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Athletics Department of the conclusion of an argumentative Wittenborg, University of San Francisco - Cameraman Resume Example. I am currently employed part-time by the Athletics Department of the University of San Francisco as a cameraman who films numerous athletic events on campus. I also am a volunteer radio DJ for three different radio stations, and write for college Hotel Management, these stations are San Francisco Community Radio, Radio Valencia 87.9 FM, and Even though I do music shows for those stations, my ultimate goal is to of an argumentative Wittenborg University, become a sports broadcaster. Writing Nature School! TV and radio background Broadcasting Filming Talented public speaker Team player Interviewing. Organization Audio Editing Management skills Strong communication skills Website Coordination Technical Skills. I am currently do a radio show for Radio Valencia 87.9 FM, and this has given me great experience in broadcasting with a mass audience.

I also do a radio show for San Francisco Community Radio and conclusion of an of Applied Sciences, every week. I received a partial scholarship from the University of San Francisco called the Dean's Merit Award. It was given to me due to my academic accomplishments in high school. I had a 3.5 cumulative GPA at Marin Catholic High School, and I currently have a 3.7 cumulative GPA at the University of San Francisco. As of May 21, 2013 I have done 105 radio shows for writing for kids Griffith University (Navitas), San Francisco Community Radio, Radio Valencia 87.9 FM, and I have done numerous live interviews with athletes at the University of San Francisco, and argumentative Wittenborg University, these interviews can be viewed on-line on we write Arts Academy, YouTube or the USFtv website. November 2011 to Current Athletics Department of the University of San Francisco - San Francisco , CA. Of An Wittenborg Of Applied Sciences! I have filmed numerous athletic events at the University of San Francisco, and this has given me very useful experience in live filming and learning technical skills. There have been other times when I have filled-in as the Technical Director as well, and this means that instead of filming, I would have the responsibility of choosing which shot (camera angle) goes on-the-air during live broadcasts.

This job has provided me with numerous different responsibilities, and in doing so it has widened my repertoire of skills in television broadcasting. October 2011 to Current San Francisco Community Radio, Radio Valencia 87.9 FM, - San Francisco , CA. Since October of 2011, I have been a radio DJ for essay International Management, San Francisco Community Radio. I have had the Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, responsibility of doing a one hour show, so this has given me lots of experience in the fields of public speaking and radio broadcasting. I play lots of music from critical thinking method Business School, many different countries, and due to this my shows have received audiences from conclusion of an essay Wittenborg, many countries such as the USA, United Kingdom, Russia, Greece, Chile, Italy, and many others. San Francisco Community Radio is made up of radio DJs who previously were on thinking Glion London, & Hospitality School, KUSF 90.3 FM. Being able to communicate with these DJs has supplied me with lots of knowledge about radio broadcasting and building community values, as this is conclusion of an argumentative essay University of Applied Sciences a community radio stations that is all made up of volunteers. Since March of 2013, I have been a radio DJ for for kids (Navitas), Radio Valencia 87.9 FM. I do a six hour radio show once every five weeks for this station, as the shift that I am responsible for essay Wittenborg Sciences, is split up between numerous DJs.

Being with Radio Valencia has given me knowledge about broadcasting on FM radio, so the requirements in terms of the we write Arts Academy, quality of the on-air content are much more strict. I have also gained comprehension about the organization of a radio station on FM radio, and I have been able to work on my communication skills at this station as well. is the student-run radio station at the University of San Francisco. I do a two hour radio show for this station. I have gained some of the conclusion of an argumentative of Applied, same skills from this station as I had from the other two bigger stations. I have been a DJ for this station since October of 2012. Podcasts of thinking method Glion & Hospitality, my radio shows for conclusion of an argumentative Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, each of these three radio stations can be provided upon request, as I have done over 100 combined radio shows for writing for kids, these three different radio stations as of May 21, 2013. Argumentative Wittenborg University Sciences! August 2010 to thinking Glion & Hospitality School, December 2010 Marin Catholic High School - San Francisco , CA.

During my senior year of high school, I did the play-by-play broadcasting for essay of Applied, the varsity football team at Marin Catholic. This was my first venture into we write Arts Academy, broadcasting, and sports broadcasting is my ultimate goal. After each broadcast, I also had the responsibility of editing the broadcast using a program called GarageBand, and conclusion of an essay Wittenborg, this was also my first venture into audio editing. I am now fluent in audio editing in programs such as ProTools and GarageBand. Podcasts of my play-by-play broadcasting can be provided upon writing a newspaper article for kids (Navitas) request. December 2012 to Current San Francisco Community Radio - San Francisco , CA. As of December 2012, I have been the of Applied Sciences, secretary of San Francisco Community Radio. This has given me the responsibilities of taking notes at meetings, sharing the some high school mean Bromsgrove, notes with everyone else after meetings, and creating working relationships with every other member of the argumentative essay of Applied, radio station. January 2013 to Current San Francisco Community Radio - San Francisco , CA. Hanze University Of Applied! Since the beginning of 2013, I have also been the website coordinator for of an argumentative, San Francisco Community Radio. This job has the responsibilities of making sure that the Shows and Volunteers pages are constantly updated.

This means that every show and critical method Glion London, Business & Hospitality, volunteer for San Francisco Community Radio has to be up on the website so that listeners can easily comprehend who is contributing to the station and what content is aired on the station. August 2011 to Current USFtv - San Francisco , CA. Since August 2011 when I had just become a student at the University of conclusion of an essay University Sciences, San Francisco, I have been a programmer for the Sports Department at USFtv. This is the on-campus television station at the University of San Francisco. I have been responsible for creating some of the method London, & Hospitality, sports content that gets aired on USFtv. Conclusion Of An Wittenborg University Of Applied Sciences! Specifically, I have done voice-overs for videos, and that means that I provide analysis of what is Hanze happening in the video concerning a certain athletic event. I have also done numerous live interviews with athletes, and this has improved my communication skills and skills while working under pressure greatly. Conclusion Argumentative Essay University Sciences! I also attended Marin Catholic High School, and I had a cumulative 3.5 GPA at that school. Currently, I have a cumulative 3.7 GPA at the University of San Francisco.

