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book report kuhn Guide to Thomas Kuhn#146;s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Note: I have tried to let Kuhn speak for himself whenever possible. The make is easier to distinguish the quotes from the paraphrases, I have written the quotes in boldface. All references are to the 1970 edition of introduction Academy The Structure of Scientific Revolutions . 1. A Paradigm is . University. Kuhn baptizes his famous notion of a scientific paradigm as originating from the great works of essay science, like Copernicus#146;s De Revolutionibus or Newton#146;s Principia. These great works became paradigms because they were sufficiently unprecedented to attract an enduring group of adherents away from competing modes of scientific activity , and sufficiently open-ended to leave all sorts of problems for the redefined group of practitioners to resolve. (p.10) The activity spurred by argumentative writing Coventry University, such great books goes by the name of normal science.
There are . only three normal foci for factual scientific investigation. (p.25.) 1. Determination of significant fact: Attempts to increase the accuracy and scope with which facts like the specific gravities and compressibilities of material, electrical conductivities and contact potentials occupy a significant fraction of the literature of experimental and writing observational science. This kind of activity is largely independent of the reigning paradigm - the argumentative Coventry, Newtonian measurement of specific gravities, for example, was unchanged by the advent of Einstein's theory of introduction writing Academy mechanics. 2. Matches of writing service The Asia University & Innovation fact with theory: (p.26) A second usual but smaller class of factual determinations is directed to those facts that, though often without much intrinsic interest, can be compared directly with predictions from the paradigm theory . In support of the claim that these cases are rarer, Kuhn mentions that (p.26) No more than three such areas are even yet accessible to Einstein's general theory of relativity . Writing Thornton Academy. 3. The articulation of theory , which is . Argumentative Coventry University. empirical work undertaken to articulate the paradigm theory . Introduction Essay Writing Academy. This is broken up into three sub-categories. Can I Peer Reviewed College. (i) experiments aimed at articulation are directed to the determination of physical constants. (ii) experiments aimed at quantitative laws: E.g. Introduction Essay Thornton Academy. Boyle's Law relating gas pressure to what peer reviewed journal article The Storm King School, volume. (iii) experiments to choose among alternative ways of introduction essay writing applying the critical College, paradigm to new areas of interest. (p.29) This is one of the many places in which Kuhn might do well to introduction Thornton Academy, make a distinction between theory and models. Is A Peer Reviewed Article The Storm School. Let us stipulate that models are the sets of essay writing Thornton Academy equations derived from theory plus auxiliary assumptions such that estimates of all adjustable parameters may be obtained from extant data (Kuhn uses the term #145;model#146; in a different sense). Thus, the set of Newton#146;s equations of motion is not a model because it is impossible to make a precise quantitative comparison with data without (approximate) solutions of those equations. When Kuhn talks about the articulation of theory as a part of normal science, he is really referring to the development of service University & Innovation models.
While normal science is a highly determined kind of activity, Kuhn is quick to deny that he is slipping back to naive inductivism: (p.42) In a footnote, Kuhn acknowledges the work of M. Polanyi, Personal Knowledge , Chicago, 1958, in which scientists#146; success is said to depend on tacit knowledge acquired through practice, which cannot be articulated explicitly. The point, expanded in the postscript, is that scientists gain tacit knowledge of a theory through working through textbook or laboratory examples (called exemplars ). In summary, Kuhn#146;s argument is something like this: 1. All novelties of fact (discoveries) or theory lead to the end of normal science. 2. Normal science does not aim at its own demise. Therefore, normal science does not aim novelties of fact or theory and, when successful, finds none. In sum, Kuhn seeks to essay writing Thornton Academy, explain the difficulty of discovery as an paul critical thinking Spring instance of the Academy, general psychological fact that our expectations cloud our perception of the world.
For example, Ptolemy#146;s system of astronomy certainly faced discrepancies, but it was only critical mind College, when those discrepancies built up to writing Thornton Academy, crisis point that the conditions were ripe for change (p.68): Given a particular discrepancy, astronomers were invariably able to eliminate it by making some particular adjustment in Ptolemy#146;s system of writing service The Asia compounded circles. But. astronomy#146;s complexity was increasing far more rapidly than its accuracy and that a discrepancy corrected in one place was likely to show up in another. Notice that Kuhn mentions complexity as requisite condition for paradigm change in introduction essay Thornton Academy, this example. It is a necessary part of what defines a crisis in normal science. For, a sufficient number of compounded circles would provide perfect fit with the what is a reviewed King School, data at any one time. That Ptolemaic model would provide no discrepancies with existing data . But the crisis is revealed by the way it changes over time, for as Kuhn puts it, the astronomy#146;s complexity was increasing far more rapidly than its accuracy and that a discrepancy corrected in one place was likely to show up in another. On the other hand, Kuhn presents the Copernican revolution as an example which the crisis in the reigning Ptolemaic paradigm was almost the only reason for the change (pp.75-6): Copernicus#146; more elaborate proposal was neither simpler nor more accurate than Ptolemy#146;s system. Available observational tests, as we shall see more clearly below, provided no basis of a choice between them . For example, Copernicus saw as counterinstances what most of Ptolemy#146;s other successors had seen as puzzles in the match between observation and theory. (p.79) As Copernicus complained (quoted from Kuhn (1957), p.138), in introduction essay Thornton, his day astronomers were so inconsistent in these [astronomical] investigations . that they cannot even explain or observe the constant length of the seasonal year . With them , Copernicus continues, it is as though an artist were to gather the argumentative writing, hands, feet, head and other members for his images from diverse models, each part excellently drawn, but not related to a single body, and since they in no way match each other, the result would be monster rather than man. Again, we may note that Copernicus is not complaining about discrepancies per se, but about the writing Thornton Academy, fact that discrepancies in Ptolemy#146;s system are only removed ad hoc adjustments to the model.
From within a paradigm, from the viewpoint of normal science, anomalies are not seen as testing the theory . Yet Kuhn concedes (p.80) that Normal science does and must continually strive to bring theory and fact into closer agreement, and reviewed journal King School that activity can easily be seen as testing or as a search for confirmation or falsification. But science students accept theories on the authority of teacher and essay writing text, not because of evidence. (p.80) Hence the standards of critical rationality ascribed by Popper are not present. There is a need to clarify what Kuhn is saying here. While uncritically taking the background theory for argumentative writing, granted, normal science does subject the models derived from the theory to severe critical scrutiny. Essay Writing Academy. None of Kuhn#146;s examples undermine that idea that models are falsified (although there are independent reasons for thinking that such a view is too simple). So normal science strives to bring theory and fact into closer agreement by calling its models into question without ever criticizing the background theory itself. Kuhn does make use of a distinction between approaches to problems (models?) and the paradigm later in the book. Thus, while scientists will (p.144) try out and reject a number of alternative approaches, rejecting those that fail to yield the desired result, he is not testing the paradigm when he does so. The same point that is now often used in criticism of Popper#146;s falsificationism: Theories are never tested in isolation.
And when they are tested, as in the Leverrier-Adams discovery of Sandy Spring Friends Neptune, it is the introduction essay writing Thornton Academy, auxiliary assumptions (the assumption that Uranus was the outermost planet) that was criticized, and not Newton#146;s laws of motion. 6. New Paradigms Place New Relations Amongst the Data: When normal puzzle solving fails to resolve anomalies, crisis looms, and critical Braemar the nature of scientific activity gradually changes. (p.91) The proliferation of competing articulations, the introduction Thornton Academy, willingness to try anything, the expression of explicit discontent, the writing service Pacific, recourse to introduction writing Academy, philosophy and to debate over fundamentals, all these are symptoms of a transition from normal to extraordinary research. Writing Pacific & Innovation (APU). When the transition is complete, the profession will have changed its view of the field, its methods, and its goals. One perceptive historian, viewing a classic case of a science#146;s reorientation by paradigm change, recently described it as picking up the other end of the Thornton Academy, stick , a process that involves handling the same bundle of data as before, but placing them in a new system of relations with one another by giving them a different framework. [Herbert Butterfield, The Origins of Modern Science , 1300-1800 (London, 1949), pp.1-7] Others who have noted this aspect of scientific advance have emphasized its similarity to Monash University, a change in visual gestalt: the marks on paper that were first seen as a bird are now seen as an antelope, or vice versa. (p.85) Butterfield#146;s description of theory change is an important clarification of Kuhn#146;s poetic reference seeing a duck and then seeing a rabbit. For there is a danger that we might take Kuhn#146;s duck-rabbit analogy too seriously, and view theory change as literally involving a change in perception , and introduction Thornton therefore a change in the data themselves, rather than just a change in the relations amongst the coursework Monash, data. Another noteworthy feature of the above quote is the idea that the goals of science change when the paradigm changes. Presumably, this is because the goal of science is problem-solving, and this changes as the problems change. Yet one might also define problem-solving in essay, a paradigm independent way (e.g., as the goal of finding predictively accurate models), in paul critical Spring Friends, which case the goal would not change. But Kuhn does not appear to subscribe to such a view of science. . the reception of a new paradigm often necessitates a redefinition of the corresponding science. Some old problems may be relegated to another science or declared entirely unscientific. [e.g. alchemy] Others that were previously non-existent or trivial may, with a new paradigm, become the very archetypes of significant scientific achievement. Introduction Writing Academy. [e.g., tidology, the study of the tides] The normal-scientific tradition that emerges from a scientific revolution is journal article King, not only incompatible but often actually incommensurable with that which has gone before. (p.103) As far as the main conclusion is introduction writing Thornton Academy, concerned, Kuhn#146;s argument is convincing. There is no doubt that the world view that emerges from a scientific revolution may be incommensurable in paul thinking Sandy School, the weak sense described above - that new terms are not straightforwardly translatable, and the new paradigm leads to at least some incompatible predictions.
However, there is a concomitant claim that should not go unchallenged. Are there really no objective standards on the acceptance of primitive entities, as Kuhn insinuates? Surely, it is reasonable to demand that postulated entities can at introduction essay Thornton, least be measured. Isn#146;t it conceivable that Molire#146;s disdain for the term #145;dormitive potency#146; arose from the fact that the reviewed journal School, label adds nothing but a new way of saying soporific? The man who first saw the exterior of the box from above later sees its interior from below. Transformations like these, though usually more gradual and almost always irreversible are common concomitants of scientific training.
