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APA Format Examples, Tips, and for essay writing Forest Guidelines. APA format is the english official style used by for essay Forest, the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in psychology, education, and other social sciences. Check out this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for writing papers in APA format. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. The sixth edition of the pay you to write of Birmingham APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to the format of an APA style title page. Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at writing Academy the top of the Vrije page. The title should be at the top half of the page and should be centered between margins. Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is good Forest Academy, no more than 12 words in how to write a good essay for a St. Clair College, length.
Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and after your name. Good Books Writing Lake Academy. Your title should be a very concise statement of what the essay writing Cologne Business reader will find in for essay writing Lake Forest, the paper. In many cases, your title will identify the major variables and the relationships between them. Essays Abbey Manchester. For example, #34;Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance#34; is an example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is writing Lake Academy, about. The APA style guide also advises writers to in english The Knox, avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. Books For Essay Writing Forest Academy. #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;. You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title. All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in the reference page. The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper. The purpose of this page is to provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. Essay Cologne. One of the first rules you should observe on your reference page: If you cited the article in your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper.
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The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and journals should appear in italics. In the case where the same author is cited multiple times for different works, start by listing these references in chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to the most recent one. Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the how to write for a scholarship St. Clair results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in for essay Lake Forest Academy, the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in college Universiteit Amsterdam, a table. If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper.
The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is clear and easy to understand. Basic Rules for Tables in APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). Each table should have an individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and good writing Lake Forest Academy , in , of , with , etc.). For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores.
Try to ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific. Each table should begin on improving essay a separate page. Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. Writing Lake Forest Academy. Do not use vertical lines in to write The University, an APA format table. According to the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. The key is to keep the table readable and the spacing consistent.
All tables should be referenced in for essay Forest Academy, the text of the how can i write in english paper. Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. You should use a font that is large enough to read without magnification Focus on keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and confuse the for essay Lake Forest reader. Stick to reporting the most important data. Essay School. Remember that your table is there to supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper. Do not feel the need to discuss every element of your table in your text. Instead, mention key highlights and tell the reader what to look for in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading.
The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Books Lake Academy. Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. Additional Notes to an APA Format Table. If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. How To Essays College. There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and good books for essay writing Forest Academy probability notes. General notes refer to how to write for a St. Clair, some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the good Forest probability level.
Is the table needed to present data or could the data simply be presented in School, the text? Does the title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about? Is the spacing consistent throughout the table? Does the good books writing Academy body of the paper refer to the table? Is each column of the table clearly labeled?
If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in that pay you to write, notes? American Psychological Association. (2010). Good Writing Lake Forest. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Author: Washington, DC. Journal articles should appear in thinking School, alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Consult the image below for examples of good for essay writing, journal articles in APA format. Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and proper nouns.
Italicize the name of the publication and how to write english Abbey Manchester the volume number. The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by their initials. Next, the publication year is enclosed in parentheses and followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the books for essay Forest Academy journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the article should also be included. Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available. Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. Electronic References Are Similar to Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to that of any other reference.
However, you do need to include the a-g requirements date the reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the document. Good Books For Essay Writing Forest. As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the write a good essay for a St. Clair College date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to organizations) and a suffix (a number assigned by writing Forest Academy, the publisher). Many publishers will include the DOI on the first page of an electronic document.
If a DOI is available, simply include it at the end of the reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.
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rule of law essay The Power of Independent Thinking. Liberty and the Rule of Law. Student Winner. Third Prize (Tie) ($500) #147;The great aim of the struggle for liberty has been equality before the law.#148; The term #145;rule of law,#146; since reformulated by A.V. Good Books For Essay Academy. Dicey in the 19 th century, has traditionally meant to include such notions as supremacy of standing law over arbitrary power, equality before the law (which applies also to government officials), and a binding constitutional framework. In the broader context of Hayek#146;s work in political philosophy, his idea of equality is meant to incorporate these notions.
The following essay sketches out some highlights of the how to write english essays Abbey College, struggle for this ideal, and then address the role that equality before the law#151;and the good books for essay writing Lake, rule of law more generally#151;performs in allowing modern civilization to prosper. In The Constitution of Liberty Hayek explains that only equality before the law, and not equality of outcomes, is consistent with a free society. Material inequality is in fact a necessary by-product of freedom. However, equality before the law is clearly not sufficient for the kind of society that Hayek was advocating, since it could arguably exist under a totalitarian regime. It must exist as part of the rule of law, or a #147;meta-legal doctrine or political ideal#148; that puts limitations on what laws ought to be. The notion of equality before the law arose soon after government was established in its earliest form, for it only sites that to write articles, makes sense once people move out of family or small tribal communities into larger, impersonal societies. If we begin in ancient Greece, this notion of equality starts to appear even before legal institutions became a subject for systematic study. Aristotle spoke of the good books writing Lake Forest Academy, rule of laws instead of men, and how can i write essay Pericles#151;whom Hayek quotes approvingly#151;thought this to be a distinguishing characteristic of Athens. However, the Greeks did not yet understand that if a legislative body can decide a particular case, it is neither legislating nor adjudicating, but exercising arbitrary power. Nor was this fully understood by the Roman Republic, although as this was the beginning of law in its modern sense, some of its weaknesses might be forgiven. The Romans did develop some of these ideas of equality, along with its practical advances in legal institutions.
The failure of Greek law, by contrast, was the lack of a competent tribunal to apply the private law to its citizens. There was no legal profession, and law as a popular activity was not conducive to books writing Lake providing general rules. These defects were partly remedied in Rome, and #147;[t]he result,#148; according to Zane, #147;was that among the college a-g requirements Vrije, Romans there was a rule of law.#148; Courts began the Lake Forest Academy, process of resolving particular cases according to general rules, and writers such as Cicero argued that not all enacted laws are necessarily just. Although Rome was a hierarchical society, Hayek admired the late republican period for its advances, until these were reversed during the Empire. The emperors of Rome decreed themselves to be above the law (something which would be reincarnated many times in European history), but even they felt the need to justify their power as coming from the will of the people. The idea of the rule of law would survive however#151;if a bit bloodied#151;through the Germanic kingdoms of the Dark Ages. Thinking St. George’s. In early medieval political theory, which was dominated by the Church, rebellion against the king was not permitted, but the idea of the king being bound by the law was seen throughout the period. The rule of law was emerging, and England took its role as the leader of this tradition. Writing. The Magna Carta was the how to College Manchester, first step in a process that would culminate in the Glorious Revolution nearly a half-millennium later. Of course even England did not realize the ideal of individual liberty during this long evolutionary period, but it was developing a legal tradition that would set it apart from the Continent. Following Hayek, we can jump ahead in our story, as #147;individual liberty in modern times can hardly be traced back further than the England of the seventeenth century.#148; And as J.M.
Kelly noted, #147;[Equality before the law] is a value which, in a Europe full of privilege, found a full expression only in the voice of the English revolution.#148; The ideas were heard most clearly from the Levellers during the for essay writing Forest, English Civil Wars, and then from Locke, whose most influential works would come after the Glorious Revolution. The sole function of the government, according to how to write for a St. Clair Locke, was the protection of property in the broad sense, meaning #145;lives, liberties and good books for essay Lake Forest Academy estates.#146; And even though he would endorse majority rule, he also argued that the legislature should not have arbitrary power. The Knox. Also notable in good books for essay writing Forest this century was a conception of natural rights that focused on individuals rather than social duty, as well as a secular rather than theological foundation. Outside of England, for example, Pufendorf would anticipate Kant: #147;Let no one act towards another in such a way that the latter can justly complain that his equality of right has been violated.#148; In the 18 th century, we begin to see the split in intellectual traditions that Hayek often addressed. The rationalists, most notably in France, wanted to start anew and base everything on reason, while the thinkers of the Scottish Enlightenment (whom Hayek admired so much) did not, but instead wrote of #145;establishments which are indeed the result of human action but not the execution of human design.#146; It was in improving essay Business School fact the unintended consequences of the good books for essay Academy, early rationalist view that led to setbacks for liberty, rather than a deliberate strategy advocating centralized power. During this time, the call for laws to improving essay Business be subject to reason was a reaction to the arbitrary rule and privileges of the writing Lake Academy, elite, so the intentions of these writers and a-g requirements activists were consistent with what would become classical liberalism. Tocqueville, whom Hayek puts squarely in the anti-rationalist tradition, illustrates the similarity between these two branches of thought at the time.
In summing up the theme of the Enlightenment writers, Tocqueville writes: They all started with the good books for essay Lake Academy, principle that it was necessary to that pay you substitute simple and elementary rules, based on good for essay Lake Academy reason and natural law, for the complicated and traditional customs which regulated society in their time. The whole of the political philosophy of the eighteenth century is really comprised in pay you to write articles of Birmingham that single notion. It was only for essay writing Lake Forest Academy, when the rationalist vision was brought to its logical conclusion in the French Revolution that it became antithetical to liberty. Edmund Burke would become a fierce critic of the Revolution and its intellectual foundations, and his claim for the superiority of organically grown systems over those designed in the name of reason would be repeated by Hayek. The rationalist school of thought would continue to have great influence, and it led to the codification of laws in continental Europe and using critical thinking St. George’s the reform movements from the 19 th century to the present day. The result has been a movement away from the for essay writing, classical liberal ideal of laissez-faire government. However, the basic notions of the rule of law and private property have survived. The collapse of socialism served to vindicate them to some extent, although interventionism that is in opposition to the rule of law is still alive and well. Finally, Hayek and others saw the early United States as taking over the tradition of individual liberty from England, as the using thinking St. George’s, colonists objected to the increasingly arbitrary power of the British Parliament.
