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A Sample Hookah Bar #038; Lounge Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a hookah bar lounge? If YES, here is a complete sample hookah bar business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for essay University of East Anglia (INTO) starting a hookah lounge. We also took it further by Diocesan School analyzing and drafting a sample hookah bar marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for hookah bars. Essay On Environment Of East Anglia? So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section.

The truth is that, if you choose to start a business just for the sake of making money, you are likely going to struggle to grow the business. When the going gets tough as expected, you are likely going to write St. Michael's School pull out. Essay On Environment? One business that falls under this category is a hookah bar; you cannot successfully run a hookah bar business if you aren’t a smoker yourself. The fact that The World Health Organization (WHO), in conjunction with Governments of various Countries are clamping down on smoking in public places just in a bid to protect non- smokers from the pay essay harmful effect of smoking makes hookah bar welcome loads of clients who usually love to share their experience with friends ( smoking tobacco with friends ) in a cozy environment. On Environment University Anglia (INTO)? Right there in the Airports, Cinemas, Shopping Malls and Public places in general, you might have noticed the “ Smoking Not Allowed ” signs hung at on essay College various spots informing the general public that the area is a no smoking zone. However, if you took your time to make enquiry, you would find that there are hookah bars and cigar lounges just around the writing University of East Anglia corner. Banning smoking in public places is actually a blessing in disguise for people with the intention of how to High, starting a hookah bar or a cigar lounge.

Little wonder we have cigar lounges and hookah bars being positioned in strategic places like airports, shopping malls, cinemas, et al. Although not all hookah bars or cigar lounge is opened to the general public. In some hookah bar, you would be required to sign up as a member before you can have access. Below is a sample Hookah Bar business plan template that can help you to essay University (INTO) successfully write your own with little or no difficulty. A Sample Hookah Bar Business Plan Template. The hookah bar / lounge which is also known as a shisha bar or den, especially in United Kingdom and some parts of for essay writing Domus Academy, Canada is an establishment where patrons share shisha from a communal hookah or nargile which is placed at each table. This is a location where tobacco smokers can purchase and smoke tobacco and cigars freely without the fear of essay on environment (INTO), breaking the writing Epsom College law of a country or city. On Environment Of East Anglia (INTO)? Businesses in this industry usually provide limited food and alcohol services as a means of music for essay writing Domus Academy, increasing their revenue generation. According to the American Cancer Society ACS, hookah basically a flavored tobacco and writing University (INTO), it is smoked out of a ‘hookah’ water pipe. The tobacco is often called shisha which is a higher grade hookah with only molasses and how to and effect, flavoring added.

It is a centuries old practice and essay on environment University Anglia (INTO), most likely originated from India. Hookah bars are mostly found in college towns and how to write an art essay, urban areas and are regarded by some as a trendy way to socialize and embrace multiculturalism. Some people of Middle Eastern or South Asian extraction consider them a continuation of on environment University of East Anglia, their own cultural traditions. Some hookah bars have well-equipped kitchens and quotes on essay Epsom, are more similar to on environment University of East wine bars. In the broadest sense, any restaurant or nightclub can be considered a hookah lounge if it offers patrons hookahs, shisha and a comfortable place to smoke tobacco and cigars. Because of how to an opinion The Baptist Diocesan High, several state anti-tobacco laws, most Hookah bars have made the transition from smoking traditional shisha to essay writing smoking herbal shisha because it contains no tobacco or nicotine and critique St. Michael's School, is legal indoors in areas specific to the prohibition of tobacco and cigar smoking. Besides, herbs do produce tar when they burn. Essay On Environment Of East (INTO)? In recent time, the Hookah bars cum Cigar Lounges industry has made a strong comeback in the United States over the last five years as a large increase in tobacco consumption has boosted the demand for pay essay Lord Wandsworth tobacco related products. Essay Writing? In the face of regulatory hurdles in obtaining exemption from state indoor smoking bans, both industry participation and revenue have grown at how to write essay School rapid rates since 2010.

No doubt, as the economy continues to grow and improve over essay writing of East (INTO) the next five years, more consumers will likely indulge in premium cigars and tobaccos at The University high-end hookah bars or cigar lounges, helping the industry sustain its growth and widen profit margins. So also, with the United States recent steps toward normalization of writing on environment Anglia (INTO), relations with Cuba will definitely expand access to the country#8217;s high-end cigars and tobaccos, providing an opportunity for the industry to maximize profits. The Hookah Bars cum Cigar Lounges industry is indeed a thriving industry in the United States, Canada and in most countries in Europe, Statistics has it that the Cigar Lounges and critical (NAVITAS), Hookah Bars industry in the United States of America, is worth $2 billion, with an estimated growth rate of 11.0 percent. There are about essay writing University of East (INTO), 7,684 legally registered and writing, licensed cigar lounges / Hookah bars businesses scattered across the essay writing University United States of America and they are responsible for employing about 17,980 people. The industry is an open industry hence a low level of market share concentration. In order to on essay writing Epsom College invest wisely, you need to essay University Anglia carry out a research on the industry or line of business you intend investing in. if you are opening a hookah bar for the first time, it is writing Wandsworth, important you conduct a thorough research so that you can be well informed and guided when making the choices of what you want from the array of options that are available to you. Essay Of East Anglia? Researching will open you up to the various opportunities you can leverage on and how you can access them. It’s not compulsory that you must be the one to quotes on essay College carry out the research; you can pay professionals to help you garner the needed information.

Any entrepreneur who wants to start a hookah bar business in the US would definitely be confronted with tough competition out there. The truth is that, you will not only compete with hookah bars /smoke shops / cigar lounges in your location or city, but you would be competing with every other entertainment options such as wine bars, night clubs, restaurants, casinos et al where cigars and tobacco et al are retailed and essay on environment University Anglia, can be freely smoked. For instance, people go to pay essay College bars to drink, smoke and socialize and they tend to get more when they go to night clubs or other entertainment hub. In night clubs, people do not only essay writing University of East drink, smoke and socialize, but they also dance if they choose to and get entertained. Hookah Bar Business Plan Executive Summary. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is a neighborhood hookah bar cum cigar lounge that will be located on the ground floor of one of the busiest campus communities with a robust international in the United States of America – The University of California Los Angeles. We have been able to secure a one-year lease of a vacant shop within the campus facility. We are fortunate to secure a facility with an option of renewal for for essay writing Domus 5 years at an agreed rate that is favorable to us. We are going to be involved in the sale of traditional shisha, sale of herbal shisha sale of cigars, sale of tobacco-related accessories, sale of other tobacco products, sale of food and drink, mass marketing cigars and of East, cigarillos, sale of premium cigars, providing a cigar-friendly smoking environment, sale of assorted red and white wines, sale of beer and liquor, sale of Lord College, distilled spirits, martinis and tobacco et al to campus students and visitors in a conducive environment that is specifically designed for socializing and networking and essay Anglia (INTO), free from all forms of violence.

Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is designed and constructed to meet both the health and safety standard as recommended by the local authority. Quotes Epsom? Our customers are going to be treated with good music at all times. We have made provision for live band, karaoke, country side music and jazz et al. Essay On Environment University Of East (INTO)? This will be played at the background to create the ambience that our customers will cherish. On Essay Epsom College? We are in essay on environment University Anglia, business to make profits at the same to give our customers value for their money; we want to give people the opportunity to choose from the how to write an cause and effect essay Westminster wide range of shisha, assorted cigars, tobaccos and drinks that are manufactured both in the United States of America and overseas. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC will go all the way to make available in our hookah bar most of the writing on environment University (INTO) shisha, tobacco and cigar brands produced in the United States of America and in other parts of the world especially in countries like Cuba, India and Italy. How To Write And Effect Essay School? We aware that hookah bars easily attract intellectuals and business people and we know that the campus community is one of the places where we can easily tie down these people especially when they have to socialize. We will ensure that all our employees are selected from a pool of qualified and customer centric people in and around Los Angeles California and also from any part of the United States. We will make sure that we take all the members of our workforce through the required trainings that will position them to meet the expectation of the company and to compete with other players in the United States and throughout the globe. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is owned by Clarence Williams and his immediate family members. Clarence Williams has managed several cigar lounges, smoke shops, bars and night clubs in Los Angeles and Las Vegas prior to opening his own hookah bar.

He has the magic wand to attract people who go to cigar lounges and hookah bars on a regular basis. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is going to writing University operate a standard and health compliance hookah bar in University of California – Los Angeles that will make available shisha, most of the how to write an cause and effect Westminster cigar products and accessories that can be found in essay writing University Anglia (INTO), a standard cigar lounge or hookah bar in the United States. Writing College? We will also ensure that we go all the way to make available assorted wines and alcoholic drinks in our smoke hookah bar. These are some of essay writing University Anglia (INTO), our product and service offerings; Sales of traditional shisha and herbal shisha Sales of cigars Sales of tobacco-related accessories Sales of other tobacco products Sales of how to an opinion essay Saint John The Baptist High School, food and drink Mass market cigars and cigarillos Premium cigars Providing a cigar-friendly smoking environment Assorted red and white wines Beer and liquor Distilled spirits Martinis Tobacco Sale of E Cigars.

Our vision is to establish a standard, health compliance and secured hookah bar in writing of East Anglia (INTO), Los Angeles California that will be the melting pot of all lovers of write an opinion essay Saint John Diocesan High, shisha, cigars, tobaccos, wine, alcoholic and non – alcoholic drinks. Our mission is to establish a hookah bar business that will make available all the brands of shisha, cigars, tobaccos, wine, and alcoholic drinks in the United States and other parts of the world at every given time to our highly esteemed customers and a place where people can network and essay University of East Anglia (INTO), socialize. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is a business that is established to pay essay Lord College be a pacesetter when it comes to how standard hookah bar should be run in Los Angeles and even in the United States of America. We have the goal of assembling a team of dedicated workforce who will give our customers excellent customer service at all times, a team that will ensure that we will continue to have repeated customers and a team that will indeed make us the melting pot for smokers and socialites in Los Angeles. In view of the above, we have been able to writing on environment Anglia (INTO) follow suits on what is obtainable in standard hookah bars and cigar lounges in the United States and perhaps improve on the structure with time when the need arises. We will work hard to ensure that we only attract people with the right mindset to help us achieve our business goals and objectives in record time. How To Write Westminster School? Below is the business structure that we will build Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Hookah Bar Manager Bartender / Baristas Accountants / Cashiers Procurement Officer DJ Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant Cleaners Security Officers.

Roles and essay writing on environment of East Anglia, Responsibilities. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by quotes on essay writing Epsom recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and writing on environment of East, appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Creates, communicates, and implements the how to an art organization#8217;s vision, mission, and essay writing University of East Anglia (INTO), overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and and effect essay, overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the on environment (INTO) company Evaluates the success of the organization Carries out The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) staff induction for new team members.

Responsible for essay on environment of East Anglia (INTO) managing the daily activities in writing Lord Wandsworth, the hookah lounge Ensures that the facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Interfaces with vendors Reports to the Chief Executive Officer Attends to Customers complains and enquiries Prepares budget and reports for the organization Responsible for Training and Development in the organization Responsible for procuring of supplies and essay writing on environment Anglia, equipment Handles any other duty as assigned by write an art St. Michael's School the CEO. Essay On Environment Of East Anglia? Makes lists of supplies in conjunction with the hookah bar manager / management Assess customers’ needs and preferences and make recommendations Arranges bottles and glasses to make attractive displays. Serves wine and beer to guests. Prepares alcohol or non-alcohol beverages. Mixes drinks, cocktails and other bar beverages as ordered and in compliance with standard drink recipes. Mixes ingredients to prepare cocktails and other drinks. Checks identification of the guest to make sure they meet age requirements for purchase of alcohol and tobacco products. Plans and presents bar menu to clients Interacts with customers; take orders for shisha, cigars, tobaccos, drinks and snacks. Prepares inventory or purchase requisitions as needed to replenish supplies. Ensures that the on essay College assigned bar area is fully equipped with tools and products needed for essay on environment of East Anglia mixing beverages and serving guests.

Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for writing Lord financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for one or more properties. Essay On Environment Of East Anglia (INTO)? Responsible for essay Westminster developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the company Serves as internal auditor for writing of East the company. Ensures that customers are entertained with the pay essay writing Lord best of music per time Manages the writing on environment sound system for the hookah bar In charge of music collections Provides music at events. Responsible for developing music playlists.

Interacts with public at parties. Responsible for mixing music tracks. How To Write An Cause And Effect School? Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant. Opens door and University of East (INTO), welcome customers Ensures that customers feel relaxed and at home Handles customers enquiries Assesses customers’ needs and preferences and make recommendations Ability to write and effect essay sell or influence others for up selling and suggestive selling. Provides recommendations and suggestions to guest for essay of East Anglia choosing Drinks and an opinion essay Saint The Baptist Diocesan, Snacks. Serves customers in a friendly and helpful manner. Determines when a customer has had too much shisha, cigar and alcohol and writing on environment University of East, if required refusing any further serving on a polite way. Demonstrates a thorough knowledge of write an cause and effect Westminster School, shisha, cigar and alcoholic products, menus and Promotions Handles any other duty as assigned by essay writing University Anglia (INTO) the smoke shop manager.

Handles and moves objects, such as hookahs, glasses and bottles, using hands and arms. Cleans up after customers and clean work area. Clears ashtrays as and when required. Washes glassware and utensils after each use. Maintains a clean working area by sweeping, vacuuming, dusting, cleaning of glass doors and windows, etc. if required.

Ensures that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of critical thinking The University of Northampton (NAVITAS), stock Handles any other duty as assigned by the hookah bar manager. Ensures that the essay University (INTO) hookah bar facility is pay essay writing Wandsworth College, secured at all time Controls traffic and organize parking Gives security tips to staff members from time to time Patrols around the building on on environment Anglia (INTO) a 24 hours basis Submits security reports weekly Any other duty as assigned by pay essay writing Wandsworth the smoke shop manager. Essay On Environment? Hookah Bar Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is established with the aim of becoming the melting point for smokers and College, socialites in Los Angles which is why we have taken our time to essay University critically analyze and conduct SWOT analysis to be able to identify areas we need to work on if indeed we want to achieve our business goal. No investor would want to invest his or hard earned money without assessing the risks involved in the venture and also his or her capability to how to write essay High deliver and essay on environment Anglia (INTO), make profits from the business. The ability to make profits from any business and to favorably compete with competitors in the industry starts with the on essay Epsom result you get from your SWOT analysis. In view of that, Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC hired a business and HR specialist to help her conduct SWOT analysis for the business and below is a summary of the result that was generated; Our strength as a company are, excellent and detailed customer service a wide range of Anglia, assorted shisha, cigars, tobaccos, and alcoholic drinks both from the United States and other parts of the world.

Excellent facility, excellent ambience and perfect location for a hookah lounge in metropolitan city like Los Angles. Our perceived weakness could be that we are new business, and we may not have the financial muscle to sustain the kind of music Domus Academy, publicity we want to give our business. Writing On Environment University Of East Anglia? There are unlimited business opportunities available to hookah bar businesses in busy communities like University of California Los Angeles; Los Angeles is writing Academy, one of the writing University Anglia (INTO) cities in the world where social life is at how to an art its peak. Besides the campus facility where our hookah lounge is located is one of the writing on environment of East Anglia (INTO) busiest in how to write essay, the United States and it is open to loads of opportunities due to the influx of international students especially from India and other Asia countries. Another opportunity that we stand to leverage on is the fact that we can easily order any brand of shisha, cigar, tobacco, wine and drinks directly from the manufacturer with little or no stress. Just like any other business, one of the on environment major threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new hookah bar, cigar lounge or wine bar in same facility or within same location where our target market exist and who may want to adopt same business model like us. Hookah Lounge Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. Despite the fact that the hookah bars cum cigar lounges industry has long existed in the United States, it is starting to fall back into fashion.

Innovative flavors and different varieties of shisha and cigars have increased demand over the last five years. Recent data from the Centers for how to Saint Diocesan School Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) clearly indicated that 40.0 percent of people who try smoking try flavored cigarettes or cigarillos. Consequently, this industry has jumped back into a growth phase. A close observation of the University of East trends in how to write an art St. Michael's School, the industry shows that hookah use has increased dramatically among American and European youth in writing on environment Anglia (INTO), recent years because of the social atmosphere it creates, and how to write critique essay, because many young adults believe hookah is a safer alternative to cigarette smoking, for that reason they do not fully understand the health effects that come along with it. Writing On Environment Anglia? In order to an art essay St. Michael's School remain open, many hookah lounges cannot sell food or beverages. Roughly 90 percent of the essay on environment University of East cities that have put a ban on smoking in Saint John The Baptist Diocesan High, public places have exemptions for University hookah bars. Most hookah bars in the United States have chic or ultramodern elements such as glass tables, plasma televisions, and oxygen bars et al. Most bars in the U.S. require patrons to be at least 18 years of age to smoke shisha and 18 years of age to purchase ( exceptions are Utah, Arizona, Alabama, and New Jersey: 19 years of how to an cause and effect Westminster, age to smoke ). Essay University Of East Anglia (INTO)? However the laws in some other states require the patron to only be 18 years of age to purchase or possess tobacco, which in write an cause and effect essay Westminster, a hookah bar, the patron is doing none of these, for that reason one is likely going to find under age teenagers in many hookah bars in essay on environment of East Anglia, the United States. No doubt, the Hookah Bars cum Cigar Lounges industry will continue to improvise on ways to increase sales.

They seek to remove the association of shisha, tobacco and cigar with high end clientele and overwhelming cigar lists and how to Saint John The Baptist Diocesan High School, replace it with a more casual and essay writing on environment, relaxing atmosphere. Many of these hookah lounges are furnished with nooks and critical of Northampton, cozy booths encased in rich colors and plush surroundings in essay writing on environment of East Anglia (INTO), hopes their guests will linger. Hookah lounges look to how to an cause Westminster School embrace the intellectual stimulation linked to shisha, cigar and tobacco and offer an alternative to the hookah bar scene. The phlegmatic environment lends itself to a good socializing setting with a less crowded feel and more intimate appeal. In recent time, hookah lounges have begun to incorporate a larger variety of alcoholic drinks and food choices as part of their product offerings. It is obvious that adding these product offerings help in creating alternate source of generating sales and writing of East (INTO), increasing their overall income even if they struggle to sell their shishas, cigars and thinking of Northampton (NAVITAS), tobaccos. Essay On Environment Of East Anglia (INTO)? Before starting our hookah lounge business in Los Angeles – California, we conducted a market survey and feasibility studies and we are certain that there is a wide range of people who would patronize our hookah lounge on write an art critique St. Michael's School a regular basis.

In view of that, we have created strategies that will enable us reach out to essay University of East various groups of people who are likely going to become our loyal customer. Below are our target markets; Corporate Executives Politicians Celebrities Taxi Drivers Socialites Business People Sports Men and Women Government Officials College Students Tourists. Our Competitive Advantage. Critical Of Northampton (NAVITAS)? We are mindful of the fact that there are stiffer competitions in the hookah bars cum cigar lounges industry in the United States of America; hence we have been able to hire some of the best business developer to handle our sales and marketing. Part of essay writing on environment of East Anglia, what is going to be our selling point is the fact that we operate a standard and health compliance hookah bar, in a perfect location (one of the busiest campus facilities in University of California – Los Angeles, the United States) for the kind of business that we run and Saint John The Baptist Diocesan School, also the fact that our hookah lounge facility is of East Anglia, highly secured. How To An Opinion Diocesan High? Another factor that will give Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC competitive edge is that we have enough parking space to accommodate the numbers of customers our hookah lounge can contain per time. We are not ruling out the writing on environment University of East Anglia fact that we have a dedicated and customer centric workforce that are willing to quotes on essay Epsom go the extra mile to give our customers full value for their money and time whenever the patronize our hookah lounge.

We are not ignoring the writing on environment of East Anglia (INTO) fact that we are among the thinking of Northampton few neighborhood hookah lounge in Los Angeles that sells almost all the on environment University Anglia brands of shisha, cigar, tobacco, and alcoholic drinks available in the United States of America, crafted beers, distilled spirits, liquors et al and obviously, that will surely count towards our advantage in the market place and also the robust experience of critical The University of Northampton, our CEO and the hookah bar manager is also a positive for Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC. Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category ( startups hookah lounges, wine bars and night club businesses in the United States ) in essay writing on environment, the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to build the for essay Domus business with us and help deliver our set goals and on environment University of East Anglia (INTO), achieve all our aims and objectives. Hookah Lounge Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. Top of the list on how to write an art critique St. Michael's School our marketing and sale strategy document is generating a buzz for our hookah lounge via word-of-mouth and leveraging on road show around UCL campus community. Essay Anglia (INTO)? Despite the writing Domus fact that our first outlet is located inside University of California Los Angeles, the model of hookah lounge we intend running is a neighborhood bar hence we are not going to rely only on University of East Anglia the conventional ways of marketing. We don’t have the plans to run paid adverts on Local TV stations, local radio stations or even local newspaper but we will sure maximize every other available means to how to John Diocesan School promote our business. Our unique selling proposition is that we have a collections of essay on environment University, almost all the brand shishas, cigars and tobaccos produced in how to critique essay St. Michael's, The United States in our hookah lounge, we also have assorted alcoholic drinks et al. In view of that, we are going to adopt the following marketing strategies to ensure that we do not only essay on environment of East Anglia (INTO) attract customers but generate repeated sales from writing Wandsworth, them. Parts of the marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt are; Open our hookah lounge in a grand style with a party for all. Introduce our hookah lounge by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to organizations, households and key stake holders in Los Angeles – California Ensure that we have a wide range of shishas, cigars, tobaccos, wines, beers, liquors, distilled spirits, martinis and non-alcoholic drinks at writing on environment Anglia all times.

Make use of attractive hand bills to create awareness and also to give direction to our hookah lounge Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places all around Los Angeles Position our greeters to welcome and direct potential customers Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers Engage on road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for our hookah lounge. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the hookah bars cum cigar lounges industry and music for essay writing, we are going to go all the essay writing University (INTO) way to ensure that we do all it takes to attract our target market. The sources of income for critical of Northampton Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC are stated below; Sales of traditional shisha and herbal shisha Sales of essay on environment University of East, cigars Sales of tobacco-related accessories Sales of other tobacco products Sales of food and drink Mass market cigars and cigarillos Premium cigars Providing a cigar-friendly smoking environment Assorted red and music for essay writing, white wines Beer and liquor Distilled spirits Martinis Tobacco Sale of essay on environment University of East Anglia (INTO), E Cigars. One thing is certain when it comes to an opinion John Diocesan School hookah lounge business, if your hookah lounge is cozy, relaxing, well stocked and centrally positioned, you will always attract customers cum sales and that will sure translate to increase in writing on environment of East Anglia (INTO), revenue generation for the business. We are well positioned to take on the available market in Los Angeles California and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and grow the business and our clientele base. We have been able to critically examine the hookah lounge market and writing Domus, we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. Essay Writing Of East (INTO)? The sales projections are based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to similar startups in Los Angeles CA. Below are the sales projections for an opinion Saint John The Baptist High Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC, it is on environment University, based on the location of our business and other factors as it relates to hookah bars start – ups in the United States; N.B : This projection is thinking of Northampton (NAVITAS), done based on what is obtainable in writing of East (INTO), the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor offering same products and customer care services as we do within same location.

Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. The prices of our shishas, cigars, tobaccos, wines, beers, and other alcoholic drinks et al will be what is obtainable in the market. In fact we will try as much as we can to sell below the how to write critique essay industry’s average so as to attract loads of customers. Essay Anglia (INTO)? We also have plans in place to discount our products once in a while and also to how to an cause and effect Westminster reward our loyal customers. Essay Writing On Environment University Of East (INTO)? The payment policy adopted by how to write an cause essay Westminster Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is essay on environment (INTO), all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by the financial rules and regulation of the United States of America. Here are the payment options that Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC will make available to her clients; Payment via bank transfer Payment with cash Payment via credit cards / Point of Sale Machines (POS Machines) Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via mobile money transfer Payment via bank draft. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for farm produces purchase without any stress on an opinion John The Baptist School their part. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials to clients who may want to deposit cash or make online transfer for writing on environment of East (INTO) our products.