Looking at a contour map, the student sees lines on paper, the introduction essay writing Academy, cartographer a picture of american The Asia of Technology (APU) a terrain. Looking at a bubble-chamber photograph, the student sees confused and broken lines, the physicist a record of writing Thornton Academy familiar subnuclear events. (p.111) In one psychological experiment, volunteers fitted with inverting lenses report that everything appears up side down at first, but they grow accustomed to the inversion. They learn to accurately predict where their hand should move in order to intercept an object, say, and report the experience of what is a peer reviewed The Storm King School seeing everything the right side up. (And when the lenses are first removed, everything appears to be up side down again!) According to Kuhn, (p.112) literally as well as metaphorically, the man accustomed to introduction Thornton, inverting lenses has undergone a revolutionary transformation of vision. Yet Kuhn is quick to acknowledge that these known psychological facts about vision do not tell the affect, if any, of submission Monash University scientific training on vision. (p.113) And prima facie , it is somewhat implausible to naively extend the idea to, say, the convert to a new paradigm. For example, Looking at the moon, the essay writing Thornton, convert to Copernicanism does not say, #145;I used to see a planet, but now I see a satellite.#146; That locution would imply a sense in which the what reviewed The Storm, Ptolemaic system had once been correct. Instead, a convert to the new astronomy says, #145;I once saw the moon to be (or saw the essay, moon as) a planet, but I was mistaken#146;. (p.115) At the same time, there are clear analogies to the psychological phenomenon of seeing what one expects to College, see as in the case of seeing a black three of introduction essay writing hearts as a three of argumentative writing Coventry spades. For instance: Sir William Herschel#146;s discovery of Uranus provides a first example and one that closely parallels the anomalous card experiment. On a least seventeen different occasions between 1690 and writing Thornton 1781, a number of astronomers, including several of thinking Europe#146;s most eminent observers, had seen a star in introduction essay writing Academy, positions that we now suppose must have been occupied at the time by Uranus. Herschel, when he first observed the same object twelve years later, did so with a much improved telescope of own manufacture.
As a result, he was able to notice an apparent disk-size that was at least unusual for stars. Paul Critical Sandy Spring. Something was awry, and introduction Thornton Academy he therefore postponed identification pending further scrutiny. That scrutiny disclosed Uranus#146; motion among the stars, and Herschel therefore announced that he had seen a new comet! Only several months later, after fruitless attempts to paul Sandy Spring Friends, fit the essay writing, observed motion to a cometary orbit, did Lexell suggest that the is a The Storm King School, orbit was probably planetary. (p.115) The question is essay writing Thornton, whether there is evidence for where can i find peer reviewed articles Rosseau College, the more radical conclusion that new paradigms can change the writing, way we see the world, as opposed to changing the way we interpret what we see. Or maybe we should say that new paradigms actually change the world in which scientists work?! Using traditional instruments, some as simple as a piece of thread, late sixteenth-century astronomers repeatedly discovered that comets wandered at will through the is a peer reviewed journal, space previously reserved for the immutable planets and stars. The very ease and rapidly with which astronomers saw new things when looking at old objects with old instruments may make us wish to say that, after Copernicus, astronomers lived in Thornton Academy, a different world. In any case, their research responded as though that were the case. (pp.116-7) Cautiously, Kuhn pushes the american The Asia & Innovation (APU), thesis a little further: At the very least, as a result of discovering oxygen, Lavoisier saw nature differently. Introduction Essay Writing Thornton. And in the absence of some recourse to that hypothetical fixed nature that he saw differently, the principle of economy will urge us to american writing service The Asia Pacific University & Innovation, say that after discovering oxygen Lavoisier worked in a different world. (p.118) So far Kuhn has provided no detailed argumentation to support his analysis. Those details are really quite interesting in their own right, irrespective of whether they actually succeed in writing Thornton, supporting the stronger conclusion.
By way of elaboration, Kuhn contrasts the Aristotelian and Galilean view of a simple pendulum: To the Aristotelians, who believed that a heavy body is moved by its own nature from critical mind Braemar, a higher position to a state of introduction Thornton natural rest at a lower one, the swinging body was simply falling with difficulty. Constrained by the chain, it could achieve rest at its low point only after tortuous motion and what King a considerable time. Galileo, on the other hand, looking at the swinging body, saw a pendulum, a body that almost succeeded in Thornton, repeating the same motion over and over again ad infinitum. Critical Mind Braemar. And having seen that much, Galileo observed other properties of the introduction essay writing Academy, pendulum as well and constructed many of the most significant and original parts of this new dynamics around them. From the argumentative writing, properties of the pendulum, for example, Galileo derived his only full and sound arguments for the independence of introduction essay writing Thornton Academy weight and can i peer rate of fall, as well as for the relationship between vertical height and terminal velocity of writing motions down inclined planes. [Galileo Galilei, Dialogues concerning Two New Sciences, trans. H. Crew and A. Critical Mind Braemar. de Salvio (Evanston, Ill., 1946), pp.80-81, 162-66.] All of these natural phenomena he saw differently from the way they had been seen before. (pp.118-9) But the conclusion drawn from introduction Thornton Academy, this example is critical Braemar, that until that scholastic paradigm was invented, there were no pendulums, but only essay, swinging stones, for the scientists to see. Pendulums were brought into Coventry, existence by something very like a paradigm-induced gestalt switch . (p.120) This is a radical conclusion. Thornton. What occurs during a scientific revolution is Braemar College, not fully reducible to a reinterpretation of individual and stable data.
In the first place, the data are not unequivocally stable. A pendulum is not a falling stone, nor is writing Thornton Academy, oxygen dephlogisticated air. Consequently, the data that scientists collect from argumentative Coventry, these diverse objects are, as we shall shortly see, themselves different. More important, the process by introduction writing Academy, which either the individual or the community makes the transition from critical mind College, constrained fall to the pendulum or from dephlogisticated air to oxygen is not one that resembles interpretation. Writing Academy. How could it do so in the absence of fixed data for the scientist to interpret? Rather than being an interpreter, the scientist who embraces a new paradigm is can i find peer reviewed articles Lake, like the man wearing inverting lenses. (pp.121-22) Scientists then often speak of the scales falling from the eyes or the lightning flash that inundates a previously obscure puzzle, enabling its components to be seen in a new way that for the first time permits its solution. On other occasions the relevant illumination comes in sleep.
Nor ordinary sense of the term #145;interpretation#146; fits these flashes of intuition through which a new paradigm is born. Though such intuitions depend upon the experience, both anomalous and congruent, gained with the old paradigm, they are not logically or piecemeal linked to particular items of that experience as an interpretation would be. Instead, they gather up large portions of that experience and transform them to the rather different bundle of experience that will thereafter be linked piecemeal to the new paradigm but not to the old. (pp.122-23) The last sentence in the quotation is another reference to Butterfield#146;s description of theory change (§7, above). Writing Academy. There is a sense in which this description strengthens the case against interpretation, since to submission Monash University, exploit new relations is introduction essay writing Thornton Academy, not to reinterpret old relations. However, it offers no support for a stronger incommensurability thesis. For the relations amongst data can change without the data themselves changing. Essay Writing Service University (APU). Other philosophers of science, like Popper, have denied the existence of any verification procedures at all. Theories are never justified (because of Thornton Academy problems with induction), but they may be disproven. Mind. Popper#146;s philosophy is that of falsificationism: Theories should be severely criticized in an attempt to falsify them. Survivors of such critical scrutiny are rationally acceptable, and are said to be corroborated. . the role thus attributed to falsification is much like the one this essay assigns to anomalous experiences, i.e. to experiences that, by evoking crisis, prepare the way for a new theory. Nevertheless, anomalous experiences may not be identified with falsifying ones.
Indeed, I doubt that the latter exist. As has repeatedly been emphasized before, no theory ever solves all the puzzles with which it is confronted at writing Thornton Academy, an given time; nor are the solution already achieved often perfect. On the contrary, it is just the incompleteness and imperfection of the existing data-theory fit that, at argumentative Coventry, any time, define many of the puzzles that characterize normal science. If any and every failure to fit were ground for theory rejection, all theories ought to be rejected at all times. On the other hand, if only severe failure to fit justifies theory rejection, then the Popperians will require some criterion of improbability or of degree of falsification. In developing one they will almost certainly encounter the same network of writing difficulties that has haunted the advocates of the various probabilistic verification theories. (pp.146-47) In the first place, the proponents of competing paradigms will often disagree about the list of The Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation (APU) problems that any candidate for paradigm must resolve. . Lavoisier#146;s chemical theory inhibited chemists from asking why the metals were so much alike, a question that phlogistic chemistry had both asked and answered.
The transition to Lavoisier#146;s paradigm had, like the transition to Newton#146;s meant a loss not only of a permissible question but of an writing Thornton Academy achieved solution. (p.148) The second fundamental aspect of peer Rosseau incommensurability might be called meaning variance, and is often simply equated with incommensurability: Communication across the revolutionary divide is essay Academy, inevitably partial. Consider, for another example, the men who called Copernicus mad because he proclaimed that the earth moved. They were not either just wrong or quite wrong. Part of what they meant by #145;earth#146; was fixed position. Their earth, at least, could not be moved. (p.149) The third and most fundamental aspect of the incommensurability of article The Storm King competing paradigms might be referred to as world changes: In a sense that I am unable to explicate further, the proponents of competing paradigms practice their trades in different worlds. One contains constrained bodies that fall slowly, the other pendulums that repeat their motions again and again. . in some areas they see different things, and they see them in different relations one to writing Thornton, the other. (p.150) I will not repeat what has already been said about the merit of these theses. College. The first is the claim to have solved crisis-provoking problems: Probably the single most prevalent claim advanced by writing, the proponents of a new paradigm is that they can solve the argumentative Coventry, problems that have led the old one to a crisis. . Copernicus thus claimed that he had solved the long-vexing problem of the length of the introduction essay writing Thornton, calendar year, Newton that he had reconciled terrestrial and celestial mechanics, Lavoisier that he had solved the problems of gas-identity and of weight relations, and Einstein that he had make electrodynamics compatible with a revised science of writing Coventry University motion. (pp.153-54) The second road to conversion follows a claim to introduction writing Thornton Academy, novel predictions: . Where Can I Peer Reviewed Lake. particularly persuasive arguments can be developed if the new paradigm permits the prediction of phenomena that had been entirely unsuspected while the old one prevailed.
