Twenty-five years later, the essay Supreme Court could state that it had “returned to the original constitutional proposition that courts do not substitute their social and economic beliefs for write an autobiography essay Seneca College the judgment of legislative bodies.” Ferguson v. Skrupa , 372 U.S. How To An Essay College Level School? 726, 730 (1963). Despite the interment of what may be called “economic” substantive due process, “libertarian” substantive due process is alive and well. Under this strand of substantive due process analysis, the Due Process Clause “provides heightened protection against government interference with certain fundamental rights and write essay College, liberty interests.” Washington v. Macquarie? Glucksberg , 521 U.S. 702, 720 (1997).
Roe v. Wade , while sounding in privacy theory, was ultimately based on the liberty language of § 1 of the Due Process Clause of the how to an autobiography essay Fourteenth Amendment, see Roe , 410 U.S. at 153, and, therefore, may justly be regarded as the modern paradigm of (libertarian) substantive due process analysis. College Warminster? See Richard Epstein, Substantive Due Process by Any Other Name , 1973 Sup. Ct. Rev. 159, 184. But Roe flunks the test the College Court uses for evaluating substantive due process claims. In determining whether an asserted liberty interest (or right) should be regarded as fundamental for purposes of substantive due process analysis (infringement of which would call for strict scrutiny review), the Supreme Court applies a two-prong test. First, there must be a “careful description” of the asserted fundamental liberty interest. Glucksberg , 521 U.S. at 721 (citation and Saint Anthony’s, internal quotation marks omitted).
Second, the interest, so described, must be firmly rooted in how to an autobiography essay Seneca, “the Nation’s history, legal traditions, and practices.” Id. at 710. Help Writing A College Essay Chelsea Independent? An asserted interest in (or right to) abortion does not meet the second prong of the how to an autobiography essay Seneca College Glucksberg test. Quite the writing essay Chelsea contrary. As much research has established, especially that of Professor Dellapenna ( see n. 4, supra ) , abortion was a crime in English and how to an autobiography essay College, American common law, at least after “quickening” (that stage of pregnancy when the woman first detects fetal movement, usually sixteen to eighteen weeks’ gestation), and write essay, very possibly without such a limitation. With the gradual replacement of common law crimes by statutory crimes in the nineteenth century, the overwhelming majority of States had made the performance of an how to Seneca abortion at any stage of pregnancy a crime well before the Fourteenth Amendment was adopted in 1868.
And the case law interpreting these statutes revealed that the principal, if not exclusive, purpose in enacting these statutes was to protect unborn human life, not (or not solely) to safeguard women from what in writing dangerous medical and/or surgical procedures. See Paul Benjamin Linton, Planned Parenthood v. Casey : The Flight from Reason in the Supreme Court , XIII St. Louis U. Write An Autobiography Seneca? Pub. L. Rev. 15, 109-15 (1993).
In light of the foregoing, an interest in persuasive Macquarie University, (or right to) abortion cannot be said to be firmly rooted in how to write essay Seneca College, our “history, legal traditions, and practices.” III. Applications of Roe ^ top. The Supreme Court has decided almost three dozen abortion cases since and including Roe v. Wade and articles Saint Anthony’s High, Doe v. Bolton . How To Write An Autobiography Seneca College? A detailed analysis of the holdings in in writing School, these cases would unduly prolong the length of how to write an autobiography Seneca College, this essay. The principal holdings, however, may be briefly summarized: In addition to the Texas abortion statutes struck down in Roe , the Court has struck down state statutes prohibiting particular abortion methods, Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth , 428 U.S. 52, 75-79 (1976) (saline amniocentesis), Stenberg v. Carhart , 530 U.S. Articles Saint Anthony’s? 914 (2000) (partial-birth abortion), but more recently has upheld the federal Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Gonzales v. Carhart , 550 U.S. 124 (2007).
The Court has upheld statutes prohibiting non-physicians from performing abortions, Mazurek v. Armstrong , 520 U.S. 968 (1997) ( per curiam ) and has held that non-physicians may be prosecuted for performing abortions, Connecticut v. Menillo , 423 U.S. 9, 11 (1975) ( per curiam ) . The Court has struck down statutes and ordinances requiring all abortions (or all abortions after the first trimester) to be performed in hospitals, Doe v. Bolton , 410 U.S. 179, 193-95 (1973) (all abortions), City of Akron v. Akron Center for Reproductive Rights ( Akron Center I ) , 462 U.S. 416, 431-39 (1983) (all abortions after the write an autobiography Seneca College first trimester), Planned Parenthood Ass’n of are articles School, Kansas City , Missouri , Inc. v. Ashcroft , 462 U.S.
476, 481-82 (1983) (all abortions after the first twelve weeks of pregnancy), but has upheld a statute requiring all second trimester abortions to be performed in either a hospital or a licensed outpatient clinic, Simopoulos v. Virginia , 462 U.S. 506, 510-19 (1983). The Court has struck down parental consent and notice statutes and ordinances if they did not contain a judicial bypass mechanism that would afford the an autobiography essay pregnant minor the creative thinking The University of Birmingham opportunity to avoid obtaining the consent of (or giving notice to) her parents or legal guardian, 9 Danforth , 428 U.S. at how to write, 72-75 (one-parent consent), Akron Center I , 462 U.S. at 439-42 (one-parent consent without judicial bypass), Bellotti v. Baird , 443 U.S. 622 (1979) (two-parent consent) (inadequate judicial bypass), Hodgson v. Minnesota , 497 U.S. 417, 450-55 (1990) (two-parent notice without judicial bypass), 10 but has upheld statutes that contained an adequate judicial bypass, Ashcroft , 462 U.S. at 490-93 (one-parent consent). Hodgson , 497 U.S. at 497-501 (Kennedy, J., concurring in the judgment in part and dissenting in part), id. at 461 (O’Connor, J., concurring in writing essay Chelsea College, part and concurring in the judgment in part) (two-parent notice with judicial bypass), Ohio v. Akron Center for how to write Seneca College Reproductive Health ( Akron Center II ) , 497 U.S.
502 (1990) (one-parent notice with judicial bypass), Planned Parenthood v. How To Write Appleby? Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 899-900 (1992) (one-parent consent), Lambert v. Wicklund ,520 U.S. 292 (1997) (one-parent notice) ( per essay Seneca curiam ) . The Court has struck down statutes requiring a married woman to obtain the consent of, or give notice to, her husband before undergoing an abortion, Danforth , 428 U.S. at how to write college, 67-72 (consent), and Casey , 505 U.S. at 887-98 (notice) . The Court has upheld state and federal statutes restricting public funding of abortions, Beal v. Doe , 432 U.S. 438 (1977), Maher v. Roe , 432 U.S. 464 (1977), Harris v. McRae , 448 U.S.
297 (1980), and Williams v. Zbaraz , 448 U.S. 358 (1980), as well as state statutes and municipal government policies prohibiting the an autobiography College performance of abortions by public employees within the scope of their employment or in publicly owned and writing essay Chelsea Independent, operated facilities (other than those necessary to how to write an autobiography Seneca College save the life of the mother), Poelker v. Write Essay? Doe , 432 U.S. 519 (1977), and Webster v. Reproductive Health Services , 492 U.S. 490, 507-11 (1989). The Court has also upheld federal administrative regulations (since rescinded) requiring physical and financial separation of how to essay, Title X family planning projects from other projects operated by Title X grantees that perform, counsel or refer for abortion, Rust v. Sullivan , 500 U.S.
173 (1991). The Court has upheld a requirement that a pathology report be prepared for all fetal tissue obtained in the course of an abortion, Ashcroft , 462 U.S. at 486-90 , but has struck down a requirement that fetal remains be disposed of in a “humane and sanitary manner,” Akron Center I , 462 U.S. at 451-52 . The Court has upheld some record keeping and creative The University, reporting requirements, Danforth , 428 U.S. at 79-81 , Casey , 505 U.S. at 900-01 , while striking down others, Thornburgh v. American College of Obstetricians Gynecologists , 476 U.S. 747, 765-68 (1986), because of what the Court perceived as inadequate guarantees of patient confidentiality. The Court has upheld a requirement that a second physician be present during the performance of a post-viability abortion to provide immediate medical care for a viable child who survives an abortion procedure, Ashcroft , 462 U.S. at 482-86 , but has struck down a second-physician requirement that did not contain an express or implied exception for medical emergencies, Thornburgh , 476 U.S. at 769-71 . The Court has also struck down standards of care for the performance of post-viability abortions that were either vague, Colautti v. Franklin , 439 U.S. 379, 397-401 (1979), or posed an unacceptable risk to the mother’s health, Thornburgh , 476 U.S. at 768-69 , but has upheld a statute mandating fetal viability testing at twenty weeks’ gestation, Webster , 492 U.S. at how to College, 513-21 . In a pair of decisions, later overruled in part by Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S.
833 (1992), which is discussed in the next part of this essay, infra , the Court held that States and writing a college essay College, municipalities could not require a short waiting period before the performance of a non-emergency abortion; that they could not required detailed informed consent information to be given to the pregnant woman seeking an abortion; and that they could not require portions of the informed consent information to be conveyed in person to the patient by the attending physician, see Akron Center I , 462 U.S. at essay College, 442-51 and Thornburgh , 476 U.S. at 759-65 . 11. IV. Roe Revisited: Planned Parenthood v. Casey ^ top. In 1992, the articles Saint Supreme Court revisited Roe and, in a Joint Opinion authored by Justices Sandra Day O’Connor, Anthony Kennedy and David Souter, substantially modified its holdings. Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833 (1992). In Casey , the Court reaffirmed what it characterized as the “essential” (or “central”) holding of how to write essay Seneca College, Roe , consisting of how to an effect Appleby College, three parts: First, a woman has “the right . . . . to choose to how to write College have an abortion before viability and to obtain it without undue interference from the State. Before viability, the State’s interests are not strong enough to support a prohibition of abortion or the imposition of a substantial obstacle to the woman’s effective right to elect the procedure.” 505 U.S. at how to write essay, 846. Second, the State has the power “to restrict abortions after fetal viability, if the law contains exceptions for pregnancies which endanger the woman’s life or health.” Id . Write? And, third, “the State has legitimate interests from the outset of the pregnancy in protecting the health of the woman and the life of the fetus that may become a child.” Id . While reaffirming the “essential” (or “central”) holding of Roe , the authors of the Joint Opinion rejected Roe’s “trimester” framework as an unnecessarily “rigid construct” which “in its formulation . . . misconceives the nature of the pregnant woman’s interest,” and write an effect essay Appleby, “in practice . . . undervalues the State’s interest in potential life . . . How To An Autobiography Essay? .” Id . at 872-73.
The trimester framework “misconceives the nature of the pregnant woman’s interest” because “[w]hat is at stake is [her] right to make the ultimate decision [to obtain an abortion prior to viability], not a right to be insulated from how to an essay School all others in doing so.” Id . at 877. “Though the woman has a right to choose to terminate or continue her pregnancy before viability,” the how to Seneca Joint Opinion explained, “it does not at all follow that the State is prohibited from taking steps to ensure that [her] choice is thoughtful and thinking, informed.” Id . at 872. The trimester framework “undervalues the State’s interest in write an autobiography Seneca College, potential life,” the Joint Opinion continued, because the essay Macquarie State has a “substantial state interest in potential life throughout pregnancy,” id . at 876, not just after viability. In light of Seneca, their dissatisfaction with the trimester framework of Roe and how it had been applied in subsequent cases, the authors of the Joint Opinion developed a new standard for reviewing pre-viability abortion regulations, the so-called “undue burden” test. Casey , 505 U.S. at how to write Appleby College, 874-79. Under that test, “a state regulation [that] has the purpose or effect of placing a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus” is essay Seneca, unconstitutional. Id . at 877. Help Chelsea College? Applying that test to the statutes challenged in Casey (multiple provisions of the Pennsylvania Abortion Control Act of 1982, as amended), a majority of the Court upheld the how to write essay detailed informed consent requirement (including the mandated twenty-four hour waiting period), the parental consent requirement and the record keeping and how to an effect Appleby, reporting requirements, id . at 881-87, 899-901, but a differently constituted majority struck down the spousal notice requirement , id . at write Seneca College, 887-98 . 12 In upholding the informed consent requirement (and the accompanying waiting period), the Court overruled, in part, its earlier conflicting precedents in Akron Center I and Thornburgh . Id . at 881-82. 13. Both Justice Harry Blackmun and Justice Paul Stevens dissented from the what Roedean Joint Opinion’s abandonment of Roe’s trimester framework and the strict scrutiny standard of review, while Chief Justice William Rehnquist, joined by Justices Byron White, Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas, dissented from the write essay reaffirmation of the “essential” holding of Roe , arguing that the rational basis standard should be applied to all regulation of abortion. 14. The Joint Opinion in Casey is notable in how to write essay College, five respects:
First, in reaffirming what it characterized as the “essential” (or “central”) holding of Roe , the write Seneca authors of the Joint Opinion raised the issue but refused to state whether they believed that Roe had been correctly decided as an write an essay college level School original matter of constitutional interpretation, Casey , 505 U.S. at 871 (“[w]e do not need to say whether each of us, had we been Members of the Court when the valuation of the state interest [in the protection of “potential life”] came before it as an original matter, would have concluded, as the Roe Court did, that its weight is insufficient to Seneca College justify a ban on how to college level abortions prior to viability even when it is subject to an autobiography essay certain exceptions”), 15 relying instead on “principles of institutional integrity” and “the rule of stare decisis [deferring to precedent].” Id . at 845-46; see also id. at 854-69. Second, the Joint Opinion provided no principled basis for distinguishing between the “essential” (or “central”) and the inessential (or peripheral) holdings of Roe , reaffirming the how to Appleby former and overruling the latter. As Justice Scalia commented, “I must . . . An Autobiography Essay College? confess that I have always thought, and I think a lot of essay persuasive Macquarie, other people have always thought, that the an autobiography essay arbitrary trimester framework, which the Court today discards, was quite as central to Roe as the arbitrary viability test, which the Court today retains.” Id . at 993. (Scalia, J., concurring in the judgment in part and dissenting in part). How To Write An Essay College School? Third, in reaffirming the write essay College “essential” holding of Roe , the Joint Opinion abandoned Roe’s reliance on privacy theory, resting its analysis, instead, on the liberty language of § 1 of the how to write Warminster Fourteenth Amendment. Fourth, the Joint Opinion tacitly abandoned Roe’s characterization of the write essay College right to abortion as “fundamental.” 16 And, fifth, the Appleby College Joint Opinion substituted a new standard of review – “undue burden” – in place of the strict scrutiny standard employed in Roe for how to write an autobiography essay Seneca evaluating fundamental rights, which clearly allows for a broader scope of regulation (but not prohibition) of pre-viability abortions. 17. The strict scrutiny standard of Chelsea College, judicial review applies to laws that either interfere with the exercise of a fundamental constitutional right ( e.g ., voting) or discriminate on the basis of a suspect classification ( e.g ., race). A law reviewed under this standard is presumed to be un constitutional and will not be upheld unless its proponents are able to write Seneca College demonstrate that it is necessary to promote a compelling state (or governmental) interest.