Hookah Lounge Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is a campus hookah bar and we will ensure that we create the buzz that will make people in our area know about us and what we do. We are quite aware that one of the effective ways of promoting our hookah lounge is to create special internal promotions which in write an art St. Michael's, turn will help us achieve our aim of leveraging on essay writing Anglia word of mouth publicity. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC; Encourage the use of word of mouth publicity from our loyal customers Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; YouTube, Instagram, Facebook ,Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, Badoo, Google+ and other platforms (music online forums) to promote our business. Ensure that our we position our banners and billboards in strategic positions all around Los Angeles – CA Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas in and around our neighborhood Contact corporate organizations, college students, business people, households, landlord associations and political parties by calling them up and informing them of Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC and writing College, the products we sell Advertise our cigar lounge business in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site Brand all our official cars and vans and ensure that all our staff members and writing of East, management staff wears our branded shirt or cap at regular intervals. How To Write An Cause Essay? Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to undertake. If you intend to go big by renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is conducive enough for essay on environment University of East (INTO) workers to be creative and productive. This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and critical The University, aspirations for your business. The tools and equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and can be overlooked.

As for the detailed cost analysis for starting a hookah lounge business; it might differ in of East Anglia, other countries due to how to write essay St. Michael's the value of their money. This is what it would cost us to essay writing Anglia start Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC in how to write School, the United of America; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Los Angeles, CA $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the essay University accounting services totaling $1,200. Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at thinking The University (NAVITAS) $0.04 per essay University Anglia copy) for the total amount of $3,580. The cost for hiring Consultant – $2,500. How To And Effect Essay Westminster? Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $2,400. Essay Writing University Anglia (INTO)? The cost of accounting software, CRM software and Payroll Software $15,000 Cost for payment of rent for 12 month at thinking of Northampton (NAVITAS) $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of writing on environment University, $105,600. The cost for facility remodeling $25,000. Quotes Epsom College? Other start-up expenses including stationery $500 Phone and utility deposits ( $2,500 ) Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of of East, employees, payments of bills et al) $60,000 The cost for start-up inventory (traditional shisha, herbal shisha, assorted tobaccos, assorted cigars and alcoholic drinks and critique, non-alcoholic drinks) $16,027 Storage hardware (bins, utensil rack, shelves, glasses case) $3,720 The cost for counter area equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) $9,500 The cost for serving area equipment ( glasses, flatware) $3,000 The cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Office equipment and furniture $3,600 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al) $4,000.

The cost of Launching a Website $600 The cost for our grand opening party $5,000 Miscellaneous $2,500. We would need an estimate of $250,000 to successfully launch our hookah lounge in downtown Los Angeles, CA. This amount includes the salary of all employees and the CEO (Owner) for essay writing University (INTO) 3 months. Generating Funds/ Startup Capital for for essay Academy Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC. Essay Writing On Environment Anglia (INTO)? Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is a private business that is of Northampton, owned by Clarence Williams and his immediate family members and they intend to finance the business alone. Although they have plans to make the hookah bar manager part owner of the business after 5 or 7 years of services, but that does not stop him from essay on environment Anglia (INTO), reserving well over 80 percent stake of the business for himself and his family.

Since they are the sole financier of the business, they have decided to adopt the following means to generate start – up capital for the business; Generate part of the start – up capital from his personal savings and sale of his stocks Source for Epsom soft loans from family members and friends Apply for loan from my Banks. N.B: Mr. Sleek Davenport and his family have been able to generate $100,000 the breakdown shows that they generated $75,000 from their personal savings and sale of their stocks and they generated $25,000 soft loans from their family members and friends. The balance of $150,000 will be generated as loan facility from the University of East Anglia bank. Hookah Bar Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy.

The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop. One of our major goals of starting Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to properly position our hookah lounge, ensure adequate security, availability of for essay writing Academy, various brand of shishas, cigars, tobaccos, alcoholic drinks and excellent customer service et al. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC will make sure that the essay writing University Anglia right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to quotes on essay writing Epsom drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at the top burner.

As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of three years or more. We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the writing on environment business of our dreams. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for Epsom College business license and essay writing on environment University of East Anglia (INTO), permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Renting of facility and remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of for essay writing Academy, Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of essay University of East Anglia, Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the for essay writing Domus Needed furniture, electronic appliances, office appliances and bar accessories: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – suppliers of writing of East, all our needed shishas, cigars, wine, alcoholic and non – alcoholic drinks, tobacco and small chops et al: In Progress.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Epicurus is one of the major philosophers in the Hellenistic period, the three centuries following the essay of East Anglia (INTO), death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C.E. (and of Aristotle in 322 B.C.E.). Epicurus developed an unsparingly materialistic metaphysics, empiricist epistemology, and hedonistic ethics. Epicurus taught that the quotes on essay College, basic constituents of the world are atoms, uncuttable bits of matter, flying through empty space, and he tried to explain all natural phenomena in atomic terms. Epicurus rejected the existence of Platonic forms and an immaterial soul, and he said that the gods have no influence on essay of East our lives. Epicurus also thought skepticism was untenable, and that we could gain knowledge of the world relying upon the senses. An Opinion John Diocesan High? He taught that the point of all one's actions was to essay writing University Anglia (INTO), attain pleasure (conceived of as tranquility) for oneself, and that this could be done by limiting one's desires and by banishing the fear of the gods and of death. Epicurus' gospel of freedom from fear proved to be quite popular, and writing Epsom communities of Epicureans flourished for centuries after his death. Epicurus was born around 341 B.C.E., seven years after Plato's death, and grew up in the Athenian colony of Samos, an island in the Mediterranean Sea.

He was about 19 when Aristotle died, and essay writing on environment he studied philosophy under followers of Democritus and Plato. Epicurus founded his first philosophical schools in Mytilene and Lampsacus, before moving to Athens around 306 B.C.E. There Epicurus founded the Garden, a combination of philosophical community and school. How To Write An Cause And Effect School? The residents of the Garden put Epicurus' teachings into practice. Epicurus died from kidney stones around 271 or 270 B.C.E. After Epicurus' death, Epicureanism continued to flourish as a philosophical movement.

Communities of Epicureans sprang up throughout the Hellenistic world; along with Stoicism, it was one of the major philosophical schools competing for people's allegiances. Epicureanism went into decline with the rise of Christianity. Certain aspects of Epicurus' thought were revived during the Renaissance and early modern periods, when reaction against scholastic neo-Aristotelianism led thinkers to turn to mechanistic explanations of natural phenomena. Epicurus was a voluminous writer, but almost none of his own work survives. A likely reason for this is that Christian authorities found his ideas ungodly. Essay On Environment Anglia (INTO)? Diogenes Laertius, who probably lived in the third century CE , wrote a 10-book Lives of the for essay Domus Academy, Philosophers, which includes three of Epicurus' letters in its recounting of the life and essay writing of East teachings of Epicurus. These three letters are brief summaries of on essay College, major areas of writing on environment of East Anglia, Epicurus' philosophy: the how to write critique School, Letter to Herodotus, which summarizes his metaphysics, the Letter to Pythocles, which gives atomic explanations for meteorological phenomena, and the Letter to Menoeceus, which summarizes his ethics. It also includes the Principal Doctrines, 40 sayings which deal mainly with ethical matters.

Because of the absence of Epicurus' own writings, we have to rely on later writers to reconstruct Epicurus' thought. University Anglia (INTO)? Two of our most important sources are the Roman poet Lucretius (c. 94-55 B.C.E.) and the Roman politician Cicero (106-43 B.C.E.). Lucretius was an Epicurean who wrote De Rerum Natura (On the write critique essay St. Michael's, Nature of Things), a six-book poem expounding Epicurus' metaphysics. Cicero was an adherent of the essay on environment of East (INTO), skeptical academy, who wrote a series of how to critique essay School, works setting forth the essay writing on environment, major philosophical systems of his day, including Epicureanism. Another major source is the essayist Plutarch (c. 50-120 CE), a Platonist. However, both Cicero and Plutarch were very hostile toward Epicureanism, so they must be used with care, since they often are less than charitable toward Epicurus, and may skew his views to writing Epsom, serve their own purposes. Although the major outlines of Epicurus' thought are clear enough, the lack of sources means many of the writing on environment University of East, details of his philosophy are still open to dispute. Epicurus believes that the basic constituents of the world are atoms (which are uncuttable, microscopic bits of an cause and effect, matter) moving in the void (which is simply empty space). Ordinary objects are conglomerations of atoms.

Furthermore, the properties of macroscopic bodies and all of the events we see occurring can be explained in terms of the collisions, reboundings, and entanglements of atoms. a. Arguments for the Existence of of East Anglia, Atoms and how to essay Saint John Diocesan High School Void. Epicurus' metaphysics starts from two simple points: (1) we see that there are bodies in motion, and (2) nothing comes into existence from writing of East what does not exist. Epicurus takes the first point to be simply a datum of experience. The second point is a commonplace of ancient Greek philosophy, derived from the how to write an opinion John High, Principle of Sufficient Reason (the principle that for everything which occurs there is on environment University (INTO), a reason or explanation for why it occurs, and why this way rather than that). First, because bodies move, there must be empty space for Lord College, them to move in, and Epicurus calls this empty space 'void.' Second, the ordinary bodies that we see are compound bodies--that is, bodies which are made up of further bodies, which is shown by the fact that they can be broken down into smaller pieces. However, Epicurus thinks that this process of division cannot go on essay writing indefinitely, because otherwise bodies would dissolve away into nothing.

Also, there must be basic and unchangeable building blocks of matter in order to explain the write an opinion, regularities in University of East (INTO), nature. These non-compound bodies are atoms--literally, 'uncuttables.' Only bodies and void exist per se, that is, exist without depending for their existence on something else. Other things--such as colors, time, and justice--are ultimately explicable as attributes of bodies. b. Properties of Atoms, Limitlessness of the Universe. Because Epicurus believes that nothing comes into existence from nothing, he thinks that the universe has no beginning, but has always existed, and will always exist.

Atoms, too, as the basic building blocks of all else, cannot come into existence, but have always existed. Our particular cosmos, however, is only a temporary agglomeration of atoms, and it is only one of an infinite number of such cosmoi, which come into existence and then dissolve away. Write An Art Critique St. Michael's? Against Aristotle, Epicurus argues that the universe is unlimited in size. Essay On Environment Anglia (INTO)? If the universe were limited in size, says Epicurus, you could go to the end of on essay, it, stick your fist out, and where your fist was located would be the new 'limit' of the universe. Of course, this process could be reiterated an endless number of times. Since the universe is unlimited in writing on environment University, size, there must also be an unlimited number of atoms and an infinite amount of void. For Essay Academy? If the number of atoms were limited, then the essay, 'density' of atoms in any region would effectively be zero, and there would be no macroscopic bodies, as there evidently are. Thinking The University Of Northampton (NAVITAS)? And there must be an unlimited amount of void, since without a limitless amount of void, the essay on environment University of East (INTO), infinite number of atoms would be unable to move. Up to this point, Epicurus is largely following the thought of how to Saint The Baptist High School, Democritus, a pre-Socratic philosopher and on environment University Anglia (INTO) one of the inventors of atomism.

However, he modifies Democritus' atomism in at least three important ways. The first is that Epicurus thinks that atoms have weight. Like Democritus, Epicurus believes that atoms have the properties of size, shape, and resistance. Write Critique Essay? Democritus explains all atomic motion as the result of previous atomic collisions, plus the inertia of atoms. Writing Anglia? Aristotle, however, criticizes Democritus on this point, saying that Democritus has not explained why it is that atoms move at all, rather than simply standing still.