They saw the necessity of a written constitution to limit the power of any particular branch of government, and saw it also as laying down general principles to prevent arbitrary rule. Books Writing Lake Academy. It so happens that this attempt at division of powers has not succeeded, nor did the attempts to limit legislative power to strictly enumerated functions, but certainly the intentions of the Framers were in line with this classical liberal tradition. An important point is that despite appearances, the American constitution was not a product of the rationalist #145;French tradition,#146; as the government emerged from general principles and its structure even a few years later could not have been anticipated by its framers. While there are many examples when the legislature and courts have ignored these general principles, there survives something of a consensus that prevented an even greater encroachment of liberty. The U.S. experience has been another in the long line of imperfect experiments in forming a free society. The Functions of Liberty. According to Noel B. Reynolds, #147;The rule of law is a solution to a problem, and college as the classical liberal tradition has always recognized, the writing Academy, problem is tyranny.#148; Hayek would hardly disagree, but incorporating his insights on how markets work, he saw the fundamental problem solved by a free society to be the use of improving essay Business, dispersed knowledge that can never be known to writing Lake a centralized body. Giving people equal opportunities to use their knowledge for their own ends not only Universiteit Amsterdam, fulfills the Kantian maxim of respecting the autonomy of the individual, but is how society adapts to new conditions and discovers new ways to good Lake Forest live. As Hayek put it, #147;a condition of liberty in which all are allowed to use their knowledge for their purposes, restrained only by rules of just conduct of universal application, is likely to produce for them the best conditions for achieving their aims.#148; This may seem uncontroversial, but the opposing mindset tends to ask the question: Why shouldn#146;t the government attempt to improving essay writing Business School use our inherited knowledge of society and for essay Lake Forest scientific method to improve on institutions that have evolved without conscious direction? The fact that many people, and especially our political leaders, would surely think this to be a reasonable goal shows that Hayek was not merely arguing against a straw man, nor was his analysis only appropriate for how to a good scholarship central planning of the early 20 th century variety.
It should be pointed out good Lake that the formula #145;equality before the law#146; is not a simple guide to policy, nor is anything like #145;laissez-faire#146; or #145;respecting private property.#146; So the question is how to define the private sphere of action in sites pay you to write The University of Birmingham which individuals can use their own knowledge for their own ends. It is this conception of knowledge that to good books for essay writing Hayek was so important for a society that progresses, and for which equality before the law is necessary. In most of how to a good for a scholarship St. Clair, his writings, Hayek was more concerned with the process in which this these limits were decided, rather than laying out the good writing Forest Academy, proper functions of government in improving Business School any detail. This is why he often advocated the adjudication by courts as opposed to legislation; the former is books writing Lake Academy more adaptable, more likely to incorporate local knowledge of the parties involved, and less likely to result in restrictions on essay Cologne School parties not involved in a particular dispute. Buchanan takes a similar approach: Each man counts for one, and that is that. Once this basic premise is fully acknowledged. Good Lake Forest Academy. [a] criterion for #145;betterness#146; is suggested. A situation is judged #145;good#146; to the extent that it allows individuals to get what they want to get, whatsoever this might be, limited only by the principle of mutual agreement. Individual freedom becomes the overriding objective for social policy.  The alternative to i write in english The Knox this is to use the subjective valuations#151;usually in the guise of objectivity#151;of some particular person or group. Good Books For Essay Writing Forest Academy. Yet Buchanan also argued that anarchy was not practicable.
So for him the question was also how to critical St. George’s School define the limits on freedom, and he also places emphasis on the (individualist) process by which this is determined, rather than specific outcomes. The rules defining individuals#146; protected domain must solve certain problems that are inherent in a modern society. Besides the division of knowledge, there is the tendency for people to favor their own interests, and also the problem of good books for essay writing Forest Academy, power, or enforcement abuse. The latter refers to problems inherent in allowing a monopoly on coercion#151;in other words, the to write The University, erroneous or improper use of force. The rule of law is the most effective way yet discovered to deal with all of these issues. A proper conception of good Lake Forest Academy, this ideal leads to a process for delimiting private property and enforcing contracts, which allows individual knowledge to how to write essays Abbey Manchester be used effectively and for disparate aims to be reconciled.
In particular, the process consistent with this is an evolutionary growth of law guided by general principles, hence the good books for essay writing Lake, emphasis on adjudication by courts. To take a more concrete example, consider the provision of public goods. Improving Essay Cologne. It is often claimed that government is necessary to overcome the free-rider problem. To argue this, however, it is good books Lake Forest not only necessary to show that free-riding is thinking St. George’s sub-optimal, but also that taxation and government provision is an improvement. This is not obvious once you consider the knowledge and Forest Academy interest problems#151;that is, in not using local and individual knowledge that may be able to provide this good, and using thinking School ignoring the books writing Lake, incentives faced by government officials. Private property and freedom of write a good essay for a scholarship, contract, which is part of the framework that naturally evolves from the conception of the rule of law, do provide incentives (however imperfect) to good Academy solve the how to write english essays Manchester, free-rider problem. It is important to keep in mind that even Hayek#146;s richer development of the notion of the good for essay writing Academy, rule of law may not be enough to guarantee a liberal society. The conditions of improving, generality and abstractness of law that he emphasized can conceivably occur in a non-liberal regime, and Hayek was led to make concessions to government intervention that would likely be rejected by books for essay Lake Forest Academy, many other classical liberals. This is part of the reason to emphasize the historical development of the write a good scholarship, rule of for essay Forest, law, as Hayek was always aware of the evolutionary nature of sites pay you to write of Birmingham, changes in society. This is also why Barnett, who argues for books for essay Academy the classical liberal rule of law along with a polycentric legal order (i.e. one without a coercive monopoly), points out that whether this order will be liberal will depend on write essays Abbey College Manchester how it comes about#151;a violent overthrow is likely to have different consequences than a peaceful reform movement. No one is suggesting that issues of path dependence, evolved cultural differences, and entrenched interest groups are problems to good for essay Lake Forest be ignored when it comes to reform. The failed attempts to transplant Western institutions to School other countries make that abundantly clear. But of the ways that people have tried to good books writing Forest organize themselves in society, the most successful have followed, at least in part, this classical liberal tradition.
How these foundations can be improved even further, and how to essay Cologne Business School implement and maintain them in different societies, are questions that are still seeking answers. Just as private property benefits even those who don#146;t own any, we might also say that equality before the law also benefits those who never need to exercise it, or are blissfully unaware of it. Good Writing Lake Forest Academy. For Hayek, ignorance and the limitations of reason were inescapable facts of the world. But he put great importance on the battle of ideas, and to understand liberty requires knowledge of the rule of law.  F.A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960), p. 85.  See Todd Zywicki, #147;The Rule of Law, Freedom, and Prosperity,#148; Supreme Court Economic Review , Vol.
10, 2003, pp. 1-26.  Even more insightful is Hayek#146;s explanation of improving, how inequality is for essay writing Forest necessary for experimentation and using critical progress. See Hayek, supra note 1, at books writing Lake Forest, pp. Cologne. 42-49.  See Ibid., at 205-210 and F.A. Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972 ), ch. For Essay Writing Forest. 6.  As Zane put it, #147;In order to i write essay School insure equal laws it was found, long ages after the Greeks and books for essay Lake Academy Romans, that the judicial power must be separately and independently exercised.#148; John Maxcy Zane, The Story of Law , 2 nd . ed (Indianopolis: Liberty Fund, 1998), p. 105.  Hayek, supra note 1, at 162.  J.M. Kelly, A Short History of Western Legal Theory, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), p. 236.
 Quoted in college a-g requirements Vrije Ibid., p. 226. For Hayek#146;s emphasis on Kant#146;s importance, see Chandran Kukathas, Hayek and Modern Liberalism , (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989) and good books for essay Academy Hayek supra note 1, at pp. 196-197.  See in particular, #147;Individualism: True and False,#148; in critical thinking School F.A. Hayek, Individualism and Economic Order , (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1948).  Adam Ferguson, quoted by for essay writing Forest, Hayek supra note 1, at write english Abbey College, p. 57.  Quoted in Kelly, supra note 9, at p. 251.  F.A. Hayek, Law, Legislation and good books for essay writing Lake Liberty, Vol.
1: Rules and Order , (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), p. 1. Essay. See also James Buchanan, The Limits of Liberty: Between Anarchy and Leviathan, (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2000 ), p. 19. Hayek#146;s point of course is not that all checks have been eliminated, but the conclusion hardly seems as controversial as it might at first glace, given a casual investigation of Congressional acts or popular beliefs about states#146; rights vs. centralized power.  Hayek supra note 1, at writing, pp. How To Write A Good Essay For A Scholarship St. Clair. 183-84.  Hayek writes approvingly of the Supreme Court#146;s rejection of good for essay writing Academy, FDR#146;s attempt at accumulating discretionary powers for specific ends. English College. See Ibid., pp.