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Integrative Psychotherapy Articles. Richard G. Erskine, Editor, with Maria Teresa Tosi, Marye O'Reilly-Knapp, Rosemary Napper, Fanita English, and Jo Stuthridge. The European Transactional Analysis Conference (EATA) in of an argumentative essay Wittenborg Sciences Prague, Czech Republic, included a roundtable presented on July 9, 2010. The roundtable was preceded by introductory speeches given by Richard G. Erskine (convener), Maria Teresa (Resi) Tosi, Marye O'Reilly-Knapp, and Jo Stuthridge. Arts Academy? The roundtable discussion also included comments from Rosemary Napper and Fanita English. This article presents edited excerpts from conclusion University of Applied, three of the introductory speeches and some of the writing article for kids University, following discussion. (Jo Stuthridge asked that her speech not be included because it duplicates material already in print.) Richard Erskine, Introduction. As transactional analysts we have a profound set of theories that have endured the test of time. The core theories of transactional analysis include the human need for relationships and strokes, the complexity of ego states, the distinction of transference from ordinary transactions, and the overarching concept of of an argumentative University, life scripts. Each of these specific concepts, as well as the how to write an autobiography essay for college Les Roches International Hotel, combination of all the subconcepts, provides a rich repertoire of theory that is uniquely transactional analysis. For 50 years transitional analysis has developed, survived, and of an Wittenborg University of Applied endured clinical tests.

Our theory has been refined through our increasing experience, experimentation, collegial confrontations of thinking of Applied Sciences, each other, and continuous feedback from conclusion of an Wittenborg University Sciences, our clients. As transactional analysts we are grounded in the theories developed by Eric Berne and the members of his seminars, and we are innovative because we listen to writing nature Windermere Preparatory School, the experiences and the needs of our clients. Both our theories and methods evolve because we are willing to learn from our clients while also utilizing what we already know about human dynamics. The concept of life scripts is but one example of of an argumentative essay Wittenborg, our innovative and evolving theory. The theory of life scripts has fascinated me since I first heard about it in 1967 in a training workshop with Fritz Perls. He had borrowed the idea from Eric Berne, but neither Berne nor Perls wrote about its psychotherapeutic applications. Prior to his untimely death, Berne collected notes and vignettes about various influences in the formation of writing article Griffith University, scripts. Those uncorrelated notes and his ideas about human destiny were published as the book What Do You Say After You Say Hello? (Berne, 1972). Berne did not live long enough to fully develop the concept of life scripts; he wrote only an outline of the theory and did not address how to of an argumentative Wittenborg of Applied, treat life script issues in psychotherapy.

He left it to how to write essay College, future generations, to you, my colleagues here on the roundtable, to me€”to all of us€”to develop and refine the concepts and methods of working with life scripts. In the book that has just been published by Karnac entitled Life Scripts; A Transactional Analysis of conclusion of an essay of Applied Sciences, Unconscious Relational Patterns (Erskine, 2010), 14 transactional analysts have written about how they have developed, advanced, and thinking refined Berne's rudimentary ideas. Some of the authors are here in Prague for this European Association of Transactional Analysis psychotherapy and counseling symposium. Those present today are Maria Teresa (Resi) Tosi (Italy), Mary O'Reilly-Knapp (USA), Jo Stuthridge (New Zealand), Rosemary Napper (UK), and Fanita English (citizen of the world). In this symposium, via the introductory speeches and the roundtable discussion, you will hear about a combination of traditional concepts, innovative perspectives, and some radical ideas. As a group of authors, we have written about argumentative University Sciences life scripts being composed of subsymbolic and procedural memory, implicit experiential conclusions, and self-regulating patterns. Some of some school mean, these authors view life scripts as existential positions or dilemmas that need to be valued and embraced whereas others define them as embedded within the body or a result of lethal parental injunctions. As a group, though, we have written about unconscious relational patterns that have their origin in early childhood needs for attachment and in conclusion Wittenborg of Applied Sciences the protocol of how to essay Jin Jiang College, primary relationships within the family. I want to begin this symposium by sharing my personal perspective on life scripts.

In carefully reading Berne's writings, it is clear to me that the concept of conclusion of an Wittenborg University of Applied, script refers to that which inhibits spontaneity and critical thinking London, Business & Hospitality limits flexibility in problem solving, health maintenance, and relationships with people. Conclusion Of An University? The definition of an autobiography essay Jin Jiang Management College, life scripts on which I base my psychotherapy and teaching is this: Life scripts are a complex set of unconscious relational patterns based on physiological survival reactions, implicit experiential conclusions, explicit decisions and/or self-regulating introjections (Erskine, 2010, p. 1). I personally believe that to achieve effective change in a client's life script, it may be necessary for the psychotherapist to focus the therapeutic work on four major areas: 1. Being aware of the client's bodily reactions and uncovering the unconscious emotional story embedded within his or her body. 2. Providing an ongoing relational psychotherapy to rectify implicit experiential conclusions and fixated self-regulating accommodations. 3. Engaging in in-depth therapy of the Parent ego states to decommission introjections and parental injunctions. 4. Facilitating the client in making redecisions related to of an of Applied, explicit experiences. The more areas of nature School, this complex set of unconscious relational patterns that we attend to argumentative Wittenborg, in our psychotherapy, the more we will achieve script cure (Erskine, 1980). Maria Teresa (Resi) Tosi on The Challenges of the Narrative Script When I remember my first psychotherapy session as a client, I can still feel the sense of being deeply understood and respected by my psychotherapist while he was mirroring my feelings and thoughts.

Richard Erskine would probably say I felt validated: what I felt and thought could be recognized and valued (Erskine Trautmann, 1996). Now I think that in those days, 30 years ago, I was starting to form my first narrative of how do we write Idyllwild Arts Academy, what psychotherapy is: an empathic relationship in which a client can give meaning to her own experience and start to of an argumentative essay Wittenborg University of Applied, form new images of herself, others, and writing University (Navitas) life. How many first experiences and images do each of us have? The first day in school, the first time we made love, the conclusion argumentative essay Wittenborg, first pregnancy, the first time a loved one died. How many intense and deeply provoking moments of thinking Hanze, change in relationship to others€”what Stern (2003) called present moments €”have we experienced in life? How many traumas do we still need to conclusion argumentative of Applied Sciences, integrate in our memories? How many plots or life themes have we developed and favored in about Preparatory School our life? Which plots or themes are still there, as if they are waiting their turn, or which ones do we still not know?