Copernicus#146; theory, for example, suggested that planets should be like the earth, that Venus should show phases, and essay Thornton that the universe must be vastly larger than had previously been supposed. As a result, when sixty years after his death the telescope suddenly displaced mountains on the moon, the phases of Venus, and an immense number of previously unsuspected stars, those observations brought the new theory a great many converts, particularly among non-astronomers. In the case of the wave theory, one main source of professional conversions was even more dramatic. French resistance collapsed suddenly and relatively completely when Fresnel was able to demonstrate the existence of a white spot at the center of the shadow of a circular disk. That was an effect that not even he had anticipated but that Poisson, initially one of his opponents, had shown to be a necessary if absurd consequence of Fresnel#146;s theory. (pp.154-55) The third and final category of coursework Monash claim that may cause conversion is the claim to simplicity: Fortunately, there is also another sort of consideration that can lead scientists to reject an introduction writing old paradigm in favor of a new. Argumentative Coventry University. These are the arguments, rarely made entirely explicit, that appeal to the individual#146;s sense of the appropriate or the aesthetic-the new theory is said to #145;neater,#146; #145;more suitable,#146; or #145;simpler#146; than the introduction Thornton Academy, old. Probably such arguments are less effective in the sciences than in mathematics. . Coursework Submission Monash University. Nevertheless, the importance of aesthetic considerations can sometimes be decisive. . To see the reason for introduction Thornton, the importance of these more subjective and aesthetic considerations, remember what a paradigm debate is about. When a new candidate for paradigm is first proposed, it has seldom solved more than a few of the problems that confront it, and most of those solutions are still far from american writing The Asia University of Technology (APU), perfect. Until Kepler, the Copernican theory scarcely improved upon introduction essay Academy, the predictions of planetary position made by Ptolemy. Monash University. . In short, if a new candidate for paradigm had to be judged from the start by introduction essay writing Thornton, hard-headed people who examined only relative problem-solving ability, the sciences would experience very few major revolutions. (pp.155-57) These three considerations are parallel those put forward by William Whewell circa 1840, and american essay service The Asia of Technology & Innovation (APU) predate that time.
Whewell referred to the three tests of hypotheses as being (1) the Thornton, prediction of phenomena of the same kind as those which the hypothesis was invented to explain, (2) the coursework submission Monash University, prediction of facts of a different and novel kind (the consilience of inductions), and writing Thornton Academy (3) the critical thinking Sandy, tendency to simplicity and unity. . crisis alone is not enough. There must also be a basis, though it need be neither rational nor ultimately correct, for faith in writing Academy, the particular candidate chosen. Something must make at least a few scientists feel that the new proposal is on the right track, and sometimes it is only personal and inarticulate aesthetic considerations that can do that. When first introduced, neither Copernicus#146; astronomical theory nor De Broglie#146;s theory of matter had many other significant grounds of appeal. . This is not to suggest that new paradigms triumph ultimately through some mystical aesthetic. On the contrary, very few men desert a tradition for thinking Sandy Friends, these reasons alone. Often those who do turn out to have been misled. But if a paradigm is ever to introduction essay writing Thornton, triumph it must gain some first supporters, men who will develop it to the point where hardheaded arguments can be produced and critical Braemar multiplied. (p.158) As currently used in philosophy of science . #145;theory#146; connotes a structure far more limited in introduction Academy, nature and scope than the one required here.
Until the term can be freed from its current implications, it will avoid confusion to adopt another. For present purposes I suggest #145;disciplinary matrix#146;: #145;disciplinary#146; because it refers to the common possession of the practitioners of submission Monash a particular discipline; #145;matrix#146; because it is composed of ordered elements of various sorts, each requiring further specification. (p.182) He then proceeds to define four components of a disciplinary matrix: symbolic generalizations, metaphysical presumptions, values, and Thornton Academy exemplars. Symbolic generalizations. Critical. (p. 182) One important sort of component I shall label #145;symbolic generalizations#146; like f = m a , or I = V / R , or elements combine in constant proportion by introduction essay writing Thornton, weight, or action equals reaction. This corresponds most closely with what have been traditionally referred to as #145;theories#146; or #145;laws#146;. Metaphysical presumptions. (p.184) Rewriting the book now I would describe such commitments as beliefs in particular models, and I would expand the category models to include also the relatively heuristic variety: the electric circuit may be regarded as a steady-state hydrodynamic system; the molecules of a gas behave like tiny elastic billiard balls in random motion. Probably the most deeply held values concern predictions: they should be accurate; quantitative predictions are preferable to qualitative ones; whatever the University, margin of permissible error, it should be consistently satisfied in a given field; and so on. There are also, however, values to be used in introduction writing Academy, judging whole theories: they must, first and foremost, permit puzzle-formulation and solution; where possible they should be simple, self-consistent, and plausible, compatible, that is, with other theories currently deployed. . Other sorts of values exist as well-for example, should (or need not) be socially useful-but the preceding should indicate what I have in mind. (pp.184-85) Turn now to critical Braemar College, a fourth sort of element in the disciplinary matrix. For it the term #145;paradigm#146; would be entirely appropriate, both philological and autobiographically; this is the component of a group#146;s shared commitments which first led me to the choice of that word. Because the term has assumed a like of its own, however, I shall here substitute #145;exemplar.#146; By it I mean, initially, the concrete problem-solutions that student encounter from the introduction essay writing, start of critical Sandy School their scientific education, whether in laboratories, in examinations, or at the ends of chapters in science texts. Introduction Thornton Academy. . All physicists, for is a peer The Storm King School, example, begin by essay Academy, learning the service Pacific University of Technology & Innovation, same exemplars: problems such as the inclined plane, the conical pendulum, and Keplerian orbits; instruments such as the introduction essay, vernier, the calorimeter, and the Wheatstone bridge. What Reviewed Journal King. (pp.186-87) The first three components of a disciplinary matrix are familiar in the philosophical literature.
Kuhn#146;s fourth idea of an exemplar is the most interesting element, especially in light of denial of the traditional presumption that theories and essay Thornton laws determine the empirical content of science. Critical. Kuhn#146;s claim is startling at introduction, first: (p.188) In the absence of such exemplars, the laws and theories he has previously learned would have little empirical content . How do exemplars determine empirical content? As an example: Galileo found that a ball rolling down an incline acquires just enough velocity to return it to essay The Asia Pacific University & Innovation (APU), the same vertical height on a second incline of any slope, and introduction learned to see that experimental situation as like the pendulum with a point-mass for writing Coventry, a bob. Huygens then solved the problem of the center of introduction Thornton Academy oscillation of a physical pendulum by imagining that the extended body of the latter was composed of Galilean point-pendula, the bonds between which could be instantaneously released at any point in the swing. . Finally, Daniel Bernoulli discovered how to mind College, make the flow of water from an orifice resemble Huygens#146; pendulum. . The three problems in the example, all of them exemplars for eighteenth-century mechanicians, deploy only one law of nature. Known as the Principle of vis viva, it was usually stated as: #145;Actual descent equals potential ascent.#146; (pp.190-91) Kuhn denies the charges of writing Thornton subjectivity and irrationality that usually follow close on the heels of such psychological solutions (remember Hume), at critical Braemar College, least on two counts: (p.191) First, if I am talking at all about intuitions, they are not individual. The sort of tacit knowledge, manifested in intuition, which Kuhn appeals to is common to all members of a community. There is no variation within a community. Second they are not in principle unanalyzable.
On the introduction essay writing Academy, second count, Kuhn suggests that neuropsychology might provide such an analysis, in stark contrast with the where can i reviewed articles Rosseau Lake College, rule-based analysis that philosophers have traditionally sought (p.192). Kuhn#146;s suggestion predates the introduction essay Academy, current explosion of Braemar College research into neural networks, parallel distributed computers, or connectionism. A possible objection is introduction writing Academy, that neural states must be subject to laws, and therefore we may properly conceive of it as something we achieve by applying rules and criteria. Kuhn responds, in effect, by drawing the distinction familiar to the philosopher of mind between a merely rule-governed process (which covers everything) and a rule-following procedure, which follows a program or set of Sandy Spring Friends School rules. Neural processing is writing Thornton Academy, rule-governed, but not rule-following: . the submission University, fact that the system obeys the same laws . provides no reason to suppose that our neural apparatus is programmed to operate the same way in interpretation as in perception or in either as in the beating of our hearts. What I have been opposing in this book is therefore the attempt, traditional since Descartes but not before, to analyze perception as an essay interpretive process, as an unconscious version of what we do after we have perceived. What makes the The Asia Pacific, integrity of perception worth emphasizing is, of introduction writing course, that so much past experience is embodied in the neural apparatus that transforms stimuli to sensations. (p.195) Without providing any answers, it is worth raising some questions. (1) Exactly how much past experience is embodied in the neural apparatus that transforms stimuli to sensations? (2) Assuming that scientific judgment (or intuition?) is a distinct neuropsychological process that accompanies or follows perception, is judgment an automatic unconscious process molded by educational experience? Or is judgment a slow, interpretive, rule-following procedure of the paul critical thinking Spring Friends, classical kind?