190-91.  Quoted in good books writing Zywicki, supra note 2, at p.5.  For Hayek#146;s classic exposition of the improving writing School, role of knowledge in the price system, see #147;The Use of Knowledge in Society,#148; in Hayek, supra note 11.  Hayek supra note 13, at p. Books For Essay Writing Forest. 55.  Bruno Leoni made similar points in arguing against legislation. School. See Bruno Leoni , Freedom and the Law, (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1991), pp. 6, 22.  Buchanan, supra note 13, at p. 4.  See Randy Barnett, The Structure of Liberty: Justice and the Rule of Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), and Hayek supra note 13, at p. 107.  For the preceding discussion, see Barnett, supra note 21, at pp. 162 ff. The point is similar to Demsetz#146;s distinction betweeen the #145;nirvana approach#146; and the #145;comparative institution approach.#146; See Harold Demsetz, #147;Information and good books for essay writing Lake Efficiency: Another Viewpoint,#148; J. Law Econ. , Vol.
12, No. 1 (Apr., 1969), pp. 1-22. For some classic examples of market solutions for provision of public goods and solving externality problems, see Ronald Coase, #147;The Lighthouse in Economics,#148; J. Using Thinking School. Law Econ. Good Writing Lake Academy. , Vol. 17, No. 2 (Oct., 1974), pp. 357-76, and Steven N S Cheung, #147;The Fable of the Bees: An Economic Investigation#148;, J. Law Econ., Vol. 16, No. 1 (Apr., 1973), pp.
11-33.  For some of Hayek#146;s (sympathetic) critics on this point, see Kukathas, supra note 10, and using critical Norman Barry , #147;The Tradition of Spontaneous Order#148;, Literature of Liberty , Vol. V, No. 2 (Summer 1982), pp. 7-58.
One example of Hayek#146;s controversial policy positions is his view on compulsory military service; see Hayek supra note 1, at p. 143.  As a response to this general line of criticism, Barnett argues throughout his book that the formal requirements of the rule of the law do place limits on substance.  For path dependence and the role of institutions, see Douglass North, Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), esp. ch. 12.  See Hayek supra note 13, at p. 121.
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Scrutinizing Third Person, Present Tense POV. When I first started telling stories almost all third-person fiction (and first-person for for essay Lake Forest Academy that matter) was written in using critical thinking St. George’s School the past tense: Carlos went into the dealership and looked around. He knew the good books writing Forest, salespeople would descend on a good scholarship College, him soon, and it was all he could do to stand his ground. Past tense means the events happened some time ago, and good books for essay Lake you’re writing about them as such. The story already happened, and you’re telling it to someone at a later time. For fifty years prior to my own apprenticeship, everyone who had any interest in telling stories also secretly aspired to writing the Great American Novel. You weren’t a real writer if you didn’t have an unfinished novel in your desk.
At about the same time that I was learning my craft, however, something was happening in Hollywood that would change all that. Directors like Coppola and essay The Knox Spielberg and Lucas were breaking out of the classic Hollywood production pipeline and bringing wildly entertaining and successful movies to the screen. Good Books Forest! The documents they worked from — the scripts — were also becoming literary properties in themselves. Writers were starting to sell scripts outright, and some of those scripts were selling for what anybody would call a chunk of money. Almost overnight — by which I mean the five year span between the how to write essay College, early and late 1980’s — writers went from having novels in their desks to books writing Forest, having screenplays in write english essays College their desks.
When Syd Field published a book called Screenplay the good for essay Lake Forest, gold rush was on. Now, what’s interesting about screenplays is that they’re all written in third person, present tense, as if the action is Business School, happening right now: Carlos goes into the dealership. He looks around, spots a salesman. The salesman flashes a white-bright smile and steams over. Carlos looks for a place to hide.
I don’t know if anyone has ever documented the influence of pop-culture screenwriting on good books for essay writing Lake Academy, the world of fiction, but in the early 90’s I had the distinct impression that third-person, present-tense fiction was becoming more and more popular, while third-person fiction written in the past tense seemed to rapidly fall out of style. And I don’t think that was a coincidence. One reason I make this point (whether it’s been made elsewhere or not) is because it reveals an ugly and constant truth about the how to Abbey, world of fiction. Many (if not most) of the stories you read at any given time are written not in the pure service of craft, but at least partly in the service of trends. Some of these trends help break molds, of course, but others are simply cliquey conventions. The main reason I make this point, however, is to show how literary trends can work against authorial goals. It may at first blush seems as if third-person, present-tense fiction is no different from third-person, past-tense fiction, but that’s not the Forest, case. Improving Essay Writing Business! Choosing one over the other is not simply a preference, it’s a craft choice, and the effects of books for essay Lake Forest each on the audience are different.
Third-person, past-tense stories have the advantage of being more natural. From the time we’re children we learn to improving writing Cologne Business, tell about the events of books for essay writing Academy our lives in the past tense, because that’s quite literally the way in which such events plays out. We go to school, we get beat up, we go home, we tell about it in the past tense because it happened in the past. In fiction, this imitation of the essay Cologne School, natural, logical method of telling about books writing Lake Forest Academy, events that we all use in our own lives helps facilitate the reader’s suspension of disbelief. It takes little effort for the reader to believe that the improving essay writing Cologne, past-tense fiction they’re reading is believable precisely because the point-of-view technique being used mimics the way in which they hear stories from all sources. Writing Academy! For example: almost all newspaper reporting is in the past tense precisely because the events being reported have already transpired. Present-tense fiction does not have this advantage.
Instead, present-tense fiction mortgages a bit of structural familiarity for a hoped-for increase in a-g requirements tension. The goal is very much like the good for essay, difference between a story printed in the newspaper the next day, and a live on-the-scene report of something that is happening in real time. Except…no reader thinks that what’s being told to them in present-tense fiction is actually happening at that moment. This in The Knox turn creates a disconnect: the for essay Forest, reader is asked to believe that something is how to a good essay St. Clair College, happening right now when it clearly isn’t — and good books Academy the reader knows it isn’t because what they’re reading had to be printed at some earlier point. Yes, suspension of disbelief can solve this problem, but it’s a problem that past-tense stories simply do not have to solve. To be sure, people are more comfortable reading present-tense fiction now precisely because it has become more common. Just as the jump cut in film used to elicit confusion in the theater, but can now be interpreted by almost anyone of any age, new techniques become part of the storytelling lexicon as mediums evolve. The takeaway here is not that you shouldn’t use third-person, present-tense point of view. Rather, it’s that you shouldn’t use it simply because it’s what everyone else is using St. George’s, doing.
That’s not writing, that’s following the herd. (Admittedly this kind of herd instinct may make you more publishable at any given moment, in the same way that having the right buzzwords in good books for essay writing Lake your resume will mean you’re more likely to be hired. But it’s a given on this blog that writers shouldn’t be interested in how to suck up to people in power. They should be interested in telling the improving writing, best stories they can tell.) When you set out to write your next piece of fiction, whether it’s flash or a thousand-page epic, consider the craft choices available to you, then make the choices that are best for your story. There are plenty of good books Lake people out there eager to take the next open spot in the literary clique. There are no people out there who will say what you have to say in the way you would say it if you had complete freedom to do so. You have complete freedom to do so. Reading present tense is one of those things that pulls me out write english, of the Forest Academy, story.
I have to think about the sentence and get lost. Therefore I don’t write in using critical thinking St. George’s School present. Good Books For Essay Lake Academy! I didn’t realize that there were a lot of how can i write essay The Knox stories being written in present tense. I (generally) feel the same way about good books for essay Lake Forest, present tense in write a good essay for a scholarship fiction. The distraction fades as I read, but I’m never quite oblivious of good for essay writing Academy it. Conversely, present tense in a script seems to make complete sense to a good for a, me. Good For Essay Writing Lake Academy! The script is a blueprint describing what the camera sees. Writing what the college Universiteit Amsterdam, camera sees in past tense would make no sense. (Same goes for stage plays, which are also present tense.) I don’t know what the percentage of present tense stories are these days, but it’s much more common than it used to for essay Academy, be, and particularly so in literary works. A Good Essay Scholarship College! (I don’t know if present-tense storytelling happens much in commercial fiction.) Great post. Interesting points on the relation between scripts and the third person, present tense style.
One reason I make this point (whether it’s been made elsewhere or not) is because it reveals an ugly and constant truth about the good books, world of fiction. Many (if not most) of the stories you read at any given time are written not in the pure service of craft, but at least partly in the service of trends. Using St. George’s! Some of these trends help break molds, of course, but others are simply cliquey conventions. Valid point, Mark. And I would take that a step further by saying lots of fiction has been written in direction opposition to trends. I agree that each perspective and good writing Forest Academy tense creates a different effect but I’m strongly of the opinion that a story will call for a certain point of view or tense. If somebody ignores this instinct and college a-g requirements Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam their story still works, good luck to books writing, them. How To A Good Scholarship St. Clair! But I’ve had stories absolutely refuse to budge for me until I’ve switched narrative POV.
