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asian art essay Catalogue Essay by Melissa Chiu. Curator for Contemporary Asian and Asian American Art. Asia Society and Museum. Introduction: Tikis, Torches, and Beachside Barbeques. Elvis Presley stands atop a miniature, volcano surrounded by palm trees, a blue lagoon, and groups of scantily clad Pacific Island dancers in native dress. Tanned, slim, wearing an open-necked shirt and wiggling his hips to the beat of drums, he#8217;s singing the last song in the 1966 Hollywood movie Paradise, Hawaiian Style , which I caught on cable television while packing my bags for a trip to the Pacific to college admission essays Lake Forest choose works for this exhibition. I laughed out loud at the messy conflation of Polynesian and College, Melanesian cultures and at the silliness of the scene, which embodied every cliché of the admission essays Lake Academy, Pacific as a paradise, and escapist fantasy, for workaday Americans. Paradise, Hawaiian Style set me thinking about how popular perceptions of the critical thinking article College, Pacific Islands as a paradise have changed little since entering the European popular imagination in the eighteenth century via the ecstatic descriptions of Polynesia found in the writings of early explorers. In the post-War World II period, Hollywood rediscovered the Pacific Islands, in particular Hawaii, as a location for writing admission Lake Forest Academy, the staging of love stories in can i pay someone my essay Oxford College, exotic locations for an emerging youth film market. Some of the more famous examples include films like Blue Hawaii (1961) and Gidget Goes Hawaiian (1961), which depict the Pacific as a clean, pristine playground for young affluent and admission Forest, mobile Americans.

During this period, the image of the Pacific as a paradise was not confined to how to write a high school Roedean School Hollywood movies. Writing Admission Lake Forest Academy! Interior design, fashion, news, and lifestyle magazines promoted Pacific Island cultures, cooking and dress as a new, groovy style, all of which middle-class Americans happily emulated. The cultural historian Christopher L. Connery describes this period as a #8220;time of#8230;tiki torches and of barbeques in orchidean backyard lanais, where, to the #8216;exotic#8217; sounds of are peer journals Martin Denny#8217;s Hawaiian combo, newly arrived southern Californians could imagine themselves part of a transpacific post-war paradise of pure relaxation.#8221; 1 Now, it seems, all Americans could have a little piece of paradise in their own backyard. Anyway, that was the advertising message. Of course, the idea of the Pacific Islands as a paradise was not just confined to America, or the twentieth century.

Spanish, Dutch, French, and admission essays Lake Forest, English explorers were the first Europeans to encounter the Pacific Islands, and pay someone my essay Oxford Tutorial, their accounts shaped the mythology of the region as a paradise. Writing College Admission Lake Forest! This idea reached its height in the eighteenth century, most notably in the writings of the Englishman James Cook, the greatest of the Pacific explorers, and in the French explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville#8217;s published account of his voyage to the Pacific in the 1771. Bougainville#8217;s voyage, in 1768, led to the discovery of a number of unknown Pacific Islands, among them Tahiti, which he renamed #8220;La Nouvelle Cythère#8221; because of the perceived loveliness of the natural setting, and the appealing physical beauty, innocence, and openness of the semi-naked inhabitants#8212;a reference to the ancient Greek myth of the birth of Venus, the goddess of love, who had risen from the sea off the coast of the island of Cythera. He returned to France a hero and subsequently published his diaries. Although long-winded, and even at times a little fanciful, they were to remain among the most influential early accounts of life in the South Seas. Paradise Now? Contemporary Art From the Pacific takes as its departure point the popular perception of the Pacific as a paradise, a worn cliché refreshed seasonally by tourist operators, drinking water companies, pearl traders, and other enterprises. 2 While acknowledging the persistence of such perceptions of their region, the fifteen artists included in this exhibition provide an alternative, more complex vision of the Pacific--one based in how to write a high school essay Roedean, the experience of day-to-day life in writing college Forest Academy, the region. Working in pay someone to write Oxford Tutorial, video, installation, sculpture, painting, and photography, the writing college admission Forest Academy, artists in Paradise Now? show us the Pacific Islands from an insider#8217;s perspective.

Addressed in the works are environmental concerns, cultural heritage issues, questions relating to the experience of are peer College migration and diaspora, and the intersection of indigenous belief systems and Western religions. Writing College Essays Lake! If an image of pay someone to write my essay paradise emerges here, it is one that is fragmented, contradictory, and hybrid. College Essays Lake Forest! Why, then, an exhibition of Pacific artists, and why now? Simply, there has never been a major museum exhibition in the United States of thinking Lord contemporary artists from the Pacific Islands. In fact, with the exception of Te Maori , an exhibition of traditional Maori art and artefacts at writing essays Academy, The Metropolitan Museum of reviewed journals Art, in 1984, and Pacific Parallels: Artists and the Landscape in New Zealand , an exhibition of contemporary as well as historical New Zealand landscape art, which toured the United States in 1991, there has never been any kind of sustained curatorial analysis in writing admission essays Academy, this country of art from a region that, geographically, makes up one third of the world#8217;s surface. 3 Paradise Now? Contemporary Art From the Pacific aims to fill that gap, including work by artists from New Zealand, the Torres Strait Islands, Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa, Hawaii, Rotuma, and Niue, while at can i pay someone my essay Oxford, the same time offering American audiences a glimpse of the diverse contemporary artwork being produced in the region. The quality and volume of this work has increased exponentially over the last decade, something that is reflected in the opening of new commercial art galleries, the writing college essays Lake Forest, proliferation of Pacific arts festivals, art biennales and the building of new museums throughout the region. A centrepiece of these activities is the spectacular Tjibaou Cultural Centre in Noumea, designed by what journals Lancing College the architect Renzo Piano (fig. 2).

Specific examples of a new-found recognition and appreciation of contemporary Pacific art and artists include the establishment in 1992 of a contemporary art biennale in Noumea; curated exhibitions attached to the Pacific Arts Festival, held every four years, with host responsibilities rotating throughout the Pacific; the biennial Pacific Wave Festival held in Sydney; the steady showcasing of Pacific artists in the Asia-Pacific Triennial, established in 1993 at the Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane; the establishment in Forest, 1994 of the Pacific Arts Committee of Creative New Zealand, New Zealand#8217;s federal arts funding body; the establishment in 1988 of the Tautai Contemporary Pacific Arts Trust, a charitable trust set up to to write College promote contemporary Pacific art and educate, mentor, and support both emerging and established Pacific artists; the publication of the first major study of contemporary Pacific art, such as Susan Cochrane#8217;s Bérétara: Contemporary Pacific Art, (2001) and Pacific Art: Persistence, Change and Meaning , edited by Anita Herle, Nick Stanley, Karen Stevenson, and Robert L. Lake Forest Academy! Welsch in original article writing Fairmont Private Schools, 2002; and myriad solo and group exhibitions by artists in Europe. 4. Of all the issues dealt with by the artists in this exhibition, questions relating to migration and diaspora are by far the most important. 5 This is the case because most of the artists included in the exhibition live outside their countries of essays Lake origin (New Zealand has been a popular destination) or have lived away for significant periods, suggesting fluidity among contemporary artists living and Stenden University, working in the Pacific. Writing Admission Lake Academy! John Ioane spent the first six years of his life in Samoa before returning to New Zealand, where he was born; John Pule was born in Niue but moved to New Zealand when he was two years old. Michel Tuffery was born in Wellington to parents with Tahitian, Rarotongan, and Samoan heritage. College! Niki Hastings-McFall was born in West Auckland and discovered her Samoan heritage in 1992. And Sofia Tekela-Smith was born in writing college admission Lake Forest, New Zealand, where she now lives, but was raised by article writing Fairmont Private her grandmother on the island of Rotuma, near Fiji. These experiences are not unique, for more than one in nine Pacific Islanders lives abroad. Pakeha /palagi artists (the Maori and Samoan terms for essays Forest, non-islanders) from the Pacific have also been included in the exhibition.

Partly, this was to reflect the large non-indigenous population in the region, and partly because their work engages critically with myths of the Pacific as a paradise. Writing Plan! For instance, Peter Peryer, W.D. Hammond, and Ruth Watson, all born in New Zealand, present alternative visions of the island landscape, all of which possess a dark, almost gothic sensibility. This is a far cry from Elvis and Gidget. Nowhere is the writing essays Lake Forest Academy, image of the writing an essay New York Film, Pacific Island as a paradise manufactured and maintained so effectively as in the tourism industry. This is the subject of Historic Waikiki (2001) (cat. 6), a multimedia work by writing Lake Forest Academy Downwind Productions, a collaborative project between Hawaii-based artist Gaye Chan and the art historian Andrea Feeser. The piece consists of small bits of concrete, purportedly from Waikiki#8217;s hotels and resorts, packaged and writing an essay New York Film Academy, sold in stores in writing college Lake Academy, Waikiki as if they were authentic historical souvenirs. In addition to the concrete, each of the packets contained a folded sheet of paper with a map and write school School, short history of indigenous cultural and writing college admission essays Lake Forest Academy, environmental damage caused by reckless development projects associated with Hawaii#8217;s tourist industry. Four stories of local destruction are explored, including the how to write essay Roedean, draining of local canals established by indigenous Hawaiians for farming, the writing college admission essays Lake Forest Academy, development of write School hotels on Hawaiian burial sites, the sale of land for luxury homes, and the discovery of sacred stones in the foundations of a bowling alley. The work includes a website featuring a virtual tour of Waikiki, stories of the essays Lake Forest Academy, island#8217;s history, and anecdotes from residents about their memories and experiences of reviewed life on the islands.

6 Together, the website and bogus tourist knick-knacks focus attention on the cultural and environmental changes that have occurred in Waikiki since European settlement and raise questions about the unblinking embrace of writing admission Lake tourism as the sole economic savior and ongoing representations of the islands as a leisure paradise. Born in New Zealand, Ruth Watson has lived in writing news article Sciences, Berlin and Sydney; Canberra is writing admission Lake her present home. For the article Fairmont Schools, last fifteen years, Watson#8217;s works have been about cartography, in admission essays Academy, particular the way that maps construct our idea of the world. As a response to this, Watson creates maps based on early historical projections of the globe, particularly those from the sixteenth century, which arranged countries very differently. For example, Lingua Geographica (Geographic Tongue) (1996) (cat. 41) uses photographic fragments of a picture of her tongue to Private create a map of the world in writing Lake Academy, the shape of a heart. Known as a cordiform projection, this process was invented by the sixteenth-century German astronomer Johannes Stobern.

The representation of the world using imagery of her tongue, a sensory organ, suggests that maps effect not just the way we see the news article Stenden, world but also our experience of it. A related work, Oceanography (2004) (fig. 3), consists of large salt teardrops stained with miniature maps of the world. John Ioane#8217;s installation combining wooden sculptures and video projections, Fale Sa (1999) (cat. 12, fig. 1), is based on writing Lake Forest his childhood memories of Samoa.

His most vivid memories of this period in writing, his life are of the ocean, which is college essays Lake Forest Academy represented in the work as a long corridor of blue light, with hand-carved wooden cowrie shells scattered along the floor as if it were the Schools, ocean-bed. The blue leads into a larger second space, which contains three monumental vertical wooden sculptures, each colored a shiny gray-black and covered with roughly carved designs recalling natural forms such as seedpods and leaves or coral and mollusks. Ioane speaks about writing college admission essays Lake, this work as #8220;a space for writing plan Film Academy, healing,#8221; something that is reflected in writing admission, the title: in English, the Samoan words Fale Sa mean #8220;sacred space.#8221; The two different parts of the installation might also be understood as the embodiment of the Samoan concepts of night and darkness (po) and dawn and daylight ( malama ). This binary suggests a traditional spirituality at the core of Ioane#8217;s art practice, one based partly on his belief that his works #8220;create a space for magic to occur.#8221; John Pule, a poet and Fairmont, figurative painter, migrated to New Zealand from Niue (the world#8217;s smallest independent state) when he was child. Pule#8217;s paintings tell the writing admission Forest Academy, modern history of Niue in an abstract, pared-down manner based on traditional Polynesian painting styles, characterized by a segmented picture plane and plan Academy, smudged lines used to decorate Niuean tapa ( hiapo ), a cloth made from the bark of college admission essays Academy breadfruit or mulberry trees. Pule was baptized a Mormon, and missions and churches are a recurring image in his paintings. One of original article writing Schools his most important paintings, Take These With You When You Leave (1998) (fig. 4), includes images of churches along with representations of airplanes, weapons, tools, ships, cars, and farms. Writing College Forest! The depiction of symbols of contemporary life in a traditional form of representation suggests dissatisfaction with the history of settlement on Niue and its impact on traditional life.

Such strident criticism of changes in his homeland continues in the paintings included in this exhibition. For example, all three works in a series created over the past year, I had a Mind as Invisible as Light (2002) (cat. 30), Tofua (2002) (cat. 29), and original article writing Private Schools, Amanakiega (2003) (cat. 28), use churches as the writing college admission essays Lake Forest Academy, setting for original article Fairmont, scenes of writing violence. In these works, we see miniature silhouetted figures drawn in black ink gathered around a crucifixion, or wounded figures being carried into ambulances or helicopters. The activity takes place on shapes that resemble blood-red islands, which could be interpreted as clouds. Is this real, or something conjured by the artist#8217;s imagination? We have to assume it is real, given the title of one of these works, Tofua , that makes reference to the name of the boat on Lord which the artist and his family migrated to New Zealand. Although her father is Samoan, Niki Hastings-McFall was born in New Zealand and grew up there.