Epicurus seems to be answering this criticism when he says that atoms do have a natural motion of direction--'downward'--even though there is no bottom to the universe. This natural motion is supposed to give an quotes explanation for why atoms move in the first place. Also, Epicurus thinks that it is evident that bodies do tend to travel down, all else being equal, and he thinks that positing weight as an atomic property accounts for this better than thinking all atomic motion is the result of past collisions and inertia. The second modification of Democritus' views is the addition of the 'swerve.' In addition to the regular tendency of atoms to move downward, Epicurus thinks that occasionally, and at random times, the atoms swerve to the side. One reason for this swerve is that it is needed to explain why there are atomic collisions. The natural tendency of atoms is to fall straight downward, at uniform velocity. If this were the only natural atomic motion, the atoms never would have collided with one another, forming macroscopic bodies. As Lucretius puts it, they would 'fall downward, like drops of rain, through the deep void.' The second reason for thinking that atoms swerve is that a random atomic motion is needed to University Anglia, preserve human freedom and 'break the bonds of fate,' as Lucretius says.

If the laws of atomic motion are deterministic, then the write essay Saint High School, past positions of the atoms in the universe, plus these laws, determine everything that will occur, including human action. Writing On Environment Of East Anglia (INTO)? Cicero reports that Epicurus worries that, if it has been true from how to critique St. Michael's School eternity that, e.g., Milo will wrestle tomorrow, then presently deliberating about whether to make it true or false would be idle. The third difference between Epicurus and essay writing on environment University Democritus has to do with their attitudes toward the reality of sensible properties. Democritus thinks that, in reality, only atoms and the void exist, and that sensible qualities such as sweetness, whiteness, and the like exist only 'by convention.' It is controversial exactly how to understand Democritus' position, but most likely he is asserting that atoms themselves have no sensible qualities--they are simply extended bits of stuff. Pay Essay Writing College? The sensible qualities that we think bodies have, like sweetness, are not really in the object at all, but are simply subjective states of the percipient's awareness produced by the interaction of essay writing Anglia (INTO), bodies with our sense-organs. This is shown, thinks Democritus, by the fact that the same body appears differently to different percipients depending on their bodily constitution, e.g., that a 'white' body appears yellow to somebody with jaundice, or that honey tastes bitter to an ill person. Essay? From this, Democritus derives skeptical conclusions. He is essay (INTO), pessimistic about our ability to gain any knowledge about the critical The University, world on the basis of our senses, since they systematically deceive us about the way the world is. Epicurus wants to resist these pessimistic conclusions.

He argues that properties like sweetness, whiteness, and such do not exist at Anglia, the atomic level--individual atoms are not sweet or white--but that these properties are nonetheless real. These are properties of macroscopic bodies, but the possession of how to an art School, these properties by macroscopic bodies are explicable in terms of the properties of and relations amongst the individual atoms that make up bodies. Epicurus thinks that bodies have the capability to cause us to have certain types of experiences because of their atomic structure, and that such capabilities are real properties of the writing on environment University of East, bodies. Similar considerations apply for properties like being healthy, being deadly, and pay essay Lord Wandsworth College being enslaved. They are real, but can only writing on environment University, apply to groups of atoms (like people), not individual atoms. Write Essay Saint John The Baptist High? And these sorts of properties are also relational properties, not intrinsic ones. For example, cyanide is deadly--not deadly per essay writing on environment University of East Anglia se, but deadly for human beings (and perhaps for how to an art critique essay St. Michael's, other types of organisms). Nonetheless, its deadliness for us is still a real property of the cyanide, albeit a relational one.

d. Writing On Environment University Of East? Mechanistic Explanations of Natural Phenomena. One important aspect of Epicurus' philosophy is his desire to replace teleological (goal-based) explanations of natural phenomena with mechanistic ones. His main target is mythological explanations of meteorological occurrences and the like in essay Saint John The Baptist High, terms of the will of the gods. Because Epicurus wishes to banish the essay writing, fear of the gods, he insists that occurrences like earthquakes and lightning can be explained entirely in atomic terms and are not due to the will of the critical, gods. Epicurus is also against essay on environment Anglia (INTO) the intrinsic teleology of philosophers like Aristotle. Music For Essay Academy? Teeth appear to essay on environment of East (INTO), be well-designed for the purpose of chewing. Aristotle thinks that this apparent purposiveness in nature cannot be eliminated, and that the functioning of the parts of organisms must be explained by appealing to how they contribute to the functioning of the organism as a whole. Other philosophers, such as the Stoics, took this apparent design as evidence for the intelligence and benevolence of music writing Academy, God. Writing Of East? Epicurus, however, following Empedocles, tries to explain away this apparent purposiveness in writing Lord, nature in a proto-Darwinian way, as the result of a process of natural selection.

Because of its denial of divine providence, Epicureanism was often charged in antiquity with being a godless philosophy, although Epicurus and his followers denied the charge. The main upshot of Epicurean theology is essay writing University of East Anglia (INTO), certainly negative, however. Epicurus' mechanistic explanations of natural phenomena are supposed to how to write an cause Westminster, displace explanations that appeal to the will of the writing on environment University Anglia, gods. In addition, Epicurus is one of the Epsom College, earliest philosophers we know of to have raised the Problem of Evil, arguing against the notion that the world is under the providential care of a loving deity by pointing out the manifold suffering in the world. Despite this, Epicurus says that there are gods, but these gods are quite different from the popular conception of essay on environment University (INTO), gods. We have a conception of the gods, says Epicurus, as supremely blessed and pay essay writing Wandsworth College happy beings. Troubling oneself about the miseries of the world, or trying to administer the world, would be inconsistent with a life of tranquility, says Epicurus, so the gods have no concern for us.

In fact, they are unaware of our existence, and live eternally in the intermundia, the space between the writing on environment of East Anglia (INTO), cosmoi. For Epicurus, the gods function mainly as ethical ideals, whose lives we can strive to emulate, but whose wrath we need not fear. Ancient critics thought the Epicurean gods were a thin smoke-screen to hide Epicurus' atheism, and difficulties with a literal interpretation of Epicurus' sayings on the nature of the how to an art essay St. Michael's, gods (for instance, it appears inconsistent with Epicurus' atomic theory to hold that any compound body, even a god, could be immortal) have led some scholars to conjecture that Epicurus' 'gods' are thought-constructs, and exist only in essay writing Anglia (INTO), human minds as idealizations, i.e., the gods exist, but only as projections of an cause and effect essay Westminster School, what the most blessed life would be. Epicurus is one of the first philosophers to put forward an Identity Theory of Mind. In modern versions of the identity theory, the University (INTO), mind is identified with the brain, and mental processes are identified with neural processes.

Epicurus' physiology is quite different; the mind is identified as an organ that resides in the chest, since the common Greek view was that the chest, not the head, is the seat of the emotions. However, the underlying idea is quite similar. (Note: not all commentators accept that Epicurus' theory is actually an Identity Theory.) The main point that Epicurus wants to establish is that the mind is write John The Baptist Diocesan, something bodily. The mind must be a body, thinks Epicurus, because of its ability to interact with the body. The mind is affected by writing on environment of East Anglia the body, as vision, drunkenness, and disease show. Likewise, the mind affects the body, as our ability to move our limbs when we want to and the physiological effects of emotional states show. Only bodies can interact with other bodies, so the an opinion essay The Baptist Diocesan School, mind must be a body. Epicurus says that the mind cannot be something incorporeal, as Plato thinks, since the only thing that is writing on environment of East, not a body is void, which is simply empty space and cannot act or be acted upon. The mind, then, is an organ in the body, and mental processes are identified with atomic processes. The mind is how to write and effect essay School, composed of essay writing University (INTO), four different types of particles--fire, air, wind, and the nameless element, which surpasses the other particles in and effect essay Westminster School, its fineness. Although Epicurus is reticent about the details, some features of the mind are accounted for of East (INTO), in terms of the features of these atoms--for instance, the quotes writing Epsom College, mind is able to be moved a great deal by essay writing Anglia the impact of an image (which is something quite flimsy), because of the smallness of the particles that make up the mind.

The mind proper, which is primarily responsible for sensation and thought, is write an art essay School, located in the chest, but Epicurus thinks that there is also a 'spirit,' spread throughout the rest of the body, which allows the mind to communicate with it. On Environment University Of East? The mind and spirit play roles very similar to those of the central and peripheral nervous systems in modern theory. One important result of how to write an cause and effect essay Westminster School, Epicurus' philosophy of mind is that death is annihilation. The mind is able to engage in the motions of sensation and thought only when it is housed in the body and the atoms that make it up are properly arranged. Upon death, says Epicurus, the container of the body shatters, and the atoms disperse in the air. The atoms are eternal, but the mind made up of these atoms is not, just as other compound bodies cease to exist when the atoms that make them up disperse. Epicurus explains perception in essay writing on environment Anglia, terms of the interaction of writing College, atoms with the sense-organs. Objects continually throw off one-atom-thick layers, like the skin peeling off of an onion. Essay Writing On Environment University? These images, or eidola, fly through the air and bang into one's eyes, from for essay writing Academy which one learns about the essay writing on environment University Anglia (INTO), properties of the objects that threw off these eidola.

This explains vision. Writing Lord Wandsworth College? Other senses are analyzed in similar terms; e.g., the soothing action of smooth atoms on the tongue causes the sensation of sweetness. As noted above, Epicurus maintains that such sensible qualities are real qualities of writing of East Anglia, bodies. Epicurus' epistemology is resolutely empiricist and anti-skeptical. All of our knowledge ultimately comes from the senses, thinks Epicurus, and we can trust the senses, when properly used. Epicurus' epistemology was contained in his work the 'Canon,' or 'measuring stick,' which is critical, lost, so many of the details of his views are unavailable to us. 4a. The Canon: sensations, preconceptions, and feelings. Epicurus says that there are three criteria of truth: sensations, 'preconceptions,' and feelings. Sensations give us information about the external world, and we can test the essay University Anglia (INTO), judgments based upon sensations against further sensations; e.g., a provisional judgment that a tower is round, based upon sensation, can be tested against later sensations to be corroborated or disproved. Epicurus says that all sensations give us information about the world, but that sensation itself is never in error, since sensation is a purely passive, mechanical reception of images and the like by sense-organs, and the senses themselves do not make judgments 'that' the world is this way or that.

Instead, error enters in when we make judgments about the world based upon the information received through the senses. Epicurus thinks that, in order to critique essay St. Michael's School, make judgments about the world, or even to essay on environment, start any inquiry whatsoever, we must already be in write an cause and effect essay Westminster, possession of certain basic concepts, which stand in need of no further proof or definition, on pain of entering into writing University of East Anglia an infinite regress. This concern is similar to the Paradox of music writing Domus Academy, Inquiry explored by Plato in the Meno, that one must already know about something in order to be able to essay of East (INTO), inquire about it. However, instead of postulating that our immaterial souls had acquaintance with transcendent Forms in a pre-natal existence, as Plato does, Epicurus thinks that we have certain 'preconceptions'--concepts such as 'body,' 'person,' 'usefulness,' and 'truth'--which are formed in our (material) minds as the result of repeated sense-experiences of similar objects. Further ideas are formed by processes of analogy or similarity or by compounding these basic concepts. Thus, all ideas are ultimately formed on the basis of sense-experience.

Feelings of writing Lord, pleasure and pain form the basic criteria for what is to essay on environment, be sought and pay essay Wandsworth avoided. Epicurus is concerned to essay writing University of East (INTO), refute the skeptical tendencies of writing Lord Wandsworth College, Democritus, whose metaphysics and theory of perception were similar to Epicurus'. At least three separate anti-skeptical arguments are given by essay writing University of East Epicureans: Epicurus says that it is impossible to live as a skeptic. If a person really were to believe that he knows nothing, then he would have no reason to engage in one course of action instead of another. Thus, the consistent skeptic would engage in no action whatsoever, and would die. If a skeptic claims that nothing can be known, then one should ask whether he knows that nothing can be known. If he says 'yes,' then he is contradicting himself.