In his definitions of script, Berne (1972) underscored that the script is an ongoing program, developed in early childhood under parental influence, that directs the individual's behavior in conclusion of an argumentative Sciences the most important parts of her life and is based on archaic decisions and how do we write essay conclusions. The protocol, the script, and the adaptation are three steps in script formation that go from an archaic, unconscious drama to a preconscious story formed through daily relationships. Very creatively, Berne proposed that some people€”or maybe all of us€”develop a story that limits their identity by forming self-repeating patterns, a story that needs to be redecided in order to reach autonomy. After Berne, a wide consensus has developed around the idea that we need a story, in any case, if we want to shape our identity. Argumentative Essay Wittenborg Of Applied Sciences? This concept was anticipated by Bill Cornell (1988) and Fanita English (1988) at writing for kids, the end of the 1980s. Just 30 years ago, a paradigm shift started to influence all psychotherapeutic models. This narrative revolution altered the vision of the self per se and conclusion of an Sciences fostered the concept of a narrator self. Basically, the narrative vision suggests that the person needs a story to define her own identity. Life is constructed and a newspaper University (Navitas) reconstructed through the stories we tell about ourselves and our relationships. Stories help people integrate and of an argumentative essay University of Applied Sciences make sense of their experiences.

Stories provide personal and write an autobiography essay Jin Jiang International cultural meanings to relational experiences. When people tell stories they are always doing so with a listener€”internal or external, in actuality or in fantasy€”who influences the development of that story. Narrative approaches can be differentiated into two major streams. In one, some authors studied the content of conclusion essay Wittenborg of Applied, clients' spontaneous stories and showed that they are of great value in accessing hidden psychological processes (e.g., see Luborsky Crits-Christoph, 1990). According to a second stream, the so-called post-psychological perspective, the concept of a newspaper for kids (Navitas), narrative is central because it brings together crucial aspects of the psychotherapeutic process. Conclusion Essay University? In this tradition, psychotherapy is conceived of an autobiography Jin Jiang International Management College, as a social process, and narratives encompass personal, interpersonal, and conclusion essay Wittenborg of Applied Sciences cultural dimensions. The personal dimension is related to the unique life story created by the story teller. The interpersonal dimension is important because the person who narrates has an audience whose responses give shape to the unfolding of the story. Writing A Newspaper Griffith University? Finally, there is a cultural dimension because stories are conceived according to conclusion of an argumentative essay Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, patterns and values typical of a certain culture so that language, culture, and society can offer several good or bad stories (Mc Leod, 2004). Berne was one of the pioneers who interpreted the psychological life as a developmental process based on a theory of social relationships.

He was influenced by Eric Erikson (with whom he did his second psychoanalysis), whose research is one of the how to Jin Jiang, most significant expressions of the psychosocial approach in psychoanalysis. Erikson (1950) was also the creator of a developmental theory of identity with a strong orientation toward the integration and resolution of internal conflicts. More recently, the narrative approaches, modern psychosocial theories, and research have stimulated a discussion about the idea of a unitary self. In this view, the self is conceived of as a community of selves, and identity includes different meanings of of an essay Wittenborg of Applied, self (Scilligo, 2009). It seems we have as many relational selves as we have significant relationships with other people.

Also, for each specific relational self that is activated, there is a specific nonrelational self linked to it (Andersen Chen, 2002). The attributes given to the self (e.g., I'm too fat) appear to be related to the procedural experience of being with others (e.g., If I am thin, then I can be admired) (Baldwyn, 1997). Modern psychosocial research hypothesizes that the personality system consists of mediational affective-cognitive unities that are organized in specific relational nets (Mischel Shoda, 1995). This means that there is growing consensus among psychosocial researchers that the we write Idyllwild Arts Academy, theory of traits is inadequate to diagnose a client (e.g., she is extroverted). On the contrary, it is important to acknowledge both the University, variability of essay International Hotel Management College, one person in different contexts (context is conclusion of an University of Applied, used in a broad sense, such as interpersonal, cognitive-affective, social contexts, etc.) and we write essay Arts Academy the range of variability shown by that person as he or she presents a range of specific profiles related to his or her behaviors. So, for example, the same person could be extroverted in one situation and introverted in another, according to Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, the specific meaning given to certain situations. These theories, which have been integrated by Scilligo (2009) into a model of social-cognitive transactional analysis, further develop the interpersonal theoretical frame of reference that is typical of transactional analysis. I want to recognize the modernity of Berne when he developed social psychiatry and also the risk inherent in script theory if it is used to underline only how invariable a person is. It has been exciting for me to high school coursework Bromsgrove, read several qualitative research reports put forward by authors of narrative approaches to explore if identity is better explained by University unity or multiplicity. When narratives are analyzed phenomenologically, one is inclined to think that different selves are in dialogue within the person and that integration is not the only solution that people are striving toward.

Sometimes we find a complexity of selves that are organized in a dynamic dualistic fashion; sometimes we find a polyphonia of selves that can be organized like a conversation; sometimes people experience an irreconcilable duality that requires a lifelong struggle to find an internal third element that would contain that duality; sometimes we realize that people organize themselves around a personal challenge, theme, or aesthetic that orients all of their life in writing about Windermere School different contexts. So, I have some hypotheses about script theory: The script is lived and conclusion of an Wittenborg narrated. Narratives are an important mirror of writing a newspaper Griffith University (Navitas), scripts, both for essay University of Applied, their content and Windermere School their form. Essay University Of Applied Sciences? The script is the sum of the client's experiences and stories, which are always evolving. Coursework Mean Bromsgrove? It is formed at the junction of three domains: the argumentative essay Wittenborg of Applied, personal world of meanings created by each person; the interpersonal/relational dimension, which has an impact on each level (symbolic and subsymbolic, explicit and implicit) of its development; and the culture, which always gives limits and resources to its formation. From my point of view, the psychotherapist has the task of looking for what is invariable and also what is variable in the client's story life because the complexity and creativity of each person are in the exceptions present in her life, the errors that open a window on multiple ways of reaching a goal, the article for kids University (Navitas), background noise in her life that is worthwhile to acknowledge, the challenges she has been facing, the essay University of Applied, aesthetic she wants to pursue, the irreconcilable selves she does not want to deny. I feel honored to have had the chance to present my ideas in this context, to talk about this topic, one for which I have had a passion since 1993 (Tosi, 1993, 2010). Marye O'Reilly-Knapp on Script System: The Unformulated Narrative As transactional analysts we have concepts that furnish a strong theoretical foundation.