As an adult, in Auckland, she recalls seeing lei made from plastic bags and egg shell cartons at local street fairs. This became an college admission essays Lake Forest Academy, important influence on article Wandsworth her work, which frequently employs lei made from all kinds of popular, everyday materials. Nuclear Rosary Series#8212;Black Rain III (2003) (cat. 8) comprises an admission Lake Academy, enlarged string of rosary beads made from plastic disks cut into the shape of flowers and plan Film Academy, held together by sterling silver rings. At first glance, the flower-disks recall those traditional Polynesian lei, used to honor and welcome visitors or loved ones. But this is deceptive, for underlying the work is a serious political message. The flower-disks glow in the dark, a reference perhaps to the effects of contamination from college essays Lake Forest Academy, nuclear testing in the Pacific that was carried out by the American and French governments as late as the mid-1990s. Pay Someone Oxford Tutorial! With this work, Hastings-McFall equates the life threatening effects of radioactive contamination with the admission Lake, introduction of Christianity in how to write a high school School, the Pacific. Hastings-McFall also used lei in Too Much Sushi VI, VII and VIII (2003) (cat.

10, 11). For this work, she hand-threaded lei from hundreds of small plastic fish sachets used for soy sauce in Japanese restaurants in New Zealand. Here the artist identifies with her Polynesian ancestry (the lei) while at the same time acknowledging her upbringing and writing college admission Lake Academy, residency in writing an essay Academy, Auckland, New Zealand#8217;s most international and cosmopolitan city. Afio Mai Series#8212;Sunset at 619: I, II, III, IV, V and Sunset (2003) (cat. 9) ( afio mai means #8220;welcome#8221; in writing admission Lake Academy, Samoan) more directly addresses her family#8217;s Samoan and Palagi backgrounds. This work consists of a series of framed photographs of sunsets of Auckland draped in lei, each made from duplicates of the photographs delicately folded and strung together to resemble flowers. The artist#8217;s Palagi grandfather took the photographs, the negatives of which she inherited when he died recently. By reprinting her grandfather#8217;s old photographs, framing them, and then draping them in lei, following the Polynesian custom of draping lei over photographs of loved ones, Hastings-McFall creates a hybrid memorial to her European grandfather. Peter Peryer has been taking photographs since the early 1970s.

His black and white documentary-style photographs present a very different image of New Zealand. Instead of idealized sunsets, he prefers to document quirky, eerie, slightly disturbing urban and rural images. The works in this show, spanning a twenty-year period, include images of can i College a bloated dead cow left by the side of a highway, a rudimentary clock installed on college Academy the side of can i to write my essay Oxford Tutorial a mountain, a map of the college essays Forest, north and south island of New Zealand made from an essay plan Academy, bitumen, a derelict boat with Maori patterns painted along its sides, and Mount Taranaki framed by trees reminiscent of a classical landscape tradition (cat. 19). Peryer#8217;s photographs suggest an authenticity of experience, reinforced by the medium of black and white photographs.

But their oscillation between the sublime and the banal also represents a search for the unique in the most everyday of circumstances. W.D. Hammond#8217;s paintings also depict the New Zealand landscape, albeit filtered through the imagination. College Lake! His paintings in the exhibition contain images of verdant, dense, tropical jungles inhabited by strange bird-like creatures. Although Hammond prefers not to speak publicly about the sources of writing news article Stenden University of Applied Sciences his imagery, an often-cited reference for his bird-creatures is the work of the nineteenth-century ornithologist Sir Walter Lawry Buller, whose book A History of the college Academy, Birds of New Zealand contains an encyclopaedic visual record of New Zealand birds. In the luscious green, almost viscous foreground of Placemakers I (1998) (cat. 7), figures with elongated bird heads flock together on writing article Stenden University Sciences three diagonal tree branches. They are mostly black and gray, with delicate patterns reminiscent of decorative wallpaper painted across their bodies. In the background, a lone female figure with a horse#8217;s head, dressed in a corset bodice and writing college admission essays Academy, long, old-fashioned skirt, stands gripping the can i to write my essay Tutorial, back of a chair.

What does it mean? Nobody really knows, although the contrast between bird-humans, with the birds a native New Zealand species, and a horse-human, the horse an introduced animal, suggests a metaphor for European settlement and conflict with the indigenous Maori population over use of the essays Forest Academy, land. Questions of indigenous land rights and ownership play an important role in the Maori artist Shane Cotton#8217;s paintings. Needlework (1993) (see opposite title page). presents an image of New Zealand as a small island overcrowded with an assemblage of British and Maori flags. Article Writing! This work is all about territorial conflict between nations, symbolized by the flags, in particular the nineteenth-century wars between the Maori and college admission essays Lake Forest, the British over New Zealand. Most prominent of the pay someone, flags is the Union Jack, although it stands alongside the more upright flags bearing a cross and crescent and six-pointed star, a reference to the Maori resistance leader Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki, one of the most effective guerilla fighters in New Zealand's history. Some of the essays Lake Forest Academy, flagpoles are not altogether upright, which suggests that the British claim to New Zealand, traditionally announced with the staking of a flag, is not altogether certain. Cotton#8217;s more recent works appear less concerned with cultural conflict. Faith (1995) (cat. Wandsworth! 2), Tuna (1996) (cat.

5), Cross (1996) (cat. 4), and Heke I (1998) (cat. Admission Lake Academy! 3) consist of dense, complex combinations of traditional and contemporary Maori and Pakeha imagery set against desolate, sepia-toned landscapes. Among the imagery included in these pictures are square-style tikis (representations of ancestors), painted scroll designs ( kowhaiwhai ) that are usually on the rafters of Maori meeting houses, Maori words, Christian crosses, and local flora. Here, once conflicting cultural references coexist in a new heterogeneous space. Lisa Reihana is a young Maori video artist. Writing News Of Applied Sciences! Native Portraits n. 19897 (1998) (cat. 31), one of her most substantial videos, was commissioned by the Te Papa Tongarewa /Museum of writing Forest New Zealand. For this piece, Reihana sifted through the museum#8217;s collection of write a high school School nineteenth-century photo portraits of writing college essays Lake Forest Maori.

Taking these portraits as a starting point, she dressed up her Maori friends in old-fashioned and article writing, contemporary outfits (military uniforms and nurses uniforms, as well as suits and laborers outfits) and recorded them on video as if they were posing for a photographic portrait. Writing Essays Lake! Adjusting their clothes, position, and staring directly at the camera, these are no longer silent, passive ethnographic exhibits but active, thinking subjects. This work is all about past and thinking article Lord College, present-day representations of writing essays Forest Academy Maori, suggesting that while Maori may have more opportunities today than they once did, some stereotypes and prejudices remain. Michael Parekowhai#8217;s sculptures and installations also deal with stereotypes of Maori identity. Poorman, Beggarman and Thief (1996) (cat. 14, fig. 5), consists of three life-size Maori mannequins, modeled on the artist#8217;s father, whose name is Hori, dressed in a tuxedo. They are positioned in writing news article of Applied, front of works of admission Forest art on a wall, as if visiting an art gallery, wearing a nametag saying #8220;Hello, my name is HORI.#8221; In New Zealand, Hori is used in the Pakeha community as a derogatory term for Maori people, but it is article Private also the Maori translation of the English name George. The pejorative meaning of the nametag, along with the titles of the college, works, contrasts with the figure#8217;s spiffy formal dress and presence in writing plan Film, an art gallery.

By parachuting an ugly cultural stereotype into the gallery, dressed as an urban sophisticate, Parekowhai is playfully turning assumptions about Maori people on their head. Hori might mean George, but that does not mean George is writing admission Lake Academy a Hori. How To School Essay Roedean School! With equal irony, Kapahaka (2003) (cat. 13) uses the artist#8217;s brother as a model for admission Lake Forest Academy, a series of writing Film Academy life-size figures of security guards. Traditional dance, an Academy, important part of my essay Oxford indigenous Pacific Island cultures, underpins the work of Michel Tuffery, Denise Tiavouane, and writing Forest, Ken Thaiday.

Tuffery#8217;s performances and sculptures draw upon Polynesian dance traditions, including those of Samoa and the Cook Islands. O le Povi Pusa Ma'ataua (1996), which means #8220;jewel box of bulls#8221; in writing Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Samoan, is a sculpture of writing admission Lake Forest Academy a bull made out of tinned corned beef cans. Tuffery#8217;s bulls have been exhibited in galleries as well as used in journals Lancing, large-scale performances. His use of corned beef cans serves as a metaphor for the changes wrought on Samoan society following the college essays Lake Forest, introduction of critical article College Western foodstuffs after World War II, the fat content and high salt levels in admission Forest, the meat causing long-term health problems for Islanders. Other sculptures such as O le Saosoa Lapo'a / barracuda (2000) (cat. 39) and Asiasi I / thunnus albacares (2000) (cat. 38, fig. 6) deal with environmental concerns.

Both works are constructed from herring cans made into the shape of fish. Although the artist uses herring cans, saosao is the Samoan word for #8220;barracuda,#8221; while asiasi means #8220;yellowfin.#8221; Here, the artist reflects ironically on how to a high school essay School the way that, because of over-fishing in the Pacific, Samoans, who live on an island, are beginning to replace local fresh fish with imported canned products. Ken Thaiday takes sharks, fish, and birds, and other native Pacific animals as subjects for his moving sculptures or #8220;dance machines#8221; (fig. 7, cat. 3436). Designed to Lake Academy sit on the head of a performer like a helmet with moving parts such as flapping birds wings, each controlled by string, the what are peer College, sculptures are made of wood, feathers, bits of metal, and other materials. Thaiday comes from the Torres Strait Islands, in the Torres Strait, to writing essays the North of Australia and close to Papua New Guinea, and these headdresses played an important role in local indigenous ceremonies. Of course, Thaiday has updated the can i Oxford, form, materials, and subject matter to create traditional headdresses for essays Lake Academy, the twenty-first century. Denise Tiavouane#8217;s installation The Modern Dance (2004) (cat.

37) appropriates male dance traditions from her home, the islands of New Caledonia. The work comprises a series of bamboo poles fitted with grass skirts arranged in a straight line interspersed by fir trees. Each pole is attached to writing news article Stenden an electric motor and writing college Lake Forest, rotates to the sound of traditional dance music emanating from hidden speakers. In this work, Tiavouane pairs two threatened aspects of New Caledonian life#8212;indigenous cultural traditions and native forests, which have increasingly been cleared for nickel mining. Tiavouane sees this dance tradition and its music as symbols of the resilience of Kanak culture. Although born in New Zealand to a Scottish father and Rotuman mother, Sofia Tekela-Smith was raised by her grandmother in Rotuma. Here she learned traditional women#8217;s handicrafts such as weaving and platting from pandanus leaves and the making of body ornaments. For this exhibition, she is writing plan New York Film Academy exhibiting two photographs of writing college essays Lake Academy her body ornaments. The first image shows a man#8217;s face, eyes closed, his mouth filled with a large white cowrie shell attached to a length of green hand-plaited rope coiled onto critical thinking article Lord, his forehead, recalling a Maori koru design (cat.

32). The second image depicts the same man with his eyes open and mouth filled with an amulet of greenstone ( pounamu ) (cat. 33). Writing College Admission Lake! Both the cowrie shell and the amulet are symbolic objects within Rotuma and other Pacific Island cultures. Cowrie shells are considered symbols of female fertility, while greenstone is a symbol of prestige ( mana ), particularly in New Zealand where the stone is found. The placing of these objects in the man#8217;s mouth suggests a kind of silencing, although it might also be seen as a gesture of intimacy, given that the man in the photographs is her partner. The Indian-Fijian artist Mohini Chandra#8217;s video Studio (2003) (cat. 1, also opposite Table of pay someone my essay Oxford Tutorial College Contents) focuses on the commercial photographic portrait studio as a place where people stage images of themselves as they would like others to see them.

Chandra#8217;s video takes us into Indian-owned commercial photographic studios across Fiji, where people have their portraits taken against backdrops of idyllic natural environments. In the video, however, the places she records are completely denuded of people, although there is the sound of people having their photographs taken. On one level, the video works as a metaphor for Forest Academy, the quasi-invisible social condition of Indian-Fijians, who make up almost 45 percent of the population but have limited rights to land ownership and troubled participation in Lord Wandsworth, the country#8217;s legal, administrative, and political structure. On another level, the video of Indians having photographs of themselves taken against backdrops of artificial landscapes suggests an escapism but, perhaps, also an identification with a country and culture apart from the one in admission essays Lake Forest, which they are living (fig. 8). Writing Film Academy! This work, then, is all about the diasporic experience, and the way nostalgia for a homeland, even one that some Fijian-Indians have never visited, for many of them were born in admission essays Lake, Fiji and have spent their lives there, exerts a powerful pull on the imagination. Reflecting a world of cultural intersections and tensions, one rife with competing social, cultural, and economic claims as well as the legacy of colonialism, this is an image of paradise interrupted.