Few, if any, laws reviewed under this standard survive. At the opposite end of the spectrum is the rational basis standard of review, which applies to almost all other legislation. 18 Under this standard, a law is presumed to be constitutional and will be upheld so long as it has a rational relationship to any legitimate state (or governmental) purpose. Most laws reviewed under this standard survive constitutional scrutiny. V. The Roberts Court and the Future of Abortion Jurisprudence ^ top. Under the leadership of Chief Justice John Roberts, the Supreme Court has taken a more cautious approach to creative of Birmingham the review of abortion regulation. Most obviously, the Court, in an opinion by Justice Kennedy, upheld the an autobiography federal Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act in Gonzales v. Carhart , 550 U.S. 124 (2007) ( Carhart II ), after a differently constituted Court struck down a similar (but more vaguely worded) state statute only seven years earlier in creative thinking The University of Birmingham, Stenberg v. How To An Autobiography Essay Seneca? Carhart , 530 U.S.
914 (2000) ( Carhart I ). Less obviously, the Court has suggested that, at creative, least with respect to the regulation of abortion, “facial challenges,” i.e ., a claim that a given statute is unconstitutional in its entirety, are disfavored, Carhart II , 550 U.S. 124 at 130 (“these facial attacks should not have been entertained in how to, the first place”), and “as-applied” challenges, i.e ., a claim that a statute is unconstitutional in particular circumstances, are preferred, id . at write Appleby, 168 (“[a]s-applied challenges are the how to an autobiography basic building blocks of constitutional adjudication”) (citation and internal quotation marks omitted). Relatedly, in are articles, another decision of the Roberts Court, the Court unanimously held, in how to write an autobiography, an opinion by how to an effect College, Justice O’Connor, that when only a limited number of how to an autobiography, applications of an abortion statute would be unconstitutional, the proper remedy (if otherwise consistent with legislative intent) is to enjoin enforcement of those applications only, not to declare the Macquarie University entire statute unconstitutional. Ayotte v. Planned Parenthood of Northern New England , 546 U.S. Essay Seneca College? 320, 328-31 (2006) (reviewing parental notice law). Significantly, in Ayotte , Justice O’Connor acknowledged that the Macquarie Court did not take this more circumspect approach in Carhart I, id . at 330-31 (explaining that “the parties . . Write College? . did not ask for, and we did not contemplate, relief more finely drawn” than complete invalidation). 19. In light of the Roberts Court’s more cautious approach to persuasive Macquarie the review of abortion legislation, fewer challenges to abortion statutes may be expected. An Autobiography Seneca College? Moreover, even with respect to those challenges that are brought and are articles School, are determined to have merit, both the Supreme Court and the lower federal courts are likely to how to an autobiography essay College strike down the statute and enjoin its enforcement only with respect to its invalid applications, not in its entirety. VI. How To Level? A Comment on the Scope of the Health Exception ^ top.
Finally, a brief comment on an unresolved area of abortion law – the write essay Seneca scope of the college level health exception required by Roe (as reaffirmed in Casey ). In Roe , the Supreme Court held that the write College States may prohibit abortion after viability “except when it is necessary to preserve the life or health of the mother.” 410 U.S. at 164. The Court, however, did not define the term “health.” In the companion case of Doe v. Bolton , the Court considered a challenge to what remained of the Georgia abortion statute after major provisions of the statute had been declared unconstitutional by a federal district court. As a result of the district court’s decision, a physician could perform an abortion whenever he determined, in “his best clinical judgment,” that the abortion was “necessary.” At issue in an effect Appleby College, Doe was whether this standard was impermissibly vague. The Court concluded that it was not: [T]he medical judgment [as to whether an abortion is “necessary”] may be exercised in the light of all factors – physical, emotional, psychological, familial, and the woman’s age – relevant to the well-being of the patient. All these factors may relate to health. Whether Doe , properly understood, mandates an open-ended “health” exception for post-viability abortions is debatable. Although there is the an autobiography College merest hint in one older case that the Court (as then constituted) may have regarded the broad language in Doe as a limitation on the State’s authority to prohibit post-viability abortions, see Colautti v. Franklin , 439 U.S. 379, 400 (1979), the Court has never directly considered the articles Anthony’s validity of a post-viability ban. Lower federal courts have read Doe as a gloss on the scope of the health exception that must be included in any post-viability ban, 20 but that reading misinterprets Doe , as Justice Thomas noted in his dissent from the denial of certiorari in Voinovich v. Women’s Medical Professional Corp . , 523 U.S.
1036 (1998): Our conclusion that the statutory phrase at issue in Doe [whether the abortions was “necessary”] was not vague because it included emotional and psychological considerations in no way supports the how to an autobiography essay proposition that, after viability, a mental health exception is required as a matter of federal constitutional law . Doe simply did not address that question. 523 U.S. at 1039 (emphasis in original). As things now stand, whether the open-ended “health” language of articles magazine, Doe is a limitation on write an autobiography Seneca College the authority of the States to prohibit post-viability abortions remains an write an effect open question, but one that should be answered by a challenge to an appropriately drafted statute. Essay Seneca? Given the present composition of the Court, there is reason to believe that such a statute would be upheld. In recognizing a constitutional right to how to College abortion, the Court in Roe believed that it was meeting the “profound problems of the present day.” 410 U.S. at 165. The “problems” which the Court thought would be ameliorated by its decision included the medical risks associated with pregnancy, a “distressful life and future” for how to write an autobiography the pregnant woman confronted with an unwanted pregnancy, “[p]sychological harm,” the difficulty in providing “child care,” “the distress, for all concerned, associated with the unwanted child,” “the problem of bringing a child into a family already unable, psychologically or otherwise, to care for it,” and, for writing essay some, “the additional difficulties and continuing stigma associated with unwed motherhood . . . An Autobiography College? .” Id . at 153. More than thirty years of experience with legalized abortion has failed to solve these problems, as well as others for which abortion was touted as a panacea (crime and help writing a college essay Independent, poverty). Indeed, the regime of legal abortion has aggravated them. See Clarke D. Forsythe and Stephen B. Presser, The Tragic Failure of Roe v. Wade: Why Abortion Should be Returned to the States . 10 Tex.
Rev. of Law Politics 85, 108-36 (Fall 2005). In reaffirming, as modified, Roe in Casey , the Supreme Court “call[ed] the contending sides of a national controversy to end their national division by accepting a common mandate rooted in the Constitution.” 505 U.S. at 867. Given the issues at how to write an autobiography, stake in abortion, that call, not surprisingly, has not been heeded. The abortion liberty has no “roots” in the Nation’s history, traditions and legal practices. And the “national division” over the abortion controversy, which Roe created and Casey continued, will not end until, initially, the Supreme Court returns the an effect Appleby College issue of abortion to write an autobiography Seneca the States and, eventually, the Constitution is amended to protect the lives of all unborn children.
A discussion of the various standards of judicial review may be found in articles Saint Anthony’s High School, Part IV of Seneca College, this essay, infra . Write An Effect Essay? back. When Roe was decided, an write an autobiography College unborn child was “viable,” i.e ., capable of living outside of his or her mother, at twenty-eight weeks of gestation.In light of medical advances made since Roe , viability may occur at twenty-three to twenty-four weeks, or, in some instances, even earlier, as the Supreme Court recognized almost twenty years ago in Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 860 (1992) (noting that viability may occur at twenty-three to articles magazine Anthony’s twenty-four weeks). back. Section 230.3 of the Model Penal Code, one version or another of which was adopted by thirteen States before Roe v. Wade , allowed abortion whenever the physician believed that there was a “substantial risk” that continuance of the pregnancy “would gravely impair the an autobiography essay Seneca physical or mental health of the mother,” that “the child would be born with grave physical or mental defect,” or that “the pregnancy resulted from rape, incest, or other felonious intercourse.”In Doe , the Court also struck down a requirement that an abortion could be performed only upon a bona fide resident of the State of Georgia. Doe , 410 U.S. at 200. back. As a result of the district court's judgment, a physician could perform an creative thinking abortion whenever, in his best clinical judgment, the procedure was necessary. back. Interested readers, however, may wish to consult some of the following sources. An early critique of the Court's handiwork in Roe , which includes a brief review of the how to Seneca College initial academic responses to Roe (both favorable and persuasive University, unfavorable) is John T. Noonan, Jr.'s, A Private Choice: Abortion in America in the Seventies (The Free Press 1979). Seneca? Dennis J. Horan, Edward R. Grant and creative thinking of Birmingham, Paige C. Cunningham (eds.), Abortion and the Constitution: Reversing Roe v. Wade Through the Courts (Georgetown University Press 1987), is a compendium of articles written by a variety of authors criticizing various aspects of the holdings and analysis in Roe . The most comprehensive and thorough analysis of Roe's treatment of the historical treatment of abortion in English and American law, as well as the restatement of write an autobiography essay Seneca, that history in James C. Mohr's Abortion in America (Oxford University Press 1978), is University, Joseph W. Dellapenna's Dispelling the Myths of Abortion History (Carolina Academic Press 2006) (an extremely abbreviated version of an autobiography essay Seneca, Professor Dellapenna's analysis appears in Abortion and the Constitution , supra , at 137-58). A concise critique of the magazine Anthony’s Court's historical excursus in Roe , particularly its explanation for the reasons nineteenth century abortion statutes were enacted, may be found in Appendix A to Paul Benjamin Linton's article, Planned Parenthood v. Casey : The Flight from Reason in the Supreme Court , XIII St. Louis U. How To Seneca? Pub.
L. Rev. 15, 103-19 (1993). The poor quality of the analysis and reasoning in Roe has led some academics to rewrite the opinion. A collection of such opinions and opposing dissents, along with a useful selected bibliography, appears in creative thinking of Birmingham, Jack M. Write? Balkin (ed.), What Roe v. Level School? Wade Should Have Said (New York University Press 2005). back. All of the how to an autobiography essay holdings in these cases, and the full citations thereto, appear in Part I of this essay, supra . How To Write An Essay Warminster? back. Planned Parenthood v. Casey is discussed in more detail in Part IV of this essay, infra . back. Justices Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Louis D. Brandeis and Hugo Black, as well as Judge Learned Hand, who served on the Second Circuit Court of Appeals for decades, all agreed that the write an autobiography use of the liberty language of the Due Process Clause to invalidate the substance of Roedean, state enactments is fundamentally illegitimate. See Berger, Government by Judiciary , at 227-28 n. How To Essay? 27 (Black), 282 n. 46 (Holmes, Brandeis and Hand). back. Consent of (or notice to) a parent or legal guardian may be waived by a court in a judicial bypass hearing if the minor can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the creative thinking court that she is mature enough to make the decision to obtain an abortion without the write an autobiography essay Seneca College consent of (or notice to) her parent(s) or legal guardian, or, alternatively, that obtaining consent (or giving notice) would not be in her best interests. The Court has upheld both consent statutes, see , e.g ., Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S.
833, 899-900 (1992), and School, Planned Parenthood Ass'n of Kansas City , Missouri v. Ashcroft , 462 U.S. 476, 490-93 (1983), and notice statutes, see , e.g ., Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health , 497 U.S.502 (1990), and an autobiography College, Hodgson v. Minnesota , 497 U.S. 417 (1990). back. See also Ayotte v. What In Writing Roedean? Planned Parenthood of Northern New England , 546 U.S. 320 (2006) (one-parent notice statute could not be enforced constitutionally in medical emergencies requiring the immediate performance of an abortion). back. A general and non-specific requirement that a physician obtain the informed consent of the patient before performing an abortion was upheld in how to write essay Seneca, Danforth , 428 U.S. at 65-67. back. The Court also upheld the medical emergency definition. Casey , 505 U.S. at 879-80. Articles Magazine High School? back.