Concepts such as ego states, strokes, transactions, games, rackets, script , and the script system have provided a rich framework for psychotherapy. We Write Arts? Works by English (1972), Steiner (1974), Stuntz (1972), and Woollams (1973) have added to the development of script theory. This morning I want to talk about the script system and emphasize its power as a model that can guide an in-depth psychotherapy andas a construct in essay Wittenborg University Sciences working with unconscious and unformulated narratives that remain unthinkable and therefore unspeakable and indescribable. First formulated by Richard Erskine and Marilyn Zalcman (1979) as the racket system, the script system is essay writing about, a representation of beliefs about self and others€”of relationships€”and the conclusions made at many developmental levels. Of An University Sciences? It includes observable behaviors, internal physical sensations, reinforcing experiences (current, as well as past memories), and critical books for kids Hanze Sciences repressed needs and feelings. It is often difficult for a child, or even some adults, to make sense of the subtle elements of the script system. Most of the conclusion essay Wittenborg, script system is implicit, largely due to the unconscious organization of experiences. The script, was described by Berne (1961) as an extensive unconscious life plan [that] determines the identity and University of Applied Sciences destiny of the of an argumentative essay Wittenborg University Sciences, person (p. 23). The transactional analysis literature has addressed how scripts are transmitted through parental messages and injunctions as well as the conclusions and about Windermere Preparatory explicit decisions the person makes. Berne (1966), in an early comment on the theory of life scripts, wrote,

Nearly all human activity [is] programmed by of an University of Applied an ongoing script dating from Idyllwild Arts Academy, early childhood, so that the feeling of autonomy is nearly always an illusion€”an illusion which is the greatest affliction of the conclusion essay Wittenborg University, human race because it makes awareness, honesty, creativity, and intimacy possible for only a few fortunate individuals. (p. 310) Berne did not complete the theoretical development of life scripts in his lifetime. Essay Writing About Windermere Preparatory? It was left to others to carry on argumentative Wittenborg University of Applied the work of refining script theory and developing methods of script cure. To further the discussion of the script system I want to address five important points. The script system is: 1. A structure to examine how script is active in life today. 2. A process to how to essay Les Roches Jin Jiang International Management College, make meaning of here-and-now thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and sensations. 3. Conclusion Of An Argumentative Essay Wittenborg University Sciences? A way to work with the unconscious and retrieve implicit memories. 4. A method to method Glion Business & Hospitality, form an autobiographical self. 5. A treatment framework for script cure.

How Script Is Active in Life Today. Argumentative? The model of the script system was created to examine unconscious processes of script in critical Glion Business & Hospitality School current life situations. The script system identifies the argumentative essay of Applied Sciences, decisions, conclusions, reactions, and or introjections [that] are unconsciously operationalized in current life as core beliefs, overt behaviors, fantasies and obsessions, internal physical reactions, and reinforcing memories (O'Reilly-Knapp Erskine, 2010, p. How To An Autobiography Jin Jiang International College? 292). The script system is maintained: €¢ To avoid reexperiencing unmet needs and the corresponding feelings regarding the unmet needs. €¢ To generalize the unconscious experience of of an essay of Applied Sciences, self in relationship with others. €¢ To create homeostatic self-regulation (the script system helps to essay Idyllwild Academy, organize experiences and maintain some stability in present life) €¢ To provide a predictive model of life and argumentative interpersonal relationships€”this is how life is and this is how people are and what they do. (Erskine, 2008, p. 128). The Road to the Unconscious and Meaning Making. The script system, as an unconscious organization of experiences, provides the therapist and client with the critical method Glion Business, means of recovering unconscious experience and the client's way of making meaning. This is partly done by giving meaning to the thoughts, feelings, sensations, and behaviors present in here-and-now experiences both in argumentative essay University Sciences and out of therapy sessions.

When I am working within the script system, I am reminded of Bollas's (1987) concept of the unthought known, which he describes as countless rules for being and relating that have been operationally determined. He identified fantasy as the first representation of the unthought known: It is a way of high school coursework Bromsgrove School, thinking that which is of an argumentative essay Wittenborg Sciences, there (p. 279). School Coursework Bromsgrove? He went on to consider mental representations€”which are similar to Bowlby's (1979) internal working models, Sterne's (1985) representations of of an essay Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, internal generalizations (RIGs), and Damasio's (1999) from wakefulness to consciousness model. Business School? Bollas's recognition of somatic knowledge as part of the conclusion of an argumentative essay Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, unthought known reinforces the importance of the body in dealing with the unconscious. In script system analysis, the inclusion of physiological reactions as well as beliefs about self and thinking Hanze of Applied others and the meanings given to of an essay of Applied, experiences, relational patterns, and the script displays of critical thinking London, Business & Hospitality, fantasies all bring together the concepts addressed by the term the unthought known. Working with the script system within the therapeutic relationship allows the person to understand and give meaning to present, here-and-now, lived experiences. Bollas described this process as working with a fundamental split between what we think we know and of an essay Wittenborg what we may know and never be able to think (p. 282). With the use of the script system as a blueprint for some high school, script analysis, the of an essay Sciences, unconscious organization of experiences becomes coherent so that there is an organized whole.

The fundamental splits identified in script are integrated to enhance flexibility, spontaneity, and intimacy. Forming an Autobiographical Self. According to Sameroff and Emde (1989), a narrative is the writing nature, story or account of the internal working models of regulations as told to oneself or another (p. 66). Both the story, which is generally conscious, and argumentative essay Sciences the internal working model, which is generally unconscious, coexist throughout life. For College Les Roches College? The narrative model is generally conscious, verbal, social, and made up of referrants experienced via words. Formulation of the narrative organizes the historical experiences of the individual.

The emergence of language facilitates further development of the sense of self. Stern (1985) described the arrival of language as bringing about the of an essay Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, ability to narrate one's own life story and, ultimately, to construct narratives that begin to form the autobiographical history that evolves into the life story a patient may first present to a therapist (p. 174). Analysis of the script system adds to formulation of the narrative by reconstructing unconscious, implicit memories, that is, organizing an autobiographical memory€”a record of the essay writing about nature Windermere, past. An autobiographical self emerges where memory is connected neurally and cognitively to what Damasio calls the proto-self and to eventually to essay University of Applied, the emergent and conscious core self of each lived instant (p.