It also presents a fairly typical portrait, #8220;Pacific style,#8221; of paradise now. Melissa Chiu, Asia Society. Writing Plan New York! Connery, Christopher L. 1996. #8220;The oceanic feeling and the regional imaginary.#8221; In Global/local: Cultural production and the transnational imaginary , p. 302. [back]

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Paraphilia Essays and Research Papers. Paraphilia Social Work and admission Forest Academy Social Welfare HSV-140-01 April 4, 2012 Most people have some knowledge or experience with mental illness, but . not as many people are familiar with Paraphilia . This is a condition that involves sexual fetishes where one’s sexual arousal and how to a high essay School gratification depend on college essays Lake Forest Academy fantasizing about, and engaging in, sexual behavior that is writing an essay New York atypical and writing college essays Lake Forest extreme (Kafka, 2010). This behavior may be centered on objects such as people, clothing, or toys; as well as certain acts like; beating. Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality , Orgasm 2066 Words | 6 Pages. Central features of paraphilias-an outline. The central features of all paraphilias , according to the DSM-IV, are: Sexual urges or sexual fantasies with non-human objects and/or sexual . behaviors with non-human objects Sexual behaviors involving humiliation or suffering of oneself or another person Adult sexual behavior that involves children or nonconsenting adults There are two types of preferences for can i to write my essay College, nonhuman objects: fetishism and transvestism. A fetish exists when a nonliving object sexually arouses a person. It is relatively harmless. BDSM , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 891 Words | 3 Pages.

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of article University of Applied Sciences Mental Disorders , Human behavior , Human sexuality 970 Words | 3 Pages. Paraphilia: Patients Sexual Diversity. Paraphilias is college Forest a mental disease where the patient is are peer reviewed Lancing sexually attracted to an object or lifeform that a normal human would not be attracted to. . There are over writing admission 547 specific types of what are peer journals College paraphilias , all of them can be put into categories of college essays Forest Academy being aroused by non-human objects, the humiliation of a person or their partner, children, or a non-consenting person. How To Write A High Roedean? Although this sounds like a terrible disease, many groups around the world are trying to research the college Lake Forest, acceptance of these patients sexual diversity. Human sexuality , Paraphilia , Sadism and masochism as medical terms 461 Words | 2 Pages. castration of sex offenders. Can I To Write Tutorial? Chemical castration is the medicinal treatment of deviant sexual behavior by reducing testosterone secretion in order to . diminish sexual preoccupation and urges, making self-control easier (Treatment of Men with Paraphilia , 1998). Writing College? Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone acetate) is named as the legally mandated drug of Wandsworth choice for chemical castration (Castration and Drug Therapy, 1999). The drug is administered by injection. Writing College Admission Academy? California was the news article Stenden of Applied, first state. Chemical castration , Child sexual abuse , Human sexual behavior 4707 Words | 15 Pages.

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overview the current DSM-5 paraphilic disorder category. Each subcategory is a high school essay Roedean School examined and discussed. The subcategories included are voyeurism, exhibitionism, . Admission Forest Academy? frotteurism, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, pedophilia, fetishism, transvestism, and paraphilia not otherwise specified. Discussion includes the proposed assessment, diagnosing criteria, and the effectiveness of essay Roedean School current treatments for each of these paraphilic disorders. The importance of a thorough assessment is stressed in order to make an.

Human behavior , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 2407 Words | 11 Pages. Case Study 3 – “Covert Sensitization for Paraphilia” David H. Barlow. Behavior Therapy Wedding Cosini, Chapter 5 By James Keith Wright Case Study 3 – “Covert Sensitization for Paraphilia ” David H. Barlow . Looking at this case about Reverend X helped me look at myself when it comes to helping someone in admission Forest, an area that I detest and what it inspired was hope for all human issues. I will begin with the three (3) key concepts of the theory and describe how they were applied in are peer journals, the case. The first concept I will talk about is; Emphasizes Current Behavior, dealing.

Behavior , Behavior modification , Behaviorism 817 Words | 3 Pages. Exhibitionism: a Psychological Considerate of a Societal Taboo. identified by a compulsion to display one’s genitals to an unsuspecting stranger. The Diagnostic and college essays Lake Forest Statistical Manual of can i Oxford Tutorial Mental Disorders (2000) classifies . the disorder under the heading of a subcategory of college Lake Forest Academy sexual and gender identity disorders, “ paraphilias .” Exhibitionists, widely known as “flashers,” can be separated in to writing article Stenden of Applied Sciences two categories with the college admission Forest Academy, first being those who masturbate while exposing oneself or while fantasizing that he or she is exposing oneself to another person. How To A High School Essay Roedean? In some cases exhibitionists. Borderline personality disorder , Child abuse , Child sexual abuse 2154 Words | 7 Pages. Running head: SEXUAL MASOCHISM Sexual Masochism Crystal Demoreta-Braza Rowan-Cabarrus Community College NUR 210 Ms. Lake Academy? Abel Sexual Masochism . Masochism is a general paraphilia , and is an how to write school abnormal or unnatural sexual attraction.

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Eating Substance Abuse Week 3 Psy410 Paper. hypothesis of emotional fixation at an oral, pleasure-addicted developmental stage. Current psychodynamic theorists view substance misuse as a . maladaptive defense mechanism for coping with painful emotions (Hansell amp; Damour, 2008). Paraphilias all have in common upsetting and repeated sexual dreams, desires, or conducts. Admission Essays Lake Academy? These dreams, desires, or conducts should happen for a considerable interval of time and should interfere with either acceptable sexual relations or daily working. Abnormal psychology , Child abuse , Human behavior 839 Words | 6 Pages.

Abstract Paraphilia’s are conditions in which sexual arousal occurs in how to a high school School, response to stimuli that are not associated with normal sexual behavior patterns. . Sadism and Masochism (Sadomasochism), which are mental disorders, are a type of paraphilia . College Essays Lake Forest? Sadism is a condition in which sexual pleasure or gratification occurs on infliction of pain or suffering upon original article writing Fairmont another person. College Admission Essays Forest? In Masochism, sexual pleasure is obtained by an essay New York Academy pain or suffering inflicted upon oneself. The pain or suffering may or may not be related. BDSM , Human sexual behavior , Richard von Krafft-Ebing 1922 Words | 5 Pages. Biopsychosocial Case Study of Jeffrey Dahmer. a factor believed to attribute to writing Lake Forest developing this disorder (Necrophilia, n.d.). As with Dahmer, as long as his victims were dead, there was no risk of . rejection. Writing An Essay Plan New York Film Academy? Cognitively, in the same sense of cognitive-behavioral explanations of phobias, paraphilias are conceptualized as a physical reaction in writing college admission essays, response to inappropriate stimuli referred to as automatic accidental learning (Hansell Damour, 2005). Cognitively, Classical and operant conditioning involving behavioral intentions attempt to replace. Clinical psychology , Human behavior , Human sexual behavior 1471 Words | 5 Pages.

why gambling is defined as simply “pathological” and original Fairmont not “compulsive.” The only recognition in the DSM-IV that a person might engage in an enjoyable sexual . activity to some extreme is the inclusion of a class of writing admission essays Forest Academy sexual disorders known as paraphilias . Paraphilias are “recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving (1) nonhuman objects, (2) the suffering or humiliation of oneself or one’s partner, or (3) children or other nonconsenting persons.” So while. Addiction , Alcoholism , Drug addiction 849 Words | 3 Pages. Eating, Substance, Sexual, and Personality Disorders. disorders are treatable and caused by a multitude of psychological and can i my essay Tutorial biological origins. College Admission Essays Forest? Sexual disorders include sexual dysfunction, . paraphilia , and gender identifying disorder (GID) according to what are peer reviewed journals College the DSM-IV-TR. Sexual dysfunctions are persistent, frustrating, and often impairing issues in the desire, arousal, or orgasm phases of college admission Lake Forest sexual response. An Essay? Paraphilias are significantly more severe than dysfunctions as they involve abnormal sexual preferences. Gender identity disorder involves the desire.

Abnormal psychology , Addiction , Borderline personality disorder 840 Words | 3 Pages. it is abused, and background information. EBSCOhost Birchard, T. (2011). Sexual Addiction and the Paraphilias . Writing Admission Essays Lake Forest Academy? Sexual Addiction . Compulsivity, 18(3), 157-187. doi:10.1080/10720162.2011.606674 Paraphilias and Tutorial College sexual addiction are very similar in writing admission essays Lake Academy, nature. Paraphiliacs have sexual addiction that can be damaging to one’s self and can be harmful to others (Birchard, 2011). Sexual addiction and paraphilia are both subdivisions for the same behavior and contain much of the same criteria, but there is College not. Addiction , Drug addiction , Heroin 284 Words | 2 Pages. unconventional sexual behaviors, which are obsessive compulsive. They interfere with love relationships intimacy. Writing Essays Lake Academy? The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of . Mental Disorders (DSM-IV ) of the American Psychiatric Association has currently classified eight paraphilias these are generally considered the most common:3 Pedophilia (sexual attraction to how to a high school Roedean pre-pubescent children) Exhibitionism (sexual excitement associated with exposing one's genitals in public) Voyeurism (sexual excitement by watching. Human behavior , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 1781 Words | 6 Pages.

Human-Sexuality: Prostitution, Maltz’s Had a Scale, During Sex. opening, and other parts of the vulva. College Admission Essays Forest? Paraphilias are sexual behaviors that are usual or abnormal. This can be kind of hard to can i my essay Oxford College define, . because who is to essays say that something is not normal. It is unknown how paraphilians develop, but there is what reviewed Lancing a theory that says it is writing admission essays Lake Forest Academy most likely biological reasons. They are more commonly frond in males then females. Even though paraphilias are hard to define there are some sexual behaviors that can only be classified as a paraphilia . Masochism is when you are sexual aroused. Human sexual response cycle , Human sexuality , Orgasm 2514 Words | 6 Pages. petty crimes such as theft, fraud, vandalism and Lancing so on. College Admission Essays Lake Academy? They showcase varying degrees of psychopathy and journals personality disorders such as schizophrenia. College Lake Forest? In . addition to that, they have strange paraphilia ; sexual arousal towards objects, situations or individual that are not considered ‘normal’ by society.

These paraphilia include necrophilia which is sexual gratification to a high school School corpse that is usually common in unorganized crimes. The FBI Crime Classification Manual divides serial killers into three categories;. Crime , Jack the Ripper , Murder 1529 Words | 4 Pages. Jeffrey Dahmer Deserved the writing essays Academy, Death Penalty. Diagnostic and a high school Statistical Manual of writing college admission Lake Forest Mental Disorders, or DSM-IV TR (Text Revision), Dahmer’s complete diagnosis would look like: Axis I: Posttraumatic . stress disorder (hernia surgery and moving as a child) Axis II: Antisocial Personality Disorder, Paraphilia (withdrawn, violating, and what reviewed journals Lancing disregarding rights of others) Axis III: Alcoholism (evident from high school on, the admission Lake Academy, reason for military discharge) Axis IV: Parents’ divorce, failing first semester of college, military discharge Axis V: 1-10. Abnormal psychology , Antisocial personality disorder , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 1044 Words | 3 Pages. DSM-IV-TR today, paraphilias are distinguished from Sexual Dysfunctions characterized by disturbance in sexual desire and the psychophysiology . of the sexual response cycle. Paraphilia’s can be conceptualized as arousal patterns involving uncommon or unusual erotic appetites for a wide variety of write a high essay Roedean School behaviors with animate or inanimate “partners” (Gabbard). “Within the context of the writing college admission essays Lake Forest, listed criteria [for paraphilia ], it may be observed that the Wandsworth, pathology residing in the Paraphilias is either that. Child abuse , Child sexual abuse , Human behavior 3737 Words | 12 Pages. Psychological Disorders Presentation. his or her aggressions out in an unacceptable manner such as defying rules and regulations at school or within the community (Morris and Maisto, 2002). . Sexual disorders are classified into three main groups— paraphilias , sexual dysfunction, and writing Lake Academy gender identity disorders.

Paraphilias disorder is the need to use unconventional objects to achieve sexual arousal. Write A High School Roedean School? Gender identity disorders occur when person of Lake Academy one sex wishes to become a person of article the opposite sex, for example, a female wishing to. Abnormal psychology , Antidepressant , Anxiety 1403 Words | 4 Pages. masturbation and numerous sexual partners) and of sexual preoccupation or rumination (frequent or intrusive sexual fantasies, or subjectively uncontrollable . sexual urges). The nature of the college admission Lake Forest, individual’s fantasy life may indicate the presence of can i Oxford a paraphilia . Where a paraphilia is diagnosed, the frequency and level of writing college Lake Academy intensity of the sexual fantasies should be assessed, including any escalation towards acting out the fantasies. In cases of what are peer reviewed mental illness, evaluation should determine whether the essays Lake, deviant fantasies. Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality , Pregnancy 985 Words | 3 Pages.

Serial Killers: America's Next Epidemic. of serial killers kill for sexual reasons, they feel compelled to are peer reviewed Lancing College be physically close to the victim at the moment of writing admission essays Academy death. Serial killers frequently . suffer from sexual dysfunction that precludes normal relationships. How To School Roedean School? Some of the pertinent paraphilia demonstrated include: Anthropophagy- a sexual fixation on eating human flesh. Zoophilia- sexual activity with animals. Bondage- the use of writing admission essays Lake Academy restraints in pay someone my essay Tutorial College, sexual activity. Coprophilia -arousal sparked by feces. Gerontophilia -sexual attraction. Crime , Lust murder , Murder 2155 Words | 7 Pages. with dead men. Paraphilias is an understanding of physical reactions to inappropriate stimuli, or automatic accidental learning (Hansell . Writing Admission Lake? Damour, 2005).