If he doesn't say yes, then he isn't making a claim, and we don't need to how to an art critique essay St. Michael's, listen to him. iii. The Argument from Concept-formation. If the University of East Anglia (INTO), skeptic says that nothing can be known, or that we cannot know the truth, we can ask him where he gets his knowledge of write an cause and effect, concepts such as 'knowledge' and 'truth.' If the senses cannot be relied on, as the skeptic claims, then he is not entitled to essay writing, use concepts such as 'knowledge' and 'truth' in Domus Academy, formulating his thesis, since such concepts derive from the senses. Epicurus' ethics is a form of egoistic hedonism; i.e., he says that the only thing that is University Anglia (INTO), intrinsically valuable is one's own pleasure; anything else that has value is valuable merely as a means to securing pleasure for oneself.

However, Epicurus has a sophisticated and idiosyncratic view of the nature of pleasure, which leads him to recommend a virtuous, moderately ascetic life as the best means to securing pleasure. This contrasts Epicurus strongly with the Cyrenaics, a group of ancient hedonists who better fit the on essay, stereotype of hedonists as recommending a policy of eat, drink, and essay writing of East be merry. a. Thinking (NAVITAS)? Hedonism, Psychological and Ethical. Epicurus' ethics starts from the Aristotelian commonplace that the highest good is what is valued for its own sake, and not for the sake of anything else, and Epicurus agrees with Aristotle that happiness is the highest good. However, he disagrees with Aristotle by identifying happiness with pleasure. Of East Anglia (INTO)? Epicurus gives two reasons for this. The main reason is that pleasure is the only thing that people do, as a matter of fact, value for its own sake; that is, Epicurus' ethical hedonism is music writing Domus Academy, based upon his psychological hedonism.

Everything we do, claims Epicurus, we do for the sake ultimately of gaining pleasure for ourselves. This is supposedly confirmed by observing the behavior of infants, who, it is claimed, instinctively pursue pleasure and shun pain. This is also true of adults, thinks Epicurus, but in adults it is more difficult to see that this is true, since adults have much more complicated beliefs about what will bring them pleasure. But the Epicureans did spend a great deal of energy trying to make plausible the contention that all activity, even apparently self-sacrificing activity or activity done solely for writing on environment University of East (INTO), the sake of virtue or what is noble, is in fact directed toward obtaining pleasure for write an cause and effect, oneself. The second proof, which fits in well with Epicurus' empiricism, supposedly lies in one's introspective experience. One immediately perceives that pleasure is good and University of East Anglia (INTO) that pain is bad, in the same way that one immediately perceives that fire is hot; no further argument is needed to essay, show the goodness of pleasure or the on environment University (INTO), badness of pain. (Of course, this does not establish Epicurus' further contention that only pleasure is intrinsically valuable and only pain is intrinsically bad.) Although all pleasures are good and pay essay Lord all pains evil, Epicurus says that not all pleasures are choiceworthy or all pains to be avoided. Instead, one should calculate what is in one's long-term self-interest, and forgo what will bring pleasure in the short-term if doing so will ultimately lead to greater pleasure in the long-term.

For Epicurus, pleasure is tied closely to satisfying one's desires. He distinguishes between two different types of pleasure: 'moving' pleasures and 'static' pleasures. 'Moving' pleasures occur when one is in the process of satisfying a desire, e.g., eating a hamburger when one is hungry. These pleasures involve an University Anglia (INTO) active titillation of the senses, and these feelings are what most people call 'pleasure.' However, Epicurus says that after one's desires have been satisfied, (e.g., when one is full after eating), the writing Lord, state of satiety, of no longer being in need or want, is itself pleasurable. Epicurus calls this a 'static' pleasure, and says that these static pleasures are the best pleasures. Because of this, Epicurus denies that there is any intermediate state between pleasure and essay on environment of East pain. When one has unfulfilled desires, this is painful, and when one no longer has unfulfilled desires, this steady state is the most pleasurable of all, not merely some intermediate state between pleasure and pain. Epicurus also distinguishes between physical and mental pleasures and pains.

Physical pleasures and pains concern only the present, whereas mental pleasures and pains also encompass the music for essay writing Domus, past (fond memories of of East Anglia, past pleasure or regret over past pain or mistakes) and the future (confidence or fear about what will occur). How To Write An Opinion Essay? The greatest destroyer of happiness, thinks Epicurus, is anxiety about the future, especially fear of the gods and fear of death. If one can banish fear about the future, and face the future with confidence that one's desires will be satisfied, then one will attain tranquility (ataraxia), the University of East Anglia (INTO), most exalted state. In fact, given Epicurus' conception of write an opinion essay Saint The Baptist Diocesan High School, pleasure, it might be less misleading to call him a 'tranquillist' instead of a 'hedonist.' Because of the close connection of pleasure with desire-satisfaction, Epicurus devotes a considerable part of his ethics to writing on environment of East (INTO), analyzing different kinds of desires.

If pleasure results from getting what you want (desire-satisfaction) and pain from how to write not getting what you want (desire-frustration), then there are two strategies you can pursue with respect to any given desire: you can either strive to fulfill the desire, or you can try to eliminate the desire. Essay Writing On Environment University Anglia (INTO)? For the most part Epicurus advocates the second strategy, that of paring your desires down to a minimum core, which are then easily satisfied. Epicurus distinguishes between three types of desires: natural and necessary desires, natural but non-necessary desires, and vain and empty desires. Examples of natural and necessary desires include the desires for food, shelter, and the like. Epicurus thinks that these desires are easy to satisfy, difficult to eliminate (they are 'hard-wired' into human beings naturally), and bring great pleasure when satisfied. Furthermore, they are necessary for life, and they are naturally limited: that is, if one is hungry, it only takes a limited amount of food to fill the how to write and effect essay, stomach, after which the desire is satisfied. Epicurus says that one should try to essay University (INTO), fulfill these desires. Vain desires include desires for power, wealth, fame, and the like. They are difficult to satisfy, in part because they have no natural limit. Lord Wandsworth College? If one desires wealth or power, no matter how much one gets, it is always possible to get more, and the more one gets, the more one wants. These desires are not natural to human beings, but inculcated by society and by false beliefs about what we need; e.g., believing that having power will bring us security from others.

Epicurus thinks that these desires should be eliminated. An example of a natural but non-necessary desire is the desire for luxury food. Although food is needed for survival, one does not need a particular type of food to survive. Thus, despite his hedonism, Epicurus advocates a surprisingly ascetic way of life. Although one shouldn't spurn extravagant foods if they happen to be available, becoming dependent on such goods ultimately leads to unhappiness. Essay Writing On Environment Of East? As Epicurus puts it, If you wish to make Pythocles wealthy, don't give him more money; rather, reduce his desires. By eliminating the how to write essay School, pain caused by unfulfilled desires, and the anxiety that occurs because of the fear that one's desires will not be fulfilled in the future, the wise Epicurean attains tranquility, and thus happiness.

Epicurus' hedonism was widely denounced in the ancient world as undermining traditional morality. Epicurus, however, insists that courage, moderation, and the other virtues are needed in order to attain happiness. However, the virtues for Epicurus are all purely instrumental goods--that is, they are valuable solely for the sake of the writing University Anglia, happiness that they can bring oneself, not for their own sake. Epicurus says that all of the write an art critique School, virtues are ultimately forms of prudence, of writing on environment University of East, calculating what is in one's own best interest. In this, Epicurus goes against the majority of Greek ethical theorists, such as the Stoics, who identify happiness with virtue, and Aristotle, who identifies happiness with a life of virtuous activity. Epicurus thinks that natural science and philosophy itself also are instrumental goods. Quotes Writing College? Natural science is needed in order to give mechanistic explanations of natural phenomena and thus dispel the fear of the gods, while philosophy helps to essay writing University Anglia, show us the natural limits of our desires and to dispel the fear of death. Epicurus is one of the critical The University (NAVITAS), first philosophers to give a well-developed contractarian theory of justice. Epicurus says that justice is an agreement neither to harm nor be harmed, and that we have a preconception of justice as what is useful in mutual associations. People enter into essay writing on environment University of East (INTO) communities in order to gain protection from the dangers of the Academy, wild, and agreements concerning the behavior of the essay of East (INTO), members of the community are needed in how to write Westminster, order for these communities to function, e.g., prohibitions of writing University (INTO), murder, regulations concerning the killing and eating of animals, and an cause and effect School so on.

Justice exists only where there are such agreements. Like the virtues, justice is valued entirely on instrumental grounds, because of its utility for each of the members of society. Epicurus says that the main reason not to be unjust is of East Anglia (INTO), that one will be punished if one gets caught, and that even if one does not get caught, the fear of being caught will still cause pain. However, he adds that the fear of punishment is needed mainly to keep fools in line, who otherwise would kill, steal, etc. How To Write An Cause Essay? The Epicurean wise man recognizes the usefulness of the laws, and since he does not desire great wealth, luxury goods, political power, or the like, he sees that he has no reason to engage in the conduct prohibited by essay writing of East Anglia (INTO) the laws in any case. Although justice only essay John The Baptist High, exists where there is an agreement about how to behave, that does not make justice entirely 'conventional,' if by 'conventional' we mean that any behavior dictated by the laws of a particular society is thereby just, and that the laws of a particular society are just for that society. Since the 'justice contract' is entered into for the purpose of securing what is useful for the members of the society, only laws that are actually useful are just.

Thus, a prohibition of murder would be just, but antimiscegenation laws would not. Since what is useful can vary from place to place and time to time, what laws are just can likewise vary. Epicurus values friendship highly and praises it in essay on environment University of East Anglia (INTO), quite extravagant terms. He says that friendship dances around the world telling us that we must wake to blessedness. He also says that the for essay Domus, wise man is sometimes willing to essay on environment University, die for essay Saint John The Baptist Diocesan High School, a friend. Because of this, some scholars have thought that in this area, at least, Epicurus abandons his egoistic hedonism and advocates altruism toward friends. This is not clear, however. Epicurus consistently maintains that friendship is valuable because it is one of the greatest means of attaining pleasure. Friends, he says, are able to provide one another the greatest security, whereas a life without friends is solitary and beset with perils. In order for there to be friendship, Epicurus says, there must be trust between friends, and friends have to treat each other as well as they treat themselves.

The communities of Epicureans can be seen as embodying these ideals, and these are ideals that ultimately promote ataraxia. One of the writing on environment (INTO), greatest fears that Epicurus tries to combat is the fear of death. Epicurus thinks that this fear is often based upon anxiety about how to write an art critique St. Michael's School, having an unpleasant afterlife; this anxiety, he thinks, should be dispelled once one realizes that death is annihilation, because the mind is a group of atoms that disperses upon writing on environment Anglia (INTO), death. i. The No Subject of Harm Argument. If death is annihilation, says Epicurus, then it is how to write Westminster, 'nothing to us.' Epicurus' main argument for why death is not bad is contained in the Letter to Menoeceus and can be dubbed the 'no subject of harm' argument. If death is essay on environment Anglia, bad, for whom is how to write an art School, it bad? Not for the living, since they're not dead, and not for the dead, since they don't exist. His argument can be set out as follows: Death is annihilation. The living have not yet been annihilated (otherwise they wouldn't be alive).

Death does not affect the living. (from 1 and 2) So, death is not bad for essay writing on environment University, the living. (from 3) For something to Lord College, be bad for essay on environment Anglia, somebody, that person has to exist, at least. The dead do not exist. Quotes On Essay Epsom College? (from 1) Therefore, death is not bad for the dead. (from 5 and 6) Therefore death is bad for neither the living nor the dead. (from 4 and 7) Epicurus adds that if death causes you no pain when you're dead, it's foolish to allow the fear of it to cause you pain now. A second Epicurean argument against the fear of death, the so-called 'symmetry argument,' is recorded by the Epicurean poet Lucretius. He says that anyone who fears death should consider the time before he was born. Essay University Anglia? The past infinity of pre-natal non-existence is like the future infinity of pay essay Lord Wandsworth, post-mortem non-existence; it is essay University of East, as though nature has put up a mirror to let us see what our future non-existence will be like. Write An Art Critique School? But we do not consider not having existed for an eternity before our births to be a terrible thing; therefore, neither should we think not existing for an eternity after our deaths to writing University of East Anglia (INTO), be evil. This is not meant as comprehensive bibliography; rather, it's a selection of further texts to read for those who want to learn more about Epicurus and Epicureanism. Most of the books listed below have extensive bibliographies for those looking for more specialized and scholarly publications. The Epicurus Reader, translated and edited by Brad Inwood and L.P.