The holdings in write an autobiography College, Akron Center I and persuasive University, Thornburgh are discussed in Part III, supra . back. These alternative standards of essay, review are discussed below. back. See also id. at 853, 858, 864, 869. back. Nowhere in the Joint Opinion is the right to abortion described as fundamental. back. The Joint Opinion in Chelsea Independent, Casey has been subjected to withering criticism. Essay Seneca? See Paul Benjamin Linton, Planned Parenthood v. Are Articles? Casey : The Flight from Reason in the Supreme Court , XIII St. How To Write An Autobiography College? Louis U. Write Appleby College? Pub. L. Rev. 15, 103-19 (1993); Michael Stokes Paulsen, The Worst Constitutional Decision of All Time , 78 Notre Dame L. How To Write? Rev. 995 (2003). Casey is also extensively discussed and critiqued in Professor Dellapenna's magnum opus , Dispelling the Myths of Abortion History , supra , n. Magazine? 4. back.
Under federal constitutional equal protection doctrine, an intermediate standard applies to classifications based on sex or illegitimacy. Under that standard, often referred to as heightened scrutiny, the write an autobiography essay classification must be substantially related to an important state (or governmental) interest. How To Write An Essay Warminster? back.
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Academic writing is like a painful, upper middle class dinner party. This blog post is essay College part of a series dedicated to developing ideas for writing essay Chelsea Independent College, a new book I am writing with Shaun Lehmann (@painlessprose on Twitter) and Katherine Firth of the Research Voodoo blog. “Writing Trouble” will be a Swiss army knife of a book, containing range of strategies and tactics for fixing academic writing that is good, but not yet great. We generated chapter titles from the bad feedback PhD students have told us about over the years. Parts of this post will end up in chapter two: “Your writing doesn’t sound very academic”: how to how to write Seneca convince your reader you belong”. The book will be published by Open University Press and will hopefully be out in of Birmingham, late 2018. If you’re interested in knowing more about the an autobiography essay College, book before we publish, you can sign up for our writing trouble mailing list.
Although I got reasonable marks for my creative essays in high school, literary criticism was never my strong suit. Help A College Essay Chelsea Independent College. One of the issues with my analytical writing was that I didn’t really understand how to use verbs. It wasn’t until I nearly finished my masters degree that I found out how to an autobiography Seneca College, that verbs function in thinking of Birmingham, academic conversation much like table manners at a middle class dinner party. I owe much of how to write, my education in verbs to the good work of Pat Thomson and Barbara Kamler and their excellent book ‘Helping Doctoral Students Write’. This book was crucial for helping me understand that in humanities writing, the verb you use to describe someone else’s work indicates your feeling about the quality of the work. For instance, “Mewburn (2010) argues …” is kinder than “Mewburn (2010) asserts …”. By using the verb ‘argues’ I invite the reader to consider that what Mewburn is doing is actually arguing – a scholar who asserts is how to an effect essay Appleby not really a scholar at all. Looking up the verbs in a dictionary makes the difference quite plain. According to Google, the an autobiography essay, first definition of ‘argues’ is “give reasons or cite evidence in thinking, support of an write Seneca College, idea, action, or theory, typically with the essay persuasive, aim of persuading others to share one’s view.” By contrast, the definition for ‘asserts’ is “cause others to recognize (one’s authority or a right) by confident and forceful behavior”.
In the humanities, at least these days, we are meant to make knowledge by persuasion, not through authority. Authority is an autobiography used more often in political or religious arguments. If you read back into the history of Western academia, you will find examples of writing that seems very strange to contemporary eyes. The tone is much more commanding and in writing Roedean, confident – this was because the origins of Western universities were monastic and write an autobiography College, it was acceptable to make an argument on the grounds that God had ordained something. Times have changed (despite what some Australian politicians would like to think). Thinking. When you think about an autobiography Seneca College it, most academic writing is highly passive aggressive. How To. By using a verb to express your evaluation of someone else’s work you avoid directly stating your opinion, leaving it up to write essay Seneca the reader to infer what you think. To read between the lines if you like.
In academic writing you would never, for example, write “Mewburn (2010) is shit – don’t bother reading this paper. She’s a rubbish scholar”. You’d say something like: “Mewburn (2010) relies on essay Macquarie, insufficient evidence”. You mean the same thing, but it’s you know – polite. Essay Seneca. At least it’s polite according to dominant cultural norms in academia which, it’s important to what in writing Roedean recognise, are not ‘natural’. While some people struggle mightily with the idea that verbs are like manners at a middle class dinner party, Indigenous students, and people who are first in family to get to University, tend to get it straight away. When I shared this analogy with one Wiradjuri woman she laughed and said “Right, so to succeed in Seneca College, the academy I have to write like an essay persuasive Macquarie, uptight white person? That makes perfect sense. I’m surrounded by how to them all the time”.
Kamler and Appleby College, Thomson were writing for humanities scholars, but their work led me to develop an interest in deep nerd grammar within the sciences. The most interesting difference between science writing and humanities writing is the use of how to Seneca, verbs, or rather – the lack of them. When scientists are evaluating the work of other scientists they tend to Macquarie University drop the verb altogether. In the brilliant “Disciplinary Discourses: social interactions in academic writing” (told you it was nerdy) Ken Hyland points out that scientists will make a statement and how to write an autobiography essay, then put the reference for the fact at the end of the sentence, like so (totally made up example): “The molecules in saline solutions cluster together tightly (Mewburn et al, 2010)”. By placing the how to write an essay, reference at write an autobiography essay Seneca, the end and not associating it with a verb, the scientist ‘imports’ this idea without comment and effectively expects the Anthony’s School, reader to accept the idea as fact. Even when they do include verbs, scientists do it in ‘sciencey’ ways. If the scientist was inclined to how to write more ‘flowerly’ language, they might use a neutral verb, for instance: “It has been shown that molecules in saline solutions cluster together tightly (Mewburn et al, 2010)”
In this sentence, the passsive voice functions to how to an effect essay Appleby leave out the how to an autobiography essay Seneca College, identity of the person who showed how the molecules cluster, that’s because, generally, in the sciences the essay persuasive Macquarie University, identity of the person who did the work is irrelevant. Write Essay. Scientists are assumed to thinking The University of Birmingham be identical to write an autobiography College each other and employ scientific methods and procedures exactly the same way. How To An Essay Level Warminster. This point of view has been questioned by some who argue that scientists are human like the rest of us, but that’s not a Pandora’s box that I need to open here. To complicate matters further, not all scientists use verbs in this way all the time. Hyland points out that Biologists are the write an autobiography Seneca, outliers of the science world and college level Warminster, tend to deploy verbs much more like humanities people. In other words, it’s complicated, but you need to know the norms of Seneca College, your ‘tribal dialect’ to in writing Roedean School fit in. So how can you operationalise this knowledge? Well, unless you want to take a risk challenge academic norms (and hey – don’t let me stop you!), give your writing an ‘uptight white person’ make over. Grab a few papers from scholars you admire and write an autobiography essay College, make a list of the verbs they use. Then cluster the what School, verbs into three columns based on a passive aggressive index: “this work is great”, “This work is how to write an autobiography College fine” and “this work is terrible”.
You can look at my own verb cheat sheet as a model, but you’re best advised to help writing Independent College make your own. When you’re finished, stick your cheat sheet to your wall. How To Write Seneca. While you are doing your literature review, examine your feelings about the work you are reading, and then pick a verb from the list that fits your judgment. Varied verb use will make your writing more interesting and precise If you are a science student, closely examine your own verb placement and magazine Saint Anthony’s School, compare it to work in essay Seneca College, your discipline – could you afford to help writing use a few more verbs? Or do you need to pare it back? I hope that’s clear – I’ll be making edits when I put this post into the book, so your questions are helpful! More Writing Trouble posts: Cal Newport’s previous book “So good they can’t ignore you” is my all time favourite book on career building. Newport is an academic in write an autobiography Seneca, computer science, but has made a tidy little side career in writing productivity books. How To Write An Essay College Warminster. I bought ‘Deep Work’ as soon as it came out and enjoyed it, but was so busy being productive on how to write essay Seneca College, other projects that I had not got around to doing a review when Imogen Matthews sent me hers. I liked her take, and it certainly aligned with my views, so I was thankful that someone had done the help writing a college essay Chelsea College, review for me!
Imogen Mathew is a PhD candidate in Australian Literature at the Australian National University. Her thesis explores how Anita Heiss’s chick lit creates a more diverse, inclusive and glamorous Australia. She tweets at @ImogenMathew. In a recent blog post entitled “How to Stop Flipping”, the Thesis Whisperer outlined the dangers of flipping between tasks without progressing on any of them. Her suggestion was to write a detailed and time bound to-do list, using the example of the literature review. How To Write Essay Seneca College. The second dot point advised students to “look in your diary for writing Independent College, stretches of uninterrupted time of at least 2 hours, but not more than four.
Mark them as dedicated to your literature review”. The phrase “deep reading” recurred often throughout her list. The Thesis Whisperer’s focus on deep reading provides a neat segue into write essay College, my discussion of Cal Newport’s recently published Deep Work . Write College Level Warminster. Newport is a highly successful computer scientist at Georgetown University. Alongside his academic work, he has written a number of self-help guides for students in secondary and tertiary education: How to an autobiography essay Win at College , How to Become a Straight-A Student , How to Be a High School Superstar , So Good They Can’t Ignore You . Titles like these make me feel uncomfortable and reinforce my reservations about the genre as a whole: in my view, self-help books operate on what in writing Roedean, the assumption of deficiency, they are prescriptive and write, often read as clumsy attempts to deal with complex problems. I probably wouldn’t have read Deep Work if a friend of mine hadn’t told me about it over lunch earlier this year. Newport divides professional work into persuasive University, two categories: deep and shallow. Deep work encompasses “professional activities performed in a state of distraction-free concentration that push your cognitive capabilities to how to an autobiography essay their limit. These efforts create new value, improve your skill, and are hard to replicate”. A PhD, in other words. Newport presents deep work as a state under constant threat from how to write college level Warminster School its enemy, shallow work: “noncognitively demanding, logistical-style tasks, often performed while distracted.
These efforts tend to not create much new value in the world and are easy to replicate”. Shallow work could designate many different tasks: data-entry, committee work and time spent on network and social media applications (email, twitter, facebook etc.). Newport’s advances his argument along two, inter-related lines. The first relates to the impact of technology on the economy and the corresponding mechanisation of jobs: as machines learn to do an an autobiography Seneca, increasing number of essay persuasive Macquarie, tasks better than humans, employability becomes correspondingly specialised. As the capacity for write an autobiography College, deep work is not easily replicable by machines, humans who have this capacity will be well-placed for articles magazine High School, employment now and into the future. Deep work further advantages its adherents through an how to essay, “ability to quickly master hard things” and “produce at an elite level in terms of both quality and speed”
Newport divides Deep Work into two parts, beginning with ‘The Idea’ (deep work is meaningful, valuable and rare) before elaborating on ‘The Rules’: work deeply, embrace boredom, quit social media and drain the shallows (be ruthless, in other words, in of Birmingham, the amount of time allocated to an autobiography essay College admin, emails, meetings and social media). Deep work should be so cognitively demanding that it cannot be sustained longer than four hours – after that point, we head into brain mush. Persuasive University. Those new to deep work may only manage one hour. For regular readers of the Thesis Whisperer blog, this is not new advice. Shut Up and Write, the Pomodoro technique and Thesis Boot Camps are all built around these principles. If we know all of this already, it’s fair to ask what possible value there is in a book such as Deep Work . Newport’s contribution is situating the how to an autobiography essay College, ability to write an effect Appleby College engage in how to an autobiography essay Seneca College, cognitively demanding work within existing and creative The University, future economies. How To Write Essay College. Transposition of Newport’s argument to the world of the PhD candidate reads something like this: it’s worthwhile cultivating deep work habits not only because they will help you get things done, but also because they will be an asset in the post-PhD marketplace. For me, Deep Work provided a welcome opportunity to review and refine my study skills. Newport’s demarcation of deep from shallow work functions as a convenient heuristic for categorising the different tasks involved in producing a doctoral thesis.
I felt challenged, in a good way, to work on the knotty and demanding questions woven into my research and to do this in a disciplined, distraction-free state. In my spare time I work as a gym instructor, and in essay University, much the same way that I encourage others to push beyond their limits (“you are stronger than you think!”), I felt that Newport pushed his readers to curb tendencies towards distraction and to engage in an intimate—not to mention uncomfortable—relationship with their intellectual potential. Newport’s disdain for social media will not be for everyone, nor his advocacy of a purposefully distant approach to email and write, administration. He concedes that this type of shallow work is inescapable but urges readers to limit it to the absolute periphery of help writing a college Chelsea Independent, their schedule. The strategies promoted by Newport may appear to contradict findings from the Thesis Whisperer on how to, academic employability: that to be a successful academic today you need to be as strong in the ‘shallows’ as you are in the deep. How To An Essay Level. And this means using social network tools to write an autobiography essay Seneca College connect and how to write Appleby, engage within the academy and how to write Seneca College, beyond. Yet these contradictions are not as worrying as they seem: Newport would likely respond that by committing to help a college Chelsea Independent deep work (and remembering that this is never going to exceed a maximum of four out of eight working hours) PhD students can make time for how to write an autobiography essay Seneca College, the ‘other stuff’ too. A far more disturbing element to the book for me was its gender politics. Almost every example featured a male protagonist to essay illustrate the how to Seneca, virtues of deep work. Male scholars provided the primary theoretical ballast to Newport’s argument.
I couldn’t help feeling that Newport had imbibed and college level Warminster, regurgitated the unhelpful equation that deep work equals brilliance equals male. Women were present on the periphery, stranded in the shallows of Newport’s consciousness. Thanks Imogen! A very thoughtful review I think you will agree. Have you read ‘Deep Work’? What do you think? How do you create distraction free time in your schedule?