Dahmer’s behavior exhibited signs, by which he drugged, killed, violated, and dismembered his victims, which could be explained as an impulse disorder. Critical Article Wandsworth College? Treatment There has been a lot of discussion as to whether a serial sex offender can be treated. There are some disorders that cannot be treated, such as, paraphilias , and personality disorders. Abnormal psychology , Jeffrey Dahmer , Mental disorder 1077 Words | 3 Pages. Jessica Rhodes Should all paraphilias be considered disorders; I compare the transcending of parahilias from college admission Lake Academy harmless to article harmful with drug . use. Writing Admission Lake? For drugs, marijuana can be a gateway drug as it opens up the can i Tutorial College, social network of people that use it, which then eventually opens up the possibility of a new drug being passed around your new circle of college admission essays Lake Forest friends and eventually to you. Along with the drug will come the behaviors to match. As people try new things, sometimes they aren’t satisfied for long and. Behavior , Drug addiction , Human behavior 524 Words | 2 Pages. Ang Suliranin at Kapaligiran Nito. malalaking paksa, ang una ay sexual dysfunction, pangalawa ay paraphilias , at ang panghuli ay ang gender identity disorder.

Ang tatlong . nabanggit ay may malaking kaugnayan sa pagpapalawak tungkol sa karamdamang sexual. Sa sexual dysfunction, kabilang ang female orgasmic disorder na kung saan hindi nagkakaroon ng orgasm at excitement sa pagtatalik. Ang male erectile disorder ay ang pagkakabigo sa pagpapanatili ng erection habang nagtatalik. Sa paraphilias naman, kabilang ang exhibitionism na kung saan ito ang. 1430 Words | 7 Pages. Efficacy of pay someone to write my essay Tutorial College Sexual Offender Treatment: Juvenile Sexual Offenders with Mental Health Diagnosis. pornography, sexual behavior with consenting adults, cybersex, telephone sex, strip clubs, other.” (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

When . scrutinizing the criteria it also noteworthy clinically these juvenile sex offenders can also fall under Paraphilia -Related Disorders (PRD) which has been reported as having uncontrollable pornography and masturbation. Writing Forest? According to Lancing Kafka he purports, “The commonly reported PRD's include compulsive masturbation, protracted promiscuity, pornography dependence. Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality , Mental disorder 2456 Words | 7 Pages. was secured the officers then did a search of his vehicle where they discovered a gun and a jacket in the back seat that had a bag of cocaine in one of the . pockets. • Gant was charged with two offences, possession of a narcotic and possession of college essays Forest Academy paraphilia that refers to the bag the cocaine was in. Fairmont Private? At trial Gant moved to suppress the evidence stating that the search violated his Fourth Amendment Rights and while the trial court agreed there was no probable cause to search the his vehicle, they concluded. Arizona v. Gant , Court , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 995 Words | 4 Pages. repot Kinsey homosexual report -which brain structures appear to be larger in heterosexual men compared to homosexual men?- larger anterior commissure and . Writing College Essays Lake Academy? supracharismatic nucleus -sexual dysfunction -organic vs behavioral disorders: what is paraphilia (movie example from class)- sexual attraction to inappropriate objects. Psychological Disorders -signs of abnormality -subjective discomfort -maladaptive behavior-cant fit into Schools, society -cultural relativity -models of abnormality -biological. 754 Words | 3 Pages. a therapist to insure the essays, client is evaluated accordingly to develop coping skills and behavioral experiments (Hansell amp; Damour, 2008). The studies have . How To Write A High Essay Roedean School? shown to reduce the college admission Lake Forest, sexual arousal, reducing hormone levels, and decreasing the need of paraphilia behaviors.

The treatment is difficult, individuals are not completely cured because the process only helps them control and learn how to control the tendencies with training or strategies (Hansell amp; Damour, 2008). Original Article Writing Schools? Personality Disorders . Abnormal psychology , Addiction , Borderline personality disorder 918 Words | 3 Pages. PSY 1012 Final Exam Review Updated 12 14 1. 355 2. Differentiate instrumental and expressive behaviors and college Forest how they pertain to males and females. P. 357 3. Explain what is writing news article University of Applied meant by androgynous . traits. P. Writing College Admission Essays Academy? 357 4. How To School Essay School? What is the mark of essays Lake true sexual deviancy? P. 369 5. Briefly describe paraphilias and identify tactics of child molesters. P. 370 6. Identify rape myths. P. 368 7. Describe the news article Stenden University of Applied Sciences, conditions of admission Lake Academy transmitting STD’s (sexually transmitted diseases). P. 370 Chapter 12: Personality 1. What is the major disadvantage of categorizing.

175 , Antisocial personality disorder , Bipolar disorder 627 Words | 4 Pages. spiritual or political convictions.[15] People can also love material objects, animals, or activities if they invest themselves in bonding or otherwise . identifying with those things. If sexual passion is plan Film also involved, then this feeling is writing essays Lake Forest called paraphilia .[16] Interpersonal love Interpersonal love refers to love between human beings. It is a much more potent sentiment than a simple liking for another. Unrequited love refers to those feelings of can i Oxford love that are not reciprocated. Admission Academy? Interpersonal love. Attachment theory , Friendship , Human bonding 942 Words | 4 Pages. disruption to normal sleep patterns, or a feeling of news Stenden University Sciences tiredness despite sleep appearing normal. Sexual and gender identity disorders may be diagnosed, . including dyspareunia, gender identity disorder and ego-dystonic homosexuality.

Various kinds of writing paraphilia are considered mental disorders (sexual arousal to article University of Applied objects, situations, or individuals that are considered abnormal or harmful to the person or others). People who are abnormally unable to resist certain urges or impulses that could be harmful. Abnormal psychology , Antisocial personality disorder , Body dysmorphic disorder 700 Words | 3 Pages. behavioral addiction problems, or cross over to other addictions at some point in their lives. Studies show that alcohol problems occur in 28% to 46% of . compulsive buyers; other substance use disorders occur in 13% to writing admission essays 20% of compulsive shoppers; paraphilias and sex addictions occur in essay Roedean School, 10% to 13% of compulsive shoppers; and pathological gambling occurs in 5% to college essays Academy 20% of compulsive shoppers. Impairment in relationships may occur as a result of excessive spending and efforts to what are peer journals College cover up debt or purchases. Addiction , Commerce , Compulsive buying disorder 910 Words | 3 Pages. ?Public/Social Policy Project Alejandro Trinidad due 8/20/14 . Abstract This paper will Identify Sexual Deviancy what sexual coercion, sexual paraphilias and how it affects us in writing college Lake Forest Academy, the populis, what ways we can take educate and change the likelihood of sexual assault,stigmas attitudes toward gender, gender roles and Lancing how to address sex crime in essays, our community. . Human behavior , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 1707 Words | 7 Pages. Human Sexuality and Intense Sexual Arousal. such as rape, murder, or armed robbery or are currently incarcerated for criminal activity.

On some occasions the hybristophilic individual may urge their . Thinking? partner to writing college admission essays Forest commit a crime and article Stenden of Applied Sciences be convicted. Hybristophilia is classified as a form of paraphilia ; which is writing college essays Academy known as an intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, or individuals. Original Writing Fairmont Schools? Hybristophilia itself may have been acceptable and perhaps even encouraged in some of the more brutal societies in history. Writing College Admission Academy? Research into hybristophilia. Crime , Human sexuality , Psychology 344 Words | 2 Pages. Masochist: “glutton for punishment” • BDSM: S M and bondage (restraints) and Dominance (enslavement) o Dominatrix: women who acts the role of dominancy . • Adult Babies: people who derive sexual satisfaction from what are peer Lancing College acting as infants or toddlers • Paraphilia : term used by psychiatrist to admission essays cover any unusual and problematic form of sexual expression; recurrent, intense usually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or behaviors, o Nonhuman objects o The suffering or humiliation of oneself or ones partner . Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality , Masturbation 7698 Words | 24 Pages. behavior but can include sexual behavior) how one wishes to be seen by others (or oneself) as a male or female 4. Sexual orientation: preference for sexual . partners Sexual dysfunctions - sexual desire, sexual arousal, orgasmic, sexual pain Paraphilias Gender Identity Disorders Human sexual response cycle 1. desire/appetitive- fantasies about sexual activity and the desire (libido) to have it 2. Writing An Essay Plan Academy? excitement: subjective sense of writing college Lake sexual pleasure with accompanying physiologic changes (male-erection. Female , Gender , Human sexuality 355 Words | 2 Pages. Sexual addiction is broad based and there are various kinds of sexual addictions. Underneath the umbrella of thinking Lord Wandsworth College sexual addiction, different kinds of sexual . addictions such as nymphomania, hypersexuality, Don Juanism, sexual compulsivity and writing college admission Lake many other paraphilia exist.

Each of thinking Wandsworth these addictions are similar because they all share a common key feature of excessive compulsive sexual behaviour. Exploring Sexual Addictions As per the discussion in the previous section “Unpacking Sexual Addiction”, we. Addiction , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 2189 Words | 7 Pages. mental disorder? Yes. Admission? The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has included pedophilia in thinking Lord Wandsworth College, its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . since 1968. In the DSM, which is updated periodically, pedophilia has been grouped with other paraphilias -- which the APA defines as recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors that involve children, nonhuman subjects, or other non-consenting adults, or the suffering or humiliation of writing college Forest oneself or one's partner. . Bisexuality , Child pornography , Child sexual abuse 431 Words | 2 Pages.

and a student perpetrator may be suspended, expelled or arrested. However, these are hard to enforce because most sexual harassment on campus in hidden, . secretive and Film insidious. CHAPTER 14: Is Sexual Addiction a Paraphilia ?: Sexual Addiction is not defined as a paraphilia , but rather as a nonparaphilic sexual compulsivity. In fact, the DSM-V is suggesting that this disorder should be termed hypersexual disorder. Sex addicts attempt to satisfy their constant and overpowering sexual cravings.

Abuse , Child abuse , Homosexuality 9753 Words | 32 Pages. course delivered a profound amount of insight about sexuality and all of its components. This topic was taken for granted prior to partaking in this course . and Forest Academy there has been a whole different light shed upon the topic of human sexuality. Paraphilia and critical thinking College sexual abuse was a very insightful topic that aided me in admission essays Forest Academy, understanding how and why a previous relationship had diminished without a known reason. Writing An Essay Plan New York Academy? The author was in college admission essays Forest, a long term relationship with a woman who was raped and writing an essay plan New York Film it was somewhat of a. Child sexual abuse , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 1176 Words | 3 Pages. Sexual and Gender Identity Disorder.

them so he would drug their drinks, when the admission Forest, men were in sleep like state Dahmer would have sex with them then leave the original writing Fairmont Schools, hotel room, the man would awake with . little recollection of what occurred. Dahmer was a psychopathic killer who suffered from Paraphilia , alcoholism, and drug addiction. His behavior could have stemmed from medication taking while he was in college essays, the womb of his mother. However, Dahmer’s behavior progressed as time went by. Dahmer was unable to control his thoughts and a high essay School this drove him to. High school , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 1090 Words | 3 Pages. of overlapping or co-occurence with each other. This is also a problem for Axis I mental disorders.7 There are many other weaknesses with specific . disorders of DSM especially about the admission Lake Academy, diagnosis criteria and an essay New York Film some other issues such as whether ' Paraphilias ' should be included or not. Most of the major ones has been discussed above.

Now, the new changes for writing college admission Academy, DSM-V will be discussed. There are many new changes for the DSM-V. I will mainly mention those that are related to the weaknesses mentioned. Abnormal psychology , Antisocial personality disorder , Bipolar disorder 2221 Words | 5 Pages. Pedophilia: A Psychological Disorder. under the age of thirteen years. In our society the term pedophile is more broadly used for anyone who is attracted to how to write essay a minor or someone that's under the . age of consent. Writing College Academy? However, there are different terms used for different types of thinking Lord Wandsworth paraphilias involving minors.

A paraphilia is writing Lake Forest a psychosexual disorder in writing an essay New York Academy, which a person feels strong urges and fantasizes about sexual activity with an object, a non-consenting partner, or inflicting pain on themselves or their partner. Pedophilia refers to adults who have. Age of consent , Child pornography , Child sexual abuse 2330 Words | 6 Pages. several cases have limited the fourth amendment in admission essays Academy, court. United States v. Calandra, 414 U.S. Are Peer Journals College? 338 (1974) limited the rule by allowing evidence to be used . to convict a man who was a loan shark. They had a warrant to search and seize gambling paraphilia , when an officer discovered and writing college admission essays Lake Academy seized several documents relating to a loan shark operation. When he was being tried for original article writing Private Schools, this offense Calandra attempted to suppress the evidence because it was not specified in the warrant. Writing Admission Essays? The Supreme Court ruled. Brown v. Board of Education , Exclusionary rule , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 1458 Words | 4 Pages.

Abnormal Psychology Research Paper. the trial Background Information: Jeffrey Dahmer was a sex offender and a high serial killer mainly between the writing Lake Forest Academy, years 1978 and 1991. He is well known for his . Writing Film Academy? severely atypical behaviors. Among his outward manners that are recognized as abnormal are paraphilia -specifically necrophilia and sexual sadism. Jeffrey Dahmer’s victims, whom were boys and men, suffered from rape, violence, dismemberment and finally their murders. Dahmer’s slow progression of college Forest Academy killings soon turned into an obsession, which would. Dismemberment , Jeffrey Dahmer , Jeremy Renner 2098 Words | 6 Pages. and its psychosexual dimension, see: Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and Frequently Asked Questions (scroll down for a complete list of an essay plan New York Film Academy FAQs). . br brBut incest involves more than a manifestation of a personality disorder or of writing a paraphilia (incest is Wandsworth College considered by many to be a class of pedophilia).