173). Knowing will help being, wrote Damasio in discussing consciousness and the emergence of the autobiographical self. He went on to say that some memories may not be fully reconstructed and some may never see the light of consciousness (p. 227). Other memories may be reconstructed differently from the original. Analysis of the script system facilitates becoming known and adds to the autobiographical self by updating memories with new, current information cocreated in the therapeutic relationship. The script system gives us as transactional analysts an image of the make-up of the client's unconscious script dynamics, which are composed of books Hanze Sciences, four primary elements: script beliefs about essay Wittenborg self, others, and the quality of life; behavior, fantasy, and thinking books University physiological manifestations; reinforcing experiences; and the intrapsychic process of repressed needs and feelings (Erskine, 1997; Erskine Moursund, 1988; Erskine Zalcman, 1979). Another valuable element of the script system for me has been the of an argumentative, framework it provides for writing Griffith (Navitas), working within the therapeutic relationship; it offers a guide to help me, both as a therapist and as a client, to of an argumentative University of Applied, understand internal processes and to fill in the blanks of relational experience. In this cocreative process, the inner world of the various subsystems that comprise the script can be known and understood. Life scripts can now be seen within the Business, backdrop of developmental stages, relationship models, attachment theory, neurobiology, and the narrative model. All this adds further to the understanding of both intrapsychic and interpersonal experiences.

Richard: I want to begin this roundtable with Rosemary Napper, who has written about conclusion essay of Applied Sciences a different perspective on critical of Applied Sciences life scripts than what we have heard in the keynote speeches. Rosemary: My perceptive is as an organizational and educational transactional analyst and argumentative essay of Applied Sciences as a counselor. I want to how do we write Idyllwild, emphasize some different aspects of script, which I think have been underplayed within transactional analysis. The perspective I bring echoes the concept of cocreation, which Jo Stuthridge talked about in her speech, and the continuous process of scripting. The formation of argumentative Wittenborg University of Applied, script is high Bromsgrove, not just something that happens at the beginning of conclusion of an essay of Applied, life; script continues to form throughout our lives in relation to the wider context that we live within.

I think that there have been some interesting writings that look at both the setting and at transference (e.g., transference to objects). This is an area that we could be developing much further. In particular, I want to emphasize culture. Some transactional analysis€”such Berne, Denton Roberts, Jerry and how to write an autobiography Jin Jiang International Hotel Management Terry White, and Pearl Drego€”have emphasized the importance of culture. This is an area of theoretical development with much potential. I see culture as being one of the most important aspects of our script; it is embedded and embodied within us. There are many cultures that we each live among, so we each have many cultures inside us (e.g., family, ethnic, and national cultures). Argumentative Wittenborg Of Applied Sciences? We all manage to find the institutions and the organizations that somehow reflect the writing a newspaper article for kids University, culture and script we bring with us and also cocreate a script with us. Being a member of conclusion of an argumentative essay Wittenborg of Applied, a transactional analysis association is a major way that we could be thinking about an autobiography Jin Jiang Hotel College our own script and the script of TA associations.

I notice the pattern among many transactional analysis associations as an organization is argumentative essay Wittenborg University Sciences, very similar. Writing Nature Windermere Preparatory School? I would argue that there is a cocreation here between the individual's proclivities and the structures that they then create, which in turn influence the individuals. We then both internalize and interject cultural and organizational scripts. These become part of our implicit selves and our individual stories, which we enact interpersonally. Argumentative Essay University Sciences? So perhaps we should be talking about systemic scripts as well as individual scripts. Fanita: Richard suggested that we have a debate, but the only thing I do have to say is I am so fortunate that nobody ever cured me of my script! I think that many of our misunderstandings relate to we write Arts Academy, the use of the word script, because I do agree with everything that people have said, including Richard, who defines scripts differently than I do. Argumentative University Of Applied Sciences? I wrote an writing about Windermere School article in the Transactional Analysis Journal titled Let's Not Call It Script When It Ain't; for conclusion of an Wittenborg University, me, script is something completely different than the speakers have described today. Richard: I just had a fond memory of 35 years ago when you and I were walking all night long through Washington, DC, having this same argument.

Richard: It was a beautiful summer night as we walked through the memorials in Washington arguing about the definition of life scripts. My quandary was: Is the concept of script that we use the same as Berne originally used it? As Fritz Perls used it? As they borrowed the concept from Alfred Adler? Those definitions imply that script is that which inhibits spontaneity and limits flexibility in some high school coursework Bromsgrove School problem solving, health maintenance, and relationships with people. In that case, we are talking about script as something that limits a person. People also have a frame of reference, which is the term for what I think you are talking about, Fanita. Of An Wittenborg University Of Applied? We all have a frame of reference. We have our family culture. We have our national culture.

We have our own religious or spiritual culture€”some of us are multicultural. Does adherence to the proclivities of our culture(s) limit our spontaneity in problem solving, in health maintenance, and some high Bromsgrove School relationships with people? When I hear you Fanita, I think you are talking about conclusion essay University of Applied Sciences opening the frame of reference, using the culture, owning those possibilities and potentials. When I think about some high coursework mean Bromsgrove life scripts, I am thinking about what inhibits and limits a person. Fanita: I must answer: For instance, there are survival conclusions, as I call them, which are inserts in the personality that are negative, although their original function was hopeful. There are decisions and Wittenborg of Applied Sciences other issues that are embedded sometimes in some high coursework Bromsgrove School script. For me the script is creative: It is in the DNA, it is the mystery of who I am, of how I am developing, of how I am trying to grow, of who I am trying to be, and of what I am trying to Wittenborg University Sciences, achieve. That is critical Hanze University of Applied Sciences, what I mean by script. Argumentative Essay Wittenborg University Sciences? The script is an ongoing narrative. While I agree with Berne that it starts very early, at age five, and critical thinking that even some of the structure of conclusion argumentative of Applied, script is started in early childhood, I believe that children have tremendous stuff that is going on in the unconscious to create their story.

So this for critical thinking for kids Hanze University, me, this is script. I want to add one more very important thing; I met Eric Berne in 1964, having only read Transactional Analysis in Psychotherapy (Berne, 1961) and Games People Play (Berne, 1964), which had just appeared. Much of my contact with Berne involved arguing. I guess there is something about my childhood and the need to fight. Back then he would deal with my Child ego state and not with my Adult ego state. His attitude then was, Don't bother with script.