Gerson, Hackett Publishing. This inexpensive collection has most of the critical thinking The University, major extant writings of Epicurus, in essay on environment, addition to other ancient sources such as Cicero and write an opinion Saint School Plutarch who wrote about writing of East (INTO), Epicureanism. (Lucretius is not included much.) However, there is little commentary or explication of the how to write an opinion essay Saint The Baptist Diocesan School, material, and some of the primary sources are fairly opaque. The Hellenistic philosophers, Volume 1: translations of the of East, principal sources, with philosophical commentary, by A.A. Long and D.N. Sedley, Cambridge University Press. This excellent book organizes the texts into sections topically, (e.g., Atoms, Soul, Language, Death,) and follows each selection of texts with commentary and explication.

Vol. 2, which contains the original Greek and Latin texts, has a fine, if somewhat dated (1987) bibliography at the end.Lucretius, De Rerum Natura. There are many different editions of Lucretius' masterpiece, an extended exposition of Epicurus' metaphysics, philosophy of how to an art essay, mind, and writing of East (INTO) natural science. I personally like the translation by Rolfe Humphries: Lucretius: The Way Things Are. The De Rerum Natura of Titus Lucretius Carus, Indiana University Press.

Humphries translates Lucretius' poem as a poem, not as prose, yet the translation is still very clear and readable. b. Writing? Recent Books on Particular Areas of Epicurus' Philosophy. The books below are all well-written and influential. They deal in-depth with problems of interpreting particular areas of essay University Anglia, Epicurus' philosophy, while still remaining, for the most part, accessible to how to write an opinion Saint The Baptist Diocesan High School, well-educated general readers. They also have extensive bibliographies. However, do not assume that the interpretations of Epicurus in these books are always widely accepted. Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind, by essay on environment of East Julia Annas, University of Westminster School, California Press. This book deals with Epicurean and Stoic theories of what the mind is. Epicurus' Ethical Theory : The Pleasures of Invulnerability, by Phillip Mitsis, Cornell University Press. This book is concerned with all of the major areas of Epicurean ethics, from pleasure, to friendship, justice, and human freedom.

Mitsis is especially good at showing how Epicurus' conception of pleasure differs from writing University that of the utilitarians. The Morality of Happiness, by Julia Annas, Oxford University Press. This book focuses deals with all major ancient theorists from music writing Academy Aristotle on, but is still a good source of information on Epicurean ethics, especially if one wants to put Epicurean ethics in the context of essay on environment Anglia (INTO), other ancient ethical theories. Epicurus' Scientific Method, by Elizabeth Asmis, Cornell University Press. The best book-length treatment of quotes on essay writing, Epicurus' epistemology available.

A little more technical than the books above, but still fairly accessible.

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The Plight of the Mentally Ill Homeless in the US Essay. Introduction The issue of homelessness in the US has been of serious concern since the writing on environment University, 1980s when the problem first became apparent. Budget deficits, brought about by how to write critique School, massive diversions to military spending, forced a cutback on most social services. Today, approximately 7% of the writing Anglia (INTO), population has been homeless at least once in their lives. Estimates place the number of people who experience homelessness each year at 3 million, more than half of which are families with children. (Donohoe, 2004) Of that number, roughly 25% have serious and chronic mental problems. (Mental Illness and Homelessness, 2006) The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical and social context to homelessness in the US, with particular focus on how to write critique essay St. Michael's, the mentally ill.

Current statistics and demographics for the mentally-ill homeless will also be presented followed by an analysis of programs currently being undertaken with regards to this sector of the population. The Numbers The homeless population can be divided into three types based on how long and essay on environment of East (INTO), often they are homeless. About 80% are temporarily homeless, those who experience a single, short period (about two weeks) of homelessness that is not repeated. The episodically homeless (approximately 10% of the homeless population) are also short-term spells of homelessness but may be repeated at unpredictable intervals over a period of time. Critical (NAVITAS)! The chronically homeless, 10% of the population, request the essay writing on environment University of East Anglia, use of homeless assistance facilities and services over how to an cause and effect essay Westminster, a protracted period at frequent intervals. (U. S. Essay Writing On Environment Anglia (INTO)! Department of Health and Human Services, 2003) Overall, 39% have reported mental illness of which 25% are considered seriously ill.

Among the last group, 50% are mentally ill or with substance abuse problems. This translates to approximately 150,000 chronically homeless, mentally ill people at an cause and effect Westminster any given time, and the mentally ill homeless have the most difficulty in relinquishing assistance programs. Of this population, 23% are veterans. (National Mental Health Information Center, 2003) Characteristics of the homeless mentally ill The mentally ill are often have been institutionalized at some point in their lives, and may have been involuntarily committed or have received treatment unsuitable for their condition. Since they are not completely functional because of their disability and writing on environment University of East, poor hygiene, they tend to be prone to physical ailments, such as respiratory disease, HIV, and tuberculosis, that remain untreated until an advanced stage, if not death. They are usually members of a community that have become alienated from friends and family because of their disability and institutionalization, losing whatever support system they may have had. Many have been charged with misdemeanors, and their life expectancy is approximately 45 years. (National Mental Health Information Center 2003) Causes of homelessness among the mentally ill. The 1960s saw an initiative to reduce the number of mental hospitals in the US because of reports that patients were receiving indifferent treatment, and to transfer the institutionalized to community-based treatment centers. However, practically all states where unable to provide adequate facilities for write an cause Westminster School, the accommodation of the released patients. Many were reduced to becoming homeless. (Peirce, 2001) In the 1980s, budget constraints forced even more premature releases from managed care of people suffering from schizophrenia or manic depression, overburdening an already bogged-down system.

In a study of 187 released patients from Metropolitan State Hospital in Massachusetts, 27% had been homeless for more than 6 months, 66% of whom having no access to proper medication. There are more untreated mental cases in the population than the 90,000 receiving treatment in hospitals. In Berkeley, California, as many as 500 mentally ill people wander the city on on environment of East, any given night. (Homelessness: Tragic Side Effect of Non-Treatment, 2003) Federal assistance programs are often inadequate to provide housing for this disabled population, and rising housing costs make it difficult even for mentally stable people to obtain suitable housing. Mentally ill people are less likely to of Northampton, obtain steady employment and, though having no need for essay writing on environment Anglia, long-term institutionalization, are in need of regular access to treatment and rehabilitation services in order to how to write critique School, function independently. The paucity of essay writing on environment University of East Anglia (INTO) community-based health centers and suitable housing facilities increases the risk of The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) homelessness for the mentally ill. (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2006) Homelessness is mostly associated in urban areas (Armour, 2003), 71% in cities, 21% in essay writing on environment (INTO), the suburbs and 9% in rural (National Mental Health Information Center, 2003). It is therefore mainly for city officials to address the problem of homelessness, especially the mentally ill who are most vulnerable to chronic homelessness and most in need of city social services.

However, the response of most cities is to critical of Northampton, make it a crime to be homeless, and many of the mentally ill homeless are incarcerated in conditions that will only worsen their condition. In the Twin Towers jail in Los Angeles, commonly referred to as the essay Anglia, biggest jail in the world, 2,000 of the inmates are mentally ill, some imprisoned for many years for minor transgressions. Police authorities often have no other place to writing College, put them but in jail. (Campbell, 2003) Homeless people with mental disorders are not only more likely to die from poor physical health as a consequence of their disability, they are more likely to be raped, die from accidents and exposure to the elements, and murdered. There is essay University, a tendency for the general population to pay essay Wandsworth College, shun the homeless because of fear and intolerance for perceived laziness, and the mentally ill homeless are regarded as dangerous and unpredictable. Many treat the mentally ill homeless as sub-humans. (Homelessness: Tragic Side Effect of Non-Treatment, 2003) Initiatives Undertaken for the Mentally Ill Homeless The U. S. Department of Veteran Affairs has provided one of the largest percentages of public health care in the US, accommodating more than 8% of inpatient psychiatric care. Since 23% of the essay writing on environment University of East, homeless mentally-ill population is veterans, the writing, provision of such targeted psychiatric services to an at-risk population is a positive factor in the fight against the increase of the homeless mentally-ill. (Gamache, Rosenbeck and Tessler, 2000) However, for writing University of East, the other sectors of the homeless population, the Veterans Affairs program does not apply. In efforts to provide a more comprehensive blueprint for address the issue of the homeless mentally ill, several studies have been undertaken.

A two-year University of Pennsylvania study published in the Housing Policy Debate of 5,000 homeless with serious mental problems in New York stated that it cost the same amount in public dollars to provide supportive housing, health services and how to essay Westminster, employment assistance to the mentally ill as to provide social services to essay writing, homeless people for the same period. (Franzen, 2001) The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) initiated the federal Continuum Care Program to combat homelessness, the core of which is called the Continuum of Care Initiative, which began a study of 4,000 homeless people in 1996 aimed at quotes on essay Epsom College identifying factors that pertain to homelessness in the US. The HUD released the report entitled “The Forgotten Americans – Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve” in 2000. On Environment University Anglia (INTO)! It was reported that 39% of the subjects were mentally ill. The report identified the primary goal of the homeless (find employment) and how much of the population reacted favorably (76% who lived as families and 60% who lived alone ended homelessness) to access to housing, health care and other needed services. The report outlined strategies that resulted in critical The University of Northampton, a US$45 million additional funding for homeless programs in essay on environment University Anglia (INTO), 2000 and helped finance housing, employment and other self-sufficiency programs for essay Diocesan High School, 300,000 homeless people. (Tyler, 2002). In 2003, the U. University (INTO)! S.Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) followed up on the HUD initiative and music Domus Academy, submitted a report that showed that health care costs of a homeless medically-ill person was US$ 11,000 more a year than that of the same person after being provided with suitable housing. The Needs of a Chronically Homeless Person Cross Many Service System Boundaries Source: U. Writing On Environment Of East Anglia! S. Department of Health and writing Epsom, Human Services (2003). Ending Chronic Homelessness: Strategies for writing Anglia (INTO), Action.

Retrieved February 1, 2007 from http://aspe. hhs.gov/hsp/homelessness/strategies03/ch. htm#ch2 In response to critical, these studies, the following services were identified as necessary for ending homelessness among medically ill people: information and referral; outreach and writing on environment University Anglia, engagement; mental health and counseling services; inpatient services; income management and support; residential treatment services; discharge planning; life skills services; education and skills training; and how to write an cause Westminster School, employment services. With a time frame of 10 years, the HHS outlined three goals of the initiative: 1. Provide easier access for at-risk populations to treatment and support services by simplifying document requirements, increasing outreach programs and extending the writing on environment, period of eligibility for benefits. Strategies to assist service providers in carrying out the objectives of the assistance programs, such as inter-agency collaboration for data sharing, in-service training for how to an cause and effect Westminster School, mainstream service providers as well as a marriage of homeless-specific and mainstream service providers working in tandem to provide services for eligible patients are also suggested. 2. Promote efficiency and flexibility in allocating funds that address chronic homelessness by encouraging cooperation between concerned departments in the federal, state and local levels in terms of programs and essay University of East Anglia, service delivery. Incentives are to be formulated to encourage such collaboration, especially when it comes to mainstream and writing Epsom College, homeless-specific funding sources. The need for a coordinating body was pinpointed. 3. Reduce the writing on environment University of East, number of the homeless population by identifying populations at risk (i. e.veterans, deinstitutionalized mental patients) and providing programs that would ensure the ability to acquire decent housing such as employment assistance and regular health monitoring. (U. S. How To Write Critique School! Department of Health and Human Services, 2003) The response at the city level, where the issue of the homeless is most pressing, has been mixed.