It harks back to the very nature of the family. It is closely entangled with its functions and with its contribution to writing college Lake Forest the development of the my essay, individual within it. br brA family is. Family , Human sexual behavior , Incest 1530 Words | 5 Pages. interpersonal relationships/cause distress xi. 1/5 (20%) could be diagnosed with erectile dysfunction xii. Prevalence increases . dramatically with age (77% of writing college admission Forest men over 75 affected) 3. Pay Someone To Write My Essay Tutorial College? Orgasmic disorder 4. Sexual pain disorder Paraphilias Gender Identity Disorder. Erectile dysfunction , Human sexuality , Hypoactive sexual desire disorder 434 Words | 2 Pages. Critically Appraise and Discuss the Issue of What Is “Normal” and “Abnormal” Sexual Behaviour. self concept. To understand why one would view a sexual behaviour of any kind as being abnormal one would need to understand foundations of societal values . and origins of ideas as well as individual life experiences.

In ancient Greece for admission, example, paraphilia was apparent, socially practiced and accepted and celebrated, in a female submissive, male dominated, penis envying society which was governed by gods. This notion is can i Oxford Tutorial College supported by Field, (2008) Johnson Terry (2005); who note that aphrodisiac. Human behavior , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 3223 Words | 8 Pages.

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An argument always consists of two parts: a) a claim, and b) reasons supporting that claim. Journals College. The claim is the controversial assertion of the essay and college admission essays Forest the reasons offer evidence as to why the claim is true. For example: Claim : Chocolate is good for your health. Reasons : Raw cacao is extremely high in magnesium. Eating chocolate stimulates the article writing Fairmont Private Schools release of serotonins. Cocoa is full of essays Lake Academy rejuvenating antioxidants. What weaknesses are there in the author’s arguments?

Are there any alternative explanations for a claim? (e.g., Mary ate two servings of dinner because she is a glutton. Another possible explanation could be that Mary ate two servings of dinner because she skipped lunch.) Is there ample evidence presented? Does the author cite credible statistics, data, facts, research, or other forms of what are peer journals Lancing evidence? Could the authors’ arguments be stronger? If so, how? Where are these facts coming from? Studies can often be designed to prove anything as true. Look at who is funding a study before blindly believing their data.

Data is college Lake Forest often distorted and misinterpreted when convenient for certain companies or organizational groups. Does the writer commit any logical fallacies? When writing your essay, always keep in mind that you are not writing for yourself, but rather for an imaginary third-party who knows nothing about the topic at hand. Do not assume that the thinking article Wandsworth College reader knows anything about your topic, though of course your professor will likely be an writing admission Lake Forest expert in the field. Original Article Writing Fairmont Private. Always use a formal tone (e.g., no contractions, such as can’t instead of admission Lake cannot ) unless you are working on a piece of plan New York Academy creative writing. Explain things clearly and simply. Strive for clarity, not impressive vocabulary. Your paper should always consist of a thesis, premises, and writing admission Lake Academy evidence, which together make your argument. What College. This may seem straight-forward, but often logic becomes fuzzy throughout the writing process, as it is easy to Forest, get lost in what are peer reviewed specifics and forget to occasionally glance up at the big picture. Some things you should never do in your paper:

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Just use concrete facts and defend your arguments in order to make your case strong. After researching, analyzing others’ arguments, and essays Academy brainstorming, you are now ready to come up with a thesis. Your thesis (or central idea) is the most important element of your essay. It should always be clearly identifiable at the end of the thinking article Wandsworth first paragraph. Writing College Essays Lake Forest Academy. Your thesis is basically an arguable statement, not a series of Fairmont Schools facts. If your thesis is a bit complex, you can separate ideas with semicolons or into several sentences. Since the thesis is so important in shaping your paper, make sure that your professor approves of it before you start writing.

It’s normal to revise your thesis a few times before choosing an adequate one, so don’t stress if your professor gives you suggestions as to how it could be modified (he probably will). Be original - Remember that your thesis should be your original idea . Throughout your paper, you will undoubtedly be using ideas from other thinkers and authors whose works you have discussed in your class or readings. Your thesis can contain elements from these ideas; however, you must put your own spin on things. You must show your professor that you can understand, interpret, and challenge complex ideas, and then use this to create your own argument . Repeating other’s ideas is not impressive- show that you are a creative human being with analytical thinking skills, not a parrot! Be specific - Your thesis will give your paper direction, so make it as specific as possible. The whole point of your paper is to convince its reader of the validity of your thesis. The structure of your arguments and the evidence you present will play a key role in winning the reader over. Below are some things you may want to writing admission, consider when working on your argument: Before you begin writing, make sure there is enough evidence to support your thesis.

Think about Film, which arguments will be used to defend your thesis as well as potential counterarguments. As you read your materials, it is writing Forest likely that you will modify or even completely change your thesis — this is completely okay! If you are doing a research paper, you may realize that your thesis was completely off and what are peer reviewed Lancing College incorrect; at that point, you can revise it or chuck it. For each argument toward your defense, you will need to present supporting evidence and then analyze that evidence . You can’t simply present the reader with a series of facts and expect him to admission essays Forest, connect the can i my essay Oxford College dots. You must show that you understand how each piece of evidence is connected to admission essays Lake, each other and to your thesis. A strong paper will always include counterarguments to the thesis, which you will then demolish. Including counterarguments shows that you have considered opposing viewpoints, that you understand them, and that you can counter-attack them. You should always provide at least one reason why each potential counterargument is flawed. If you are unable to reject a counterargument, you may want to mention to the reader that although the specific argument exists, they should nevertheless accept your argument because…. Write A High Essay Roedean. If there are many possible counterarguments for your paper, simply choose between two and essays Lake three and delve into them deeply.

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The first couple of college essays Lake sentences often tend to what reviewed Lancing, be the most difficult to write. Writing College Essays Forest Academy. Don’t worry; as long as you have a strong thesis, you can write the original writing Fairmont Schools whole paper first and then go back to the introduction. It’s often easier to come up with an opening after you have already fleshed out your ideas. College Admission Lake Forest. Grab your reader’s attention. You can start your paper with basically anything- an anecdote, a mental image, a quote, etc. Just make sure it is interesting enough that your reader will want to continue reading. Your opening should establish the context of article Stenden University of Applied your essay and lead up to your thesis, so be specific. You will probably also modify your opening as you write your paper, so do not waste time trying to perfect it before the paper is finished. Each paragraph should consist of writing admission essays Lake Academy one main idea which you thoroughly explore and develop. Ideas should connect smoothly from one to the next, and each paragraph should flow smoothly into the next through use of topic sentences. A topic sentence is the first sentence of each paragraph.

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A bizarre argument about womens' empowerment. An interesting claim here, that we should indeed be concerned about womens' empowerment - something we agree upon at least - but that we must concentrate on their political empowerment, not the economic: The assumption behind all of these donations is the same: Women’s empowerment is an economic issue, one that can be separated from politics. It follows, then, that it can be resolved by a benevolent Western donor who provides sewing machines or chickens, and thus delivers the women of India (or Kenya or Mozambique or wherever in what’s known as the “global south”) from their lives of disempowered want. Well, yes, we tend to think that those who are dirt poor are not empowered in any meaningful manner. Essays Forest? Further, that the very fact that one starts to create economic value empowers. Either through being able to an essay New York Academy command that economic value itself - we do all tend to agree that richer people have more life freedom - and also by being able to trade it. Other people would like to share in that value created, this gives you power over them. In fact, a useful definition of either wealth or empowerment is the ability to college admission command the labour and what are peer College resources of writing admission Forest others. Richer people, even if it's only be a couple of laying hens, have more of this. But apparently we're wrong: It’s time for a change to the “empowerment” conversation. Development organizations’ programs must be evaluated on the basis of whether they enable women to increase their potential for political mobilization, such that they can create sustainable gender equality.

Somehow we just can't agree with the idea that another march on the district office in favour of gender parity is going to be as successful as women owning economic assets, such in itself being most empowering. One of the original article writing, joys of our argument is that Karl and writing college admission essays Lake Forest Friedrich would agree with us. The relations of an essay New York Film Academy production really do mean that a change in the economic structure leads to a change in writing Lake Forest who has the power. Can I My Essay Oxford Tutorial College? That is, if, as they do now in the rich world, women have more economic power then they will also have both greater political power and greater gender parity. Economic development thus bringing about the desired goal rather than being an alternative to it. Force against Catalonia risks a high cost for Spain.

It pays to stay ahead of the game. If you don’t plan or innovate as a business you find a competitor will appear in writing college admission essays Forest Academy front of you. If you’re a political party that doesn’t catch voters' imagination you’ll find a rival beating you to critical thinking Lord Wandsworth College office – the Tories might like to take note of this after a disastrous end to their party conference in Manchester this week. But what happens if you’re a country and writing college admission you don’t move with the times to ensure you retain the support of your citizens? In Spain this fortnight they’re finding out. It turns out that the article University of Applied, cost of a rigid and unchanging constitution, that was designed to do one thing (namely, end a dictatorship and help the writing college Forest, country transition to a modern democracy), is write a high school pretty high as it risks losing the respect of the citizens it supposedly serves. Mariano Rajoy, the Spanish Prime Minister, has spent the past half-decade hiding behind the words of the constitution that demand the Kingdom be ‘indissoluble’.

Yesterday the Spanish King himself appealed to these words to undermine the organisers of the democratic vote made on Sunday. Writing Admission Essays Academy? Catalonia’s independence referendum was a symptom of writing news Stenden of Applied a system which doesn’t keep up with shifting priorities of its people. Catalans have, more and writing college essays more, been drawn to a rival project that says it reflects better the aims, identity and aspirations of the people of Catalonia better than a government based in Madrid. These shifting priorities have come up against the hard fact of a constitution that Spanish authorities will not let bend. Companies go bust when they fail to keep up with their consumers, political parties fall out of power if voters desert them. Countries are no different, if their institutions and structures don’t match their citizens’ preferences they find their authority dissipates totally and writing an essay plan New York Film Academy they unravel without extreme coercion. Beating old women, using military police to injure nearly a thousand of their own people, troops on the streets, and now suspending parliamentary operations makes it pretty clear that Spain is choosing the option of force. Spain should be more careful, its constitution and modern authority is derived from its commitment to democracy. Flexibility, conciliation and writing college essays Lake Academy a proposal to run a second and fully respected referendum could yet save Spain.

It’s still an can i Oxford College option for Rajoy and the Spanish establishment. It could win a vote if it gave its Catalan citizens the choice. It’s a risk that Spain should take. And, after a decade of intransigence and college admission Lake a weekend of violence it’s a right Catalonia has won. If Spain doesn’t take the risk, just like a business running out cash, the writing Fairmont Private, state will find (very quickly indeed) it doesn’t have enough Catalan supporters to admission Lake Academy justify its continued control of the region. But what happens if Rajoy chooses to inflict pain on Catalonia? Frankly, Spain risks undermining not just its own authority but the legitimacy of the European continent to article writing Fairmont Private speak out on writing college essays the issues of democracy and violence against citizens across the world – that’s one hell of a cost for the EU to bear in order to maintain the are peer reviewed journals Lancing, territorial integrity of a member state. I have a small bet in admission Academy the office. I am betting that the writing news University Sciences, European Commission, its Parliament and its member states abandon Catalonia when it declares independence (which the college Lake Academy, Spanish court’s planned suspension of the Catalan parliament for next Monday has almost certainly made even more inevitable).

If I’m right, if Europe turns the other way and Spain is free to crack down on its own people without any international repercussions, it will show up the lie that the EU is a project that works for its citizens and not just its bureaucracies and elites. The European Union might just find its own authority goes as well and it risks a crisis of its own legitimacy – of those that were drawn to its nature as crossing boundaries and transcending national identities – the Catalan crisis is a European crisis too. Will the EU step ahead of the game? If artificial meat does take over writing article University then climate change just isn't much of a problem. George Monbiot tells us all that artificial meat is writing admission essays Lake Forest soon going to be a real product rather than a lab curiosity and he could be right about writing an essay that. However, it's what happens after that which interests here. George goes on writing admission essays Lake to tell us that this will, quite obviously, curb all those emissions that raising livestock currently causes. And the subsequent rewilding of pasture will reduce emissions once again. As the final argument crumbles, we are left facing an uncomfortable fact: animal farming looks as incompatible with a sustained future for humans and other species as mining coal. That vast expanse of pastureland, from which we obtain so little at such great environmental cost, would be better used for rewilding: the mass restoration of nature.

Not only would this help to reverse the catastrophic decline in habitats and the diversity and news University Sciences abundance of writing college admission Forest Academy wildlife, but the returning forests, wetlands and savannahs are likely to absorb far more carbon than even the most sophisticated forms of are peer reviewed College grazing. OK - don't think about admission essays Lake Forest whether this will happen but think about what if? The answer being that climate change stops being a problem. If we take seriously the IPCC and the like reports then there are various scenarios for how emissions will turn out in the future. The whole problem being a serious one if we're on A1FI or RCP 8.5 (dependent upon which set of scenarios we want to use). It not being a serious one if we're on A1T or RCP 2.6. And the truth is plan Film Academy that neither A1FI or RCP 8.5 are really even possible, let alone likely for we've already done more than enough to head them off. They both insist, for example, that the world will be using more coal in 2070 than it does now.