Sometimes I get sent posts that are just too charmingly odd to resist. How To Seneca College. This one is by Paula Loveday of the creative The University of Birmingham, University of the Sunshine Coast. PhD candidate and owner of Peace and Prosperity success coaching. This is how to an autobiography essay a post about… well, Paula can explain! Let me begin by saying I’m not a poet. Chelsea. And when I commenced my PhD a year ago I certainly didn’t set out to document my PhD journey using an ancient Japanese form of poetry known as haiku. How To An Autobiography College. And yet, here I am, 15 months in, confirmed and about to analyse the data from my experiments and I have a collection of 20 haikus that do in fact describe the journey thus far. What Roedean School. Well, as much as one can describe such a journey within the essay Seneca College, strictures of a 5/7/5 syllable poem. The haiku obsession began early last year. How To Appleby College. I found myself in a research lab full of very fancy computer equipment and surrounded by very serious technology nerds (that’s a compliment by the way).
I’m decades older than most of them, my background is business and write an autobiography, although my first computer was an Apple Mac (you know the very first one, the actual original Mac), I’m certainly not up with all their modern kit. So, what to do, how to make my mark? For some reason, my haiku habit was the answer. Our lab has wall-talkers, those walls that you are allowed to write on, in fact encouraged to essay persuasive Macquarie University write on. And so, first thing one morning, when no-one was there I wrote my first haiku on the wall. I felt rebellious, naughty and very young.
It was an intoxicating feeling and I wanted more. I wrote a few more. How To Write Essay Seneca. I didn’t sign them, didn’t say they were mine and Macquarie, whilst there was speculation about the haiku ‘phantom’; interestingly no-one thought it was me. Here is a haiku one of my colleagues wrote: Who is the phantom writer? Please reveal yourself.
Eventually I came clean and how to write an autobiography essay Seneca, I think that maybe they started to see me in a different light. Since then I have continued with my haikus – about one a month, sometimes more frequently if I am feeling particularly elated, or despairing. Why haiku? Well I think that is obvious – when one is in in writing Roedean School, the process of writing 80,000 words there is hardly time for anything more than 17 extra syllables. How To Write An Autobiography Essay Seneca College. It’s a way of write College, expressing what is going on, quickly, succinctly. A way of capturing the ups and how to an autobiography College, downs of this process/journey/self-inflicted torture/self-expressed delight. Something I now know about the PhD is that we all have something that makes it possible for creative thinking of Birmingham, us to actually succeed.
For me I am highly organised, pretty clever, determined and how to write an autobiography essay, I have lots of time and space in my life to devote to my research. And we all have something that makes it possible for us to give up in essay persuasive Macquarie, utter frustration. For me that is how to an autobiography essay College statistics, the bureaucracy fondly known as a university and the fact that my research is in an area so distant from all my previous study. But the help a college essay Independent, thing we have in common as Higher Degree by Research students is that we all have a ‘something’ that will ensure success and a ‘something’ that if we don’t overcome it will ensure failure. One last thing before you read my haikus. I remember being mystified by syllables in primary school. I never quite got it. I kept getting it confused with sounding out words. I realised just how poor I was at it when, many years later, I was teaching grade one myself, and I was showing the children how to count the syllables by essay College clapping out magazine Anthony’s, their names. We’d clapped around the whole circle of write, children when my teacher aide gently whispered in my ear “do you know you’re teaching them the wrong thing?”
For those of you like me who have bit of syllable-dyslexia, there are four syllables in my name: (Pau+la) and how to write an effect College, (Love+day). If you were sounding my name you would say (P+au+la) and (L-o-ve-d-ay). Having said that, I’m still never quite sure I have the syllables right and so, after I have completed a haiku I send it in a text to my 20 year-old daughter for her to check. Eighty thousand words… Aargh! Where to begin? Thoughts are many – words are few.
Chapter one, word one… New skills to apply. Argument and rhetoric. Naught but PhD pleasure. Mid sem? Not for essay, me. Seventeen syllables more? Twenty thousand words. I’m through.
Confirmed. It’s over. Relief comes in waves. It’s been great to what Roedean School mark these milestones with a haiku. It’s so easy to just move on to the next thing. How To Essay Seneca. Actually stopping to acknowledge the journey makes it richer. Seventeen responses down, But what do I know? An infinite TO DO list.
One time I tried to share my distraction with the rest of the lab. I cleaned all the how to write level, old haikus off the write an autobiography essay College, board and writing a college Chelsea Independent, put a new one up: Avoid your research. Procrastinate with haiku. Walls are clean. How To An Autobiography Seneca College. Create! No responses. It seems like I was the only one not working. So, back to it:
Build subject numbers. Delete this, add that. Hoop jumper extraordinaire. Resistance takes time. Jump the magazine Saint High, hurdles, jump again. Through! (with small changes) Interfacing web pages, For pilot testing. Some days I feel I’m. Inadequate to the task.
Perhaps, perhaps not. Launched with great trepidation. First study is closed, One hundred and forty-one! Such a great response. Fifty-five per cent. Fine for online follow-up. Results? Fingers crossed. My haikus represent the first year and a bit of write essay College, this amazing PhD journey and I hope they might inspire you to keep some sort of sanity-generating, creative process going alongside this very intellectual endeavour. Thanks Paula!
What about you? Do you Haiku? Love to articles read some in the comments #128578; I have a new book out! If you follow me on any of my social media channels, you probably know this already, but I thought I would tell you again anyway because I’m excited about how to it #128578; The book is what Roedean called “How to be an Academic” is essentially a compilation of writing I have done over the last eight years or so. Many of the pieces are from way back in the Thesis Whisperer Archives. I’ve included pieces that have not been read by that many people as well as a few of my most popular ones. I’ve also included pieces I’ve written for various newspapers and magazines. I was able to how to essay Seneca College group the various pieces in logical sections, so the themes of the blog emerge more clearly. It was amazing having a professional editorial crew to help in essay Macquarie University, this process.
They have taken my work-a-day blog text to a whole new level (and eliminated masses of essay Seneca, typos). I’d like to thank Phillipa McGuiness of NewSouth for taking a chance on my version of blog to persuasive Macquarie University book. This project began by Phillipa inviting me for a cup of how to an autobiography Seneca, tea in Sydney and challenging me to write a follow up to Richard Hil’s Wackademia. That book was written by a member of the Baby Boomer generation, and was an account of what Hil saw as the ‘decline and fall’ of the contemporary university. Hil recommended we fight back with resistence strategies that cannot realistically be employed by people on what are articles School, precarious contracts. Academia, at least in how to, Australia, the UK and the USA has become a workplace that is borderline exploitative, at least to those who have little power or job security. Articles High School. By contrast, I offer a range of ways to think and Seneca, act aimed at preserving our sanity and what remains of collegiality, while dealing with the ‘bad boyfriends’ our universities have, sadly, become. My book is firmly a Gen X’ers account of living in the insecure academic world that has replaced the secure, well paid employment that used to be enjoyed by Hil, and many of his colleagues.
The career advice that worked for articles magazine Anthony’s High School, these Baby Boomers – publish or perish – no longer works for our generation – and the millenials who have now joined us in an autobiography College, our pain. Articles School. Success in academia is Seneca no longer simply a matter of winning the articles, publishing game. My book, like the blog, is full of ‘micro tactics’, aimed at how to an autobiography, helping you make the most of the system on your own terms. Phillipa held my hand via email through the process and patiently waited for persuasive Macquarie University, my late delivery of the how to write an autobiography essay Seneca College, manuscript. Level. The only thing we didn’t see quite eye to eye on was the title.
I wanted to put a question mark on it because I really feel there is no, one way to be an academic anymore. This book describes my way of how to an autobiography Seneca College, doing it with the hope that some of my ways will work for thinking of Birmingham, you too. If you are based in Canberra, I’d love to see you at my book launch tomorrow, September 7th 2017, at the pop-up village hall on the ANU campus at 6:30pm. Julie Hare will be doing a short speech and how to an autobiography College, I will be signing copies and #refreshmentswillbeprovided. Creative Thinking. This will be the only chance to by a paper copy on campus while we wait for essay College, the Union Court re-build to creative thinking finish. We worked to keep the price point be as low as possible because I we are well aware that many PhD students – and working academics for that matter – are on low incomes. At the moment it’s around $10 AUD on Kindle.
If you’d like a paper copy, you can buy it in how to Seneca College, Australia from the co-op bookstore on your campus or other retailers like Paperchain and Readings. If you’re not on campus, or overseas, you can order the paperback edition from the what School, NewSouth website (they can deliver internationally). Here’s a short extract from the book – I hope you enjoy it: I became an academic blogger, appropriately enough, over lunch (though my photoblog exploring the role of food in academia was still in how to an autobiography Seneca, the future). This particular lunch was with my brother-in-law, Mark Nottingham. Mark was born in the United States, but my twin sister Anitra had dragged him to write college School Australia to marry her some 20 years ago. I’d asked Mark to lunch to get some career advice for one important reason: he was successful, but he wasn’t an academic. Prior to this lunch I’d played the write an autobiography Seneca, Academic Hunger Games for 11 years, doing a bewildering range of essay persuasive Macquarie, casual teaching jobs while I completed two postgraduate degrees and an autobiography Seneca, raised a child. A series of lucky breaks and sideways moves had led to creative thinking The University of Birmingham a position doing professional development workshops for PhD students. Being a research educator was a strange job and I was unexpectedly good at it, but it was precarious.
My contract was going to run out soon and I had no idea where the next job was coming from. Other academics told me ‘Just publish and everything will be fine.’ But while my list of research publications was longer than that of most people of an autobiography essay Seneca College, my age and stage, I’d just had five unsuccessful job interviews in a row and essay persuasive Macquarie University, my early career academic friends didn’t seem to be benefitting from the write essay, ‘publish-or-perish’ advice any more than I was. Good people were passed over for job opportunities or had funding run out expectedly. How To Write College Warminster. Everything that was solid, as Marx once said, could easily melt into write an autobiography essay Seneca, air. In the decade I’d been hanging around academia full-time I’d seen many a person fall victim to in writing a restructure and have to move interstate, or across the world, to secure a new position. The job market was brutal and seemed full of hidden rules that did not match the conventional advice. People with fewer publications on their resume were routinely appointed over those with lots of them. There was always a preferred candidate before each job was advertised, despite the outward appearance of fairness.
In one case it was rumoured an influential professor didn’t want to lose his research assistant when the ‘soft money’ ran out. (Some people have salaries funded entirely from grants. An Autobiography Seneca. If the next project is not funded, these people will quickly find themselves unemployed.) In another case, an extremely well-qualified female candidate was passed over, it was said, because the in writing, Dean thought there were ‘too many women’ already. I’d come to the conclusion that the an autobiography essay College, publish-or-perish advice was just a nice way of help essay College, saying ‘Play by our rules and do your time.’ I needed a fresh perspective and Mark seemed to an autobiography essay College have it. In the 20 years I’ve known him, Mark has worked in the tech industry. As is common in magazine Saint Anthony’s, that industry, he has changed jobs frequently, but what has always impressed me is that he seems to do it with no visible anxiety. If Mark was bored or felt he was being treated badly, he would just quit – he once did this only weeks into a role. How To An Autobiography Seneca. He has always been in hot demand, which is essay persuasive Macquarie University curious because to this day no one in the family is really sure what he does. All I knew at this point was that Mark was ‘internet famous’, which is a strange kind of invisible celebrity.
There’s a Wikipedia page about Mark and, if you look him up, you’ll see he’s clearly a thought leader in an autobiography essay Seneca College, his field – but you’ve probably never heard of him. How To Write An Essay Level Warminster. That’s because internet fame is all about occupying a niche. Only a small number of people in each country care what he does, but because they are all connected by how to write an autobiography the internet, his celebrity has critical mass. By the creative The University, time the how to Seneca, main course of this lunch was served, I’d been talking for 20 minutes straight about everything that was wrong with my part-time sort-of-job and what sort of creative The University, permanent academic job I wanted instead. Mark looked confused. How To Write An Autobiography Seneca College. ‘I’m hearing about where you work, Inger, but I still don’t really know what you actually do.’ This was nothing new.
Even other academics didn’t understand it. ‘I’m a research educator,’ I replied, as patiently as I could. ‘Yes, but what do you do?’ Mark repeated insistently. ‘Um … research education stuff?’ Mark rubbed his forehead and took another sip of his wine. Help A College Essay Chelsea College. I pushed my salad around my plate as an how to write an autobiography, uncomfortable family silence settled over the table. I glared at articles High, Anitra over how to write essay College, the table. She was the write an essay, one who had suggested taking Mark out to lunch in the first place. Mark put down his wine and tried again. ‘Yes, research education.
OK. But what does that actually mean? Remember that I know nothing about academia.’ Mark has a degree in photojournalism, but had spent a long time retraining himself in things internet. Write Essay Seneca. In his field, a Masters degree or PhD is common enough, but he didn’t need one – he’s good at what he does and everyone who matters knows it. Essay Persuasive Macquarie University. I sighed and tried to how to an autobiography College explain myself. I told him I ran workshops for PhD students on stuff like writing, organising, job hunting, presenting and, well, the politics of academia. That I acted in an advisory role, interpreting the rules and processes of the university for PhD students and their supervisors.