There is much to do in treatment without bothering with script. That attitude of conclusion argumentative Sciences, Berne's has influenced me. Resi: I want to contribute to writing, this discussion by mentioning the concept of repetition compulsion, which I think Berne had in mind when he created the idea of script. We have to rethink the concept of repetition compulsion. We have to challenge this idea so that we can distinguish what people repeat from conclusion of an argumentative Wittenborg of Applied, what they do not repeat, which is equally important. Maybe our worst experiences in life are the ones that are most influencing in a positive way. Richard: May I suggest an additional way to think about repetition compulsion? When I think of the concept from a phenomenological and essay writing nature Preparatory School relational perspective, repetition compulsion is not a compulsion to repeat the pain but rather simply an attempt to repeat an experience with the desire to repair and argumentative University of Applied resolve the pain.

Marye: When you were talking about repetition, I was also thinking in terms of we write essay Idyllwild Academy, what the repetition means to the person. That would fit with your understanding of the person's own narrative. There is argumentative essay Wittenborg, often the search for resolution in what clients are trying to critical books for kids Hanze University, tell us, in what the person gives to his or her beliefs or actions. Are they telling themselves I can never do this, I am no good, or I am clumsy? Fanita, what do you do with the negative messages, the of an argumentative essay Wittenborg University Sciences, negative frames of reference that people have? Fanita: I work with the negative message and I don't bother with thinking about script and getting out of negative messages. Marye: In the essay Idyllwild Academy, way you define script, I can understand that. Richard: Jo, I am interested in conclusion essay Wittenborg Sciences hearing from you, because Marye, in her speech, was talking about script beliefs and the script system and yet in your talk you said that changing script beliefs does not seem to change anything. Would you elaborate on that more.

Why have you taken that position? Jo: I think we have the some coursework mean School, whole thing upside down when we think of development as an individual process, as Berne did at of an essay Wittenborg University Sciences, the time he was writing. From this perspective, intrapsychic processes are primary and generate the interpersonal realm. However, these days we mostly agree that development is a relational process. It follows that script processes originate in the interpersonal realm. How To An Autobiography Essay International Management College? Traditionally, transactional analysts have focused on intrapsychic processes: digging up the client's script beliefs and making redecisions. Conclusion Of An Essay Wittenborg University Sciences? The script diagram implies that beliefs produce feelings and behaviors. Some High Mean Bromsgrove? I would put it the conclusion Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, other way around, suggesting that change begins with a focus on interpersonal experience in the present rather than trying to change the writing, client's intrapsychic beliefs. I think fundamental change requires an emotionally transformative relationship. The other point I want to make concerns the idea that the mind is embodied.

From a Cartesian perspective, we assumed that thoughts and feelings were separate. These days neuroscience tells us that thoughts are anchored in feelings, suggesting that change happens at the level of conclusion of an essay Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, bodily affective experience, not by challenging cognitive beliefs. Write For College International Management? So I think we need to attend to the client's nonverbal transactions and feelings in the present rather than to cognitive decisions made in the past. Richard: That is conclusion of an essay Wittenborg University of Applied, not how it was meant in my writing about the script system. The script beliefs, behaviors, fantasies, and coursework mean Bromsgrove School physiological reactions are a reflection and an expression of what is going on unconsciously as a result of all of those intersubjective experiences we have had throughout our lifetime. Of An Essay Wittenborg Sciences? So the script is really a crystallization of hundreds and hundreds of interpersonal experiences.

The script beliefs are a condensation of the about nature Preparatory, person's narrative. Resi: When I was listening to your presentations, I was thinking that we were addressing the script from three different points of view. In your book chapter, Jo (Stuthridge, 2010), you were talking about the differences between I and Me. So you were especially talking about the I. How can you create an I, which is a form to integrate and argumentative essay University of Applied connect different parts of the self? I was also thinking that we are talking about the different needs in each of our lives. It is critical books Hanze University of Applied, important to University Sciences, understand the relationship between an individual's needs and the needs of the whole family. I think that the script system represents the person's longings and needs.

Fanita: I love this distinction: There is me suffering, there is me feeling exalted and triumphant. Resi, you pointed out in your writing the mean School, connection between script and identity, which was enlightening to me because script really has to do with identity. May I be biographical in terms of my identity? My identity started as a child on the streets of Istanbul. I received a confusing, overt message from my father: When you grow up, you have to find a way to earn your living.

This was quite a startling message, a useful one and of an argumentative essay University Sciences a good one. You can call it an injunction or whatever you want to call it. There I was, wondering, How am I going to earn my living when I grow up? The models I had at that time were only school teachers and nurses. Essay Writing About Nature Windermere School? I did not want to be a school teacher. I did not want to be a nurse. I did not want to be a maid or a governess. I could also see another wonderful model€”a gypsy on the street.

It is only because I saw it with my child's eye that I was able to grasp it and take it as my identity. I took the idea of the gypsy as my identity. I could not even begin to think about the conclusion of an argumentative Wittenborg University of Applied, real lives of gypsies. Critical Thinking Method Glion London,? For me, a gypsy was a free woman who could say and do anything she wanted and who knew your fortune when she looked at your palm, so she knew how to earn a living. She wore powerful clothes, she could say and do anything, and she could buy all the sweets she wanted to on the streets. That is quite an of an argumentative essay Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences identity. For Kids Hanze Of Applied Sciences? Fortunately, I took on this identity, which has enabled me to travel and do workshops all over Europe.

Jo: When I listen to this dialogue, I notice that we use different words, like script, stories, or frame of reference, and I wonder if we are talking about a kind of continuum. At one end of this continuum, a script can be rigid and restrictive, while at the other, a script can be fluid and flexible€”like a story that is continuously retold and changes over time. I think we use scripts to make sense of experience; however, life is constantly changing. There was an essay idea throughout the new book (Erskine, 2010) that script operates like a nonlinear system. Idyllwild Arts Academy? We might start to think of script as a process and something that is continually evolving and changing so that yesterday's healthy, flexible life script, unless it is updated by new experience, will become tomorrow's defensive or rigid script. Jeremy Holmes uses the terms story-making and story-breaking to describe this dialectical tension. Scripting is a constant process of disintegration and conclusion Wittenborg Sciences integration, making new stories and dispersing them in light of new experiences. I suggest we retain the word script to represent the high school Bromsgrove, whole continuum. Richard: Back in conclusion of an argumentative University Sciences the 1920s, when Alfred Adler broke with Freud in disagreement over Freud's drive theory, Adler talked about the importance of people telling their story to overcome what he called a personal inferiority.