Not just more but more as a portion of total energy provision. Writing Admission Lake Academy? Given what has already been done with solar and wind power that's just not going to happen at all. And certainly not when we consider what is likely to Fairmont Private Schools happen to college Forest Academy solar over the coming decades. One of the sadnesses of the climate change debate is that whenever we see a new report stating that if we don't do something about climate change then - the results are always based upon the assumption that A1FI or RCP 8.5 are what is going to happen - entirely ignoring that we have already done something. And this thought about artificial meat just adds to this. If it is true, that the technology becomes mainstream, then we are again moving further away from the predicted danger and much closer to the don't worry about it scenario. At which point, of course, then we've got to Oxford struggle mightily a great deal less, don't we? That is, all these predictions of how things are changing just keep telling us how much less change needs to be done. Oddly, very few people indeed tell us this.

This argument about Catalonia is writing college admission Forest true but incomplete. Catalonia, as we've seen, has a number of people in it who would like to be independent of Spain. Whether this is a good idea or not is not for article writing Fairmont Schools us to decide. Writing Admission? But, as this Spanish writer puts it, it is pay someone to write Oxford Tutorial possible to admission essays Forest construct an argument about it: I live in Lord Wandsworth Pozuelo, a municipality in the outskirts of Madrid, where I commute daily.

Pozuelo is the richest city in admission essays Spain, with an average household income of €73,000. Pozuelo is full of good private schools. What Journals? Many of my neighbors use neither the public school system nor the writing college Forest, public health system. Let’s imagine one of my neighbors starts a movement for can i pay someone my essay Oxford College Pozuelo’s “right to writing Forest Academy decide”. Article Writing Fairmont Schools? His proposal to the neighbors is simple: we will remain in the EU, but we will be independent from Spain. Writing College Essays Lake Academy? He would explain that the over €35,000 in taxes that each of our households currently pay (including over €20,000 in income taxes) finance services that we don’t consume. He would tell them that Carabanchel is stealing from us, just like the writing an essay New York Film Academy, Andalusians and the people from Extremadura steal from us. He will promise a fiscal dividend of €20,000 per family. OK, yes, that could be true. Further: I hope, dear reader, that the argument is clear. Writing Essays? The right to self-determination is not compatible with a welfare state and high-quality public services, especially in a single and Fairmont Private Schools integrated market.

The rich will always have an incentive to benefit (single market, freedom of movement) without paying for redistribution to the poor. That’s why Europe cannot, must not, allow these self-interested demands to succeed. Tuscany or Bavaria would reap great benefits if they could split, without cost, from their states to the detriment of their fellow citizens in Southern Italy or East Germany. That would also be true. Lake? As the arguments about article Fairmont Private Scottish economic independence show us, there are indeed cross subsidies within the nation states.

But that's not the college admission essays, end of the chain of writing logic at all. Writing Lake Forest? We all do agree that we've different redistributional responsibilities to different groups. No one at all thinks it odd that we redistribute more to critical article Lord Wandsworth College the children in our households, less to college admission Lake those in other households in our same nation and very much less to those in other nations. If this were not so then there wouldn't be all that fuss about whether Germany should be paying Greek government expenses or not. Or within nation redistribution would be that 0.7% of critical thinking Lord College GDP that we distribute as overseas aid. We all do indeed agree, the writing college Lake Academy, occasional moral philosopher aside, that the critical thinking article Wandsworth, volume of college admission essays Lake Forest Academy that cash flow is going to be different according to whether the recipient is perceived as in-group or ex-. Can I My Essay Tutorial? Yes, we do still argue about how large the flow is but the basic idea of it being different is well founded. Writing College Essays Forest? The argument about secession and redistribution then becomes, well, who is in-group and who is ex-? It is entirely true that if one of the richer parts of article Stenden University of Applied Spain leaves Spain then poorer parts will get less redistribution. But we cannot just say that it must not happen therefore - we've got to have a justification ofwhy the different parts are all to be considered in-group. And if we're honest about writing admission essays Forest Academy it it's really not clear at all that current national borders do indeed usefully define who is in- and ex-.

As Ireland leaving in 1921, Scotland arguing about it now, Yugoslavia breaking up, the implosion of the Soviet Union and all the rest show. Just because the lines on the map are as they are isn't a sufficient justification for the insistence upon redistribution across that total grouping. For that's just not how people work, is Fairmont Schools it? A little lesson for writing Lake Forest those who would nationalise everything. As we're being told many people - more so the young and inexperienced of course - are in favour of nationalising near everything. We've even seen one claim that the banking system is a natural monopoly and therefore should be nationalised. We who are rich in maturity could, as we all are of course, carry on reminding people of how bad things were when nationalisation was rife. Sadly, none of those Marinas and Allegros have survived long enough to be usable as present day examples of the horrors that were. So, instead, how things work out elsewhere: Also, there are widespread objections among consumers against LPG cylinder price. They said they have to pay different prices for a same product of a company in different areas.

A 12.5kg cylinder sells at writing Stenden University Sciences, Tk950 in writing college essays Academy Dhaka, while it is school School priced between Tk1,100 and Tk1,200 in Rajshahi, Khulna and Barisal. Writing College Admission Essays Lake Forest? On the other hand, a cylinder of state-run LP Gas Ltd sells at Tk800, though it is priced at Tk700. This type of cylinders, however, is not available in what are peer Lancing markets due to a supply shortage. This is not an aberration. In Venezuela they insist that the government make food nice and cheap.

There is writing college admission Forest Academy no food in Venezuela. Housing was nice and cheap in the Soviet bloc - there was a serious shortage of housing for Oxford the 70 years of the Union's existence. Bangladesh has both government and privately supplied LPG. The government stuff isn't available. College Admission Forest Academy? Nationalisation and the political control of prices - along with that absence of the writing an essay Film, profit motive - will mean that everything is nice and cheap and you can't have any because of a supply shortage. As it did, so it will. People aren't quite grasping how markets work. That Jezza and Labour are now promising everything to writing college admission essays Lake Forest all - rent control being the latest nonsense - isn't all that much of a surprise. That's politics after all. Can I My Essay Tutorial College? But it is worrying that people just aren't grasping why so much of what is being promised is writing college Forest nonsense: He did it because villainous letting agents encourage owners to Fairmont Private do so, insisting on “market rents”, which they alone seem to set, and which are often much higher than levels of frozen local housing allowance, and admission Lake devised without inspecting the property (my own rentier has never seen the flat and writing an essay plan New York lives in another city, so it’s no surprise he relied on the agent’s viewpoint). Market rents, like any other market price, are simply the balance of supply and demand.

And something that most seem not to be aware of: Private rental prices paid by tenants in Great Britain rose by 1.6% in the 12 months to August 2017; this is admission essays Lake Forest down from 1.8% in July 2017. In England, private rental prices grew by 1.7%, Wales saw growth of 1.3% while Scotland saw rental prices increase by 0.3% in the 12 months to August 2017. London private rental prices grew by can i my essay Tutorial College, 1.2% in the 12 months to August 2017, that is, 0.4 percentage points below the Great Britain 12-month growth rate. Rents are rising by writing admission essays Forest Academy, less than the write school Roedean School, general inflation rate, by less than wage growth. That balance of supply and demand seems to be working in favour of tenants then. Writing Admission Forest? Further, it most certainly is not true that market rents are simply numbers being made up, not by anyone. Critical Thinking Lord? It would, of writing college admission Forest Academy course, be rent controls which are simply made up numbers. Prices simply are not random numbers allocated as we wish.

They're the vital information about news article of Applied Sciences who wants what so much, who is willing to supply what is wanted. As such we mess with them at our peril. They say this about Ryanair as if it's a bad thing. Apparently selling people something they want at a price they wish to pay is a bad idea now: But that show of writing college admission Lake Forest Academy transparency shouldn’t persuade anyone that this is an aberration rather than a symptom, a visible culmination of the journals Lancing College, logic of low-cost economics. College Admission Lake? Ryanair is how to school essay Roedean a highly efficient business in writing college essays Academy an industry whose dominant vision is – in a phrase coined by the government’s airline commission – that “low-cost is king”. Unbundling has become part of our world, and not just when we fly.

It shows up in a host of what are billed as consumer choices, and increasingly in what were once public services. Effects like this aren’t unique to how to a high airlines. As consumers, we have been hooked by bargains that come at a cost. Ryanair has nurtured the college essays Lake Forest Academy, dream of Stenden University of Applied flying to obscure cities for a tenner, because we can. And Uber has encouraged a swath of city dwellers to take taxis when before they might have used public transport, Complaints are shrugged off by BA bosses: customers want low fares. All of this is admission essays Lake Forest Academy being said in those shocked tones of what are peer journals Lancing College disapproval. As if it's just clear and obvious that supplying what people want is a bad idea. When, of course, nothing could be further from the truth. This is the entire point and aim of our having an economy in college essays Forest the first place, that people gain what they desire, that consumers get as much of what they want as can possibly be supplied to them. There is only one valid point in the diatribe: Ultimately, the cheaper deal is making us all pay.

Unbundling doesn’t eliminate costs, it just makes them external. And they still have to be met by someone, somewhere. Absolutely, and bundling doesn't eliminate costs either, it just internalises them and thus forces everyone, whether they wish the how to write school essay Roedean, extras or not, to admission essays Lake Academy pay for them. Which is why we like the unbundling of course - so that consumers may indeed select from critical thinking Wandsworth that menu of options. The very thing being complained about is the admission essays Forest Academy, very thing which we actually desire.

Marvel at the effects of a truly unionised workforce. The Guardian tells us that academics in reviewed journals the US have taken to sleeping in their cars, even to indulging in sex work, in order to keep body and soul together. At which point we should marvel at the effects of a truly unionised workforce: There is nothing she would rather do than teach. But after supplementing her career with tutoring and essays Lake Forest proofreading, the writing an essay plan New York Film Academy, university lecturer decided to go to remarkable lengths to make her career financially viable. She first opted for college admission Lake Academy her side gig during a particularly rough patch, several years ago, when her course load was suddenly cut in half and her income plunged, putting her on the brink of eviction. “In my mind I was like, I’ve had one-night stands, how bad can it be?” she said. “And it wasn’t that bad.” The wry but weary-sounding middle-aged woman, who lives in a large US city and how to a high school Roedean asked to remain anonymous to protect her reputation, is an writing Academy adjunct instructor, meaning she is not a full-time faculty member at any one institution and strings together a living by teaching individual courses, in her case at multiple colleges.

Adjuncts, of critical course, are not unionised. But their pay and conditions are caused by unionisation all the same. American academe, for those who gain tenure, is a very comfy gig indeed. Other than forcing oneself upon a student in the quad it's difficult to get fired and while the writing college admission essays Forest Academy, salary is middling for the professions the working hours and can i College pensions are just great. And the best way to think about writing college Forest Academy tenure is that it is acceptance into a very strong union indeed. Critical Thinking Wandsworth? American colleges are not cheap, as we all know, and all the writing college admission Lake Academy, revenue is sucked up by those very well protected and comfy tenured academics and the administrators. Leaving near nothing left over for those adjuncts who carry an ever increasing part of the teaching load.

And why is it that the adjuncts are an ever increasing part? Because the writing Fairmont Private, employment of those permanent staff is writing college Academy so expensive given their unionisation. Further, this is what always does happen. Unions benefit those on the inside at the expense of those outside. American colleges already cost as much as anyone will pay for them.

The only solution to the adjuncts' problem is that those in the union get less so they can have more. And, of course, Good Luck with that. We get it, you did a blog about vaping. I love teasing my friends who use e-cigarettes. There’s something intrinsically uncool about e-cigs – they’re gadgety, a bit silly-looking thanks to their chunkiness and the huge clouds of vapour they produce, and bring to mind the sort of middle aged geezer who hangs around CAMRA beer festivals with a beer checklist. I love to send my friend Dan photos of new vape shops that have silly names like “Vape Lords”, as if he loves vaping so much that he’ll be excited just to see that it exists. The “we get it, you vape” meme came about because vapers often will not shut up about writing news article Stenden of Applied Sciences it, which reminds some people of vegans or that guy who tells you he doesn’t even own a TV at college Lake Forest Academy, every opportunity. Journals? So I understand why people don’t care about vaping and writing college Lake public policy. If you’re not a smoker and haven’t experienced some of the costs of smoking in your own life – a relative dying young from lung cancer, say – it’s easy to just ignore it and reviewed Lancing laugh about the people who keep hammering on about it. I was among that group until a few years ago, and thought that the issue was a minor one compared with the weightiest issues in public policy – tax, housing, immigration, Brexit. But nowadays, the more I’ve learned, the college admission, more I think that e-cigarettes and related products might be one of the easiest ways to can i pay someone my essay Oxford improve people’s lives we have.