Supervisors and students were always getting angry at each other and fighting. Because of the articles magazine Saint School, unique position of an autobiography essay, research students – part staff, part junior colleague, part student – these are more like workplace disputes than standard academic problems. Anthony’s High. Fixing these problems requires a certain degree of rat cunning and a good grip on theories of power. I suppose you could say that part of my job at that time was a weird sort of workplace mediation. In what time I had left over, I wrote academic papers and did research about what makes for a successful PhD experience. I took another gulp of wine, searching for a way to how to write sum it all up. ‘If academia was Pulp Fiction, I would be Mr Wolf, hosing down the scene of the murder and finding everyone a fresh change of clothes…’
Conference small talk – the definitive guide. This post was originally published on the All things Linguistic blog about a year ago by Gretchen McCulloch. Gretchen started blogging as a linguistics grad student at McGill University, but is now a full-time pop linguist, bridging the college level, gap between linguistics and the general public. She writes pop linguistics articles for various places and is currently writing a book about how to write internet language for Saint Anthony’s High School, Penguin . She also cohosts Lingthusiasm , a podcast that’s enthusiastic about linguistics, with Lauren Gawne of the College, blog Superlinguo . I loved this post so much I asked if I could repost it for Thesis Whisperer readers who might have missed it. The post tackles the The University, tricky subject of making small talk with a speaker at a conference – a topic I’ve thought about writing, but never got to, so I was glad to find out that Gretchen had written a better one.
As a regular guest speaker I know that many people eye you off at the conference morning tea, but don’t approach – making it a surprisingly lonely experience. Be kind to keynotes! Read this, muster up your courage and how to Seneca College, then start the conversation. Trust me, they will be grateful. Making small talk with someone who’s just given a talk, whether at a conference or at a colloquium or invited talk, can feel intimidating, especially if you’re a student or early in your academic career. But as someone who’s currently spending a lot of time on the opposite side of essay persuasive University, that divide, I’ve realized that when I’m a speaker, I really really want people to come up and talk to an autobiography essay College me. So here’s your pep talk, and some tips on what to say. The key thing to realize is that most of the time, you know more about the speaker than they know about you, so you need to essay Appleby College start the conversation and you get to pick what it’s about . Even before the talk, the speaker’s name and abstract has been emailed around the department or is in write Seneca College, the conference booklet, and after the talk you’ve had somewhere between 20 minutes and an hour to hear them talk about what they’re interested in. If it’s a course, maybe you’ve even had weeks.
Maybe you’ve googled them, maybe you’ve read their articles, maybe they’re your academic hero, maybe you just stumbled into the talk but now you find you’re enjoying it, whatever. You know something about them that makes them interesting to you. The speaker, on the other hand, might not even know the names of of Birmingham, anyone in the audience at all (at a conference) or might know only an autobiography essay, their one or two host(s) (at an how to an effect College, invited talk). Or even if they know half the audience, if you’re one of the people they don’t know, then have no particular reason to want to talk with you. And even if they do have a general desire to meet people in their audience (and they probably do), all they have for how to write College, small talk options with these unknown people are very general questions that can be asked of any linguist, like the classic academic icebreaker “So, what do you work on?” and its relatives “So, are you a student?” and “So, where are you from?” (Note that in an academic context, this means “What university(s) are you affiliated with?” and not “Where did you grow up?”) Protip: if you’re new to academic conferences and want to seem like a srs linguist, make sure you have an answer to The University “So, what do you work on?” It’s acceptable to say “[phenomenon] in [language]” as a short answer, but it’s better to have a 30 second summary that gives the other person something more to hook onto, like “I’m looking at constructions like [Example McExampleface] in [language]. You might expect people to say [this thing], but in fact they say [other thing].” This gives them a couple of places to ask follow-up questions from write an autobiography essay Seneca College if they’re interested. If someone gives you a “[phenomenon] in [language]” type answer though, a good way to continue the conversation is to how to write college level ask “So what would that look like?/Do you have an example?/What have you been finding?”
“What do you work on?” is a perfectly acceptable academic icebreaker for write an autobiography Seneca, standing around the reception desk / coffee table / buffet line, but if you’ve just seen someone’s talk you can’t ask them what they work on – they just told you! If you hover around silently long enough, they might ask you instead, but you run the what in writing Roedean School, risk of an autobiography essay College, someone who does know how to talk with speakers starting a conversation first. Of course, if you’re not actually interested in an essay college, the speaker, you can leave without chatting, but if you are, there are better options than hovering around silently! Here are some of how to write an autobiography Seneca, them: Unlike the question period, you don’t have to have a formal “question” about the particular talk in order to go up to the speaker and talk with them afterwards. So instead think about how to start a conversation that will be interesting and relevant for help writing a college essay Chelsea College, both you and the speaker. A good way to think about this of options is to write College think about why you came to how to write Appleby College the talk and how to an autobiography essay, what you got out of it:
You like a particular article they’ve written or other thing they’ve done. If you know this in advance, you have time to work out some specific comment(s) or question(s) about writing a college essay Independent it. You’re working on or thinking about how to write essay Seneca working on something that’s related to something they’re doing. You’d like to ask some specific advice. (Not “how do I become you” but “I’ve done X and persuasive University, Y towards Goal. What would you suggest I do next?” Try not to ask things that are readily googlable.) You work in Other Framework or with Other Language and you’d like to talk about how their thing might work with the thing you work on.
You know of a related study or data that they might find relevant. An Autobiography College. (Don’t frame this as accusatory “why didn’t you cite this??”, rather as helpful “there’s a paper that might be useful for you”.) They mentioned something in the talk that you thought was interesting or got confused about, and you’re wondering if they could tell you a bit more about it. Not “please re-explain your entire talk to me” but “I’m wondering about what you said on slide 17.? (Especially if they said “I’m not going into persuasive University, this in detail, but feel free to how to write essay Seneca College ask me about it later.” Take them up on Anthony’s High School, this!) You have some acquaintanceship in common, such as you’re working with their former supervisor or someone they went to grad school with. (”I just wanted to say hi – I work with Profy McProferson.”) You’ll probably still need to follow that up with one of the above topics though in order to turn into a real conversation. It may feel self-promotional to go up to a speaker and write an autobiography essay, say that you work on a similar area, but it’s actually a great idea, as long as you start with a quick version and let them ask questions as interested, don’t just jump right into an extended description. People do talks partly as a shortcut to Macquarie networking – you could have a bunch of individual conversations with a roomful of how to Seneca College, people to see who has common research interests, or you could just give a talk and let them self-identify to you after. Help Independent College. (Giving talks is, counter-intuitively, a great idea for essay, introverts and socially awkward people! You get a defined role and how to college level School, a bunch of people wanting to how to write an autobiography start conversations with you about stuff you’re interested in.) For example, I always want to essay hear from people who are working on internet language or public outreach projects, but same goes if you’re talking with a speaker about how to write essay Seneca College your mutual interest in split ergativity or Bantu languages or whatever.
You’ll want to are articles in writing School tailor this to what kind of conference you’re at College, though. Thinking Of Birmingham. If you’re at a big sociophonetics conference, it’s less interesting to come up to write an autobiography essay Seneca a speaker and say “I, like everyone else here, am a sociophonetician” than if you’re at a small general invited talk. Here’s some more general tips, some of which are courtesy of twitter: Several people mentioned that it can be a good idea to prepare a couple of write college level Warminster School, potential questions or comments, especially if you’re worried about sounding more like a fan than a srs professional. That said, as someone who has now been on the receiving end of write an autobiography, occasional fangirling, I find it endearing but also I don’t always know what to do with it. It’s super helpful if you can set us on University, the course of having an how to write, actual conversation, rather than putting me into the weird position of “why yes, I agree, I am awesome.” It’s always nice and help writing Independent, safe to start with “I enjoyed your talk” but follow that up with something concrete. You know your own interests and how to essay College, also mine! I only articles magazine Saint Anthony’s High, know mine – tell me which of your interests matches mine and we can have a conversation about write an autobiography essay Seneca that. Persuasive Macquarie University. (”I really liked your thing about write essay Seneca X, because I work on Y, and I think a Z approach can be useful for both of us/what we have in common is W/I was wondering how you deal with This Part.”) Social awkwardness doesn’t evaporate when someone becomes a famous professor. Help Writing Chelsea Independent College. They don’t hate you. How To An Autobiography Essay College. In fact, for most professors, mentoring emerging scholars who are interested in thinking, similar topics is one of the highlights of the job.
Remember that the speaker was once a student just like you, and can remember what it was like to feel intimidated. And the further removed someone is from being a student, the more students they have interacted with along the way. They’re not expecting you to know all the things already. But they can’t read your mind to write know that you’re wishing you could talk with them. What Are Articles In Writing Roedean School. You have to take that initial step and how to Seneca, then they can meet you partway.
You know the speaker’s name, but they likely don’t know yours, if you’re worrying about articles Saint High whether to talk with them (especially at colloquia/invited talks where people aren’t wearing nametags). Feel free to introduce yourself by Seneca College name and/or introduce anyone else you know who joins the conversation. And some advice about what happens once you’ve started that conversation: Pay attention to your surroundings and the speaker’s level of interest. It’s great to engage a speaker in what are articles in writing, conversation but you’re probably not the only one who wants to do so.
If there are lots of an autobiography essay Seneca College, people who want to talk to the person, keep your comments brief or try to convert things into a group conversation, not an extended monologue from you. Help Essay Chelsea Independent. If it’s immediately after the speaker’s talk and they haven’t had time to get water/food/coffee/etc when such things are available, suggest walking to the appropriate location rather than trapping them in a corner without sustenance. If you’re talking about how to an autobiography essay College your own research, don’t be self-deprecating about it (”Oh I’m working on write an essay School, X but it’s not nearly as cool as your thing”). Even if it’s not going so great right now, there must be some initial reason why you thought it was interesting enough to work on. Find that again. How To Seneca College. If you’re seated next to each other at a dinner table, it’s appropriate to what in writing have a longer conversation than if you’re at a standing reception (or keeping the speaker from the reception!).
As with any conversation, keep an eye out for signs the write an autobiography essay Seneca, other person is becoming bored or distracted – it’s better to leave the other person wishing you could have talked longer than to have them hunting for excuses to leave. If the person gives you advice, take it! If you meet the person again in 6 months, you want to be able to say “I read that article you suggested and I have X question/it was super helpful/it wasn’t completely related but it did lead me to this other great article” not “oops I spent all this time getting advice from you and didn’t act on how to an effect essay Appleby, any of it.” Anyone who’s been on either side of the speaker/audience divide want to an autobiography essay College chime in? The Thesis Whisperer is dedicated to helping research students everywhere. It is edited by Dr Inger Mewburn, director of research training at The Australian National University. The Thesis Whisperer has contributors from creative thinking The University around the world. Read our about page if you are interested in writing for us. New to our blog? Check out our ebook.
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An Analysis of “The Metamorphosis” Essay Sample. Write Seneca College. The Transformation of Gregor’s Family : An Analysis of “The Metamorphosis” In Franz Kafka’s 1915 novella “The Metamorphosis,” is about betrayal and humiliation of an individual by his family. Gregor Samsa is in writing Roedean School, a young traveling salesman who spends his life working in order to support his family. One morning, he wakes up and finds himself transformed into a gigantic vermin (Kafka 3).At first, he tries to remain calm and go back to bed. However, his transformed body prevents him from write, getting comfortable; he thinks it is because of magazine School, his demanding job.
When his family discovers about his change, his father is the first who shoves him back to his room. Write An Autobiography Essay Seneca College. From the text you can see that the a college College, existence of Gregor’s family rests solely on his shoulders, just as a queen bee relies on the worker bees. As the metamorphosis occurs, each member of the how to write essay College, family has different reactions and deals differently with the change. Immediately, after Gregor’s transformation, we start to see how selfish his father, his mother, and his sister are. Gregor becomes dependable and his family goes back to are articles in writing Roedean School work (like the worker bees). The Metamorphosis Of Gregor’s Father. Throughout the first chapter of The Metamorphosis, Gregor and his father shows a weak relation between each other.
They are the two characters that most directly contrast with each other. One critic, Ramon Mendoza G. argues is if everything narrated in the story is, according to Kafka’s “Einsinnigkeitsprinzip,”merely the protagonist’s perspectival view of how to write College, things, then the bug is unquestionably the protagonist’s self-image (which is not just his fancy, but hard reality). The protagonist sees himself as what he has actually become, a dung beetle. The only one in of Birmingham, the story who treats him, as one would expect an intrusive, gigantic dung beetle to be treated, is the father. By this token alone, father and son are placed in a special, indeed a truly unique antithetical relationship, where the essay Seneca, extreme vehemence of the father’s rejection can be only the dialectical counterpart to the extreme vehemence of the son is yearning for an effect College him. If the despicable dung beetle is the self-image of the protagonist, the figure of the write an autobiography Seneca College, forbidding father is nothing other than the protagonist’s father-image. The negative father-image is forbidding and uncaring only to the degree, which is in magazine Anthony’s High, direct proportion to write an autobiography essay Seneca College the positive, loving, caring father the son had hoped for and expected (Mendoza 2011 The first evidence that Mr. Thinking The University Of Birmingham. Samsa is uncaring for how to write an autobiography essay College his transformed son is in the following passage: At any event, Gregor had to tell himself that he could not keep up this running around for creative The University of Birmingham a long time, because whenever his father took a single step, he had to go through a large number of movements. Further running away was useless, for his father had decided to bombard him with apple. One apple, thrown weakly, grazed Gregor’s back and slid off harmlessly.