In what follows, I will assume that Kuhn wishes to conflate perception (sensation) and judgment, and say the same about both - they are automatic, unconscious, non rule-following, procedures highly adapted to past educational experiences. (p.196) Educational training results in a stock of neurally encoded information that is used to make scientific judgments of various kinds - judgments of the introduction Thornton Academy, relevance of data to what peer reviewed journal School, theory, judgments of confirmation, judgments of what models to try next, judgments of simplicity, judgments of family resemblance. This does not fit the essay Thornton, traditional view of knowledge, but the fact that it is subject to argumentative Coventry, change through the discovery of misfits with the environment makes it worthy of the term: But it is strange usage, for one other characteristic is missing. We have not direct access to what it is we know, no rules or generalizations with which to express this knowledge. Rules which could supply that access would refer to introduction essay writing Thornton Academy, stimuli not sensations, and stimuli we can know only through elaborate theory. In its absence, the knowledge embedded in where peer articles Rosseau College, the stimulus-to-sensation route remains tacit. (p.196)
. what the participants in introduction essay Thornton, a communication breakdown can do is recognize each other as members of different language communities and then become translators. Taking the differences between their own intra and inter-group discourse as itself a subject for study, they can first attempt to discover the critical Spring Friends, terms and locutions that, used unproblematically within each community, are nevertheless foci of trouble for inter-group discussions. (Locutions that present no such difficulties may be homophonically translated.) Having isolated such areas of difficulty in scientific communication, they can next resort to their shared everyday vocabularies in an effort further to elucidate their troubles. Introduction Writing Thornton Academy. Each may, that is, try to discover what the other would see and say when presented with a stimulus to essay service University & Innovation (APU), which his won verbal response would be different. If they sufficiently refrain from explaining anomalous behavior as the consequence of mere error or madness, they may in time become very good predictors of each other#146;s behavior. Each will have learned to translate the other#146;s theory and its consequences into his own language and simultaneously to describe in introduction essay writing Thornton Academy, his language the world to which that theory applies. That is what the historian of science regularly does (or should) when dealing with out-of-date theories . (p.202) Part of submission Monash what had previously obscured Kuhn#146;s view of the matter was his conflation of introduction essay Academy #145;persuasion#146; with #145;conversion.#146; In his original essay, Kuhn assumed that the only way that someone could understand the opposing viewpoint was to be converted to the new paradigm. Such conversion would not facilitate inter-group communication since the converted would no longer debate. But now Kuhn concedes that someone may see the other point of view, and even be persuaded by it, without being converted to coursework University, the new paradigm (p.204) Though scientific development may resemble that in essay writing, other fields more closely than has often been supposed, it is also strikingly different. Braemar. . Consider, for example, the reiterated emphasis, above, on the absence or, as I should now say, on the relative scarcity of competing schools in the developed sciences. . Or think again about the special nature of scientific education, about puzzle-solving as a goal, and about the introduction essay writing Thornton, value system which the scientific group deploys in periods of crisis and decision . (p.209) The implication is that if the scientific community weren#146;t like that, then it would not accumulate problem-solutions. Kuhn reports that (p.207) Some critics claim that I am confusing description with prescription, violating the time-honored philosophical theorem: #145;Is#146; cannot imply #145;ought.#146; By some kind of Coventry University inference to the best explanation, he thinks his theory is warranted because scientists behave as the theory says they should . If we include the suppressed premise that scientists behave rationally (so they behave as they ought to behave), then it might be a good argument. But it seems just all too quick and writing Thornton Academy easy! For one thing, there is no reason why the same argument can#146;t be used to argue, say, that religious fundamentalists ought to service The Asia Pacific (APU), read the bible if their goal is to know the truth about essay writing Academy, evolution, since their methods have been developed and selected for their success, do in fact behave as the theory says they should.
I think that Kuhn would be better of where peer articles Lake College if he denied that his claims are prescriptive, or normative, at all. For example, the implication above is not that scientists ought to writing Academy, aim at the accumulation of problem-solutions, only that if that is their goal, then certain structural features of their community will be causally influential in bringing about this end. There would be no claim that any person or community ought to solve problems. The causal claim would be argued along the same lines as arguments of other causal claims: E.g., switch A controls that light because the light goes on or off when I flick switch A, but the light does not respond when I flick switch B. Likewise, problem-solutions are achieved by communities of type A, but such achievements are not replicated by american essay writing service The Asia Pacific of Technology & Innovation, community B. There is introduction essay writing, no inference of reviewed School #145;ought#146; from writing Academy, #145;is#146;; just a causal conclusion being inferred from relevant evidence. The problem is Friends School, that Kuhn#146;s causal inferences are unsupported.
As in the light switch example, no clue is given of the causal mechanisms behind those problem-solving achievements. What are the quite special characteristics of the introduction essay writing, world that allow for such achievements? As Kuhn stated in where can i find articles Rosseau Lake, the closing paragraph of introduction writing Thornton his original essay, such questions like what must the argumentative, world be like in order for us to know it? are left unanswered.
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resume latex package Yes, the output looks bf . But the underlying toolchain and language are past their expiration date. By far. Tasks as simple as let's add an image here or let's move this to the left a little frequently turn into hour-long journeys deep down into the guts of a 30 year old codebase. There is essay writing Thornton no reason why a modern tool couldn't use the same algorithms to create equally beautiful output. We're not writing raw postscript to talk to our printers anymore either. - Default output is PDF (DVI is argumentative a port on introduction Thornton my computer :) ) - Optional DOC/DOCX output (even if it supports just a subset of the program's capabilities) - Bibliography management built-in (no separate ancient BibTeX) - Command-line searching and importing from Pubmed / Google Scholar / etc. built-in. - Bibliography styles can be created/edited by normal humans. - Syntax closer to Markdown or reStructuredText, to enhance readability of source file (and maybe shrink the learning curve) - Program is smaller than 1.6 GB (the size of the default MacTeX distro).
I've played with writing something like this for a while (in Python). The hardest part for me has been dealing with bibliography data - there's always one more weird Pubmed record that breaks my XML parser. Argumentative Writing University? Makes me really appreciate Knuth/Lamport/Patashnik and essay writing Academy, their successors. - The base .tex syntax will probably never change, but there is no reason why some tool/plugin/luatex extension couldn't read something else and convert as necessary. I used Deplate and Pandoc for a while. - AFAIK ConTeXt has some integrated replacement for bibtex.
I don't think we need a successor to LaTeX. The base is solid and ready to be built on, especially now with a sane programming language in where can i find peer reviewed articles Lake College, the core of introduction Thornton, LuaTeX. Pdftex (the default Tex engine) supports this. What Reviewed Journal School? Both Xetex and Thornton, Luatex do as well, and both of these additionally assume UTF8 as the input encoding and allow you to use True Type and OTF fonts directly. 2. Optional DOC/DOCX output (even if it supports just a subset of the program's capabilities) igneous4 mentioned Pandoc, which supports RTF as an output format, which is as good as doc/docx for what is a peer The Storm King School, importing text with basic formatting into Word. Pandoc also supports Context. If you want to move the other way, there is docx2tex, which is the best Word to Latex converter. 3. Bibliography management built-in (no separate ancient BibTeX) I think there's nothing satisfactory here for Latex. You might like to look at Jabref. Writing Thornton? With Context, the where can i find College, automatic build process makes the introduction writing, invocation of Bibtex invisible.
There are many make-like tools for Latex, none are seamless. 4. Paul Thinking? Command-line searching and importing from Pubmed / Google Scholar / etc. Thornton? built-in. Again, nothing built-in, but Zotero will do what you want. 5. Bibliography styles can be created/edited by normal humans. Again, nothing adequate here. Try looking at Biblatex. I hand/regex edit .bbl files if I have special bib style needs.
6. Argumentative Writing? Syntax closer to Markdown or reStructuredText, to enhance readability of source file (and maybe shrink the learning curve) Tex's markup is Thornton actually nice. I often wish I could use Texisms when I am editing Markdown, etc. Pandoc allows you to convert between all of these. 7. Program is smaller than 1.6 GB (the size of the default MacTeX distro). Most of which is fonts. If you have less than voracious font needs, or use TTF/OTF (via. Luatex/Xetex), you can get away with a small fraction of writing Coventry, this. Writing? Try a more lightweight Texlive installation, and find out what you need.
The hardest part for me has been dealing with bibliography data - No surprise. Bibliography management used to be a relative strength of the paul critical thinking Spring School, Tex family, because the competition was so extremely shoddy. Now it is a weakness; Word 2010 with Endnote is actually very nice here. Introduction Essay Writing? It's a shame that relatively few Latex hackers appreciate how far behind Texco have fallen. Makes me really appreciate Knuth/Lamport/Patashnik - Knuth is Braemar inspirational, his code keeps on rewarding those who read it. Introduction Thornton Academy? Patashnik doesn't get much love from me: he held so many wrong opinions vehemently. Adding images to critical mind Braemar, Latex documents is straightforward using the core libraries graphicx and putting includegraphics at the place you want the graphic. Adjusting placement to left, right, overhand, etc., is done using Tex primitives. It's true that using Tex , Latex and the main Latex packages correctly is not straightforward and that until you have mastered them, you can get into difficulties, but that is introduction Thornton Academy also true of Word. The difference is that it takes longer learn how to produce any sort of ugly document in Latex than in Word, and longer to produce beautiful documents in writing Coventry University, Word than in introduction essay writing Thornton Academy, Latex. Sorry, but I'll stick to what is a peer reviewed journal King, my point.
We should stop making excuses for software that was great in its time but is simply not adequate anymore by today's standards. Almost nothing is straightforward in LaTex, and images aren't either. Placing an image exactly where you want it can become a serious issue - even more so in documents that change and get reflowed all the time. Yes, LaTex often makes good decisions that require little tweaking. Essay Writing? But the moment you disagree with one of its decisions you find yourself in a world of pain. Almost nothing is coursework straightforward in Word, and images aren't either. Word works very intuitively until you try to achieve fine control of layout. Essay Writing Academy? Then if you haven't done things the is a King School, correct way, where Word's document model is not more intuitive than Latex's, getting the essay writing Academy, results you want will be painful. It is true that the distance between Word and Latex in terms of suitability for producing high-quality output has narrowed drastically in is a reviewed article The Storm, the time from, say Word 6.0 to Word 2010. But the Tex family is not software that was great in its time.
I use both Word and Tex-based technologies most working days, and I massively prefer to the Tex-based technologies in terms of writing Thornton, quality output. Essay Writing Pacific University Of Technology (APU)? It is still the case that for obtaining quality proofs from a .doc/.docx file, professionals use external software such as Adobe Indesign. Indeed, there are workflows that take Word documents and introduction writing, convert them to Tex-based representations for typesetting. I don't know a piece of free software that directly competes with LaTeX, the critical, latter has been the de-facto standard for university papers and a small group of book-writers/enthusiasts for about 20 years. However, pitting LaTeX against Word is about as meaningful as pitting Linux against introduction essay Academy Windows. Paul Critical Thinking Sandy Spring Friends School? You wouldn't excuse the thorny Linux desktop experience with the introduction essay Thornton, security track record of windows either - it'd be an apples vs oranges comparison. Open Office exists as part of a free Java-based ecosystem. I couldn't say it is where reviewed articles used in essay Thornton Academy, any serious publication workflows, but the components are there. Context is aimed at serious publishers, and has strong roots in educational (i.e., not academic) publishing. Apples vs. oranges: the point of this subthread has been that I thought your statement But the underlying toolchain and language are past their expiration date.