Then, suddenly, liberation. On the subject of the books Forest Academy, suspension of write a good essay for a scholarship disbelief and narrative voice, I have heard of writers saying that writing fiction in Forest third person is illogical. I have also heard writers say that first person is how to write essays Manchester, easy… You’re right that people write against trends, too. The point, of course, would be to ignore trends and do what best suits each individual story — as you suggest in your next paragraph. I don’t think third person is necessarily illogical, because I could write a report about a car wreck that took the third person. I do understand that there’s some fantasy involved in omniscient third person, where the books Lake, author knows what every character is thinking in a-g requirements Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam intimate detail.
It takes a leap of faith to enter a story written like that, but it’s usually so entertaining the reader doesn’t care about any dissonance with reality. As to first person, it’s always come more easily to me, but I know some people who wrestle with it constantly. I’ve become more interested in third person lately, simply because I have more opportunities to explore individual characters. I’m still on the fence as to whether this is a good thing, or something I really want to books for essay Academy, pursue. You say that you go to school, get beat up, go home, and write english essays Abbey College Manchester tell the story in past tense because it happened in past tense, and for most of us, that’s mostly true. We begin to tell stories of our past in past tense. But if you listen closely to good books for essay writing Forest Academy, people relating the events of their lives to writing Cologne School, others, you will hear a majority of them slipping into present tense during the crucial parts of their stories. Good Books Academy! You’ll also hear a lot of second-person, especially when describing locations. “So, I go into the break room, right? And when you go into the break room, the table’s right in front of you, and the microwave’s on using St. George’s School, your left, right? So anyways, he’s like hiding there, and he’s got this big knife…”
In short fiction, I can mange to stick to this pattern, telling the good books for essay Lake Forest, story mostly in past tense, slipping into present tense for those crucial “here and now” scenes (usually without even noticing it until I read it). Articles! In my first novel, though, I found myself repeatedly having to go back pages and pages and convert from present into past. Coupled with the awkwardness of past perfect for the story’s actual past, I found it simpler to just write in in present tense. The funny thing is that until I started doing it myself, present tense always threw me for the first few pages, but I truly believe it is a better way to replicate the stories we tell each other in real life. You’re right that tense changes in real life, and good for essay Lake Forest often fluidly. I wouldn’t dispute that at all. (Your example is excellent.) I once kept a diary about using critical St. George’s, gardening and yard work for a solid eight months.
I wrote almost all of it in present tense because it felt right. Each day I would work in the garden or yard, then I would come inside and write the highlights down. Later, when I went back to clean up the inevitable carnage, I discovered that I couldn’t stand the present-tense point of books writing Lake Academy view. (And I was surprised by the magnitude of my reaction.) On some level authorial preference clearly plays a part, as does appropriateness to the content. My larger concern is that I think some (perhaps many) writers don’t address either of these considerations on the way to adopting a point of using critical view. Rather, they simply mimic what they’re reading, or what’s popular/trendy. It is ludicrous to believe only the past tense, be it 1st, second or third person is the correct way to present a narrative; how often do you walk around and extract people’s thoughts from their heads? The answer is never!! What you do in fact is for essay Forest Academy, watch people’s actions and listen to english Abbey College Manchester, them and to good for essay Forest Academy, present a story in way that focuses only on immediacy of action and critical thinking St. George’s School dialogue is actually the most realistic POV because this is precisely how humans interact in real life, not the way in good for essay writing Forest which billions of i write essay in english The Knox School authors have and continue to demonstrate through employing past tense; a story about who wants what from whom and why now, not about good books for essay writing Lake Forest Academy, who wanted what from whom and why they wanted it then?? Who gives a sh*t about sites that of Birmingham, back then, it is about now not then.
It’s always interested me that some aspects of books Forest suspension of disbelief in a given medium seem to be more or less acceptable to specific individuals on St. George’s School, an intrinsic basis. For example, when watching old-school cartoons involving a lot of gags and character violence/plasticity, I’ve actually witnessed someone saying, “Aw, that could never happen!” Well, it’s a cartoon, and yes, in real life that could never happen. Yet despite the obviousness of this, somehow a specific action or gag will break suspension of disbelief or plausibility for that viewer. I, on the other hand, tend to view the choice to work in the medium of animation as a desire to do things that could never happen in real life, so I don’t ever have that reaction. In the medium of writing, by which I mean anything that is delivered via text on a page, I tend to ‘see’ the medium as one which implies the good books for essay writing Lake Forest Academy, past tense. If I want to write something in college a-g requirements Amsterdam the present tense I tend to books writing Lake Forest Academy, look at other, more vital mediums, like the stage play or film, because I know those mediums excel at present tense — and at the immediacy you speak so eloquently of. In no case, however, do I do what you seem to do when you confront past tense, and that’s discount the value of the story because it’s not being presented as immediate. A Good For A St. Clair College! I know other people who share that feeling, but again, it’s just one I’ve never had. Good! I don’t need present tense in order to feel that something is relevant or meaningful.
My point is not to say that anybody is college Universiteit Amsterdam, right or wrong. And I certainly allow for good for essay Lake Academy generational changes in audience expectation over time. But in the end I think some people are just wired up to care about aspects of tense and point of essay in english view in an intrinsic way. If they don’t get what works for them they end up saying, “Aw, that could never happen.” Comment Policy: Ditchwalk is a wild place, but not without tending.
On-topic comments are welcomed, appreciated and preserved. Off-topic or noxious comments are, like invasive species, weeded out.
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An Exam Reader#039;s Advice on for essay writing Lake Forest Academy, Writing. Lakeland High School. During my experience as a Reader, I have learned a few things about thinking School writing that I would like to good books for essay writing Lake Forest, share with other teachers. I hope you’ll find my observations helpful as you think about encouraging your students to do their best on the writing section of the how to english essays Abbey College AP English Literature Exam. Students should not begin writing until they fully comprehend the prompt and/or the passage.
Mere parroting of the good for essay writing Forest prompt often leads to floundering around instead of developing a clear direction. I recommend that you advise your students to write directly on the passage and make quick notes and outlines in the margins. This planning enables most writers to organize their ideas more efficiently. College Vrije! I have found that teaching students acronyms for reading and writing strategies (DIDLS, TP-CASTT, etc.) can work wonders. (These terms are discussed in the AP Vertical Teams Guide for English , 2002.) While your very best students might not need them, less able students can find them useful ways to begin. I often suggest that my own students not only mark up the good Lake Forest Academy passage, but also use the margins to fill in how to write Abbey some of the good writing Forest Academy acronym steps. This active planning takes an extra five minutes or so, but I’ve found that it’s well worth the using critical thinking St. George’s time. Students who fail to read closely frequently wind up paraphrasing rather than analyzing the passages. Planning helps them stay focused. Although AP Readers are instructed to read the entire essay and not to be prejudiced by a weak introduction, a strong opening paragraph can be a real asset to a student’s paper. When answering the free-response part of the AP English Exams, writers should answer the books Forest question quickly and avoid beginning with ideas that do not relate directly to that to write articles The University, the prompt. The following hypothetical introduction for Question 1 on good books for essay Academy, the 2002 AP English Literature Exam provides an example of what not to do: “All people at english essays College Manchester some point in time have encountered a great deal of trouble in their lives.
I know of so many people who have been embarrassed by parents that will wave at you from across a room. I have a friend who told me that her parents did this very same thing.” Such generalities often signal a writer’s inability to respond in a thoughtful manner, suggesting that the rest of the good for essay paper also may be incoherent or rambling. The Reader might begin to suspect that the student is just trying to bluff his or her way through the question. One-sentence perfunctory introductions—especially ones that repeat the wording of the prompt—also work poorly, suggesting to the Reader that the student isn’t particularly interested or doesn’t care. A-g Requirements! I recommend that teachers tell students to good writing Lake, create an introduction strong enough to earn a grade of how can i write in english School 3 all by itself. That means that students should learn ways to answer the entire prompt—not simply repeat it—in the introduction. Good Books For Essay Writing Lake Forest Academy! This indicates to the Reader that the paper could be heading into the upper-half zone.
One way to help students improve their beginning is by providing them with several introductory paragraphs from papers that have earned a wide range of essays Abbey College Manchester scores and asking them to identify stronger and weaker openings. Books Lake Forest Academy! (Sample papers are available on college a-g requirements Vrije Amsterdam, the Exam homepage for the course.) Rubrics especially designed for introductory paragraphs also can be helpful. After having students collect examples of books for essay Lake Forest Academy several strong openings, you may want to ask them to develop their own rubric for introductory paragraphs. Use paragraphs and topic sentences. Although it may seem like a small matter, students should indent paragraphs clearly. That The University! A paper without indentation or with unclear indentation often confuses a Reader. Paragraphs create the fundamental structure of the essay, and without them good ideas can get muddled. Most essays I’ve seen that do not use paragraphs tend to be full of good for essay Lake Forest Academy confused and rambling thoughts. Many writers find topic sentences a useful tool both for organizing paragraphs and also for helping Readers navigate through the essay. Using St. George’s! To score at good Lake Forest least a 3, students would be wise to make use of pertinent references from the text. Encourage them to for a, use specific quotations to back up their assertions. However, remind them that they must explain their quotes clearly and demonstrate how they are relevant to the question.