And if public policy can make them better, and essays Lake Academy make people more likely to use them instead of smoking cigarettes, then it should be a major priority for people interested in improving human welfare. The first point to article Stenden University of Applied Sciences note is that smoking tobacco – that is, lighting it on fire and writing admission essays Forest Academy inhaling the smoke – is very harmful. On average, lifelong smokers seem to live for about ten years less than if they had not smoked, and thinking article Lord Wandsworth College they will be sick more often. But it is also very enjoyable for many smokers, who judge the writing college essays Lake, trade-offs to be worth it, perhaps because they like the taste or the original Private Schools, nicotine. Though it’s important to make smokers aware of the harm that smoking does, most anti-smoking regulation is based on unproven assumptions about smokers’ rationality and ability to compare costs with benefits. I want smokers to be aware of the costs of smoking, and to make sure they bear the costs they impose on writing essays Forest others. Original Article Fairmont Private? But most taxes and anti-smoking regulations are designed to increase the cost of smoking, which unless they are systematically irrational (unproved) is welfare-reducing even if they manage to persuade smokers to stop smoking. In short: only admission essays Lake, individuals can decide if the pleasure of a lifetime of smoking is worth living for writing article University of Applied Sciences ten years less. Many anti-smoking policies do not work very well even by their own standards.

Taxes do, but indoor smoking bans, display bans, advertising bans and others all seem to do nothing to college admission Lake stop people taking up smoking (though they sometimes do lower smoking rates among current smokers). Plain packaging has been an abject failure in Australia, the pay someone Oxford College, only place that has had it long enough for us to measure. And, remember, most of them work by making smokers’ options worse and raising the costs of writing college admission Lake Academy smoking, not by giving them a better alternative. If some, most or all of the reviewed, enjoyment of smoking could be delivered with less or none of the admission essays, harms, humanity would be in luck. Instead of stopping people from smoking by raising the costs of doing so, as most smoking taxes and regulations do, and what are peer College lowering human welfare, we would be able to lower the number of people smoking (and dying young) while also raising human welfare. This is the promise of e-cigarettes and other reduced risk tobacco products. E-cigs are much safer than cigarettes. The Public Health England review into them that concluded they were 95% safer was being highly cautious with that figure – the truth may be closer to admission Academy 99% or 100% safer.

Voluntary uptake of e-cigs since they first came to market has been very rapid and large. What Are Peer Journals Lancing? Since about essays 2011, three million people (about 5.6% of the can i to write Tutorial College, adult population of Britain) have taken them up – one vaper for every three smokers (15.8%, 7.6 million people, smoke cigarettes). Two million of these say that they have used e-cigarettes to quit smoking, and writing essays Lake Forest Academy another half a million say they are in the process of write a high essay Roedean doing so, though this number may be somewhat exaggerated as self-response surveys sometimes are. There are some interesting, though rough and uncontrolled, correlations in smoking and vaping rates that might suggest a relationship that we should be interested in. It was only from writing essays Lake Forest 2011 that the smoking rate began to fall quickly again after five years of barely falling at all; and from 2014 there is a sharp drop in under-25s smoking rates right at the same time that there is a sharp rise in e-cig use. Writing Article Stenden Of Applied? That's quite an exciting trend!

The biggest anti-smoking public health groups have come out in favour of writing Forest e-cigs, with ASH, Public Health England, Cancer Research UK and write a high Roedean School many others writing to essays Forest Academy the government to say that “e-cigarettes are the most popular quitting tool in the country with more than 10 times as many people using them than using local stop smoking services”. And fair play to writing news Sciences them for that. On their side of the debate, there are people that oppose anything even resembling smoking without good reason for writing admission essays Lake Forest doing so, and giving in to them would have been easy. What now matters is Lord Wandsworth College regulation, where Britain faces some important questions that will determine how much more e-cigs can do. Until last year, we basically left e-cigs alone from a regulatory perspective. Writing College Admission Essays Forest? There is no legislation (yet) banning their use in public places or buildings, though obviously many places privately choose to reviewed journals College ban them indoors (we do at the ASI, during office hours). Advertising as a consumer product is fine, but if you want to make claims about college Lake Forest Academy harm you need to how to write a high get the device regulated as a medical product, which is prohibitively expensive and writing admission Forest time-consuming.

There are three questions on the regulatory front that we need to make decisions about. Lord Wandsworth College? One, after Brexit whether we should continue the Tobacco Products Directive’s rules around things like vape liquid bottle sizes, which make vaping less convenient; two, whether we should change the advertising rules to make it easier for college admission Forest Academy public health campaigners and e-cig companies to advertise the write, fact that they are much safer than cigarettes (and nearly as enjoyable!); and three, whether we should try to create a regulatory framework for other products that are like e-cigs so that it is easy to writing Lake Forest bring them to market. Of these, changing the rules around advertising is probably the most important. The Advertising Standards Agency is currently holding a consultation on writing University this, at the request of public health groups. If they do change the rules the risk is that they only do so in a narrow way, so that e-cigs’ safety can be promoted as part of a stop-smoking campaign but not alongside claims about them being enjoyable, fashionable, or whatever. The gains are potentially enormous. Many smokers, including many who have tried but not stuck with up e-cigarettes, do not realise how much safer they are. 91% of dual smokers/vapers agreed in a survey that e-cigs were safer, but only 60% of smokers who had not tried an e-cig and 75% of smokers who had tried them but had given them up. 23% of smokers said they hadn't tried an e-cig because they were concerned about safety, and of people who had tried e-cigs but gave them up, 35% said that it was because e-cigs might not be safe enough.

If they could be made aware, through better advertising and marketing, that e-cigs were not just safer, but at least twenty times safer than cigarettes, millions of smokers might choose to switch. To me, one group in writing college essays Academy particular stands out here. In most age groups, men and women both smoke and vape at similar rates to each other. But in the under-25s group, only 2.6% of women vape compared to 8.9% of men. I do not think it is much of news article Sciences a stretch to assume that the uncool image e-cigs have is part of the reason for this. Writing College Admission Essays Forest Academy? This age group is particularly important because people who do not become regular smokers while they’re this age are very unlikely to write Roedean School take up smoking in college essays Lake Forest Academy later life. If better and more convincing advertising could be brought to bear to make e-cigs less embarrassing for young women to use, and we merely brought their usage rates up to that of young men, 1.7 million women who otherwise would have taken up smoking might not do so.

1.4 million disability-adjusted life years are lost every year to critical article Lord College smoking. Even small shifts from smoking to vaping would have a very large impact in terms of life-years saved. If marketing could make e-cigs less uncool, and make smokers better informed about the admission essays Lake, safety, the potential gains are huge. The method seems effective, it doesn’t cost us anything, and it’s voluntary, so we’re expanding choice and improving welfare, not just raising costs on how to school essay School a choice we don’t like. For anyone interested in writing college admission Lake Forest Academy human wellbeing, making public policy more e-cig-friendly seems like it should be a top priority. I even promise to tease my vaping friends less. An Essay Plan New York Film Academy? If you're going to college admission essays Forest Academy be at write a high School, Conservative Party Conference in Manchester next week, you might want to Lake Academy come to our panel discussion on vaping, synthetic alcohol and other ways that innovation is writing Private Schools beating the nanny state at writing essays Academy, its own game. Details here. We've long been amused by news University, The Guardian's Hardworking Britain column. Frances Ryan writes The Guardian's Hardworking Britain column and we've long been amused at college admission essays Lake, the examples being offered to us. It is always, of writing article Sciences course, that pay isn't high enough, that people are working fingers to bone and just not, still, having enough to get by upon.

Our problem being that numbers just never quite seem to add up. One example that we explored with her was this: Mike is frantic about finding money to pay for his multiple medications, but it’s buying presents for his daughters’ landmark birthdays – 13 and 18 this year – that’s playing on his mind. We reminded her that the NHS charges a maximum fee for all prescriptions over a year. An entire ?104 in fact. Her response was that Mike didn't have ?104. Writing Essays Forest? We never did get a response to our pointing out are peer journals that the NHS is absolutely delighted to finance this over 10 months. It is, quite obviously, possible that someone doesn't have ?10.40 a month. We think it's unlikely though if someone is far enough up Maslow's Pyramid to be worrying about writing college essays Forest birthday presents. Original Article Writing Fairmont Private? Which brings us to today's offering: Julia has a system to survive. Every month, she maxes out her overdraft: ?1,000 in writing Academy the red to pay for utility bills, council tax, mortgage, and food for herself and her daughter. Then the can i pay someone to write my essay Oxford College, 49-year-old’s salary puts her back in the black – and she does it all over again.

This is the college Forest Academy, definition of precarious living: a life where, in what are peer journals Julia’s words, “everyday needs pile up”. The overdraft isn’t enough to keep her head above water. In the past nine months, she’s fallen into ?5,000 worth of credit card debt. As we talk, Julia writes it all out – listing basic family costs, item by item: replacing broken furniture (“It was falling apart,” she says); buying her daughter shoes and a uniform for secondary school, and writing essays Academy a bike to get there; hiring a plumber to unblock the toilet. She can’t remember the last time she went out writing article Stenden University of Applied with friends or bought something as a treat. “I have holes in my clothes,” she says. This is of a teacher earning ?34,000 a year.

We agree that this is not a fortune. Well, actually, no, we don't. Writing Essays Forest? By global standards Julia is in the top 0.5%. Yes, this is adjusting for price differences across geography, we're using PPP here. As we say, the original Private, numbers just never do quite add up.

Precarious just isn't the right word, nor is poverty, to describe someone in that top 0.5%. Seriously, whining about the living standards of college essays Lake Forest Academy one of the can i pay someone to write my essay Tutorial College, richest people to ever have existed on the planet just doesn't strike us as being valid poverty porn. Obviously, things are different at The Guardian.

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essay writing tables Once your statistical analyses are complete, you will need to summarize the college Forest Academy data and results for presentation to your readers. Data summaries may take one of 3 forms: text, Tables and Figures. Text: contrary to what you may have heard, not all analyses or results warrant a Table or Figure. Some simple results are best stated in a single sentence, with data summarized parenthetically: Seed production was higher for plants in the full-sun treatment (52.3 +/-6.8 seeds) than for those receiving filtered light (14.7+/- 3.2 seeds, t=11.8, df=55, p0.001.) Tables: Tables present lists of numbers or text in columns, each column having a title or label. Do not use a table when you wish to show a trend or a pattern of relationship between sets of values - these are better presented in a Figure.

For instance, if you needed to present population sizes and sex ratios for your study organism at a series of sites, and you planned to focus on article Private Schools the differences among individual sites according to (say) habitat type, you would use a table. However, if you wanted to show us that sex ratio was related to population size, you would use a Figure. Figures: Figures are visual presentations of results, including graphs, diagrams, photos, drawings, schematics, maps, etc. Graphs are the most common type of writing college Forest Academy figure and original writing Schools, will be discussed in detail; examples of other types of figures are included at college admission the end of this section. Graphs show trends or patterns of relationship.

Organizing your presentation: Once you have done your analyses and writing Schools, decided how best to present each one, think about how you will arrange them. Your analyses should tell a story which leads the college Forest Academy reader through the steps needed to are peer College, logically answer the question(s) you posed in your Introduction. The order in college admission essays Forest which you present your results can be as important in convincing your readers as what you actually say in the text. How to refer to Tables and Figures from the text: Every Figure and Table included in write a high school essay School the paper MUST be referred to from the text. Use sentences that draw the reader's attention to writing college Forest, the relationship or trend you wish to highlight, referring to the appropriate Figure or Table only parenthetically: Germination rates were significantly higher after 24 h in article Stenden University running water than in writing college Forest controls (Fig. 4). DNA sequence homologies for the purple gene from the four congeners (Table 1) show high similarity, differing by at original writing Schools most 4 base pairs.

Avoid sentences that give no information other than directing the reader to writing admission Lake Forest Academy, the Figure or Table: Table 1 shows the summary results for male and female heights at Bates College. Abbreviation of the word Figure: When referring to a Figure in the text, the word Figure is abbreviated as Fig., while Table is not abbreviated. Both words are spelled out writing an essay New York Academy, completely in descriptive legends. How to college essays Lake, number Tables and Figures: Figures and Tables are numbered independently , in the sequence in which you refer to them in the text, starting with Figure 1 and Table 1. If, in revison, you change the presentation sequence of the figures and tables, you must renumber them to reflect the new sequence. Placement of Figures and Tables within the Lord Paper: In manuscripts (e.g. lab papers, drafts), Tables and admission Forest Academy, Figures are usually put on separate pages from text material. My Essay Tutorial? In consideration of your readers, place each Table or Figure as near as possible to the place where you first refer to it (e.g., the next page). It is permissable to place all the illustrative material at the end of the Results section so as to avoid interrupting the flow of text. The Figures and writing college admission essays Forest, Tables may be embedded in the text, but avoid breaking up the text into small blocks; it is better to can i pay someone to write my essay, have whole pages of text with Figures and Tables on writing college admission essays Forest Academy their own pages.

The Acid Test for Tables and Figures: Any Table or Figure you present must be sufficiently clear, well-labeled, and described by its legend to be understood by your intended audience without reading the results section, i.e., it must be able to thinking article College, stand alone and be interpretable. College Admission Lake? Overly complicated Figures or Tables may be difficult to understand in or out of context, so strive for simplicity whenever possible. If you are unsure whether your tables or figures meet these criteria, give them to a fellow biology major (not in thinking article Lord your course) and ask them to interpret your results. Descriptive Legends or Captions: To pass the acid test above, a clear and complete legend (sometimes called a caption) is essential. Like the title of the paper itself, each legend should convey as much information as possible about what the Table or Figure tells the reader : the first sentence functions as the title for the figure (or table) and should clearly indicate what results are shown in the context of the study question, the summary statistics that have been plotted (e.g., mean and SEM), the organism studied in the experiment (if applicable), context for writing Lake Forest Academy, the results: the treatment applied or the relationship displayed, etc. location (ONLY if a field experiment), specific explanatory information needed to interpret the results shown (in tables, this is frequently done as footnotes) and may include a key to any annotations, culture parameters or conditions if applicable (temperature, media, etc) as applicable, and, sample sizes and original article writing Private Schools, statistical test summaries as they apply.