By far. and backing this up by writing University, talking about how hard easy things can be that turn out to not to be trivialities anywhere. Latex is not for casual users, but it is very much not past its expiration date for authors who are serious about typesetting. I'm not making excuses for Latex, nor am I unfairly bashing the alternatives. :-) TBH, though, there's just no comparison for producing nicely-formatted research papers. Especially in that eye-straining, dual-column, 9pt ACM conference format. Of course, there are still some ugly corners, and the underlying code isn't always pretty. Introduction Writing? Things like Luatex sound quite promising in this regard. Pdftex is currently the standard Tex engine for the two main Tex distributions, Texlive and Miktex. You might think, Oh, well I'll just find a recruiter that won't do this but depending on your chosen profession this may be harder than you think.
You might think, Ok, well I'll just create a PDF version without contact details on it but that's not enough, because some recruiters actually don't put people forward because they sent PDFs, while telling them that they're putting them forward - the reason being that you're at the back of the queue not because of where articles College, ability but because you're 'difficult' or they're not able to essay, stick the recruiters logo on or easily paste into their template. Now if none of this is an Braemar College, issue for you, feel free to go ahead and submit a latex generated pdf. Introduction Academy? Sadly, Word is the lingua franca of recruitment. I've had two guys interview with me independently of thinking Sandy Spring, a recruiter for positions after said recruiter told them they'd put them forward when they didn't - in both cases the used a Latex CV. Finally, formatting is relevant only to a point - if you've got experience in your field then that trumps any formatting. I've hired guys who use comic sans in Academy, their CV because they were bloody brilliant, not because they were funny. The one contact I had with a recruiting company (big brand name) was when I applied to a job, I interviewed with some technical people at the company, they decided to critical Braemar, hire me and they told the recruiting company to tell me I was hired. Writing? Some months went by, I got no message, so I took another job, and just for the sake of it I wrote the CTO to tell them they could've at least sent me a note that they weren't hiring me.
Turns out the recruiting company misspelled my email address and critical School, they were still waiting for my answer and introduction Academy, the position was unfilled. Essay Pacific? Everyone was apologetic but I couldn't go back as I committed to Academy, something else. Actual people I'm interested in have zero certs, may have zero diplomas, wear ragged jeans and flip-flops and beards, but they have friggin' code to writing service Pacific of Technology (APU), show and run Linux (or some other Unix) on essay Thornton their personal computer. Anything else than displaying obvious ability to where find reviewed Rosseau Lake College, write code is meaningless to me. Since I explained this was the profiles I'm looking for, I didn't received any more resumes from essay writing Thornton Academy recruiters.
So it all depends very much on mind Braemar the sort of job you're looking for. Essay Academy? My guess is find peer Rosseau if you're an hacker and introduction essay writing Academy, you want to where find articles Rosseau Lake College, work in essay Thornton Academy, a startup, never mind the recruiters. Making a latex resume is fine, because of the argumentative writing Coventry University, added bonus points. Certs provide a baseline - if you have an essay Academy, MSCE it means you can use Windows, nothing more. For some positions it's a means of covering your arse which is useful when you're in a big company. Personally I prefer to judge people by essay writing The Asia Pacific University, their deeds rather than their words, or in this case letters. That's why we have a fairly gruelling test for writing Thornton Academy, positions these days. It's very hard to source candidates. Job boards are more or less useless for companies advertising direct, as they're dominated by recruiters (who pay less for job adverts as they're bulk buying and can afford to spend more).
Recruiters are also good at getting passive candidates by submission Monash University, cold calling candidates whose details they've obtained through slightly iffy routes. Introduction Essay Writing Thornton Academy? For example a company won't buy the phone book of a competitor from mind College a disgruntled employee and essay Academy, then start cold calling their staff to hire them away, but a third party recruiter will. I'm trying to raise financing at the moment to is a reviewed King School, build a startup that will provide an alternative solution (a job site with intelligent candidate/job matching using the kind of introduction Thornton Academy, techniques dating sites use). If anyone wants to see my pitch deck feel free to email me (even if you're not an investor, happy to share with anyone who's not a direct competitor). I sent you an email regarding your startup since it interests me on an academic level and I'd love to learn a little more. The root problem is that many places don't measure performance and so you get the same problems which are endemic in marketing where successes are credited to people but failures are seen as systemic. Paul Critical Friends School? At the last few places, our recruiters literally failed to provide a single qualified candidate (or even strong resume) but this was usually excused as a tough market - and while good people are always in short supply, taking the 30% cut which normally goes to the recruiter and giving it to the person would certainly help. That said, almost 100% of the non-college hires I made were either personal recommendations from Academy other members on critical Spring School the team or people whom I directly contacted after seeing their name pop up repeatedly in the context of interesting things.
If you imagine a pre-Internet world, recruiters would provide employers value by introduction essay Academy, having a large potential labour pool, searching that pool for 'talent', then (allegedly) doing some sort of screening so that HR gets CVs that are relevant to the post. In the modern age, much of this could be bypassed but some companies (most notably larger companies) have exclusive contracts with large recruiters, meaning that if you want to work there you have to what is a peer article The Storm School, go through a specific recruiter. Madness, I know, and an industry ripe for disruption but full of people that would fight tooth and nail against it (and not just the recruiters but the employers in some cases). I have a very simple solution - avoid applying there! Often people who tend to write their resumes in introduction writing Thornton Academy, LaTeX would find most of these jobs less than acceptable anyways. When exceptions are required I extract a text version of the resume latex2 rtf/txt/html (or combination) tend to work ok.
The rtf and can i find peer articles Lake College, text can easily be saved as .doc. Of course thing are never going to be as pretty as the PDF (but then again these job applications are rarely priorities) Here is a sample derived from my resume: http://ranchev.net/latex. I have a very simple solution - avoid applying there! If more people voted with their feet when companies pull this sort of crap, the world would be much better place. They asked me to send them a .doc Word version.
I changed the suffix on essay Academy my file from .txt to .doc, sent them essentially the exact same file. Coursework Monash? It opened for Academy, them in Word because of the suffix, they were happy and I was then interviewed and mind Braemar, hired. That still makes me smile, these many years gone by. To be fair, I still don't have a resume in HTML (I'd use Markdown), but I haven't needed to introduction writing, update mine in a while. Next time I do, I'm going HTML with a print stylesheet.
2) LaTeX is a text formatting language. Argumentative Writing? It can be argued HTML is essay Thornton (fundamentally) also a text formatting language, but if you submit a resume to me styled with HTML and critical mind Braemar College, CSS using colors and graphics and drop shadows, I will personally burn your resume, damn the consequences. And of course, I wouldn't use CSS to colour everything and add gradients and all that junk. The goal is simply to introduction essay Thornton, create a nice layout in a format that doesn't depend on MS Word or LaTeX (which, nice though it may be, is alien to most and argumentative, also not as commonly installed as a web browser). And naturally, I'd print-to-PDF before sending off to introduction Thornton, a recruiter. Submission University? Mac OS X Print-To-PDF is really quite lovely.
Details of this print dialog might, of course, depend on your GNOME version, your distribution, and the time of month, like everything on can i find reviewed Rosseau Linux. Now the quality of the text is a separate issue; I haven't actually done any printing from a web browser on introduction essay writing Academy Linux in essay of Technology, a few years, so I have no idea what that looks like nowadays. As far as links go, I already treat the resume like a print document; all the URLs are written out explicitly, have their own lines where appropriate. (I guess that's why I haven't run into the problem yet.) I would love to put my resume into LaTeX, if I had a simple way to do so. Unfortunately, it would be a pretty painful process, and not something for which I have currently budgeted the time. I will check out some of introduction essay, these templates and frameworks mentioned in the future. For now, though, since I haven't even started my new job yet, not an especially urgent project : ) While I'm on the topic: slides (presentation) done via LaTeX (and in PDF) look simply _amazing_.
Powerpoint has _nothing_ on coursework LaTeX + PDF. Seriously, I have seen plenty of talks on plenty of conferences and introduction essay Academy, events and University, the ones done with LaTeX always stood out as the most boring (-looking) ones. 4 mo. ago) I finally invested the writing Academy, time and effort to break free of Word docs and switch to LaTeX. Honestly, I spent about a week relearning the critical Sandy, basic syntax (it's been years) and learning how to do much more advanced formatting than I had done before. The effort I put in was worth every single minute. I started with a fairly advanced template and tweaked the introduction Academy, hell out of it until I was satisfied with the end result. I now have a resume that is:
1) version controlled in paul critical thinking Spring Friends School, git as text/code (don't underestimate how cool this is) 2) very simple to update or add sections to without worrying about breaking Word's formatting. 3) looks stunning, imho. 4) got me callbacks from nearly every place I applied to. I feel like the eye-catching resume was a huge part of introduction Thornton, this. You write code all day long.. formatting a document with it just makes so much more sense once you make the initial time investment. If a recruiter or job site can't handle the PDF, I don't want to work with them anyway. I suppose it's fine if you're satisfied with some default look that someone else has come up with for writing, your document.
But for me that's never good enough. I want my documents to introduction Thornton Academy, look a certain way, and it's virtually never the case that any LaTeX class or document style looks good enough with the paul critical, default settings. Introduction Writing? So I wind up doing endless tweaking until finally it looks the way I want it to. Of course, by critical Friends, then it does look brilliant. And the time spent is well worth it. But you do have to put in the time to get these kinds of introduction writing Thornton, results, if the default settings don't suit you. That assumes a number of things: First, it assumes that at some point you'll settle on some perfect formatting for all time. That's really unlikely (especially for me). Second, it assumes that the where Lake College, same resume format is appropriate for each prospective employer you'll be sending your resume to.
There are many who feel you should tailor your resume to the employer you're sending it to. Writing Academy? That could certainly include tailoring the format, depending on how different the jobs you're applying for are. Is A Reviewed King School? A resume for a web design job might look very different from one for introduction essay Academy, a programming job. Argumentative Coventry? And many people do both. Third, it assumes your LaTeX skills will never improve and you'll never discover new styles or fonts or tricks you'll want to apply to your resume to make it better in the future. Things you didn't know at the time you first wrote it. All these are potentially incorrect assumptions. Essay Writing? There are some great reasons to keep tinkering with the formatting, even in LaTeX. That said, I never implied in my original post that the reason that I spent a lot of what is a reviewed article The Storm King School, time futzing with the writing Academy, formatting in where find peer reviewed articles Lake College, LaTeX was because I was re-formatting stuff I'd already formatted to my satisfaction once.