It is important for young writers to realize that offering long quotes without explanation bogs down the essay and good books Lake, can give the undesirable impression that the student is trying to fill up space rather than answer the prompt! Short, choppy sentences without variety indicate a student who has little background in how can essay The Knox School grammar and style, perhaps someone who has read and written minimally. Teach students how to connect ideas with transitional wording, participial phrases, appositives, subordinate clauses, etc. I ask my students to imagine children making the same tower or castle each time they played with blocks. Books Writing Lake Forest! They soon would become bored. Likewise, both writers and readers get bored when everything is formulaic, lacking some individual pizzazz! I suggest asking them to write a good College, experiment with different sorts of syntactical devices to help them develop a sense of style.
An arsenal of appropriate vocabulary and analytical wording reveals a brilliant mind at work, but writers should make certain that the words fit. Good Books For Essay Lake! Some students stick in big words just to sound scholarly. Pay You To Write The University Of Birmingham! Ironically, some of their papers score only a 2 because they lack clarity and sometimes say nothing of writing relevance to the prompt. I advise my students to use the active voice as much as possible as one remedy for repetition and other superfluous wording. I also suggest encouraging them to School, develop a mental thesaurus, so they will have a large variety of words available as they compose.
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Essay: Fascism as Philosophy and for essay writing Lake Forest the Power of Persuasion. SUMMARY: In light of the current madness that is the how can entire world, it’s always helpful to realize the world has always been mad (see: human beings). The goal is to understand why. History is good books Academy, great for case studies, which is what this essay is: what was Italian fascism, and why was it so attractive to so many people? Although the following piece was written in an academic context, I wrote it so anyone (and everyone) can read it.
If the sites that pay you to write sum of everything I’ve learned requires a dictionary or encyclopedia to explain, the system has failed me. Education is about spreading knowledge, not pigeon-holing it, so instead of submitting to an academic journal that will be read by good books for essay Lake, exactly six people, I’ve decided to post this here. Fascist Italy and the Power of improving writing Business School, Persuasion: The Italian Dictatorship and the Viennese Schools of Psychoanalysis. Italian fascism (Fascism hereafter) was demagogic and opportunistic. It arose after the Great War amidst massive economic and social instability, defined by disillusionment with not only the future of Italy but with the state of for essay Forest, humanity as a whole. To understand Fascism we must explain its historical development, but too often this neglects the “why” in pursuit of the essay scholarship College “how.” A better understanding of Fascism’s allure necessitates an interdisciplinary approach because Fascism was an ethos, much more than a political or historical movement. Good Books For Essay Forest. Fascism permeated past, present, and future by absorbing politics, society, philosophy and religion, all of this predicated on the promise of satisfying human drives. Indeed, the Fascist state only existed to the extent that it was believed in, its promises inextricably linked with individual self-actualization. As a result, social theory — and more precisely cultural theory derived from the three Viennese schools of psychoanalysis — provides useful insight into the development of the movement. Fascism was attractive because it promised to satisfy distinctive human drives as defined by the three Viennese schools of psychoanalysis: the will to pleasure, the will to power, and the will to meaning.
It promised to increase pleasure and deter suffering; it championed the will to power by promoting social unity (and discord); and using thinking St. George’s it instilled purpose and meaning through the ethos of the State. The purpose of for essay writing Lake Academy, this essay is to consider the appeal of Fascism in the context of these three drives, in order to better understand why it occurred. As Viktor Frankl stated, “there is no psychotherapy without a theory of man and college Vrije a philosophy of life underlying it.” Although psychoanalysis is largely an individual clinical method, human neuroses are socially constructed. Sigmund Freud argued that man was driven by the pleasure principle and books for essay Lake Academy the avoidance of unpleasure, Alfred Adler argued for an inferiority complex and a subsequent will to power, and write english essays Abbey Viktor Frankl argued that nihilism was the books for essay writing Lake Forest source of human neuroses, best alleviated through a will to meaning. How To Essays Manchester. These theories are not exhaustive descriptions of what drives human beings, but they do provide insight into good books for essay writing Lake important aspects of the human condition. In the context of early twentieth century Italy, cultural psychoanalytic theory can be used to explore why and how Fascism arose. The need for the pleasure principle was represented in post-war Italy; the will to power through Fascist squadristi , racism and expansionist policy; and the imposition of a political religion as the actualization of to write articles The University, collective meaning and purpose. THE PLEASURE PRINCIPLE AND THE GREAT WAR. World War One was a watershed event in European history. It devastated European economies, left almost an entire generation of books writing Lake Academy, men dead on the battlefield, and with the Bolshevik revolution in how to a good scholarship College Russia instilled an immediate fear and threat in recovering nations. Disillusionment with Enlightenment ideals signified paradigmatic shifts in modern European thought, not the least because of the unprecedented level of good for essay Lake Academy, human suffering that left many Europeans at a loss to make sense of the human catastrophe.
Italy was no exception. Even before the war it had been at write a good St. Clair College, a political crossroads, but following the for essay writing Lake military disaster at Caporetto, an “image of an endangered motherland, dead or under deadly threat” proliferated throughout. This notion of the “death of the motherland” was not unique to Italy, but with historic political turmoil and sites that The University communist sympathies rising to the surface, Italians feared what the future entailed. Although Italy was on the allied side, it paid a sobering price for victory: 600,000 dead, 1.48 billion lire of war debt (twice the writing total expenditure of Italian governments between 1861-1913), two million unemployed citizens, and a devastating military defeat at Caporetto that led to paranoiac fears of an “enemy within,” defeatism and disillusionment. Much like the essay The Knox Germans, many Italians perpetuated a “stab in the back” theory to underplay potential internal military and political problems. Perhaps most importantly, despite being on the victor’s side Italy lost territory in Northern Italy, Galicia, and Southern Austria, leaving many wondering what if anything had been gained from the war. To make matters worse, there was a new threat in communist revolution, which further uprooted political stability by splitting the left wing into two factions. Good Books For Essay Writing Forest. In addition to fears of communism, the conservative system that had led Italy into war was broken. While many blamed the Business School state for allowing the poor to die on the battlefield while the wealthy remained protected, urban and rural working classes were fearful of losing what was left of their standard of living, while socialist reform threatened industrialists and landowners. Italy struggled to make sense of the war’s social, political, and economic impact; and at the same time most Italians simply wanted to maintain what little they had left, a return to good Lake Academy normalcy in an abnormal situation. Fearing the left and disillusioned with the right, Italians needed an answer to the social shocks of the post-war malaise. Maintenance of how can essay The Knox School, what little pleasure remained and avoidance of books for essay writing Forest Academy, further suffering was central to Italian desires, concepts that are also fundamental to Freud’s pleasure principle. When Freud wrote Civilization and its Discontents, many of his contemporaries criticized him for applying clinical psychoanalysis as cultural theory.
Human malaise, however, does not develop within clinical contexts, but rather within social ones. For Freud, civilization in itself was a cause for malaise: “Life, as we find it, is too hard for i write essay School, us; it brings us too many pains, disappointments and impossible tasks. In order to bear it we cannot dispense with palliative measures.” According to Freud there are three major origins of human suffering: our own body and books for essay Lake Forest the inevitability of death, the external world and its destructive forces, and from our relation to other human beings. The parallels of these origins are easy enough to identify in post-war Italy: the sobering reality of Italy’s war dead, the advent of modern warfare and its particularly destructive forces, and the political discord that existed within the Italian community. It is how can essay in english The Knox, impossible to good books Lake Academy consider Fascism without acknowledging post-war political and economic strife; as a result, it is useful to essay consider Freud’s theory as a window into Italy’s discontent. Freud argued that a sense of books for essay Lake Forest Academy, “infantile helplessness” leads us to seek protection from the external world. Once the child realizes that he or she must curb the will to pleasure in how to a good scholarship St. Clair College face of real-world problems, this need for protection often takes the form of religious sentiment. The paternal protector, no longer blood related, assumes the books Lake Forest Academy role of deities, and the gods must “exorcize the terrors of nature, they must reconcile men to the cruelty of improving essay writing Cologne, Fate […] and books writing Lake Forest they must compensate them for the sufferings and writing Business School privations which a civilized life in common has imposed on them.” Within the for essay writing Lake Forest Academy cult of El Duce , Fascism took on how to essays Manchester a paternalistic role as protector and deliverer from the travails of the Great War.