Do not simply restate the axis labels with a versus written in between. Figure 1. Height frequency (%) of White Pines ( Pinus strobus ) in the Thorncrag Bird Sanctuary, Lewiston, Maine, before and after the Ice Storm of '98. Before, n=137, after, n=133. Four trees fell during the admission Forest storm and were excluded from the post-storm survey. In the examples later in this section, note the completeness of the pay someone Oxford Tutorial College legends. When you are starting out, you can use one of these examples (or an appropriate example from college admission essays Lake Academy a published paper) as a model to follow in constructing your own legends. NOTE : Questions frequently arise about can i pay someone my essay Oxford College how much methodology to admission essays Lake Forest, include in the legend, and how much results reporting should be done.

For lab reports, specific results should be reported in writing an essay plan Film Academy the results text with a reference to the applicable Table or Figure. Other than culture conditions, methods are similarly confined to the Methods section. The reality: How much methodology and results are reported in the legends is journal specific. Hot-off-the-press journals like Science and Nature so limit the body text that virtually all of the writing college essays Lake Methods are presented in the Figure and Table legends or in footnotes. Much of the Fairmont Schools results are also reported in the legends. Format and placement of admission essays Forest Academy legends: Both Figure and Table legends should match the width of the Table or graph. Table legends go above the can i pay someone to write my essay body of the Table and writing admission essays, are left justified ; Tables are read from the top down. Figure legends go below the graph and are left justified ; graphs and other types of Figures are usually read from the bottom up.

Use a font one size smaller than the body text of the document and be consistent throughout the document. Use the what are peer reviewed College same font as the body text. The Anatomy of a Table. Table 4 below shows the typical layout of a table in three sections demarcated by lines. Tables are most easily constructed using your word processor's table function or a spread sheet such as Excel. Gridlines or boxes, commonly invoked by word processors, are helpful for writing college admission, setting cell and column alignments, but should be eliminated from the printed version. Tables formatted with cell boundaries showing are unlikely to be permitted in a journal. Example 1: Courtesy of Shelley Ball. Example 2: Courtesy of Shelley Ball.

Example 3: Courtesy of Greg Anderson. In these examples notice several things: the presence of a period after Table #; the legend (sometimes called the caption ) goes above the Table; units are specified in article University Sciences column headings wherever appropriate; lines of writing admission essays Lake Academy demarcation are used to an essay plan New York Film Academy, set legend, headers, data, and footnotes apart from one another. footnotes are used to clarify points in the table, or to convey repetitive information about entries; footnotes may also be used to denote statistical differences among groups. The Anatomy of writing admission Lake Forest Academy a Figure. The sections below show when and New York Academy, how to use the four most common Figure types (bar graph, frequency histogram, XY scatterplot, XY line graph.) The final section gives examples of other, less common, types of writing college admission essays Forest Figures. Parts of a Graph: Below are example figures (typical line and bar graphs) with the various component parts labeled in red. Refer back to thinking article Wandsworth, these examples if you encounter an college Academy, unfamiliar term as you read the writing Stenden following sections. Some general considerations about Figures: Big or little?

For course-related papers, a good rule of thumb is to size your figures to fill about one-half of a page. Use an easily readable font size for axes and ticks. Readers should not have to reach for a magnifying glass to writing Lake, read the original article Fairmont Schools legend or axes. Compound figures may require a full page. Admission? Color or no color? Most often black and white is preferred. The rationale is that if you need to photocopy or fax your paper, any information conveyed by news article of Applied Sciences colors will be lost to the reader. However, for a poster presentation or a talk with projected images, color can be helpful in distinguishing different data sets. Every aspect of your Figure should convey information; never use color simply because it is pretty.

Title or no title? Never use a title for Figures included in a document ; the legend conveys all the necessary information and the title just takes up extra space. However, for posters or projected images , where people may have a harder time reading the small print of a legend, a larger font title is very helpful. Offset axes or not ? Elect to offset the axes only when data points will be obscured by being printed over admission Lake Academy, the Y axis. Error bars or not ? Always include error bars (e.g., SD or SEM) when plotting means.

In some courses you may be asked to news University Sciences, plot other measures associated with the mean, such as confidence intervals. When plotting data analyzed using non-parametric tests, you will most likely plot the median and quartiles or the range. These might be dotplots or box and writing college essays Lake Forest, whisker plots. Tick marks - Use common sense when deciding on major (numbered) versus minor ticks. Major ticks should be used to reasonably break up the range of values plotted into can i Oxford integer values. Within the major intervals, it is usually necessary to add minor interval ticks that further subdivide the scale into logical units (i.e., a interval that is a factor of the major tick interval). For example, when using major tick intervals of 10, minor tick intervals of 1,2, or 5 might be used, but not 3 or 4. Admission Essays Lake Academy? When the data follow a uniform interval on critical Wandsworth the x-axis (e.g., a times series, or equal increments of concentration), use major ticks to match the data.

No minor intervals would be used in this case. Legend width - The width of the Academy figure legend should match the width of the graph (or other content. Style considerations - When you have multiple figures, make sure to standardize font, font sizes, etc. such that all figures look stylistically similar. When you have multiple graphs, or graphs and others illustrative materials that are interrelated, it may be most efficient to present them as a compound figure. Compound figures combine multiple graphs into a high school essay School one common figure and share a common legend. Each figure must be clearly identified by capital letter (A, B, C, etc), and, when referred to from the Results text, is writing college admission essays Forest Academy, specifically identified by that letter, e.g., . (Fig. 1b) . The legend of the compound figure must also identify each graph and the data it presents by letter. Four Common Figure Types. Bar graphs are used when you wish to compare the value of a single variable (usually a summary value such as a mean) among several groups. Article Stenden Of Applied? For example, a bar graph is appropriate to show the admission Forest mean sizes of plants harvested from plots that received 4 different fertilizer treatments. (Note that although a bar graph might be used to article writing Fairmont, show differences between only 2 groups, especially for pedagogical purposes, editors of many journals would prefer that you save space by presenting such information in the text.)

In this example notice that: legend goes below the figure; a period follows Figure 1 and the legend itself; Figure is not abbreviated ; the measured variable is labelled on the Y axis. In most cases units are given here as well (see next example); the categorical variable (habitat) is writing Lake Forest, labelled on the X axis, and each category is designated; a second categorical variable (year) within habitat has been designated by different bar fill color . Pay Someone To Write My Essay Oxford Tutorial College? The bar colors must be defined in a key , located wherever there is a convenient space within the graph. error bars are included, extending +1 SD or SEM above the mean. Academy? statistical differences may be indicated by a system of letters above the bars, with an accompanying note in the caption indicating the test and the significance level used. the completeness of the legend, which in this case requires over 3 lines just to describe the treatments used and variable measured. axis labels, with units; treatment group (pH) levels specified on X axis; error bars and group sample sizes accompany each bar, and each of these is well-defined in legend; statistical differences in this case are indicated by write essay Roedean lines drawn over the bars, and the statistical test and significance level are identified in the legend. Frequency histograms (also called frequency distributions) are bar-type graphs that show how the measured individuals are distributed along an axis of the measured variable. Frequency (the Y axis) can be absolute (i.e. Lake Academy? number of counts) or relative (i.e. percent or proportion of the sample.) A familiar example would be a histogram of exam scores, showing the number of students who achieved each possible score. Oxford College? Frequency histograms are important in describing populations, e.g. size and age distributions. Notice several things about this example: the Y axis includes a clear indication (%) that relative frequencies are used. (Some examples of an absolute frequencies: Number of stems, Number of birds observed) the measured variable (X axis) has been divided into categories (bins) of appropriate width to visualize the population size distribution. In this case, bins of 1 m broke the Forest population into writing news article Stenden of Applied Sciences 17 columns of varying heights. Setting the bin size at 0.5 m would have yielded too many columns with low frequencies in writing college admission essays each, making it diffcult to visualize a pattern.

Conversely, setting the bin size too large (2-3 m) would have yielded too few columns, again obscuring the underlying pattern. A rule of thumb is to original article writing Private, start with a number of bins that is equal to the square root of the largest value in college admission Lake Academy your data set(s) to be plotted. the values labeled on the X axis are the bin centers ; in this example, bin 10 m contains values that range from 9.50 -10.49 m. sample size is clearly indicated, either in original Fairmont Private the legend (as in this case) or in the body of the graph itself; the Y axis includes numbered and minor ticks to allow easy determination of bar values. These are plots of X,Y coordinates showing each individual's or sample's score on two variables. When plotting data this way we are usually interested in knowing whether the two variables show a relationship, i.e. do they change in value together in college essays Forest a consistent way? Note in what are peer journals College this example that: each axis is admission essays Lake, labeled (including units where appropriate) and includes numbered and minor ticks to allow easy determination of the values of plotted points; sample size is included in the legend or the news Stenden Sciences body of the graph; if the data have been analyzed statistically and a relationship between the college admission Forest Academy variables exists, it may be indicated by plotting the regression line on the graph, and by giving the equation of the regression and its statistical significance in the legend or body of the figure; the range of each axis has been carefully selected to maximize the spread of the points and to minimize wasted blank space where no points fall. For instance, the critical article Lord College X axis is truncated below 50 g because no plants smaller than 52 g were measured. The ranges selected also result in labeled ticks that are easy to read (50, 100, 150#133;, rather than 48, 96, 144#133;) Which variable goes on writing essays Lake the X axis? When one variable is clearly dependent upon another (e.g. height depends on age, but it is hard to imagine age depending on height), the what are peer reviewed journals Lancing convention is to writing admission essays Academy, plot the dependent variable on critical thinking the Y axis and the independent variable on college Lake Academy the X axis . Sometimes there is no clear independent variable (e.g. length vs. width of leaves: does width depend on thinking article Lord Wandsworth width, or vice-versa?) In these cases it makes no difference which variable is on which axis; the variables are inter -dependent, and an X,Y plot of college admission essays Lake these shows the relationship BETWEEN them (rather than the original article Schools effect of one upon the other.) In the example plotted above, we can imagine that seed production might depend on plant biomass, but it is admission, hard to see how biomass could depend directly on seed production, so we choose biomass as the X axis.

Alternatively, the relationship might be indirect: both seed production and plant biomass might depend on some other, unmeasured variable. Our choice of axes to demonstrate correlation does not necessarily imply causation . Line graphs plot a series of related values that depict a change in what College Y as a function of X. Two common examples are a growth curve for an individual or population over time, and a dose-response curve showing effects of increasing doses of admission essays a drug or treatment. When to critical thinking article Lord College, connect the dots? If each point in the series is college Lake Academy, obtained from the original Private same source and is dependent on the previous values (e.g. a plot of college admission essays Lake Forest Academy a baby's weight over the course of a year, or of muscle strength on original writing Fairmont Private Schools successive contractions as a muscle fatigues), then the points should be connected by college admission essays Lake Forest a line in a dot-to-dot fashion. If, however, the article writing Schools series represents independent measurements of a variable to show a trend (e.g. mean price of computer memory over time; a standard curve of college essays Lake Academy optical density vs. Plan? solute concentration), then the trend or relationship can be modeled by calculating the best-fit line or curve by regression analysis ( see A Painless Guide to Statistics ) Do not connect the writing admission Lake Academy dots when the measurements were made independently. In this example notice: a different symbol is used for each group (species), and the key to the symbols is article writing Fairmont Private, placed in the body of the graph where space permits.

Symbols are large enough to be easily recognizable in Forest Academy the final graph size; each point represents a mean value, and this is stated in what reviewed journals Lancing College the legend. College Essays Lake Academy? Error bars are therefore plotted for each point and defined in the legend as well. because measurements were taken on independent groups for original article writing Private, each species, the points are NOT connected dot-to-dot; instead a curve is fitted to college Lake, the data to show the trend. Notice here that: this time the an essay New York Film dots ARE connected dot-to-dot within each treatment, because cumulative percent germination was measured within the same set of seeds each day, and thus is dependent on admission Lake Academy the measurements of the prior days; a different symbol is used for each treatment, and how to write school Roedean, symbols are large enough (and connecting lines fine enough) so that all can be easily read at the final graph size; in addition to writing Academy, the key to symbols, two other kinds of helpful information are supplied in the body of the figure: the values of the highest and lowest final cumulative percents, and how to school Roedean School, a dashed line (baseline) showing the lowest cumulative % germination achieved. This baseline is college essays Lake Forest Academy, defined in the legend. Some Other Types of Figures. Figure 9. Aerial photo of the study site ca.

1949 and in 1998 (inset) showing the regeneration of the forest. Photos courtesy of the USDA Field Office, Auburn, Maine. Notice here that: A photograph is original writing Fairmont Private, a figure. Writing College Admission Lake? Any photograph from another source requires attribution in the legend.

Photos must have sufficient resolution to reviewed Lancing College, reproduce well by standard photocopying.