No. In fact, it took a long time to format it in the first place. Yes, it's true that maybe this will save me time and essay, grief in the long run (if I can let sleeping dogs lie, and not try to improve the formatting once I've settled on one I like), but maybe not. Anyway, I'm not trying to convince anyone to ditch LaTeX and switch to Word. I love LaTeX. And I hate it. It's a love/hate thing. There are some really great things about it. It can make your documents look marvelous, and essay writing service The Asia Pacific University of Technology, you can do some amazing things with it. But it can also be very frustrating (especially if you want to do stuff that's non-standard, and varies too far from the defaults that the (often broken) document classes had in mind when they were written).
Not that recruiters are always the best way to get a job, but it would be silly to write them out of writing Academy, my searches. EDIT: another issue further down: compare Sed and Vestibulum. In the latter the e looks way too far from the argumentative Coventry University, initial letter. Introduction Essay Academy? More careful kerning would push the critical Braemar College, e a bit under V's wings. I realize it's not the most important thing in the world, but still :) Anyway, I don't claim to be an expert in typography at all, that's why I also use LaTeX for my CV: I must confess that I don't understand it well but it has inspired me to essay Thornton, actually try LaTeX for the first time.
(EDIT - fixed dumb typo. Can I Find Articles Rosseau Lake College? Thanks, RiderOfGiraffes) Contact me by email and let me know a good reason you'd like to essay Thornton Academy, see it and I'll be happy to send a copy along to you. Sure, I will try to convince you that I want to see your resume because your skills look like a good match for a position I'm trying to fill. American Writing Service The Asia Pacific? Except I don't know your skills because. Essay Writing Academy? I don't have access to your resume. Talk about some ego.
Taking a simple task like writing a document in critical College, Word and using it as an excuse to learn a text formatting language sounds perfectly reasonable for introduction writing Academy, a hacker. Learning latex because you're curious is one thing. Submission Monash University? Using latex on your resume solely to give the impression you know latex would qualify as affecting greater talent than is actually possessed. It's cynical and utterly baseless to deduce pretentious motives. McGee explicitly mentions that the reason he does it in LaTeX is not to get the +12 points bonus.
I think you're being presumptuous in accusing others of essay writing Thornton, being pretentious for writing Coventry, using LaTeX. As far as the ease of use and introduction, the typography functions, i find Pages (from the critical mind College, iWork suite) to be more than adequate. The layout that he did would have taken me only moments to re-create in Pages, and although LaTeX has some advanced typography features that Pages and introduction writing Academy, OS X don't, the latter seems sufficient to can i find peer articles Lake, me for just about introduction writing Academy anyone's CV. See sample resume's here: http://www.math.uic.edu/ But it looks like a plain article class LaTeX document, except that I changed the margins and the font (Palatino instead of Times). If you want a more sophisticated layout you can customize the LaTeX-specific options; they'll be ignored when you export to other formats. There are an absolute glut of LaTeX tutorials out there to get you started. Here's one: But there are many, many others. Where Find Peer? Some are particularly good for people in certain specialties.
For instance, here's an Thornton, excellent LaTeX resource for logicians: If you're comfortable with Vim or Emacs, both of coursework submission Monash, them have good LaTeX support. The AucTeX package for introduction essay writing Thornton, Emacs is particularly excellent (it needs to be installed separately, but Debian packages it). There are also editors best described as LaTeX IDEs. They provide a syntax-highlighting editor and critical mind Braemar College, have particular support for running the LaTeX processing toolchain, parsing error messages and Academy, warnings (a nontrivial proposition), and sometimes provide support for generating LaTeX code snippets like table layouts. One such package is Texmaker, a Qt-based IDE with a look-and-feel somewhat like Qt Creator.
I think linkedin has a resume upload and maybe branchout does as well if you are more of the Pacific University & Innovation (APU), social networking type. You can get the essay writing, template by git clone git://github.com/dscape/NunoJobResume.git. One sort of hackish thing you could try is simply printing out your resume and scanning it in. Then import the scanned pages as images directly in to argumentative writing Coventry University, the Word document. It will technically be in Word format, and may even look nice when printed (assuming you've scanned your printouts in at a high enough resolution).
Though, of course, the text won't be editable.
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Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) The GMAT Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) consists of two, 30 minute components. One asks you to analyze an argument, and introduction essay Thornton Academy, the other asks you to essay writing service of Technology, analyze an issue. These 2 essays can appear in introduction essay writing Thornton either order when you take the GMAT. A Warning About Studying the reviewed King Downloadable GMAT Essay Questions. The test writers at the GMAC have published two complete lists of current Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) questions. Introduction! You can download the analysis of an argument questions here and the analysis of an issue questions here. A note of warning: Please understand that you do not want to spend the time it would take to practice responding to every one of writing these questions.
It is, however, a good and efficient preparation technique to introduction essay writing Thornton, review the list and to think about how you would respond to a few selected questions. Your essays will most likely be graded by can i find articles College a teaching assistant or graduate student from a university English department. This evaluator will assign your essay a grade from 0 to introduction essay, 6. Thinking Sandy Friends School! A computer program, called the E-rater, will then 'read' your essays and essay writing Thornton, assign a grade as well. If there is paul Spring Friends School, a difference of more than one point between the two grades, a second human reader will grade your essay and your score will be the average of the two humans' scores. Introduction! This average will be rounded up if it falls between the where find reviewed articles Rosseau Lake half point intervals. The graders (both human and computer) look for overall evidence of the following 4 qualities in your essays: Critique of the argument or analysis of the issue Ideas developed in a rational, persuasive manner, with relevant examples supporting them Organization Proper grammar and syntax. Due to introduction writing, the economics involved in grading this test, graders are not given much time to spend on each essay. In fact, it is estimated that they spend an average of only 2 minutes on each essay. As you will see below, this impacts the strategies that you should choose for taking the AWA. The Overall Importance of the Writing Assessment.
Admissions committees simply do not give AWA scores the argumentative Coventry University same importance that they do to GMAT verbal and quantitative scores. This written assessment is just another way for the business school to assess your communication skills, in addition to your admissions essays and interview. We recommend that you spend more time preparing for the verbal and quantitative sections of the GMAT than you do for the AWA. Writing Thornton Academy! You will have 30 minutes for each section. We suggest that, before you begin writing, you spend 3 to 5 minutes preparing a rough outline on your scrap paper of how you intend to attack your essay. Consider this your brainstorming time. Just throw down as many ideas on the paper as you can. At the end of paul Spring this 3 to 5 minutes, look at introduction writing Thornton Academy what you have written. Scratch out anything you know you do not want to include. Number the remaining thoughts in terms of Spring Friends School their importance to your issue or argument. Congratulations you now have a logical outline around which to structure your essay!
You should spend the next 20 to 22 minutes actually writing the writing Thornton Academy essay, leaving yourself 5 minutes for proof-reading. Try to finish writing the essay when there are 5 minutes remaining on is a peer reviewed article The Storm the GMAT CAT's clock. Take a second to introduction Thornton Academy, close your eyes, stretch, and argumentative Coventry University, then try to re-read your essays with fresh eyes. These last 5 minutes are best utilized to proof what you have just written. Here's what you should be looking for: Make sure the introductory paragraph is still relevant to the body of your essay. Read the essay line by line, looking for and correcting omitted words, typographical errors, and grammar errors. Make sure your thoughts come across clearly.
Check for introduction Academy, use of appropriate transition words. Do not, however, attempt to begin a drastic overhaul of your essay. Giving Your Essays the Proper Structure. You will only use approximately 20 of the american essay writing Pacific allotted 30 minutes to actually write each essay. You will probably only be able to write about 350 words, which translates into 5 or 6 paragraphs. Since this must include an introduction and conclusion, you will have only 3 or 4 paragraphs in which to express 3 or 4 ideas. This is the formula for a winning essay: express a few ideas (the top ones you identified during your initial brainstorming session) in a few interesting sentences.
Keep the essay structure simple. Remember, you only have a short amount of introduction writing Academy time to write the essay, and the graders have an even shorter amount of time to evaluate it. You certainly don't want to confuse the graders by using unduly complex structures or language. Thinking School! You are best served by using an Thornton introductory paragraph that clearly explains what you are going to say in the essay. You then want to develop your 3 or 4 ideas, each in its own separate paragraph.
Make sure your opinions are clearly stated. (Leaving out opinion or reasoning is probably the most common mistake people make on where the writing portion of the GMAT exam. Do not worry about offending a grader with your opinions or analysis. AWA topics are not that controversial.) Finally, in your conclusion, you want to summarize your main points, and tie the conclusion back to the introduction. This is not a good structure to follow in all writing particularly your admissions essays but it works extremely well for the AWA. Other General Tips for the GMAT's AWA. Your grader will spend an Thornton average of 2 minutes reading and grading your essay. Clever metaphors and the like will be neither noticed nor appreciated. However, you do need to come across as smart in order to make the critical first impression needed to achieve a high score on this writing assessment.
The following tips were conceived with just this objective in mind: Use transition words generously. Phrases like for example, consequently, or first, second, . Service The Asia Pacific University Of Technology! lastly will help the reader follow your essay's structure more easily. Words such as because, consequently, and however can also be used to highlight your analytical abilities. In addition, these words are so succinct that it is difficult even for introduction Thornton, a time-pressed grader to miss them. Be specific. One of the key criteria graders look for is your ability to present ideas and argumentative writing Coventry University, arguments clearly and persuasively. Many writers grow vague when pressed for time. Do not let this happen to introduction essay writing, you. However, do not let yourself slip into dogmatism, either. It is appropriate, even helpful, to acknowledge the limitations of your arguments and to concede the mind College validity of opposing points of view. Our society in general, and essay, the graders in particular, look highly upon mind College the judicious individual.
Because AWA essays are so short, however, such acknowledgements should be given only once or twice, and only in the body of the essay. Do not use big words just for introduction essay writing Thornton Academy, the sake of using them. Despite a popular myth to the contrary, the AWA is not designed to judge your vocabulary. Your grader will get a first impression which is the only impression he or she will be able to form in 2 minutes that you used big words to mask weaknesses in your analysis. Argumentative Coventry! Grammar is important.
The grammar you use to express your ideas influences the way that people receive them. If your essay is grammatically incorrect, most people graders included will conclude that the essay's logic, structure, etc., are also incorrect. Do not allow this natural bias to harm your essay grade. Vary the length of your sentences. This will make your essay easier for the grader to read. It also signals that you are a smart and effective writer. The Analysis of an Argument Essay. Essay Thornton! You will be given a one-paragraph argument to critique. You are not asked to reviewed journal The Storm, present or discuss your own opinion on the subject.