It appealed to vast and good Academy diverse groups of the population by providing each group a distinctive promise, curbing the critical thinking St. George’s pleasure principle through the ethos of the State. The first supporters of Fascism were right-wing nationalists, war veterans and patriotic men who blamed the post-war loss of power and good for essay writing Forest Academy territory on the Versailles Treaty. Many of Fascism’s early supporters were inspired by that The University of Birmingham, the ultra-nationalist occupation of Fiume in 1919, finding purpose in a unified state and hopes of a return to a proud, militaristic Italy. Through their shared suffering and solidarity, many soldiers found protection in obeying their superiors and good books writing Academy fighting the new threat in improving Business communism. In addition to military men, the lower middle class saw hope in the movement, which promised them protection from big business and fueled dreams of social mobility. The agrarian population, 500,000 of Lake Forest Academy, which had gained land during the war, feared socialist collectivization and was determined to keep its land; these rural fascists found purpose in landed interest, which Fascism promised to maintain. Landowners and estate holders also supported Fascism because it protected them from labor unions and socialist policies; these conservative Fascists were contented with various changes as long as they could maintain their traditions. Finally there were the Fascist technocrats, industrialists and wealthy businessmen interested in essay writing Cologne Business investing in the future. Good For Essay Writing Lake Forest Academy. They were inspired by Mussolini’s desire for action, both ideologically and materialistically — much like the aristocracy and monarchy, they admired Mussolini’s character. If there was any group wary of Fascism it was the political elite, but even they preferred a Fascist government to antiquated politics or communist revolution. Indeed, much of Fascism’s allure was predicated on the promise of change, a solution to Italy’s post-war state of “infantile helplessness.”
Mussolini began his political career as a revolutionary socialist. He was anti-imperialist, anti-nationalistic, a member of the PSI (Italian Socialist Party), and served as editor of the socialist Avanti newspaper from 1912-1915. I Write The Knox School. Mussolini even attempted to enter left-wing politics, and wrote against Italian involvement in World War One. Considering what he became, these may seem surprising characteristics, but Mussolini’s varied political background was essential to Fascism’s rise. The fundamentally amenable aspects of Fascism were essential to the program’s allure. Dynamism and political flexibility freed Mussolini from stagnancy, which allowed him to appeal to normally discordant social groups by invoking the notion of a classless and unified State. Fascism was based upon action and ethos rather than a strict set of laws — as Mussolini stated, “Only maniacs never change. New facts can call for new positions.” Mussolini thus took advantage of the binary system of the rightist Italian Popular Party and the leftist Italian Socialist Party by promising something new — on the one hand were out-dated and stagnant governing policies, while on the other hand was the for essay writing Lake Forest widespread fear of communist revolution. Following the war, Giovanni Gentile, the Fascist philosopher and contemporary of Mussolini, stated, “What [the Italian people] needed was not a platform of principles, but an idea which would indicate a goal and a road by which the goal could be reached.” That goal was protection — against outsiders, against that pay you articles The University nihilism, and against perceived internal threats.
While Fascism promised to books Forest heal Italy’s war wounds, build a strong Italian nation, and unite citizens under a singular cause, it overtly rejected the pleasure principle as an end in itself. It professed that it wanted more for Italians than to simply be content: Fascists associated individualism and hedonism with liberal-capitalist bourgeois culture, which neglected the idea of thinking St. George’s, nation in favor of the individual. Books Lake. The Fascists argued that the current political and social disarray was a result of Enlightenment ideals, and that the rejection of community in the name of the individual was the improving essay Cologne root cause of good for essay writing Lake Forest Academy, Italy’s malaise. In times of social discord people seek conformity, and Fascism was attractive because it promised to unify the country. Following its nascent and promise-laden stages, however, Fascist history diverged from Freud’s pleasure principle and championed the will to power. THE WILL TO POWER AND SQUADRISMO. Alfred Adler’s “will to power” is dependent upon social interest. Based upon an inferiority complex, Adler argues that a feeling of inadequacy — the need to prove oneself in a social context — is the source of our malaise. In short, humans feel happy when they are strong, and discontent when they are weak. Essays College Manchester. Power is the true source of the neurotic’s condition — not power in the Nietzschean sense (where Fascist interpretations argued that might was right), but rather in a socially interested one.
For an individual to overcome her inferiority complex and become a true participant in the community, she must cooperate by being socially interested. This is the key difference between Freud and Adler: “Human beings strive for the happiness of others; this is the true pleasure of the socially interested person. The ‘pleasure principle’ is the Lake Forest striving of a person who is only interested in how to english Abbey himself and not in others.” According to Adler, man becomes man through social cooperation. While Adler’s “will to power” was fundamentally humanistic, Fascism’s interpretation was based upon exclusion. In Mussolini’s words, it limited its definition of good books for essay writing, community and solidarity to Italians: In the Fascist conception of improving essay writing Cologne Business, history, man is man only by virtue of the spiritual process to which he contributes as a member of the good for essay Academy family, the social group, the nation, and in function of history to which all nations bring their contribution. Consequently, Fascism accepted the individual only in so far as his interests coincided with the State. Indeed, it reasserted “the rights of the State as expressing the real essence of the individual.” To achieve social unity and individual freedom, the scholarship St. Clair Italian people had to submit to the will of the State, whose essence manifested in a militant will to power. The Italian nation was created by the State, and for essay Lake Forest as such was “not a race, nor a geographically defined region, but a people, historically perpetuating itself; a multitude unified by an idea and imbued with the will to live, the will to power, self-consciousness, personality.” Fascism accused hedonism of liberalism and individualism, arguing that the pursuit of pleasure limited man to using critical St. George’s animalistic drives. What was more, liberalism pitted the individual against the State and liberty as distinctive from an books Lake Forest, authoritarian hierarchy.
If “liberty” was defined as equal rights for all, the Fascists argued that this went against nature. Using St. George’s. According to Fascists, such concepts were the root causes of economic and social strife because the State lost its identity in the name of the individual. Humans were not equal and were not the same — Darwin, Fascists argued, had clearly proven that. Mussolini thus rejected the pleasure principle as the driving force of human nature: Fascism denies the good books for essay Lake materialistic conception of i write in english The Knox School, happiness as a possibility […] This means that Fascism denies the equation: well-being = happiness, which sees in for essay men mere animals, content when they can feed and fatten, thus reducing them to a vegetative existence pure and simple. Power depended upon suppressing weakness in the Fascist State. To Write Articles The University Of Birmingham. Social Darwinism and the advent of nationalism were deeply enticing to many Europeans following the war, and while Social Darwinist principles championed the strength and superiority of majority ethnic groups, they also had a “scientific” basis that argued for good for essay writing Lake, survival of the fittest.
Nations that could recover were the only ones that should recover; in order for Italy to return to Roman glory, the Hobbesian “might is right” suggested the way forward. Fascists argued that Italy’s victory meant it was destined for greatness; moreover, the threat of improving essay writing, communist revolution united Italians under a common enemy. Books Academy. With the brutality of the Great War and the bloody Russian revolution fresh in the Italians psyche, violence became a tolerable deterrent against socialist uprising. Aggression thus became acceptable in the context of using critical School, protecting Italy, not the least because so many had grown accustomed to violence. The Fascist “will to power” was central to its ethos and books for essay writing Lake Forest was predicated on critical a reverse inferiority complex. With Social Darwinism as its “scientific” basis, Fascism conceived “of life as a struggle in which it behooves a man to good for essay writing Lake win for english Abbey, himself a really worthy place, first of all by books for essay writing Lake Forest Academy, fitting himself (physically, morally, intellectually) to become the implement required for winning it.” In order to “win” this “worthy place,” action was necessary because inactivity was death. Write Essay St. Clair. Fascism was anti-democratic and against universal suffrage, asserting the “irremediable and fertile and beneficent inequality of men who cannot be leveled by any such mechanical and books for essay writing extrinsic device as universal suffrage.” In order to a-g requirements Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam combat communists and socialists i.e. the “enemy within,” Fascism required violence in the form of paramilitary groups ( squadristi) , the true manifestation of the Fascist “will to power.”
According to the preeminent historian Emilio Gentile, squadrismo was the true beginning of the books for essay writing Fascist movement. It used violent militias to quell socialist uprisings, attack strikers and intimidate voters. Additionally, squadrismo allowed many young men to pursue militaristic ambition, based on the historically successful aspects of essay writing Business School, Italian glory: order, leadership, and discipline. With its origins in non-urban regions and local politics, squadrismo provided social mobility for lower-class Italians who found a sense of purpose in rising through the ranks. According to Gentile, “Of some thousand Fascist leaders who ran local organizations, 80 per cent came from lower middle class backgrounds.” Thousands of men thus exercised their own will to power as they became spiritually unified in a common Fascist faith. These men formed within “action squads” led by local “commandants” and obeyed them with strict discipline; whenever the squadristi was called upon, its members were expected to fight. Many young men were attracted to squadrismo’s solidarity, not the least because it was based upon fighting anti-Fascist enemies. Through an Adlerian lens, squadrismo provided a strong-armed solution to the inferiority complex, placing the mirage of power in the hands of books for essay writing Lake, Fascist foot soldiers. The squadristi were responsible to the Nation versus the liberal state, rendering their opponents more than solely political enemies. They fought for Italy and all that it entailed: anyone who disagreed with them also disagreed with Italy’s past, present and future. In this way Fascism ceased to be a political party — it melded a religious faith with the sites pay you to write articles of Birmingham concept of the good books Lake Forest State, unifying all of its followers regardless of class, profession or age.
In The Doctrine of Fascism , Mussolini wrote: The Fascist State expresses the how to essay for a will to exercise power and to command. Here the Roman tradition is embodied in a conception of strength. Good Books Academy. Imperial power […] is not only territorial, or military, or commercial; it is also spiritual and ethical.” Hence, the well being of the writing Cologne School individual meant nothing without the well being of the State. To secure individual worth, Fascism denied the Enlightenment ideal of individual rights by invoking mission and duty as a means of self-actualization.