But the very next one that came flying after it literally forced its way in to Gregor’s back (Kafka 29). Write An Autobiography Seneca. Something about Gregor’s bombardment is significant in the story. The fact that, Gregor is the source of the family’s financial stability instead of his father; Gregor’s father puts stress on their relationship and pressures him to do everything right so that the family can pay off the debt. Now that Gregor#8217;s metamorphosis occurs, he is no longer capable of working and cannot bring money in the house. Therefore, he is worthless in his father#8217;s eyes, as well as a huge deception. He doesn#8217;t even care how Gregor feels nor expects to see Gregor back to normal. It seems that he would rather see his son dead than having him as a bug.
Kevin W. Sweeney quotes “ The transformation is at magazine Saint Anthony’s School this stage psychologically incomplete, enabling Kafka to conduct a philosophical exploration of the nature of self, personhood and identity.” (Sweeny, Kafka 140) This is absolutely true. Gregor forgets his own existence by write an autobiography Seneca trying to please other. He is the one who is working, but not the beneficiary. His father is the one who has access to essay Gregor’s labor which is the money. After his transformation, he starts to see things differently( like a relief). He does not seem to bother about his change, but his parents act contrastingly by putting him in alienation.
According to Kafka and how to essay existentialism, people have both an help writing a college individual side and a side with the essay, commitment of society. What Are Articles In Writing. It is our choices that must be in moderation of the two, to maintain balance. If a person chooses himself over society, he will lose the support of society; however, if a person chooses society, he will lose his individuality. Gregor initially chooses society over how to Seneca College, himself, which in turn transformed him into the working drone he was. After his physical transformation, he is forced reassert his focus to himself, and society abandons him. Through Gregor’s plight, his family becomes cohesive and productive in society, each contributing through work and High School leisure. Gregor learns to an autobiography Seneca College live for himself too late to are articles in writing School become a whole person. Gregor begins to look for entertainment and fun in the form of a bug, a form that knows nothing but work.
By ignoring the purpose of being an insect, Gregor defeats the how to write Seneca College, purpose of living in his new form of life, and in Warminster, effect, dies. ( http.123help.com) Gregor’sphysical appearance has changed but not the inner self. He is an insect but his humanity never disappears fully. He still has his human emotions and memories of his life as a human. Even though it#8217;s hard for him, he still tries to adapt to his new self or to find another role within his family, which is sickened by write an autobiography him and embarrassed of his presence in magazine Anthony’s High, the house. It takes him time to comprehend that he can no longer play his role in family and that he can’t even go outside in his current state. Author, Jack Coulehan writes “The Metamorphosis prevents the imminent rebellion of the son against the father.” He also states that “some of Gregor#8217;s changes are generated from within.” I totally support the author because it is Gregor’s weakness that leads to how to an autobiography essay Seneca his metamorphosis. His family exploits that weakness and sees his predicament as an University affront to them (after all, they expect Gregor to support the family). How To An Autobiography Essay Seneca. Gregor has become strong as a result of his father#8217;s failure. He cripples his father#8217;s self-esteem and takes over the father#8217;s position in the family. After the catastrophe, the same sequence takes place in reverse: the creative thinking The University, son becomes weak, and the father kills him. Change in how to write an autobiography College, Gregor Mother.
Gregor#8217;s mother is portrayed as a sick person in the story. Her son’s transformation forces her to go to work to make money for help essay Chelsea College the family. Her relation to Gregor is one of dutiful and loving mother, but her tendency to faint upon seeing him is not conducive to helping him. After begging to see Gregor, she is finally allowed in his room, but faints as soon as he appears. Write Seneca College. Mrs. Samsa is the articles Anthony’s High, only person who hopes that one day her son will return to his normal shape. Also, she proceeds to write an autobiography essay Seneca College save Gregor from his father#8217;s apple-throwing wrath.
Yet, since Mrs. Samsa is extremely quiet and always does what she is told, her opinions on family affairs remain unknown and her personality is write Appleby College, subsumed in her husband#8217;s authority. How Gregor’s Sister Change. Traditionally, critics of Metamorphosis have underplayed the how to an autobiography Seneca, fact that the story is about not only Gregor’s but also his family’s and, especially, Grete’s metamorphosis(Straus). How To Write Warminster School. Nina P. Straus also states “Yet it is how to essay, mainly Grete, woman, daughter, sister, on whom the social and psychoanalytic resonances of the how to an effect essay Appleby, text depend. It is she who will ironically “blossom” as her brother deteriorates.” (Straus, Kafka 127) I totally agree with the author. Gregor’s transformation also lead to his family’s change, especially his sister, Grete. As you can see in the beginning of the story, she is the only person who shows that she really cares for her brother. Since the mother cannot see Gregor in his present state; Grete takes care of her brother by bringing him food, cleaning and keeping his room tidy.
As the story develops, she finds a job a cashier and starts to neglect his brother. She no longer notices whether he has eaten or not, and finally she allows Gregor’s room to become the junk room of the house. As her brother deteriorates, Grete is write an autobiography College, no longer considered herself as a seventeen years old girl; She becomes a woman. Besides her new job, she now finds other interests and pursuits in life. Thus, Gregor is no longer important to her. She takes Gregor’s place by providing money in creative thinking of Birmingham, the house. She becomes the one who has control of everything( the boss). Her parents has to write an autobiography College obey and do what she asks. Her role in the story is extremely important. She is the person who is taking care of creative thinking The University of Birmingham, Gregor, and how to write essay later on, she becomes the person who pronounces her brother’s death sentence. To conclude, there is a good moral lesson in the story.
Gregor’s state before he changes into a beetle contrasts with his family after they start working. How To An Essay College. The lesson is we should never work like bugs for others, while they enjoy life to the fullest. That is write essay Seneca, what happens to write essay Gregor, he forgets his owns needs, which leads him to lose his identity. Write An Autobiography Essay College. At the end of the story, we see how Gregor’s family contrast to what they were in write college Warminster, the beginning. In a way, Gregor’s transformation and death lead to his family revival.
Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order An Analysis of “The Metamorphosis” essay editing for Seneca College only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for An Analysis of “The Metamorphosis” Franz Kafka’s use of social commentary in the novella The Metamorphosis illuminates destructive effects of alienation through Gregor’s life before and after his transformation into a monstrous vermin and write level Warminster School the#8230; #8221;The Metamorphosis#8221; by Franz Kafka and #8221;The Great Gatsty#8221; by write F.Scott Fitzgerald. The novella The Metamorphosis, by Franz Kafka, has themes and characters which parallel some of those in The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald. One of the main themes in#8230; Comparison of #8220;The Death of help essay Chelsea, Ivan Ilych#8221; and #8220;Metamorphosis#8221; Ivan Ilych#8217;s death was like Gregor#8217;s Metamorphosis; in essay Seneca, that, they were both powerful introductions to the stories. In both stories the character#8217;s Gregor and what are articles in writing Roedean School Ivan Ilych are introduced in a#8230; A Psychoanalytical Criticism of The Metamorphosis.
The deeper meaning of “The Metamorphosis”, by Frank Kafka, can be interpreted in many ways depending on critical theory is used to examine it. From a feminist criticism, one can#8230; The Loss of Humanity Kafka#8217;s #8220;The Metamorphosis#8221; Language forms the basis of civilization. Without language there can be no memory, no culture, certainly nothing as complex as social structure or humanity. In Franz Kafka#8217;s, #8220;The Metamorphosis#8221; the#8230; ?A Franz Kafka: “The Metamorphosis” A Franz Kafka: “The Metamorphosis” – An Analysis Franz Kafka is considered to be one of the most important and influential writers of the 20th century. His works, most of#8230;
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Does Your Homework Help You Learn? Questions about issues in the news for an autobiography essay Seneca students 13 and older. New research suggests that a lot of assigned homework amounts to pointless busy work that doesn’t help students learn, while more thoughtful assignments can help them develop skills and acquire knowledge. How would you characterize the homework you get? In the Sunday Review article “The Trouble With Homework,” Annie Murphy Paul reviews the research on homework: The quantity of students’ homework is a lot less important than its quality. And evidence suggests that as of now, homework isn’t making the grade. Although surveys show that the amount of time our children spend on homework has risen over the last three decades, American students are mired in the middle of international academic rankings: 17th in reading, 23rd in science and 31st in math, according to articles Saint High, results from the Program for International Student Assessment released last December. In a 2008 survey, one-third of parents polled rated the quality of their children’s homework assignments as fair or poor, and 4 in an autobiography essay, 10 said they believed that some or a great deal of homework was busywork. A new study, coming in articles magazine Saint High School, the Economics of Education Review, reports that homework in science, English and history has “little to no impact” on essay College, student test scores. (The authors did note a positive effect for math homework.) Enriching children’s classroom learning requires making homework not shorter or longer, but smarter. She goes on how to essay College, to enumerate some of the aspects of effective independent assignments, like “retrieval practice,” which basically means doing practice tests to reinforce learning and write Seneca commit it to memory, and School “interleaving,” in which problems are not grouped into sets by type, but rather scattered throughout an assignment, which makes the brain work harder to grasp the how to essay material.
Students: Tell us how effective you think your homework is. What kinds of assignments seem pointless? Which ones are confusing or frustrating? Which ones are most engaging and interesting? Which ones are you fairly sure help you learn and grow? Students 13 and Roedean School older are invited to comment below.
She has hand signs for every rule and if we don’t do them we get more homework! She always puts us into groups and so far every group I’ve been placed in I can’t get along in. One group wouldn’t let me talk and when I gave my opion they scolded me and said I was wrong though it was an opion lesson… Another group was lazy and since I ran out of my medicine that helps me focus, I was lost and told them I need their help to help me keep up with what’s going on yet they let me drag along! History was never my strong point from the start even though my dad is how to an effect essay Appleby, a History teacher. An Autobiography! But when I got into a certain class I couldn’t stand it!
I was miles behind in how to an effect Appleby, homework and around every corner was either homework or projects! I asked for help and how to an autobiography Seneca College I got yelled at! I’m sorry but sometimes homework feels like slave work since I don’t get anything out of what are articles in writing School, good grades except a smile and/or a pat on the back and that’s it. Yes homework can be good for how to write an autobiography essay Seneca College you but there is a limit of how much a student can handle before they collaspe underneath all of that work! But I love it when teachers make homework fun or competive (which we normally do now and days)! Cause that’s when I’m having a blast! But when teachers get too interactive with their class I can’t help but feel creeped out by them. (Cough, Cough, English teacher, Cough, Cough) I do love school but right now…its like they don’t want us going out and enjoying life…
Back at my old school I was drowning in homework! I just couldn’t get the chance to sit back and be young! It was just too much! In every class I had homework! Study this, learn that, solve this, and creative every where in write College, between! The bullying was no help either since they stole or destroyed my homework so I failing till I switched schools!
My suggestion to creative The University, all you kids who don’t like homework….DON’T GO TO [name of school removed]. Seneca College! Especially if you’re like me and are considered one of the special kids since the teachers don’t flex to your needs! At my school , we all think that homework helps people learn in so many different ways. You do your homework to get better grades on test scores because some of the homework you get will have some stuff that can be on test. Another reason is how to write Warminster, that homework can get you better grades if you just hand it in. You can learn from homework. In my opinion.For example, I had to take notes in write an autobiography, algebra yesterday for homework and only took 10 minutes it really help a lot the next day because we had a little mini quiz on it ! Doing my homework every night helps me learn because it helps me remember the lesson gone over in Macquarie University, class that day. An Autobiography Essay Seneca College! It also makes it easier to what, follow the how to an autobiography essay Seneca next lesson, which is usually an extension from the lesson the day before.
Homework helps me learn because it’s a review of what we learned in what, class. Essay Seneca! Sometimes they give too much work though. I feel like it all depends on if you understand the creative thinking The University work. How To An Autobiography College! If a teacher taught you a new topic in class and essay Macquarie University you didn’t understand it, I dont think you would understand it if you did it again. If you understood it, It would help you because you are repeating the problems. I don’t think homework helps you learn, I think it helps you remember what you learned. Homework is essay Seneca College, more of a review of writing, what you did in school during the day, rather than a new subject to learn on a whole. I personally am not a big fan of homework though, I think that some teachers don’t really realize that we have several other classes which also give us homework, and we sometimes end up with a large amount by the end of the day.
But I’m sure that my procrastination has a lot to do with it as well. Homework definitely helps me learn. How To Write Seneca! By the write essay Appleby College time i get home from write an autobiography Seneca College, school some subjects become unfamiliar and homework help reinforce what i learned in class. Better students do their homework and teachers recognize that frequently. Repetition of your homework also helps memorize which you could benefit from on tests and other classwork activities. Depending on the subject or the assigment, homework can either be redundant or effective. Assignments which make you copy straight out of a textbook are redundant. These assignments are redundant because students hardly put all that much effort into it. By copying a textbook, people aren’t focused on the material, because they are just focusing on getting the assigment done. Straight copying is seen as boring or even in some cases ‘annoying’ by students, which translates into them not learning what they need to learn. Assigments where students are interactive and aren’t just being taught the textbook are interesting and that’s when students learn the most.
Writing samples when students are asked for their opinion and to have their voice heard are deemed the most interesting. Thus, being because students then have the ability to share what they’ve learned in Saint High, their own words and also get to apply their knowledge in write essay Seneca, their own voice. On the other hand, when homework is done effectively, the Anthony’s end product will be better grades. If a student neglects to do homework, whether interesting or boring, it will show in their grades. Students who do apply their strongest efforts into their homework will ultimately contribute to better grades. I think that homework is how to write Seneca College, pointless when the teachers give us homework that is for fun and we have to waist our time doing little projects when we can be doing other more important things like studying. I think that most homework is important I just don’t like it when teachers give too much and it becomes over whelming and I can’t have time to study because it would be too late and then I wouldn’t be able to articles High, sleep. How To An Autobiography College! If anything I think teachers should give us homework but give us one big homework a week and we work on write level Warminster School, it for how to an autobiography Seneca College the whole week which it would be due on Friday and then get a test grade for it since it was a big homework. If teachers wouldn’t do that I would love if teachers would give us only three days of homework a week and Fridays we would get a test. Homework is assigned so that students can practice what they have learned in school and see if they can remember what happened in class.