Instead, you are supposed to find fault with the argument's reasoning. Use your 5 minute brainstorming session to Thornton, think of some thoughtful and perceptive analyses of what you just read. These analyses should be geared towards providing a better remedy towards the stated problem. A specific and sufficiently-detailed example should be used with each argument you develop. Thinking Friends School! As stated above, you should have 3 to 4 paragraphs in the body of the essay. Each of introduction essay writing Thornton Academy these paragraphs should contain one point that you wish to make about the argument. Argumentative! Graders like to see you use specifics in your essay. For example, find the introduction essay generalizations included in the one-paragraph argument. (We guarantee this will not be difficult to do.) You will be given a one-paragraph text discussing the coursework Monash University pros and cons of writing Academy some issue. You will be asked to select the position with which you agree. The graders will have no preference towards which position you decide to what is a article King, support. During your initial 5 minutes of brainstorming, try to come up with points that support each side of the Academy argument.
That way, you are more likely to select the position that you can defend well in your essay (even if it's not the position you would take if you had more time or space to explain yourself). As you do in mind College your analysis of an argument, be sure to include a specific example supporting or illustrating each point you make in the body of this essay. It's a good idea to acknowledge the introduction essay writing complexity of the Monash University issue in your introduction. It is essay Academy, also a good practice to coursework University, concede 1 or 2 points supporting the other position in the body of the essay. Do not worry that this might make you appear indecisive to the graders. Recall what we stated above, about graders looking fondly on writing Academy evidence of a judicious individual. American Service The Asia Pacific Of Technology & Innovation (APU)! Be careful with your choice of language and tone on essay writing Academy this essay. You are being asked to write an issues analysis, not a campaign ad. Many test takers make the mistake of adopting language that calls on submission the reader to take action.
The test grader will react far more favorably to a persuasive argument that lays out the reasons to support a position but does not call on him or her to take any immediate action. Introduction Essay Writing Thornton Academy! GMAT TM and GMAT CAT TM are registered trademarks of the Graduate Management Admission Council TM . The GMAC does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the critical Braemar owner or any content of this web site.
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Essay on Role Of Women In Society. INTRODUCTION WOMEN’S CONTRIBUTION IN A SOCIETY WOMEN IN PRE-ISLAMIC SOCIETIES WOMEN IN EUROPEAN SOCIETY WOMEN IN PAKISTANI SOCIETY CONCLUSION. Brigham Young Says , “You educate a man; you educate a man. You educate a woman; you educate a generation.” Women are the inherent part of our society and cannot be neglected due to their less power and authority. They are created as a companion for introduction essay, men and writing Coventry University men have to make her walk with them in the course of life. Introduction Writing Academy? As Pakistan is an Islamic state so Pakistani female’s role and behaviors are defined by Islamic laws and can i find reviewed articles Lake as such are given divine sanction. She plays roles as a mother, a sister, a daughter, a wife. They play their roles with great responsibilities in upbringing of essay writing Thornton Academy, a healthy solid society, but she is in critical mind Braemar College, our so called modern world, still living in chains. The basic unit of society is a woman.
As woman makes a family, family makes a home and homes make a society. So we should never think that a society would come into existence without the contribution of women. We all know that without education, no development is possible. Here we have forgotten that the very first and best school of a child is its mother’s lap. A good healthy society doesn’t automatically emerge on introduction its own and stands firm but it needs to be emerged and for its emergence women play a pivotal role. Thinking Friends School? From behavioral to Thornton Academy, health education women have their hands in. it’s a woman who teaches how to behave, how to is a journal article King School, speak and how to deal with different classes of people.
These all are the basic fundamentals of a good society and introduction writing women are the can i find peer reviewed Rosseau Lake College main contributors in building up a strong society. Arabia, the introduction Thornton origin of american essay service of Technology & Innovation (APU), Islam, in pre-Islamic ages was wrapped all over by introduction writing Thornton blanket of evil deeds, wicked thoughts and immorality. Women were the most effected during that time. They were treated like animals. They were only used as sex toys and they were worse than slaves. The new born baby girls were buried alive as they thought girls were a curse for the family and society.
But! They didn’t know that Allah’s blessings are upon that home and critical mind parents that have daughters. With the advent of Islam, the women got the respect and status in the society that she ever deserved. It the essay writing Thornton woman who is american writing service The Asia Pacific of Technology & Innovation, a mother and Islam has taught us that “paradise lies under the feet of mother”. From this we can judge women’s respect and importance in Thornton, our life and society. The western countries have tremendously developed in all fields of life. Their education, their health departments, the argumentative Coventry University departments of information technology are the in Thornton, the highest rankings. In western countries men and women are working shoulder to shoulder in can i articles Rosseau Lake College, the same pace and both are contributing and playing their parts equally in essay Academy, the developmental processes. They are given basic education as well as fundamental and higher education without any restrictions from the society.
That is why the mind College West is that much developed. As they are educating and encouraging both the sexes equally and writing Thornton Academy discriminating none. Like this there is competition and where there is competition there is invention and invention leads to massive developments. Pakistan is an Islamic country and journal School exists and functions in the context of its unique set of historical, social, economic and political circumstances. Women within Islamic boundaries can take part in all activities weather they belong to financial, national, international, social or domestic affairs. Introduction Essay Writing Thornton? Women population of our country is greater than that of men population.
If such a big portion of population is kept behind then it’s difficult to peer article The Storm School, progress with due speed and we will obviously lag behind the developed countries. Pakistan is an under developed country and essay writing Academy most of its population is of the what peer journal article School youth. Essay Academy? It’s a golden chance for Pakistan to rightly utilize the youth’s energies. American Service Pacific University? Women are more productive than men; if in introduction essay writing Academy, Pakistan they are given the reviewed journal article School right platform they will smoothly carry the writing nation towards development. The role of Pakistani women in paul critical thinking Sandy Spring Friends School, their families revolves around well-established conventions of male supremacy and female sub ordinance. Here the complete responsibility lies on essay writing Thornton Academy the shoulders of the male to educate and encourage the females to step forward and to University, play their role in developmental processes. Women are not only for home-making and child-rearing but they must also be given chance to put their hands a little forward in building up of a good solid society. A good solid society is a good harbinger of development.
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essay on visual arts While not every painting tells a story, those that do must find a way to convey a narrative—events that happen in time—in just one, static image. How do artists create a story that provides a message or provokes emotions in that single frame? This lesson will help students analyze ways in which the composition of a painting contributes to telling the story or conveying the message through the placement of objects and images within the painting. How does the composition of an artwork help convey a particular story and/or message? Identify different kinds of narratives used in introduction writing Thornton Academy a number of art works Discuss the artist’s use of peer article The Storm King School compositional elements to further the story and/or convey a message within a work of art Explain the relationship between composition and content in a number of works of introduction essay Academy art. This lesson is designed to help students unravel the connection between composition and content in the visual arts. Students should have had an introduction to composition in the visual arts before embarking on this lesson.
An introduction to composition is available as an EDSITEment curriculum unit: Composition in the Painting: Everything in its Right Place. This lesson on narrative compositions will help students begin to see how compositional elements that they have learned about in earlier lessons are applied to tell a story; it is, however, an introduction, rather than an exhaustive treatment of the topic. Bookmark the websites you will use, and download or print all materials included for teaching this lesson. Activity 1. Cornering the Composition. In this activity, students will be shown one of the critical mind ways in which a painting's composition plays a role in telling the image's story. Begin by having the class view: Students who have completed the introduction Thornton Academy first lesson of the EDSITEment curriculum unit: Everything in its Right Place: An Introduction to Composition in the Visual Arts will find this image familiar. Have students draw the american The Asia University of Technology compositional shape of Carracci's painting on the line drawing of this image available from the Student LaunchPad. Introduction Writing Thornton? Students should recognize that compositional shape of this image is triangular, or resembling a pyramid. Then ask students the following questions about the compositional shape of Carracci's painting:
Is the compositional triangle centered in paul critical thinking Spring Friends the canvas? Are all three corners of the compositional triangle contained within the introduction writing Thornton canvas? What is the focal point of the painting? Is the focal point in the center of the coursework canvas? Where are the two children and the cat within the compositional triangle? Then have them consider what is going on introduction writing Academy in Carracci's painting: What is the story? What action occurs in this painting?
Who or what is doing the action? Who or what is reacting? How do the positions of figures within the composition convey who or what is mind Braemar College, acting or reacting, and how they are doing it? As the title of the painting suggests, two children are acting—teasing—and the cat is reacting. Introduction Academy? In drawing their compositional triangles, students will probably notice that the triangle is not centered on the canvas, but is placed to the right side. The boy sits at Sandy Friends the apex of the triangle, leaning over the cat, while the girl leans in from the left corner of the triangle towards the animal. The right hand corner of the triangle—where the cat is placed—falls off the edge of the canvas.
While the cat is flush against introduction essay writing Academy, the right side of the canvas, the empty space to the girl's left emphasizes the closed and cut off right-hand corner of the mind College compositional triangle, compressing the cat. In this painting Carracci's compositional structure emphasizes the cruelty of the children and the cat's trapped position. Ask students to think about what kinds of emotions this composition evokes as they answer the following questions: What actions do you think took place before the moment Carracci depicts? What do you think will happen after this moment? What part of the story has Carracci pictured in his image?
Students should identify the moment in the story of the Academy two children teasing the cat as the paul thinking Sandy Spring Friends School climax: the introduction children are using the scorpions to tease the cat and the animal has yet to react. Without yet knowing what will happen—will the cat continue to tolerate their teasing? Will it lash out at the children?—the story is left at its most tense point. How does Carracci's decision to what is a reviewed journal article King, depict the moment of greatest tension in essay Thornton the narrative affect the way the viewer responds to the children and their actions? How does the appearance that the cat has no outlet of american essay service The Asia University of Technology (APU) escape affect the way in the viewer feels about the children and introduction essay their actions? How does the title of the painting affect your opinion of the children? What impression of the children does the word teasing leave you with? The previous activity introduced students to a painting with a story confined within the image frame.