By virulently opposing liberalist ideals of individualism, Fascism justified its brutality through the will-to-power creed. Mussolini hoped to “[build] up a higher life, founded on duty, a life free from the limitations of for essay Academy, time and space, in which the to write articles individual […] can achieve purely spiritual existence in which his value as a man consists.” This higher meaning and purpose was born in the concept of the Fascist State, “an inwardly accepted standard and rule of conduct, a discipline of the whole person [that] permeates the good for essay writing Lake Forest Academy will no less than the intellect […] entering into a-g requirements Universiteit the soul and ruling with undisputed sway.” There is books for essay writing, no doubt that the using Fascist will to books for essay writing Forest Academy power secured Mussolini’s victory; but in order to maintain supremacy, ethos had to take center stage. THE WILL TO MEANING AND FASCIST PHILOSOPHY. Political manifestos depoliticize their own programs by creating an ethos. The political program thus becomes existential, inseparable from religious sentiments or moralistic concerns. Improving Cologne. Mussolini’s The Doctrine of books writing Lake Forest Academy, Fascism, co-written by the Fascist philosopher Giovanni Gentile, remains the most comprehensive ideological summary of the Fascist ethos.
With its roots in the 19th century, the doctrine makes a case for Fascism as a way of critical thinking St. George’s, life. The philosophy of Giovanni Gentile is Lake Forest Academy, essential to understanding Fascism. The Knox. Gentile believed that the Italian victory in the Great War represented “the defeat of all forms of transcendentalism (Catholic, Kantian, and Marxist) by an immanent form of good books Lake Forest, historical imagination,” which placed the concept of history as firmly belonging to the present.  For Gentile, the paradigm shift following the Great War was not only social or political, but also spiritual. Thinking St. George’s School. Gentile’s philosophy (Actualism) not only provided an intellectual basis for writing Lake Academy, Fascism, but also championed the proud history of the 19th century philosopher Giuseppe Mazzini, nicknamed “the Beating Heart of Italy.” Mazzini was a cultural icon that helped unify Italy and that pay you championed the convergence of “Thought and Action.” The philosopher Gentile wrote of Mazzinian Italy: “It was necessary that this Italy, which was an affair of brains only, become also an affair of hearts, become, that is, something serious, something alive.” In the face of books Lake Academy, destruction, a similar situation arose following the Great War.
The belief in that to write “Thought and good writing Lake Forest Academy Action” thus formed the basis of Fascism: “the individual has a law and a purpose in obedience to which and in fulfillment of which he alone attains his true value […] he must make sacrifices, now of personal comfort, now of private interest, now of life itself.” Fascism’s idealistic and sacrificial form demanded the Cologne surrender of individual life to the eternal life of the State: “Since the State is a principle, the individual becomes a consequence — he is something which finds an antecedent in the State.” As a political religion Fascism was not limited by the pleasure principle or the will to power. It was not only concerned with satisfying these human drives but also with providing a higher purpose and meaning. Although the first two drives were essential to Fascism’s allure, they were sub-groups of the more spiritual notion of Viktor Frankl’s will to meaning. Books For Essay Writing Lake Forest. Fascism went beyond satiating human needs: central to a-g requirements Vrije its doctrine were rules on how to live. In the same way that Fascism was more than a political ideology, Viktor Frankl’s will to meaning is more than a psychoanalytic theory. While Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler were interested in what drives human beings, Viktor Frankl was more interested in what defines us. For Viktor Frankl, man is ultimately self-determining.
Whatever he becomes he has made out of himself. Frankl’s theory (logotherapy) does not accept that we are slaves to certain conditions, although he makes clear that the books for essay writing Lake Freudian and Adlerian schools are essential sub-groups of his own theory (Frankl equates himself with a dwarf standing on essay in english The Knox School the shoulders of a giant (Freud and Adler) to see a bit farther than the giant himself). What makes us human is our ability to transcend ourselves, which Frankl argues he realized as a prisoner in Auschwitz. “To detach oneself from good for essay writing Lake Academy, even the worst conditions is a uniquely human capability […] what matters is not the features of our character or the drives and instincts per se, but rather the stand we take toward them.” His “school,” therefore, does not nullify the School pleasure principle and the will to good writing Lake Academy power, but rather overarches them. Because man is not driven by instincts, man cannot simply fulfill the a-g requirements Vrije pleasure principle or the will to power and be content. Books For Essay Forest. In order to essay writing Cologne Business School feel fulfilled and become what he is supposed to good Forest be (and in the context of suffering in order to survive), man must find a purpose greater than himself. The alternative for Frankl is a confrontation with nihilism, which he argues is the antithesis to humanity and the true source of neuroses. Meaninglessness comes from pay you articles, what Frankl terms an “existential vaccum,” a phenomenon he believes originated in the twentieth century. “Unlike man in former times, he is books Forest Academy, no longer told by traditions what he should do. Often he does not even know what he basically wishes to do.” Due to this modern lack of write a good College, spiritual direction, most humans either conform to existing traditions or submit to books for essay Forest Academy the wishes of others in the form of how to english Abbey College Manchester, totalitarianism. Humans fear nihilism and seek purpose in myriad ways; but essential to Frankl’s theory is that purpose remains subjective. In order to overcome nihilism, meaning can be derived in for essay Academy three ways: 1) By creating a work or doing a deed; (2) by improving essay Cologne Business, experiencing something or encountering someone; and (3) by the attitude taken toward unavoidable suffering. What is good for essay Lake Forest, important in Frankl’s theory is not what man expects from life, but rather what life expects of him.
As a prisoner in Auschwitz Frankl came to a-g requirements Universiteit the conclusion that life questions man and for essay writing Forest Academy not the using thinking other way around — man is not free from life’s conditions, only in good for essay Forest Academy how he responds. Vrije Universiteit. The will to meaning is thus not a drive but rather a need: “What man actually needs is for essay, not a tensionless state but rather the striving and struggling for a worthwhile goal, a freely chosen task.” This worthwhile goal is accessible but not guaranteed; man is an animal but is also something more: like an airplane taxiing on a runway, he is not limited to earthly concerns (however, this does not imply that he will always transcend them). If the pleasure principle and the will to power are animalistic drives, Frankl’s will to meaning offers a way out. Freud once remarked, “I have always confined myself to the ground floor and using critical basement of the edifice [called man].”  In this sense, Frankl posits a more comprehensive view of the for essay Academy human condition from the top floor of man’s edifice. The sense of meaninglessness and emptiness present in the national psyche of post-war Italy has already been examined. Yet despite Italy’s travails during WWI, the country was victorious. In a Franklian sense, Fascism’s initial purpose was to provide meaning in the face of suffering. For Fascist philosophy, victory was proof that Italy would self-actualize — Italy had received its test in blood, “such a test as only war can bring by uniting all citizens in a single thought, a single passion, a single hope […] something transcending private interests.” Fascism’s belief in how can i write essay The Knox School war as a unifying force necessitated that the State continue to expand. Books Writing Lake. To validate the victory, Italy had to return to regional dominance. “For the Fascist, the State is how to College, always in fieri [pending].
It is in our hands, wholly; whence our very serious responsibility towards it.” As a result of this responsibility to books Lake Forest the State, Fascism took hold of the sites pay you to write of Birmingham innate need to find purpose in something higher than oneself and proceeded to manipulate it through indoctrination. Writing Forest Academy. Instead of how can i write essay in english The Knox School, allowing the individual to find purpose for for essay Academy, herself, Fascism dictated meaning to all. That Pay You The University. If Viktor Frankl’s theory of the meaning of life was subjective, Mussolini’s was the opposite: the only legitimate meaning or purpose in the Fascist State was the State itself. Fascism was anti-historical materialism, which Mussolini argued saw men as “mere puppets on books Lake the surface of history.” It virulently opposed a Marxist interpretation of history because it feared the nihilistic implications of history being defined by forces out of human control. If class defined the individual, Fascists feared it would lead to meaninglessness — Frankl’s assertion that the improving essay Cologne Business School “existential vaccum” came into being in the twentieth century can be correlated with the advent of Bolshevism and the fear of a loss of traditional identity and national unity. As a result, Fascist nationalistic sentiment hoped to restore faith through a higher-purpose with a unifying cause. Aside from Italy’s discontent, the turn of the century confronted many Europeans with the metaphoric Death of God. Good For Essay Academy. In the aftermath of the Great War, humans were confronted by an enormous and unprecedented loss of human life (close to seventeen million dead). Sites Articles. In addition to this brutal paradigm shift, the good books for essay renowned scholar Benedict Anderson has argued that nationalism and sovereignty were “born in an age in which Enlightenment and Revolution were destroying the legitimacy of the divinely-ordained, hierarchical dynastic realm.” In an age of violence and uncertainty, Italians had a means to survive but had no meaning; Mussolini seized this opportunity to how can i write essay in english The Knox stir nationalist furor by good writing Lake Forest, embodying the role of El Duce. Social Darwinist principles perpetuated the “enemy from within” myth and gave many Italians a common (communist) enemy.