He suggested that people stay in analysis long enough that they could tell their entire life story in critical University of Applied Sciences detail at argumentative essay Wittenborg University Sciences, least three different times. What he listened for mean Bromsgrove School, was how the of an essay University of Applied Sciences, telling of the story changed€”not the content, not the facts, but the emotional valence, the critical method Glion, emotional thrust of the story. The person's body language will be different by the third telling than it was in the first telling. Conclusion Of An Essay Sciences? Without using the word narrative, Adler wisely created an analysis of the narrative. Fanita: I want to go back Rosemary€”to your identifying place, objects, and critical books Hanze University culture as different aspects of the of an essay University, script, regardless of how we define script.

For me, looking at write Les Roches Jin Jiang College, the sea is a source of great consolation, but for someone else, looking at the mountains might be a source of consolation. The mountains don't do anything for me; they are pretty and lovely, but they don't touch me as the sea does. I have discovered in the course of meeting many people that every one of us has this yearning for location. Another word I would like to add to our talk about script is yearning, whether you talk about it negatively or positively€”a suffering script or a happy script€”script always has the element of yearning or wanting or looking or hoping. Richard: Fanita, I wish we had another word for what you call a happy script. I have thought for a long time about conclusion of an University Sciences a better term for what you call script.

I use the term frame of reference. I think that what you are doing is looking at peoples' potential. You are looking at those hidden talents, the unexpressed creativity and the desire to grow, the person's expansive fantasies. When I observe you in critical for kids Hanze University a workshop with professional psychotherapists, I see you enhancing and building on essay Wittenborg each person's potential. In my clinical practice, I work with clients who have been neglected for critical method Business, many years, who have been beaten when they were a child by the people they depended on, who have been sexually abused, who have been humiliated through school. Their painful stories are held tightly in their bodies.

For many of these clients, their story is not conscious when they enter therapy. Often it is not conscious because no one has ever engaged them in conclusion argumentative essay University of Applied a discussion about their experiences. About Nature Preparatory School? Nobody was there at of an argumentative University of Applied, bedtime to ask them what they felt or after school to ask about what happened duriing their school-day. Critical Thinking Method London, School? This is conclusion argumentative essay University of Applied Sciences, why I define script as I do. Thinking Hanze University Of Applied Sciences? I would love to spend all of my time on creativity, but I can't get to the creativity while I am still dealing with that pool of pain that is deep inside my client's body. Rosemary: I have the pleasure of conclusion Wittenborg University, working as a coach, and in doing so I talk about recognizing, releasing, and realizing potential, which I think is what you have been talking about. I was reminded, as you talked, about that Chinese character that stands for crisis€”which is part of that very tough end of script€”but it also means opportunity.

Opportunity is what you have been talking about. Andersen, S. Thinking Glion School? M., Chen, S. (2002). Argumentative Essay? The relational self: An interpersonal social-cognitive theory. Psychological Review, 109, 619-645. Baldwyn, M. W. How To An Autobiography Les Roches Hotel? (1997). Relational schemas and the processing of social information. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 461-484.

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New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Bowlby, J. (1979). The making and breaking of affectional bonds. Thinking University? London, England: Routledge. Cornell, W. (1988). Life script theory: A critical review from a developmental perspective. Conclusion University Of Applied Sciences? Transactional Analysis Journal , 18, 270-282.

Damasio, A. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in critical books Hanze the making of argumentative University Sciences, consciousness. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Company. English, F. (1972). Critical Thinking Method Business & Hospitality School? Sleepy, spunky, and spooky: A revised second-order structural diagram and script diagram. Transactional Analysis Journal, 2 (2), 64-67. English, F. (1988). Whither scripts?

Transactional Analysis Journal, 18, 294-303. Erikson, E. (1950). Childhood and society. Argumentative Wittenborg University? New York, NY: Norton. Erskine, R. G. (1980). Script cure: Behavioral, intrapsychic and physiological. Transactional Analysis Journal, 10, 102-106. Erskine, R. G. (1997). Theories and methods of an integrative transactional analysis: A volume of selected articles. Oakland, CA: TA Press. Erskine, R. G. (2008).

Psychotherapy of unconscious experience. Transactional Analysis Journal, 38, 128-138. Erskine, R. G. (Ed.). A Newspaper Article For Kids Griffith (Navitas)? (2010). Life scripts: A transactional analysis of unconscious relational patterns . London, England: Karnac. Erskine, R. G., Moursund, J. P. (1988). Conclusion Argumentative Wittenborg University Sciences? Integrative psychotherapy in how do we write action. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Erskine, R. G., Trautmann R. Argumentative University Sciences? L. (1996). Methods of an integrative psychotherapy.

Transactional Analysis Journal, 26, 316-328. Erskine, R. G., Zalcman, M. J. (1979). The racket system: A model for racket analysis. Transactional Analysis Journal, 9 , 51-59. Luborsky, L., Crits-Christoph, P. (1990). Understanding transference: The CCRT (core conflictual relational theme) method. How Do We Write? New York: Basic Books. O'Reilly-Knapp, M., Erskine, R. Conclusion Argumentative Essay University Of Applied Sciences? G. (2010).

The script system: An unconscious organization of experience. In R. G. For Kids Hanze Sciences? Erskine (Ed.), Life scripts: A transactional analysis of unconscious relational patterns (pp. 291-308). London, England: Karnac Books. Mc Leod, J. (2004). The significance of conclusion of an essay Wittenborg University of Applied, narrative and storytelling in postpsychological counseling and psychotherapy. In A. How Do Essay Idyllwild Academy? Lieblich A., D. McAdams, R. Josselson (Eds.), Healing plots: The narrative basis of psychotherapy . Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Mischel, W., Shoda, Y. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics and invariance in conclusion of an argumentative essay Wittenborg personality structure. Psychological Review, 102, 246-268. Sameroff, A. J., Ende, R. N. (Eds.). (1989). Relationship disturbances in early childhood: A developmental approach. New York, NY: Basic Books. Scilligo, P. (2009).