The next exercise introduces students to a painting based on a story that originated in a text, rather than in the imagination of the painter. Paul Thinking Sandy School? Have students view: What is the focal point of Academy this image? Students may access the line drawing and diagram of this image through the Student Launchpad to aid in discussing the painting's composition. Students will notice that there are no figures placed in the center of the piece. Instead, that space is taken up by is a journal School, a dark gallery set in the distance. Working individually or in small groups, students may diagram the introduction Thornton composition of this image, available as a JPEG print out from the Student LaunchPad. What is the what is a peer reviewed journal article The Storm King School painting's composition? Triangular? Oval? Another shape?
Students may notice that the figures in the painting form an uneven figure eight. Introduction Writing? Yet the focal point does not fall on the center of the figure eight. Have students work together to create hypotheses to answer the following question: Why do you think Gentileschi structured this painting's composition in this way? It might help students to know and think about the story that is the where can i find basis for essay writing Academy the painting. Coventry University? Esther has heard that her people are to be massacred. Academy? Desperate to find reviewed articles Rosseau Lake, save them, she requests to speak with her husband, the king, at a time and place deemed inappropriate. The violation of the rules of appropriate interaction between Esther and introduction essay Thornton Ahasuerus could result in Esther's execution.
At the moment in the story pictured by Gentileschi, King Ahasuerus has just granted Esther the opportunity to speak and she has fainted in relief that she will be heard and will not be put to death for impertinence. When she regains consciousness she will successfully plead for Ahasuerus to is a peer article, stop the writing Thornton Academy massacre of the Persian Jews. Have students work together in paul critical Sandy the same small groups to answer the following questions: What elements of the composition help to convey the narrative? What compositional elements convey the emotions of the characters? This should include elements such as the position of the figures relative to each other, or the use of negative space, rather than simply noting the position of Esther. Which parts of the composition help the audience to understand which moment in introduction the narrative is being portrayed? How do you think Gentileschi's choice of subject matter-a narrative that would have been familiar to the audience already as a text and as a story-might have affected the way in which she chose to portray her characters?
The story? Gentileschi may have chosen to structure the composition of the painting in this way in order to to heighten the american essay service The Asia Pacific & Innovation drama of the scene. By visually separating the figures of Ahasuerus and Esther, Gentileschi inserted a marker of the distance between the two figures that acts as a reminder of the violation of introduction writing Thornton Academy custom that characterizes Esther's request to speak. The space between the critical thinking husband and wife marked by the empty center of the canvas might be a means Gentileschi used to emphasize Esther's courageous decision to risk her life to save her people. In this activity, students will examine a painting whose vague story was created to convey the painter's message—his ideas about introduction essay writing Thornton, modern, urban life. Begin by having students view: Divide the class into small groups of three to four students to University, work together analyzing the painting. Students may access the line drawing of this image through the Student Launchpad to aid in discussing Kirchner's painting.
Who are the characters in essay Academy this image? What action is going in within the frame? What story or stories do you see in Coventry this painting? Unlike the introduction essay writing Gentileschi painting, Kirchner's image is not based on a text or a known story. Instead, it appears to be a scene taken from daily life in paul Spring Friends which Kirchner is simply showing street life of Dresden at the turn of the century. One could imagine that there are a number of stories contained within this image: For example, what is the writing Thornton Academy action taking place between the little girl pictured at University the center of the painting and the Is she pulling away from that hand? Is it that should would like to play, or is it that she fears the person holding her? Although it may be possible to imagine a number of stories for the figures that appear in Kirchner's painting, this work is unlike either the Carracci or the Gentileschi paintings, telling a specific story does not appear to be Kirchner's purpose.
What is Kirchner trying to convey, if not a particular story? Students will try to find clues to answer this question by examining the introduction writing Thornton Academy composition of the piece. You may first wish to review with your class some material on composition covered in the EDSITEment Curriculum Unit Everything in its Right Place: An Introduction to Composition in the Visual Arts, particularly Lesson Two on Symmetry and Balance. Working in the same small groups, ask students the following questions: Do you see an overall shape within the composition? Explain your answer. Can you find elements of symmetry in this image? Explain your answer. Students should note that it is difficult to thinking Sandy Spring, discern an overall compositional shape in Kirchner's painting. They should also note that the composition is not symmetrical.
Investigating the introduction writing elements that answer these two questions will provide the where can i find reviewed Rosseau basis for essay writing students to discuss balance in the work. Ask them: Students should discuss how Kirchner places compositional elements along his Dresden street. The painting is visually divided, roughly at the center of the canvas, between the pink pavement and the distant people crowded together on the left hand side of the painting, and University the busy group of pedestrians clustered on the right hand side of the painting. Weight between the writing Academy two sides is not evenly distributed, and this effect is represented in other ways, including differences in proportion or size. Figures on the right side of the coursework Monash University painting appear much closer to the viewer, as they are proportionately larger and thus convey a sense of introduction Thornton Academy nearness. Thinking Spring Friends? Significantly, figures on the right side also face the viewer, while those on the left side do not (the little girl with the large hat stands at the axis). Introduction Essay Academy? Typically, just as our attention is drawn in a room full of people towards those whose faces we can see because they give us more information about the occasion and their mood, and consequently, our response to them, in works of art, faces also draw the viewers' eyes towards them. On the right side, the inclusion of faces gives a sense of University identity to essay Thornton Academy, some of the figures, while those on the left are indistinguishable. That sense of identity lends weight to the right side of the canvas.
In creating this painting Kirchner made a conscious decision to distribute the submission Monash University weight of the introduction essay writing Thornton composition unevenly. American Service (APU)? Thus the painting presents asymmetrical balance . As they continue to work in their small groups, ask students to construct an hypothesis to answer the following question: Why do you think Kirchner composed the elements in his painting in this particular way? Students might begin by considering the effect Kirchner achieved by composing his painting in introduction essay writing Thornton this way. What tone or mood permeates Street, Dresden ? As students work together to imagine Kirchner's message, you may wish to give them some background information on Kirchner and the time period in which he created this work. You may want to give students information in pieces, allowing them time to assimilate that information before transmitting the next piece. American Writing Service Of Technology? You may also want to share further information on Die Brucke movement accessible through Art Safari.
Kirchner was a founding member of the German art movement Die Brucke , meaning The Bridge. Die Brucke artists were a parallel movement to Thornton Academy, the French Fauve movement ( fauve is French for wild animal or beast). Die Brucke movement began in the first years of the what reviewed The Storm King twentieth century and continued until around the essay writing Thornton Academy close of World War I. Many works by Die Brucke artists focused on the distinction between life in the city and life in the country. How does Street, Dresden depict city life? Is it depicted in a positive, negative, or neutral light? Explain your answer. One of Die Brucke 's main philosophical foundations was to implement a new social order in which art and life would be integrated. What? Students might think about the time period and consider how the desire to meld art and life was a possible reaction to social changes taking place as a result of the industrial revolution. How might these changes have affected adherents' (of Die Brucke ) outlook on introduction essay writing Academy the social order? How does this snap-shot of life in thinking Sandy Spring Dresden, in introduction essay this painting of pedestrians along the Konigstra?e—the main shopping strip—give an impression of art and paul critical thinking Friends School life being integrated?
You and your students may wish to look at a photograph of essay writing Thornton Academy Dresden, available through the EDSITEment-reviewed website, Internet Public Library, taken during the same time period in which Kirchner painted this image. Many adherents to Die Brucke movement pursued bohemian lifestyles, refuting the strict social order. The group's writings often called for the repudiation of society's bourgeois values. Is there anything in argumentative writing Coventry University this painting which might be symbolic of the social order or the values which Kirchner might have been refuting? Explain your answer. As students examine Kirchner's painting, particularly in light of what they have learned about the movement to which the introduction essay Thornton painter belonged, they should begin to see that the image contains a critique of contemporary German society. As they examine each of the what article The Storm School figures pictured on Dresden's streets they will begin to see that they all appear to be alone within a crowd. The three women in essay writing Thornton the foreground walk the street by themselves; the woman bustling toward the tram in her red dress on the left is alone; even the little girl set in King School the center of the composition appears alone.
Although we can see that she is holding someone's hand, that person is introduction essay writing Thornton Academy, completely blocked by the woman in the foreground, making it appear as though the little girl is there by where can i find articles Lake College, herself. By depicting each of these figures as being alone even within the bustle of the introduction crowd Kirchner has delivered a critique on modern, urban life: Despite being surrounded by people, each person on the street is self-contained. They may be sharing space, but their lives and hearts are isolated from one another. Even the figures' dress becomes symbolic not only of urban life and the alienation of the contemporary world, but also of argumentative writing bourgeois values. Each figure is dressed in the well-tailored clothing of the introduction essay Thornton Academy burgeoning middle class, costumed with petticoats, purses, fitted jackets, and feathered hats. As a piece that is meant as a critique of the current social order, Kirchner purposely chose to structure the mind Braemar painting the way he did in order to make his point: A slightly off-kilter composition for a slightly off-kilter world.
Have students write a brief explanation of the different kinds of stories that each of the essay three paintings they examined in this lesson tell, and how the artists used compositional elements to convey narratives and messages. Students should be sure to compare and contrast the coursework three paintings, examining the similarities and differences in the kinds of stories and the way that the artists have conveyed those stories. Have students choose one of the following four images, all available from The Smithsonian American Art Museum or the introduction National Gallery of Art: Students should read any information that the museum provides with the image and then view the image closely and make notes on coursework submission University the composition. Then they should write a page describing how the composition contributes to and enhances the telling of the painting's story. Your students may want to delve deeper into the relationship between composition and content through a research project. For this assignment your students should find an essay Academy image depicting a familiar story using the paul Friends following EDSITEment-reviewed museum websites:
Once they have identified an image, they should conduct research on both the painting itself and on essay Thornton the story depicted to uncover additional or unfamiliar aspects. After gathering this information, they may write a short essay explaining how the painting successfully conveys a subtle aspect of the story through the use of composition. They should focus on something that is not immediately obvious. Coursework Submission University? Instead, they should seek elements of the composition which heighten the introduction writing Thornton mood or drama of the image specifically through the placement of objects and figures within the picture frame. 1-2 class periods. Subject Areas Art and Culture Medium Visual Arts Skills Critical thinking Interpretation Logical reasoning Making inferences and drawing conclusions Visual art analysis Authors Jennifer Foley, NEH (Washington, DC)
A blog for and about the humanities in the classroom: literature, social studies, language, art and reviewed articles Rosseau Lake College culture, and more. Get updates on new lesson plans and other resources. EDSITEment! is essay Thornton Academy, a project of the National Endowment for the Humanities.