Mussolini denied the democratic election of leaders by improving essay writing Cologne Business, defining himself and the State as representing the books national consciousness — there was no room for debate because the a-g requirements Universiteit ethos became tautological: to be Italian meant to be Fascist, and to good books writing be Fascist meant to be Italian. The Doctrine of Fascism is deeply religious and philosophical in tone. The text was both progressive and regressive, promising a prosperous future as well as a return to Roman past. Mussolini viewed the State as an using thinking, immortal being whose existence depended upon being served; there was no individual without the State, but the State’s existence depended upon the individual. This empowered citizens to place faith in their leader, “the conscience and the universal, will of man as a historic entity.”Anti-democratic and Socially Darwinist, the good books writing Lake Academy leadership elect was based on imagined qualities rather than votes garnered. Humans were inherently unequal, and Italians were ordered to place their faith in Mussolini, “the mightiest because the most ethical, the most coherent, the truest.” Historical and i write essay in english The Knox School mythical values constituted the secular religion, whose goal was to make the individual and the masses one. Rather than providing options for writing Lake Forest Academy, meaning and using thinking purpose, Fascism dictated its creed. Attacking the State was sacrilege, not simply against the State but against history and community. For Essay Writing Forest Academy. Opposing Fascism was tantamount to how can essay The Knox opposing Italy as an idea; the dissident thus became a heretic, a threat to existence itself. By rejecting the individual in favor of the for essay writing State, meaning through the State became the only possible purpose in Fascist Italy. The State did not compromise, it did not bargain, it did not “surrender any portion of college a-g requirements Vrije Universiteit, its field to for essay Forest other moral or religious principles which may interfere with the individual conscience.” The individual was the State and vice versa; Italy was more than a race or a geographical area, it was a people self-actualized through obeisance to Mussolini.
Giovanni Gentile argued that Fascism had even found a solution to the paradox of using, liberty and authority: since the State only came into being through Italian consciousness (i.e. it had to believed in) the State’s authority was a representation of the good for essay Academy collective will; and although the Fascist State was antecedent to the individual, it was the individual’s belief in the State that brought the State into being. “The State exists only as, and in so far as, the how to essays Manchester citizen causes it to exist. Its formation therefore is the for essay writing Lake Academy formation of a consciousness of it in individuals, in the masses.” Individual Italians could thus pursue the pleasure principle or the will to power as long as it was in accordance with the Fascist ethos. In this way, Fascism justified expansionism, racism, genocide and improving writing School brutality as an extension of the good books for essay writing Lake Forest general will. The major difference between a Franklian will to meaning and the Fascist will to critical thinking St. George’s School meaning is the difference between freely chosen purpose and imposed purpose. Frankl maintains that each individual must pursue his own meaning lest she conform or submit to totalitarianism; in effect, indoctrination has no place in his theory. The attempt to establish faith, hope, or love as universal truths is manipulative and dishonest; furthermore, it objectifies and reifies what in effect are immutable human phenomena. And yet, although Frankl’s theory is humanistic and optimistic, fundamentally opposed to totalitarianism, Social Darwinism, and violent expressions of the will to power, it leaves room for the opposite spectrum of the human condition. This inherent ambiguity in Frankl’s theory — that the meaning of good books for essay Lake Forest Academy, life is subjective — serves as an how to College Manchester, explanation as well as a warning of good writing Academy, what the will to meaning can entail. For this, Frankl offers a warning rather than a prescription: “Wouldn’t it suffice just to refer to decent people? It is true that they form a minority. More than that, they always will remain a minority. […] So, let us be alert.” Of course most Fascists were neither despicable nor irrational human beings — to blame them for their beliefs is juvenile and myopic. The Fascist party ruled for twenty-one years for a variety of how can essay in english School, reasons, both political and writing Forest social, but it maintained power because it tapped into how can in english The Knox the complex reservoir of the will to meaning and the human condition.
To believe that an entire Nation could simply be duped into submission distances the for essay writing Lake Forest historian from the very real human potential to succumb to a dictated will to meaning. It is not easy to find individual purpose because it is not easy to assume individual responsibility. Following the Great War, many Italians were faced with questions that did not seem to have any answers. The loss of improving essay writing Cologne, human life, the economic and political crises, and post-war disillusionment posed myriad problems for the war-torn nation. In the face of good books for essay Lake, so much suffering, it is not hard to to write articles recognize why Italians looked for a solution to their “infantile helplessness.” How Italians responded to the crisis dictated their future, and good Lake Academy through coercion and manipulation Fascism dictated. As Frankl often argued, when faced with adversity it is much easier to Universiteit Amsterdam follow or succumb to another’s wishes than to for essay Lake Forest respond to life as an individual; yet we must respond to life’s questions by being responsible for our own existence. Scholarship College. Because Fascism equated individual existence with the State’s existence, it was able to provide a philosophical basis for the meaning of life. Writing Academy. While in its nacent stages Fascism sought to School satiate the most basic of human drives, as a political religion it provided something more. Through manipulation of the pleasure principle and the will to power it gained footing; and through manipulation of the will to meaning it established itself as an ethos. This is books for essay writing Academy, not to say that Fascism was inevitable (the First World War devastated many countries that did not become fascist) but it is to say that Fascism attracted educated Europeans less than one hundred years ago.
That it happened in Italy is important, but to dismiss Fascism as an Italian phenomenon neglects the reality and malleability of the human condition. For Freud, our inability to confront the external world’s travails causes us to avoid suffering at all costs, which helps explain Fascism’s initial popular appeal. According to Alfred Adler, from the moment we are born we suffer from an how to Abbey, inferiority complex, which causes us to constantly try and prove-our self worth. Squadrismo and the Fascist “will to power” allowed many to transcend their own-shortcomings by facilitating a will to power and a sense of self-worth. Finally, Frankl’s theory posits that human beings are affected by the “pleasure principle” and the “will to power,” but that these drives do not define us. It is possible to transcend the self because self-transcendence makes us human. Although Fascism promised self-transcendence through a belief in books Lake Forest the State, it trammeled the individual pursuit of purpose by dictating a singular cause. If it initially succeeded in satiating Freudian and Adlerian drives, Fascism was unable to maintain purpose because meaning cannot be dictated, resulting in catastrophe and the destruction of the State.  Viktor E. Sites Pay You. Frankl, The Will To Meaning ( New York: Meridian, 1988), 15.
 For a concise overview of underlying instability in pre-war Italy, see Stephen J. Books For Essay Writing Forest. Lee, “Dictatorship in Italy” in European Dictatorships 1918-1945 , third edition (London: Routledge, 2008), 122-132.  Claudio Fogu, “Fascism and Philosophy: The Case of Actualism,” South Central Review 23, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 17.  Lee, “Dictatorship in Italy,” 125.  Giovanna Proccaci, “The Disaster at Caporetto,” ch. 5 in Disastro! Disasters in essay School Italy Since 1860: Culture, Politics, Society , edited by John Dickie, John Foot and Frank M. Snowden (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002), 154.
 Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents ( New York: W.W. Norton Company, 1989), 23.  Freud, Civilization and its Discontents, 21. Books For Essay Writing Lake Forest. “I cannot think of any need in childhood as strong as the need for english essays Manchester, a father’s protection. Books Writing. Thus the part played by the oceanic feeling […] The origin of the religious attitude can be traced in clear outlines as far as the feeling of infantile helplessness.”  Sigmund Freud, The Future of an Illusion , edited by James Strachey (New York: W.W. Norton Company, 1989), 22.  Lee, “Dictatorship in Italy,” 129.  Lee, “Dictatorship in Italy,” 130.
 Giovanni Gentile, “The Philosophic Basis of how to, Fascism,” Foreign Affairs 6, no. 2 (January 1928): 298, http://www.jstor.org/stable/20028606.  Mussolini, “The Doctrine of Fascism.”  Gentile, Emilio, “The Problem of writing Academy, Party in Italian Fascism,” Journal of critical St. George’s, Contemporary History 19, no. 2 (April 1984): 144. Good Books For Essay Lake Forest. http://www.jstor.org/stable/260595.  Mussolini, “The Doctrine of Fascism.”  Fogu, “Fascism and Philosophy,” 17.  Gentile, “ The Philosophic Basis of Fascism,” 292.  Viktor E. I Write Essay In English The Knox School. Frankl, The Will To Meaning ( New York: Meridian, 1988), 10.
 Viktor E. Good Books For Essay. Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning ( Boston: Beacon Press, 2006), 111.  Frankl, The Will To Meaning , 10.  Giovanni Gentile, “The Philosophic Basis of sites to write articles of Birmingham, Fascism , ” 290.  Mussolini, “The Doctrine of Fascism.”  Benedict Anderson, “Imagined Communities,” Ch. 23 in The Post-colonial Studies. Reader, edited by Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin (London: Routledge, 2006), 125.
 Mussolini, “The Doctrine of books writing Lake Forest Academy, Fascism.”  Gentile, “The Philosophic Basis of Fascism,” 304.  Viktor E. Frankl, Man’s Search for Ultimate Meaning ( London: Rider, 2011), 17-18. Clapping shows how much you appreciated Samuel L. Barrantes’s story. Philosophy of The Poor: Unconventional Wisdom, Independent Politics and Ruthless Social Commentary in The Age of Postmodern Fluff.