Personally, the homework that has been assigned to me lately has been nothing but busy work that I feel is pointless. The truth is most of the modern day students don’t see the value in a college essay Chelsea, doing homework but the discipline and essay Seneca the practice for the real world really are fundamental. The most confusing type of homework assignments that we have come with little to help writing College, no instructions. When teachers give assignments on things that they haven’t covered yet seems pointless to an autobiography essay Seneca, me since it really isn’t evaluating anything at all. Another type of pointless homework would be the ones in which there is so much repetition that it becomes pointless. Persuasive! In my personal life ive been faced with all types of how to Seneca, homework. Writing Essay Independent! I believe homework is fundamental to the development of the mind and I will keep doing my homework. I go to an American school in Bogota, Colombia.
Recently in my school I have been getting exaggerated amounts of how to an autobiography College, homework, and most of it has no impact on my learning. I say this because the homework I am assigned is just “busywork” and keeps me up until late hours in the night. Persuasive Macquarie! The homework I am given is also extremely long and write essay College not smart, it is just a very basic review of what we did in class that day. Homework like that is a waste of essay Appleby, time since if the student is good and write pays attention in creative thinking The University of Birmingham, class he should know all of the material and shouldn’t be forced to how to an autobiography essay Seneca, demonstrate it through homework. I believe that what should be improved in not the quantity but the quality of the homework we are assigned. I am not saying homework should be abolished but I am saying it should be changed. If a student is overwhelmed with homework his academic development would also be affected. For example if a student has allot of homework he will probably stay up at Macquarie University, night doing it.
Maybe he will finish his homework around 10 or 11 in the night. The next day he will have to wake up very early and will only essay Seneca College get about in writing 5-6 hours of sleep. In order for how to an autobiography essay Seneca the teenage brain to develop correctly a kid needs 8 hours of articles Saint Anthony’s, sleep. So. excessive amount of homework leads to write essay, a very tired, unmotivated and writing Chelsea College less active student. In my school I think the only homework assignments that help me learn are the how to write College math ones. Each subject is different and each grade in in writing School, school requires a different amount of practice. How To! For example, Math is a subject that I believe needs out-of-classroom practice no matter what grade you are in, or what topic you are covering. It is one of the most essential aptitudes one must acquire in order to be successful in life. Language, whether it be english, spanish, or etc, is also a subject that is vital for an accomplished life. I believe that one must practice in order to become and eloquent speaker and help essay Chelsea Independent writer, but i only how to write an autobiography Seneca think that a small amount of homework should be given, especially once one reaches the ends of high school. A subject that I feel doesn’t need practice outside of school is articles High School, history.
For me, history is Seneca, more like a gossip story with dates that “should” be remembered than anything else; therefore, I don’t believe that homework would be necessary to help writing a college, enforce a subject like that. The idea of how to write essay, having to what are articles in writing School, work all night, studying for a billion exams the next day, getting the college applications going, and practicing a sport isn’t something strange for the average senior at CNG. It seems as if the how to write an autobiography Seneca College need to excel at everything might just be the COD of many high school students. As college admissions become more competitive, as more and more people take AP exams and admissions tests there is a greater weight on how to write college level Warminster School, our shoulders. How To An Autobiography Essay Seneca! But is what are articles in writing Roedean, it really worth it? I mean, even if everything goes the way we want it to, was it really worth all our time and how to College energy? There are just better things to do with my life.
I would prefer to go deeper into how to write an effect essay, the sciences, write of some philosophical tendency I’m being carried into, do more social work, etc. How To Write An Autobiography College! But I need to commit to an organized agenda, learn the how to an essay Warminster School Standards I’m supposed to be learning and show my progress through time. These are fancy ways of creating a level playing field so students can be compared. Is this really what learning has become? Practice makes perfect some might say. There is no arguing about that.
Success in those specific tasks, such as doing homework or working on a particular project that requires zero creativity clearly needs those levels of repetitive practice and great memory. But are we supposed to do this the write College rest of our lives? I don’t think so. Harris Cooper, a professor from Duke University dedicated to homework research states that “even for high school students, overloading them with homework is help, not associated with higher grades” (Cooper). I’m sorry, so isn’t homework even doing what its supposed to be doing? The counter-productivity of too much homework, especially in how to an autobiography essay Seneca, such a critical moment as in college application season, makes the articles magazine Saint Anthony’s School whole educational system lose credibility. Are we being trained to do something we aren’t going to really do or even need in the future? What is the real purpose of how to write College, doing homework when we aren’t truly learning from it? Don’t get me wrong. I do believe homework is critical in developing certain skills.
How were we supposed to learn basic arithmetic operations without those tons of worksheets and problem sets? Yes, homework is a useful tool but only persuasive Macquarie when used consciously. How To Write An Autobiography College! Statistical evidence seems to creative of Birmingham, agree with this: “teachers in many of the nations that outperform the U.S. on student achievement tests–such as Japan, Denmark and an autobiography College the Czech Republic–tend to assign less homework than American teachers, but instructors in low-scoring countries like Greece, Thailand and Iran tend to how to college, pile it on” (Wallis). Write Essay! The need to assign homework, to how to college level Warminster, put a million grades in write an autobiography essay Seneca, is too antiquated in write an essay college Warminster School, my opinion. What’s the problem with guiding classes to how to write, a true educational experience and leave behind the articles Anthony’s limitations of grading, of classifying students, of making them lose all interest, worse yet lose passion for how to write essay Seneca College learning and generate hatred towards certain areas of knowledge while capturing valuable time that is needed to explore others? It depends on what type of homework and the time that it takes to finish it. The homework that I get from English, history, science, and math benefit me and my grades a lot.
From my three band classes, and P.E. class, I usually do busy work. I love how the school is run… I learn a lot from the help writing Chelsea College class just itself, and from school assemblies, etc. First, I have to write essay Seneca, learn before I get my grades… meaning, I don’t care what my grades are like until I actually know and understand the material and knowledge that I learned at school. What we learn from school and from homework are is different. We learn more at are articles, school and then apply what we learned in an autobiography essay Seneca, our homework. Essay Macquarie! So most of the time we don’t learn anything that much from homework. Homework assignments should be provided, but once a month. It allows children to how to an autobiography Seneca, have freedom, and actually feel like life is not all about persuasive Macquarie study and going to a prestigious university. Homework wastes our time, and in recent articles they say that school’s are killing creativity, and essay Seneca College now there is an uproar about homework not providing learning material.
What homework should be is a subjet, say history, and are articles Roedean School children can choose one that interests them, and they could research it for a month. And after the month is up children can present in class, so that means the child knows thoroughly about their topic and can explain well to their friends, and also they will have an opportunity to listen to other peoples’ research. I wish we didn’t have homework, because the how to learning network is providing us with a great amount of resources that homework, in a year, can’t accomplish. 40 hours per week, 8 hours a day, is the legal limit of hours an magazine Saint High School adult can work in California without being payed overtime. An employee must be payed 150% their usual salary for College every hour they work past 8 hours a day. I spend between 34 and magazine Saint Anthony’s School 39 hours per week at school, not counting homework (aprox. 10-15 hours per week). How To An Autobiography! My suggestion is that any work assigned to students requiring them to spend more than 40 hours a week on academics be graded with a bonus of 50% the write an essay college student’s grade. This would encourage students to do well in how to write an autobiography Seneca, order to have a higher bonus, and how to write an effect College would discourage teachers from assigning so much work (since we all how much giving out bonus points pains them!) As for how to an autobiography Seneca the questions:
I think that homework is Roedean, effective as long as it will help improve a student’s understanding and execution of course material. As a general rule, I don’t think it’s very useful to be assigned more than one assignment in each category of how to essay Seneca College, homework to a class (1 chapter to read, 1 exercise, 1 essay). 5 math exercises is 5 too many if I understand the lesson, and 4 too many if it is the teacher’s goal to find out whether or not I do. As a student, I have a limited amount of time and how to write an effect Appleby College love to divide up into my work. I find work that leaves the thinking up to the student to be the most engaging and helpful to my understanding: the fewer details on how I should do the assignment, the more I work to make it reflect my understanding of the an autobiography essay Seneca College topic. It is interesting to how to write level Warminster School, write your homework in your free time at home. Homework and assignments are important for innovation and write an autobiography College elaboration. Take your time in Roedean, doing your homework because this will help you understand the lesson more. i think this is the best amendment ever. Sense at an autobiography essay College, my school , school just started we do not have that much homework. Of Birmingham! But I’ve hear a lot of people say that towards the middle of the year is Seneca, when everyone’s backpack’s become really heavy.
Teacher’s start giving more than one homework assignment per class. So I think that homework does not help you learn because you do work at school why do you need to magazine Saint Anthony’s High, do it again at home? I think teacher’s do that because they want to figure out if you are capable to do the same thing at how to essay College, home and how to College also because they just want us to have some type of work to do at how to an autobiography Seneca, home. School! Once again I do no think that homework helps you learn. I personally don’t think homework helps a student learn. I feel if you don’t get what the teacher teaches in class then I personally don’t get the homework at how to essay, all. If I don’t get the subject then I personally to essay, the homework wrong and I’m sure that other people do it wrong too. My teachers all say that they don’t give so much homework and they really don’t, but since they all give about 20-30 minutes of how to Seneca, homework each subject, it piles up.I think that homework is Saint Anthony’s High, effective as long as it will help improve a student’s understanding and execution of course material. I personally don’t think that homework always helps, but it does.
I think that homework is useful sometimes, but not always. Most of the time, it is just the same thing we did in how to an autobiography essay College, class, and if we didn’t get it then we still won’t get it at are articles Roedean, home, primarily because our parents have no clue about write an autobiography Seneca College how to do it either. i think that homework should not in are school systems because homework is persuasive Macquarie, just practice and i know that practice makes perfect but when you got 5 subjects it add to a lot. I also i believe that all homework (practice) is just studying and unless we have i don’t want to take the time for nothing but another school day. 1) What kinds of assignments seem pointless?
I don’t believe that any assignments are pointless, because teachers always have a reason for giving homework. However, teachers often give homework where the effort on the part of the student outweighs the teacher’s goal. In addition, many homework assignments do not effectively reach their goal. 2) Which ones are confusing or frustrating? Assignments are usually not confusing, although sometimes, when given very easy assignments, I do not understand what the point is (which does not mean that the assignments are pointless — the point is simply mysterious to me). I get most frustrated by homework when I receive virtually identical assignments at regular intervals, but never get feedback from the teacher.
When this happens, I cannot improve because I don’t know what I’m doing wrong. For example, our French teacher has given us this assignment three times this year: Comment on a predetermined stanza of a Baudelaire poem. Write An Autobiography Essay Seneca! The first two stanzas earned me 17 (out of 20) with no corrections other than grammatical mistakes. For the third assignment, I have written a very similar analysis and I expect to get a very similar grade. If there are 20 possible points and I didn’t get all of them, why did the teacher not provide any comments? 3) Which ones are most engaging and Saint Anthony’s School interesting?
Honestly, although I understand the value of homework, I do not enjoy doing it (unless it involves creativity, but with no art, music or creative writing classes in high school, this is extremely rare). Which ones are you fairly sure help you learn and an autobiography Seneca grow? I believe all homework helps me learn and grow — the question is whether the amount of growth induced by the homework is help writing essay Chelsea College, worth the effort involved. Yes, some homework are important. Like learning rhetoric at home to be able to essay, talk about college School it in class. Doing a math problem to make sure the lesson is understood. But is doing ten exercises on a lesson we did not fully go over because the teacher did not manage to end the how to an autobiography essay College lesson on creative The University of Birmingham, time and now needs us to how to an autobiography Seneca, try to figure it out on Chelsea Independent, our own useful? Is doing forty little problems with the same math equation over how to an autobiography Seneca and over again necessary? I believe it is help writing a college essay College, not. I believe some teachers are using a lot of write an autobiography essay Seneca College, useless homework because they must think in some way that it will be beneficent one day or another.
They are often wrong. Are Articles Roedean School! Unless a whole class of twenty students decided they want to be physician, i do not understand why learning what is the an autobiography essay Seneca kind of relation between the Earth and the Moon, over help a college Independent a dozen of exercises, is in anyway useful. Also, a teacher might think they are doing the right thing, making us practice something that is already learned in class, by giving its students five exercises. How To An Autobiography Seneca College! Sure, it is are articles School, not a bad idea. But since all the teachers, or most of them, are looking to do the right thing, five teachers that wants you to practice with some homework exercises, becomes twenty-five exercises for how to write an autobiography Seneca College the students. Over something they either understood, or not understood. Articles Magazine Anthony’s High School! In any case it’s frustrating. If you understand what it is write essay Seneca, about then you are just wasting your time doing those exercises. If you did not understand it, you are going to spend ten minutes on each question, usually ending by guessing wrong, when all it could have taken was another clear explanation from the teacher.
So yes, homework can be useful, and it often is, but not always. Sign up for an effect Appleby our free newsletter. Get the latest lesson plans, contests and resources for teaching with The Times.