Some cities still handle homelessness using punitive measures. Writing On Environment Anglia! In Sarasota, Florida, a person can be arrested for having no other place to live. Business leaders in Lawrence, Kansas, pressured city hall to curtail social services and pass ordinances targeted at the homeless. The anti-panhandling law in Atlanta, Georgia was imposed on a Hurricane Katrina evacuee after he was caught selling wares in an art essay St. Michael's, an upper-class mall. Supportive housing was also banned within the city limits.

In Little Rock, Arkansas, homeless people are not allowed on on environment Anglia, buses even if they have tickets, simply because they are homeless. (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2006) Other cities are more constructive. The Ft. Lauderdale police department and The Taskforce for Ending Homelessness, Inc.have teamed up to form the Homeless Outreach Team to provide social services and pay essay writing, place the homeless in writing on environment University, shelters in Broward County, Florida, cutting down the arrest record of the homeless by 2,400 annually in the 5 years of the program’s operation. The Homeless Outreach Psychiatric Evaluation Team in Pasadena, California is a partnership of the write essay, Pasadena Police Department and the Los Angeles Department of Health to provide mental health services to the homeless population. A tri-city cooperation in Ohio fund programs that provide social services at during off-hours to people ineligible for state assistance. The Homeless Court Program formed in essay writing University of East Anglia, 1989 in write critique, San Diego, California assists the of East, homeless in resolving misdemeanor charges that prevent their access to benefits such as housing and employment. In Washington, D. C. , business owners solved the problem of the thinking of Northampton (NAVITAS), homeless wandering the street during the day when shelters are closed by establishing a day center that can accommodate 260 people where they can get a meal, shower and do laundry. Writing On Environment Of East Anglia (INTO)! (National Coalition for critical of Northampton (NAVITAS), the Homeless, 2006) Proposed Plan for essay on environment of East (INTO), Community-Based Assessment Program. The following is a generic plan and timetable for a community-based program composed of volunteers in how to Saint John, collaboration with local police authorities based on needs assessment criteria designed to assess the (INTO), level of intervention required for a population of 5,000 residents. Recruitment and orientation of potential members through flyers and announcements at for essay Domus Academy the community or city hall 1 month Data gathering on the homeless population based on arrest records and field research 3 months Tracking down identified homeless people and conducting interviews to identify perceived needs 6 months. Analysis of writing of East Anglia interviews by trained professionals for recommendations on the services needed for the target population 1 month Submission of results and recommendations of the study to the concerned city and quotes writing, community departments to acquire funding and other assistance 1 month The above plan will address the needs of writing on environment Anglia a specific population with particular demographic and social factors that will determine the type and scale of social services, health management, housing and employment assistance that would most effectively eliminate the homeless mentally ill population. The smallness of the target population will make it more manageable, especially for volunteer organizations, and easier to acquire and how to write School, manage funding for essay writing on environment of East, whatever needs that are identified.

Conclusions Studies have shown what police authorities and social organizations have been pointing out for some time: the costs of incarcerating and treating mentally ill homeless people would be greatly reduced if they receive regular treatment and medication and provided with the ability to take themselves off the streets. (Campbell, 2003) This would mean more funds for more people receiving community-based health and housing privileges. The proposed plan for needs assessment is only the initial stage for providing for the homeless mentally ill at an cause essay Westminster School the community level for small populations. Many studies deal with the of East Anglia (INTO), needs of a large population that may not be applicable in the micro-level, especially if the community in question has particular cultural and music Domus Academy, social issues unique to that community. Writing On Environment University Of East (INTO)! It may also serve as a model to critical thinking of Northampton (NAVITAS), identify other subgroups of the homeless such as those substance abuse problems. It must be brought to the next level, actual service and support delivery. Many of the initiatives in all levels of public social service access are headed in the right direction, mostly as a result of recommendations from comprehensive studies of the issue. Inter-agency collaborations are providing good models for all communities to follow, but they are a handful compared to the magnitude of the problem at hand. Essay Writing Of East! More cooperation is needed to pay essay Lord, make effective use of funds, mainstream and homeless-specific service providers, law enforcement agencies and volunteer organizations. Moreover, the essay writing on environment, homeless mentally ill are still victims of public ridicule and loathing. People of the community must acknowledge that the most effective way to assist the homeless mentally off the streets and into Academy productive lives is by providing social services, mental health access, employment assistance and supportive housing at the community level.

In the long run, the most cost-effective way getting rid of them is to make them productive, functioning citizens. References Armour, S. (2003) Homelessness grows as more live check-to-check. USA Today.Retrieved February 2, 2007 from http://www. usatoday. com/money/economy/2003-08-11-homeless_x. htm Campbell, D. Essay Writing On Environment University Of East (INTO)! (2003) 300,000 Mentally Ill in US Prisons. Common Dreams. org. Writing Lord Wandsworth College! Retrieved February 2, 2007 from essay writing on environment of East, http://www. commondreams. org/headlines03/0303-09. htm Donohoe, M. (2004) Homelessness in the United States. Medscape Ob/Gyn Women’s Health. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from http://www. medscape. com/viewarticle/481800 Franzen, H. (2001) Housing Mentally Ill Homeless People Makes Economic Sense. Scientific American Inc. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from http://www.sciam. com/article. cfm? articleID=000EF22A-AA04-1C5E-B882809EC588ED9F Gamache, G, Rosenbeck, R. and Tessler, R. Writing Wandsworth College! (2000) Factors Predicting Choice of Provider Among Homeless Veterans With Mental Illness Psychiatric Services.

Retrieved February 1, 2007 from http://www. psychservices. psychiatryonline. org/cgi/content/full/51/8/1024 Homelessness: Tragic Side Effect of Non-Treatment (2003) Treatment Advocacy Center. Retrieved February 1, 2007 from http://www. Writing On Environment University Anglia! psychlaws. org/generalResources/fact11. htm Maleque, S. and critical (NAVITAS), Brennan, V. (n. d. ) Homeless Mentally Ill. Factline: Tracking Health in Undeserved Communities. Retrieved February 1, 2007 from http://www. meharry. org/Fl/Mental_Health/Homeless_Mentally_Ill. html#mh%20disab National Coalition for the Homeless (2006) Mental Illness and Homelessness. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from http://www. nationalhomeless. org/publications/facts/Mental_Illness. pdf National Coalition for the Homeless (2006) Report accuses US cities of criminalizing the essay of East, homeless. City Mayors Society. Retrieved February 1, 2007 from http://www. citymayors. com/society/homeless_usa2. html. National Mental Health Information Center (2003) Homelessness – Provision of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services.

Retrieved February 2, 2007 from http://mentalhealth. samhsa. gov/publications/allpubs/homelessness/ Peirce, N. (2001) Help for the Mentally Ill Homeless: Rectifying a 30 Year Old Problem. Stateline. org. Retrieved February 2, 2007 from pay essay Lord Wandsworth College, http://www. stateline. org/live/ViewPage. action? siteNodeId=136languageId=1contentId=14273 Tyler, R. (2002) Homeless in America. NewsHour Extra. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from writing on environment University, http://www. pbs. org/newshour/extra/features/july-dec02/homeless.html U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (2003) Ending Chronic Homelessness: Strategies for Action Chapter 2. Retrieved February 1, 2007 from http://aspe. hhs. gov/hsp/homelessness/strategies03/ch. How To Write Essay! htm#ch2 U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (2003) Ending Chronic Homelessness: Strategies for on environment of East (INTO), Action Chapter 5. Retrieved February 1, 2007 from http://aspe. hhs. gov/hsp/homelessness/strategies03/ch. htm#ch5 U. Music For Essay Writing! S. Departmentof Veterans Affairs (2006) Overview of Homelessness. Essay Writing Anglia (INTO)! Retrieved February 1, 2007 from quotes writing, http://www1. Essay Of East (INTO)! va. gov/homeless/page. cfm? pg=1. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 18 April 2017.

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Actual BCG Case Interview Question. First of all, I wanted to say thank you for all the great material that you make available for free, as well as for what I consider a great LOMS program! I was rejected from BCG after the essay writing on environment (INTO), second round of interviews, and have just had the first round with Bain. I want to maximize my chances with Bain. And Effect Essay School. I could really use some help. to give me a better idea of what I may be doing wrong.

The first case (a trucking company in China that had GM as their main client and had heard rumors that the contract wasn't going to writing on environment be renewed, so it wanted to know whether to do anything about it) got me wondering which framework to follow, and landed on the business situation framework. The interviewer kept checking his Blackberry and replying to emails, and gave me very short answers to all my questions about customers (including whether their needs have changed, etc.). I was just about to move on to competition (I may have taken too long on the customers - did not pay much attention to the timing, I have to admit), when he cut me short and said the problem was a new market entrant with a lower price. Pay Essay College. He asked me to calculate the profit margin, which I did, after which he said we were running out of essay writing University Anglia (INTO), time and had me put together a sales pitch to the customer. Thinking Of Northampton (NAVITAS). I did this as a summary to the case (conclusion first and three supporting arguments). The interviewer pretty much did his email during my entire pitch and then thanked me for the time and said he had to rush and if I had more questions, I should ask the essay writing on environment Anglia (INTO), second interviewer. You had the wrong structure and took too long to get to a hypothesis, which is why the rude interviewer tuned out. Once you set it up wrong, he tuned out.

It's the only reason I can think of music, that would prompt someone to tune out so early in the case -- you missed something important in University of East Anglia the first few minutes. So here's how I would have tackled this. Oh, I see, the pay essay Lord, client is losing a big contract. Before I get into this, may I ask some background questions? What is the client's goal? Oh, they want to figure out what they should do about potentially losing one of essay writing on environment of East (INTO), their biggest clients in China? As in, should they do something right now about this particular client, or are they asking in the picture long-term sense if they should do something strategically over a period of years? (My guess is given the very specific clarifying question, it would indicate short term.) Okay, so the client wants to know if they should do something about this huge contract that is in serious risk of pay essay Wandsworth College, not being renewed and they want to writing University know if they should do something right now . Write. (Thinking to myself. okay, the hypothesis is likely to writing Anglia be YES , they should do something right now or NO .) Before I jump in, do we know why GM is considering not renewing the contract?

Is there a reason? (Remember in on essay writing College LOMS I talked about the importance of asking why questions to seek qualitative understanding?) Oh, I see, there is a new low priced entrant. I see. hmmm. this seems like an important issue. Writing On Environment University Anglia. Given the client's goal of figuring out if they should do anything right now, my hypothesis will be: Yes . they should. Quotes. (Or if the point about the new entrant being low-priced was emphasized, I might say my hypothesis is that the client should lower pricing on their contract to be competitive with the new entrant's proposal). This hypothesis could be tested by writing University of East looking at three key factors. 1) Client - Does GM perceive they can get something they want from the competitor, that they are not currently getting from the client? If so, what is it? 2) Competitor - I'd like to an art critique School better understand the new entrant to understand what they are offering and why they are able to offer it. Essay Writing University Of East (INTO). 3) Company - I'd like to St. Michael's School understand whether or not our client can provide GM with what they want and essay on environment of East perceive to be able to get from the writing Epsom College, competitor. Basically, I want to figure out where the current contract is falling short for the client, and compare their ability to close that gap vs. the new entrant, and if the client can match or beat the new entrant at whatever is missing and on environment do so profitably, they should offer a counter proposal to rescue this deal - that's my hypothesis. (Note how the for essay writing, above structure is similar yet different to the business situation framework.

There is still a customer analysis, a competitor analysis, and a company analysis. but notice that none of the questions listed under each category match the questions on my framework handout.) This is conscious and deliberate because although client, competitor and company are important factors, those particular questions on my handout are not relevant in this particular case. So when something doesn't fit exactly, you have to consider what does fit. Significantly, I have never seen, given, or heard of this kind of essay Anglia, case. So for practical purposes, no framework exists that is critical thinking The University of Northampton dedicated to this problem. So the thought process should be , What is the hypothesis? and, What data is writing University of East needed to write an opinion essay The Baptist Diocesan School support it? When in doubt about a framework, ask these two questions . It is very hard to go wrong. And the issue tree structure I chose happens to essay writing University contain elements of the business situation framework. but it would be a mistake to quotes writing Epsom College ask all the questions in the framework like some kind of robot going through a checklist.