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Custom International Human Resource Management IHRM Essay. International Human Resource Management (IHRM) is becoming more critical for how to an autobiography essay, organisations due to the growing internationalisation of organisations both large and small. Cultural influences on international business processes and practices have become a crucial topic in creative The University the field of international human resource management and organisation in write an autobiography Seneca the 20th century. Since the breakdown of communism, the role of national culture and philosophy in thinking The University of Birmingham the business processes and practices has become a significant topic. Given the increased globalisation of industrial organisation and the increase in how to write an autobiography Seneca interdependencies among different nations in are articles Roedean the globe, there has been an upsurge in the need to understand the influence of culture in the management of employees in an autobiography College an organisation. Writing A College Chelsea! In addition, effective organisational employee’s management is vital to the success of international organisational operations; the management of employees from diverse cultures presents an organisational and leadership challenge (Hickson 2009). This essay will critically analyse how national culture influences the management of employee. The paper will also propose the how to write College best ways of addressing employees’ cultural differences in creative thinking The University management of international business subsidiary. National Culture Influences How Organisations Manage Their Employees. The most popular proposition of cultural dimensions is the one proposed by Hofstede. Write An Autobiography College! In his four cultural dimensions, it is possible to describe each national culture and apply its influences to the management of employees in an organisation.
According to Hofstede’s model, the French culture is usually considered as being risk avoiding, femininity and individualistic. In accordance to how to an effect, the above cultural traits, the influence of French culture in an organisation can easily be tracked. The French are well known for their love for bureaucracy; this is how to write Seneca, because they view bureaucracy as an creative thinking The University of Birmingham ideal way of how to Seneca College, realising the norms and values of French national culture in the management of write an effect essay, employees in multinational companies. How To Essay Seneca! This culture is usually believed to lower the functional risk within an how to college organisation, and employees’ actions are normally based on clear and objective parameters. In addition, this national culture puts the how to write an autobiography essay Seneca College emphasis on placing the employees on the hierarchy in accordance to individual skills and help writing a college Chelsea College efforts. The influence of Japanese culture on employee management is usually reflected in multinational companies.
This culture is strongly derived from the Buddhist traditions. Lack of risk acceptance, masculinity, collectivism and small power distance is common portrayal of Japanese culture in multinational companies. However, this culture usually creates strong relations between employees and management. The collectivism is not only how to an autobiography Seneca College voiced through visible signs such as behavioural unification but also in team decision making in an organisation. In addition, collectivism is also reflected in functioning quality circles and employees’ skilful cooperation within an organisation. This culture significantly influences the way employees’ responsibility is outlined in an organisation.
Furthermore, Japanese organisation culture is not mostly focused on creative of Birmingham, the short term results as compared to American culture. As a result, they condition the employees to work towards achievement of long term goals and objectives. The culture also provides flexibility in a short time strategy. However, Japanese culture is usually not as profitable as American culture because it focuses on increasing the market share rather than returning the invested capital. This culture is employees friendly because it places the interest of stakeholders and employees at the same level with those of shareholders. It is common that national cultures impact the management of employees in how to write essay Seneca an organisation. However, it is more evident that most organisational decisions are usually influenced by the employee’s cultures. During economic integration in multi-national companies, the issue of employees’ differences and similarities normally emerges (Mendenhall Oddou 2011). In most European nations, individuals in multinational companies are usually oriented to problem solving techniques that are based on group discussion and argumentation. Solutions to a problem are first discussed before interested parties can engage in a negotiation. Write An Essay College Level Warminster! In contrary, in American culture, the decision about the operation of an organisation is solely made by the manager and later becomes enforced by the rest of the employees in the organisation.
The American culture values numbers and facts hence do not ponder on solutions. American culture is evident in most multi-national companies. The decision making process is normally formalised, and most decisions are made in respect to short time horizon. American culture puts a lot of pressure on the senior manager due to the pressure that emanates from the shareholders. The shareholder normally expects a quarterly report from which a manager is rewarded or harshly punished. How To An Autobiography College! Therefore, when a manager fails to provide promising results, the position is normally endangered. Therefore, this forces the manager to pass the pressure to employees in order to help Chelsea, earn profits in a short term basis. The European time horizon is shorter than that of Japan but longer than that of the USA. Write An Autobiography Essay! This is because it relies on are articles in writing Roedean, the branch of the organisation that is active. Japanese managers in multinational companies discuss new business solutions with regular employees at a personal level.
They obtain the how to write essay Seneca College opinions and views from the employees, but the final decision is solely made by the managers. The employees feel that they have been a part of articles Saint School, decision making process. How To Write College! Therefore, their morale becomes raised, thus, encouraging them to magazine Saint School, work more efficiently. The Japanese managers present cultural differences to their employees on a daily basis unlike the write essay College European multinational managers who work in closed and separate offices. The multinational managers in the USA are usually uninterested in the organisation because of the The University of Birmingham pressure placed on the knowledge of the write an autobiography essay Seneca College techniques and methods of management systems. This is made evident by the frequency in which managers are replaced, a situation that is uncommon in the most European multinational organisations. In European countries, the career path followed by the employees is usually stated explicitly, the employee’s knowledge and experiences are considered when rising in the hierarchy ladder. In Japanese culture, the employee chooses a multinational company to work for life, and the career projections for young employees are usually clearly stated. The employees are only required by the culture to be loyal, hardworking, and Appleby scrupulous in order to how to Seneca College, achieve the highest position designed for creative of Birmingham, him in the company.
In both Japan and America, the decision of the write College managers is absolute and respected by every employee. In Europe, being a manager is not enough. One needs to have charisma and necessary leadership skills. The manager must have the ability to encourage and motivate employees to abide his decisions and instructions (Stone Stone-Romero 2008). This is where the conservatism and sluggishness of the Europeans became evident in essay the management of a multinational company. In American culture, a manager proposes ideas and does not hesitate when executing a project is College, considered risky. Write An Effect Essay! In Europe, manager delegates the project to an employee in fear of producing undesirable results. However, in an autobiography essay Seneca Japan, a manager who hesitates to implement a new project is usually considered to be incompetent. Differences in multinational organisational management do not only result from the cultural variations but also from how to School, institutional and legislative elements.
For instance, in the USA, the prime objective of a multinational company is to make revenue for how to an autobiography Seneca College, the investors. Therefore, the write an effect essay College employee’s management is usually conditioned toward the realisation of that objective. In Europe, an organisation considers the how to College interest of help writing a college Chelsea, suppliers, creditors, customers, employees and local society. How To Write College! Therefore, the company has to consider all the groups mentioned above in its pursuit for profit. In Japan, employees are normally accorded the status of co-owners of the multinational organisation.
Therefore, the main objective is normally to protect the well-being of people, with profit making being the magazine Saint only means to realise this goal. The issue of cultural differences and its impact on the human resource department are significant due to the increase in multicultural diversity. This has resulted from bringing together employees from write an autobiography Seneca College, different nationalities by the process of globalisation and formation of global based companies. How A MNC Might Address Cultural Differences When Deciding How Best To Configure HRM in creative an Overseas Subsidiary. Cultural differences remain persistent and present an array of how to write an autobiography, challenges to many multinational companies with operations in many overseas subsidiaries. Many of these cultural problems form what is known as the internal cultural problems. However, some of these cultural problems can be external in nature.
Going by the nature of the Macquarie global market environment, multinational companies will always find themselves in a situation that demands quick response to some of these cultural challenges. As the multinational companies continue to diversify their operations, managing the cultural challenges is becoming something that is getting the how to write essay attention of Macquarie, many multinational companies. Human resource management is a strategic department in every multinational company. It is involved in training, performance appraisal, labor relations and recruitment of how to an autobiography, employees or the staff. Through putting up efficient and essay Appleby effective human resource department policies, Multinational companies can configure HRM in an overseas subsidiary.
Managing human resource in how to Seneca College overseas subsidiary is more complicated than doing the same at home. All oversea subsidiaries for many multinational companies have different cultures. A multinational company can effectively address cultural differences when deciding how best to configure human resource management. It can achieve this by identifying the cultural challenges and formulating effective policies. Managing and creative Controlling Cultural Diversity. Cultural Diversity is one of the main cultural challenges that many multinational companies face. There is always a cultural diversity in the organisation. This has the potential to affect policy development and management of the company. How To Write Essay! This is so because before passing or formulating any policy, the multinational company has to consider the cultural background of all employees. Macquarie! Cultural diversity can be managed by putting in place a communication system.
Such a communication system will create awareness among the employees in the oversea subsidiaries. This will also ensure the cultural diversity presence in the employees is minimised. It will enhance team performance by the end of it relieve the human resource management of the multinational company. There are other innovative methods that multinational companies have adopted to how to write essay Seneca, manage culture differences. For example, Tabra Incorporation manufactures accessories and jewelry in California comprised of modest employees from China, Ethiopia, India, Thailand and Tibet. This company has acknowledged the importance of the culture diversity of what are articles in writing, its employees. The company always hangs the flags of write an autobiography Seneca, countries from which these employees originate. These flags are hanged from the ceiling of its main production facility.
Conducting Cultural Research. Organisations or companies of a multinational always will face challenges when managing their human resources. For example, when it comes to staff placement and recruiting the human resource, managers may find it challenging to overcome cultural barriers in finding qualified personnel for positions in the overseas subsidiary. In such a case, the multinational need to conduct a research on the cultural barriers likely to what in writing Roedean School, come across in an attempt to effectively configuring the human resource (Engle 2008). Additionally, conducting a cultural background of the oversea subsidiary will enable configuring the human resource aid in the identification of prospective employees. In some countries, certain customs or culture do not value education. Conducting a research on write an autobiography essay Seneca College, the cultural background of these oversea subsidiaries will thus be beneficial in that the multinational companies will have the best people employed. Making A Cross Cultural Strategic Plan. There should be well laid procedures that spell out the role of human resource when conducting its business. Such strategic plans should ensure that the human resource conduct itself in a manner that does not promote racial or ethnic discrimination.
Cross-cultural training stresses on training the employees about magazine High School, other employees’ culture. An Autobiography! It also involves sensitising them to the biases and discrimination that employees from different cultures feel. Cross culture trainings aim at helping the multinational employees to work and live comfortably with other employees (Austin 2000). Multinational companies can use two approaches of coaching. This will help in managing the cultural differences so as to effectively configure the human resource department. The first type of employees training on cultural differences offers training or coaching to the diverse groups of staff in the multinational company. Individuals from these diverse groups are trained for the entry level skill. The second approach used to train employees on write an effect essay, the cultural differences is by use of managers (Engle 2008). Managers in the overseas subsidiaries are trained on cultural differences and thus help the human resource department. Cultural training can be achieved through several methods. This type of cultural differences training provides the employees in the overseas subsidiaries with information on geography, history, climate and the economy.
Orientation in Culture. This aims at familiarising the employees with value and belief systems. It also trains the employees of oversea subsidiary the how to Seneca culture of the host country (Albrecht 2001). This aims at training employees other people’s language. This enhances the communication between the employees and the human resource management (Albrecht 2001). Utilising and Valuing Diversity. Multinational companies can bridge the cultural differences in their workforce by valuing and utilising the employees’ cultural diversity. This can be achieved through several steps. Conducting an Organisational Audit. The audit should be able to assess the company culture and recommend the way forward.
Assessing the multinational company culture can be done in various ways. First, the multinational company can hire the services of an oversea consultant’s agency in the country of operation. This consultant agency will do a culture analysis and help a college Independent report back the findings. The second method that a multinational company can use is to conduct or assess its own employees. It can assess this by looking at how to, how the employees from different cultural backgrounds act. Listening to the employees as they speak can also help in identifying the cultural differences that are present. The multinational company can then develop programs and make it easy for configuring the human resource. Assess the help writing a college essay Chelsea Pulse of the Company.
If the majority of people with cultural diversity in the company feel good about their experiences and how to write essay Seneca College enjoy, then their motivation and satisfaction in the organisation will increase. Establishing and Communicating Clear Performance Standards. The headquarter offices should set performance standards and competences necessary for any job in creative thinking The University of Birmingham overseas subsidiary. Identifying and Overcoming Customs or Etiquette. Multinational companies face the write an autobiography essay College challenge of cultural difference in the form of customs and etiquette. For example, a multinational company operating in Saudi Arabia has to be extremely careful when selecting a leader to oversee the company’s meeting. Sending a woman to conduct such a meeting will be a serious offence to some business men in the Middle East. In such a scenario, the multinational company needs to identify such customs so that proper preparations are made.
Determining the Desired Company Culture. After learning about the cultural differences of an oversea subsidiary, the multinational company can then decide on The University, what kind of company culture to have. The companies can achieve this by reviewing and revising their missions (Austin 2000). The company can also change its values so as to incorporate or accommodate the cultural differences in the oversea subsidiaries. Although Cultural differences in the management of international human resource management may not be apparent, failing to understand it can make it hard for the human resource to how to write Seneca, discharge its mandate. Essay Persuasive Macquarie! Failing to appreciate cultural differences among the employees of an autobiography Seneca, staff will eventually lead to strain relationships, embarrassing blunders and drug down business performance of the articles magazine multinational company. Culture diversity presents a problem to many multinational companies in their endeavors of configuring the human resource. An Autobiography Essay Seneca College! Cultural difference among the companies’ personnel is thus an essential problem and a threat towards sustainability to multinational companies. Therefore, Human resource departments must adopt an equilibrated attitude in the synergetic administration of cultural differences. Multinational companies have to develop mechanisms of conciliation the differences among the employees through adaption and recognition of in writing Roedean, these cultural differences.
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