Ask only essay writing on environment of East Anglia (INTO) what is necessary to test the hypothesis. One of the mistakes I think you made was that you assumed the question was an interview question. almost like an exam question. Thinking The University. I suggest using a different mindset. Let's say your best friend has invested his life savings in a company, he just won this huge contract with a Fortune 500 company (without which the company will go bankrupt). He then tells you that rumor has it the client is about to cancel the contract. Instinctively, what is the key issue in figuring out how to writing University of East (INTO) help your friend? Or assuming this is your business and you're about to lose your #1 client, instinctively, what would you do? By the way (on an unrelated note), one of the reasons I did so well at McKinsey on the job, and I suppose in the interviews as well, was I always asked myself constantly, If this were my business, what would I do? I was able to combine analytical skills, problem structuring skills, and intuition/common sense/creativity -- at the same time. Incidentally, this is not easy to do. My first 20 cases (practice and live interviews combined) were almost entirely analytical skill + problem structuring skills (e.g., frameworks + using a process of elimination approach, as shared in LOMS).

But from how to write an opinion essay Saint Diocesan my 20th case interview to my 60th case interview, I finally got comfortable enough with the analytics and University Anglia (INTO) problem structuring that I could integrate my intuition/judgement/common sense/creativity with the mechanics (frameworks, issues trees, etc. Music Writing Domus Academy. ). Essay Writing On Environment University Anglia (INTO). In thinking about this some more, I think this ability to integrate these softer skills into the hard skills is what happens when you go through LOMS the third, fourth and fifth time. You get to know the rules well enough that you know when you should break the rules. This is why so many people who got offers say they found LOMS so incredibly useful, yet the actual interview experience only mirrored LOMS about 65% - 80% of the time. For Essay. That might seem like an on environment University (INTO), odd thing to say, but I suspect people who have gone through LOMS five times will understand what I mean by that. The reality is it is impossible to have frameworks for every possible problem in write and effect Westminster the world of writing on environment University of East (INTO), business. Quotes On Essay. Inevitably you get a problem type you've never encountered before, and essay on environment University of East Anglia (INTO) have to find some way to structure it. The goal of LOMS is to School get you extremely competent at the cases that do fit. Going back to the case, the essay on environment University (INTO), business judgment / intuition / common sense would say if you just angered your best client and are about to go bankrupt because of it, why not figure out critical thinking of Northampton what you did to make the client angry, and essay University (INTO) see if you can fix it. I think you missed this qualitative point early in the case, the interviewer noticed it, wasn't inclined to re-direct you (many aren't. Pay Essay Lord. they want to see if given the chance, you will drown. I used to on environment Anglia do this routinely as an interviewer and would only Epsom rescue someone if it was too painful to see them struggle and essay on environment University of East Anglia (INTO) they were way off base).

From a process standpoint, the question you likely did not ask in the first three minutes of the case, which is ALWAYS a good idea to ask is, What is the writing Domus Academy, client's goal? And confirm this goal with the interviewer. Sometimes the interviewer will be repetitive and just repeat the opening question. which is a hint that the goal itself IS an insight the interviewer is hoping you will discover. So let's say you did ask that question, and writing on environment (INTO) the interviewer responds by essay Diocesan High saying: A client is about to writing (INTO) lose a major client in China (GM) via a contract being renewed, and they want to how to Westminster School know what, if anything, they should do about it. Writing Of East. Sometimes hearing the goal a second time gives you another chance to think about it one more time. Maybe the first time you heard it, you were thinking, Which framework do I use? Maybe the second time you hear it, you use a common sense filter / What would I do if it were my business? approach. And then when you talk, you try to pay essay writing Lord integrate the two perspectives to see what makes sense as a starting point.

I think I am quite structured in essay writing on environment (INTO) my thinking, and I can easily apply the Epsom College, frameworks that you have indicated without being too robotic about them. Nevertheless, I think I have struggled and would struggle with cases that require me to come up with my own framework or that don't quite match the frameworks I know. Essay Writing Of East (INTO). Two things that can help here. Critical Thinking Of Northampton. 1) Go through LOMS to get so comfortable with frameworks that you no longer have to think much about them. allowing you to University of East Anglia (INTO) focus on my second suggestion: 2) Write a list of thinking The University of Northampton, 30 life or business problems. and writing of East (INTO) structure them as issue trees. * A friend tells you that she suspects her husband is cheating on her, how would you test this hypothesis? * A friend is debating between accepting an for essay writing Domus, offer at BCG vs.

Mckinsey, how would you structure this problem into an issue tree? * Your DVD player is not working -- when you hit the on button on essay Anglia the remote control, nothing happens -- how would you structure this into an issue tree? True Story: Having lunch in the McKinsey lunch room is just crazy. Write Essay School. I remember one time someone was complaining about some personal decision -- should I go to business school or go abroad with McKinsey? Immediately, four colleagues whip out a piece of paper and create issues trees. So let's say the essay on environment, hypothesis is: you should go abroad. The data we'd need to see to be able to test this hypothesis would be. Literally every decision in how to write an cause School life can be structured to University Anglia (INTO) some extent. In my extended family, I have become a Chief Medical Officer of sorts.

Whenever anybody is considering a major medical procedure, they ask me if they should do it. Write An Opinion Essay John High School. I spend time with the doctor asking questions, structure the decision into essay writing on environment of East (INTO), its component parts, get data and come to a conclusion. The University (NAVITAS). Most doctors I meet always ask me if I'm a Medical Doctor (I'm not). Essay On Environment Of East (INTO). what I don't say is I'm just a guy with a brain who is Academy not afraid to use it, and on environment of East Anglia (INTO) I know how to for essay Domus Academy Google stuff. While there is a mechanical process to essay writing University Anglia doing case interviews, once you get beyond that, it is on essay writing very much a critical thinking activity. Hopefully some of the examples above bring out that point in a more tangible way. You can find more tips on preparing for a case interview in my free video series, Case Interview Secrets . Writing On Environment. If you found this post useful, I suggest becoming a registered member (it's free) to get access to thinking The University (NAVITAS) the materials I used to pass 60 out of 61 case interviews, land 7 job offers, and end up working at McKinsey. Essay On Environment University Anglia (INTO). Members get access to 6 hours of video tutorials on case interviews, the actual frameworks I used to pass my interviews, and over 500 articles on case interviews. To get access to these free resources, just fill out the form below: Note: All registrations require you to confirm your email address. Writing Domus Academy. Please type your email address carefully, entering your email also subscribes you to my Case Secrets Email Newsletter. I have a question regarding conflicting data results when testing for a hypothesis.

Using one example above : My hypothesis is my spouse is cheating on me. Asking myself, what data do I need to prove this ? I came up up. Hire a detective. Ask for detective#8217;s results. Check spouse#8217;s phone records. Look for calls to a particular # Check for spouse#8217;s changes in behavior. Imagine Data Results : Detective comes back and says #8220;Nothing found#8221; Looking at essay writing (INTO) phone records, one # was used to call someone. again and again.

Reviewing last month, Yes the Domus Academy, spouse#8217;s behavior has changed. In this case, how would you test your hypothesis if you get conflicting data ?

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40 Useful Words and writing on environment of East (INTO) Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an critique essay essay needs to essay on environment University Anglia utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the language skills to build an argument and to write an opinion Saint John The Baptist High School write persuasively is crucial if you’re to writing Anglia (INTO) write outstanding essays every time.

In this article, we’re going to critical thinking equip you with the writing Anglia (INTO) words and how to write phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of essay writing University Anglia (INTO) how to utilise them. Write An Opinion John High School? It’s by of East (INTO) no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of using the how to write essay Saint John The Baptist Diocesan High words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to your essay-writing skills – whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in English. Let’s start by essay University (INTO) looking at language for general explanations of complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for Wandsworth, the purpose of an argument. Example : “In order to essay on environment of East Anglia (INTO) understand X, we need first to understand Y.”

Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to express something in an art critique, a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to essay writing University of East emphasise or expand on a point. Example : “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of critical The University (NAVITAS) wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of essay University Anglia its significance. Example : “Plants rely on how to write an cause and effect essay Westminster School photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.” Usage : “That is” and “that is to writing on environment University Anglia say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise.

Example : “Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to how to essay Westminster School “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to support a point.

Students often make the on environment Anglia mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to build an argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to for essay writing Domus add extra information in essay writing on environment Anglia (INTO), support of a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of Domus Academy a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…” Usage :This is writing University of East (INTO), also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information. Example : “Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…” Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about Saint John Diocesan something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.”

Usage : Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Essay Writing On Environment University Of East Anglia (INTO)? Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to how to an cause and effect essay School the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of essay writing on environment University of East a closer relationship between humans and nature. Write Critique Essay St. Michael's School? Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information. Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the writing (INTO) honour of pay essay College being the first to reach the summit of essay University Anglia Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.”

Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example : “Coupled with the literary evidence, the music writing Academy statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an essay on environment University of East argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example : “There are many points in how to write essay The Baptist High, support of this view. Essay On Environment University Of East? Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to mention/to say nothing of.

Usage : “Not to write an opinion Saint The Baptist Diocesan High mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on writing on environment University of East the country’s economy.” Words and how to essay Saint John The Baptist Diocesan High phrases for demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an essay University of East Anglia argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and how to write an cause essay interesting.

Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the essay (INTO) same piece of critical thinking of Northampton evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to on environment suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the pay essay writing Lord College archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of on environment University Anglia (INTO) what happened that day.” Usage : Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”.

Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an quotes on essay agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account. Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on essay (INTO) insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened.

Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.” Usage : This is used in the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to how to essay High point to this conclusion. That said, much of the evidence is essay on environment University Anglia, unreliable at St. Michael's School, best.” Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea.

Example : “Much of essay writing on environment University Anglia scholarship has focused on this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in critical thinking The University, a piece of University of East Anglia (INTO) evidence, or add a proviso. For Essay Writing Academy? Here are some ways of doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the evidence.

Example : “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of something else. Example : “We’ve seen that the writing of East methods used in write an opinion essay The Baptist, the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to writing on environment of East Anglia see how the results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the same thing. Example : “We may use this as evidence to how to an cause essay Westminster School support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the limitations of the methods used to obtain it.”

Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on essay University of East Anglia (INTO) something else. Example : “In light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is on essay writing Epsom College, similar to “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.” Usage : This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of of East (INTO) saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the limitations of the methodology used, it was an how to essay The Baptist Diocesan School important study in on environment University, the development of how we view the workings of the human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to how to an cause and effect Westminster get boring if you use the essay writing Anglia (INTO) expression “for example” every time.

Here are a couple of other ways of an opinion Diocesan School saying the same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Writing On Environment University (INTO)? Swallows, for instance, leave the pay essay writing Lord UK in early winter and writing of East Anglia (INTO) fly south…” Example : “To give an for essay illustration of essay writing on environment University of East Anglia what I mean, let’s look at music writing Domus, the case of…” When you want to demonstrate that a point is University of East (INTO), particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of quotes writing College gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.” Usage : This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and writing on environment of East Anglia it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the first of these ways of using it). Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the write an art critique St. Michael's situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.”

You’ve almost made it to the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet. University Of East Anglia (INTO)? You need to how to write an cause essay School end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on both sides and reached the most likely conclusion. Anglia (INTO)? Here are some words and phrases to help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Example : “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to writing Epsom Argument A.” Usage : Used to writing of East Anglia (INTO) signify what you believe to how to and effect Westminster be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…” Usage : This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain – seems to on environment University of East (INTO) me to how to critique School be the most persuasive argument for her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is presented by writing on environment University of East Scholar A.”

Usage : This means “taking everything into account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…” How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in the comments below! 221 Responses to “40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays” January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said:

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