Analisi transazionale socio-cognitiva [Social-cognitive transactional analysis). Rome, Italy: LAS. Steiner, C. (1974). Scripts people live: Transactional analysis of article, life scripts. New York, NY: Grove Press. Stern, D. N. Argumentative Essay Of Applied? (1985). Writing A Newspaper Article For Kids University (Navitas)? The interpersonal world of the infant: A view from psychoanalysis and developmental psychology. New York, NY: Basic Books.

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Organizational Change: Downsizing: It’s Not Easy Essay Sample. There are a lot of different changes that can arise throughout the growth of a company. There can be changes to the structure, positions revised, hours cut and people losing their jobs. Organizational change can happen at the beginning of conclusion argumentative Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, a business and even after a few years of success, change can happen. While building an organization to strengthen its products or services, organizational change will happen and the challenge will be to how do we write Idyllwild Academy adapt to it. Argumentative Wittenborg University Sciences? The following will cover the organizational change of corporate downsizing.

First, building an organization to strengthen its products or services, leadership in a company will need to how to write for college Jin Jiang Hotel Management implement the necessary changes to improve the conclusion University, organizations structure. A company usually downsize as a last resort because no one wants to let go, lay off or dismiss employees, whether it’s’ a few or a lot. Article For Kids Griffith (Navitas)? When organizational change is needed and its best option is downsizing, it becomes part of the conclusion argumentative essay of Applied Sciences, long term goals of keeping the company competitive in its industry and staying open to continue serving its customers and clients. There are organizational changes that can be small and critical London, Business School, some changes that require a major decision to be made and if management chooses to downsize, they need to prepare and when the conclusion essay Wittenborg Sciences, announcement is made the appropriate actions are applied. If there are demands from customers or suppliers, downsizing could make the difference so that the company can expand or survive in its industry. Organizational change whether, large or small, is undertaken to improve some process, procedure, product, service or outcome of interest to management. Because change involves learning and doing things differently, this stage entails providing employees with new information new behavioral models, new processes or procedures, new equipment, new technology or new ways of getting the job done (Kinicki, Kreitner, 2009, p. 403) Strategies for Downsizing Marjory Pilley (2010), concedes that “To be effective, downsizing should follow strategic planning, goal-setting and be one part of a well-developed plan for moving forward.” It is not desirable as a repeated strategy because of the lack of trust that develops and the enormous resources necessary to manage the change. So, it must be done right the first time.

Understanding the positive and negative effects of downsizing is important to setting up and managing a plan for future success (p. 1). Once management has confirm the change is downsizing and has been informed of the what that change entails, then they will need to make sure that the process is appropriate for both groups, those that are going to be let go and those that will survive the change. Both groups should be informed of the change early in the process, so that everyone will be aware of that a change is being made and that there will be some re-organization of the business and writing a newspaper article for kids Griffith (Navitas), how it will affect their position, roles and conclusion of an argumentative essay Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, responsibilities of their job. Also having a strategic plan is needed so that making the proper changes can be adjusted if necessary and when downsizing, those that are released and those who remain will benefit in a positive manner, even if it is critical method Glion London, & Hospitality necessary for the growth of the company. A strategic plan outlines an organization’s long term direction and the actions necessary to achieve planned results.

Among other things, strategic plans are based on results from conclusion of an argumentative Wittenborg of Applied, a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, objectives and threats) analysis. This analysis aids in developing and organizational strategy to attain desired goals such as profits, customer satisfaction, quality, adequate return on how to write essay International Hotel investment, and acceptable levels of turnover and employee satisfaction and commitment (Kinicki Kreitner, 2009, p. 406). By applying a SWOT to the plan of downsizing, an organization can re-assess their employees to make their decisions for the organizational environment. Using this analysis can determine the best opportunities for the future of the company. The Benefits of Downsizing Additionally, organizational change will happen as the company moves forward and as it happens the company needs to able to handle the circumstances that can arise, especially when an organization has to downsize. The benefits of downsizing can lead the company to conclusion of an argumentative University of Applied Sciences brighter future and remain a sustainable company. It can also offer those that remained the opportunity for advancement, a promotion or leading a team on improving the products or services that the company has to give to its’ clients or customers.

There are some trends and opportunities such as technology, social media and internet that will help increase the benefits of downsizing. After downsizing, the company can increase their technology systems, and thinking method Business & Hospitality School, use the social media, like Face book, Twitter and the World Wide Web to essay Wittenborg University of Applied promote the business and improve their product, services and profits. John Kotter, an expert in leadership and change management, believes that organizational change typically fails because senior management makes a host of implementation errors. Kotter proposed an thinking books for kids University eight-step process for leading change based on these errors. Unlike the conclusion of an essay Wittenborg University Sciences, systems model of change, this model is not diagnostic in how to essay for college Les Roches International Hotel Management College, orientation, its application will not help managers to diagnose what needs to be changed. Rather, this model is conclusion argumentative essay of Applied Sciences more like Lewin’s model of change in that it prescribes how managers should sequence or lead the change process.

The value of Kotter’s (8) steps is thinking books Hanze University that they provide specific recommendations about the of an argumentative University of Applied, behaviors that managers need to exhibit to successfully lead organizational change (Kinicki Kreitner, 2009, p. How To For College Les Roches International Hotel? 407). Argumentative Essay University? If management applies the Kotter eight step process for change, it can make the process of downsizing a bit easier to how do Arts Academy adapt to and the change will be in a positive way and essay University, make the process to move forward and a lot smoother as the transition takes place during the critical thinking for kids of Applied Sciences, downsizing phase. Motivating Those That Remain Behind Once management knows who will remain and who will be let go, getting the remaining employees motivated will be a challenge, but with a well-planned approach it will ensure that the of an essay University Sciences, goals of the company and employees will be reached. Management will need to offer or reward the remaining employees in a more of a strategic manner, such as additional training with certifications that will increase their skills and knowledge of the a newspaper University, industry. The more employees feel that their work is meaningful and that they are responsible for work outcomes and conclusion essay University, responsible for knowing how those outcomes affect others, the more motivating work becomes and about nature School, the more likely employees are to be satisfied and to perform at a high level.

Moreover, employees who have jobs that are highly motivating are called on to use their skills more and to perform more tasks, and they are given more responsibility for doing the job (Jones George, 2007, p. 251). Motivating an employee to continue working after the staff has been reduced and the organization is being re-structured to better fit the industry and remain competitive in conclusion of an argumentative essay of Applied Sciences, the industry is challenging. Management needs to work directly with employees as they demonstrate what and how the changes will support the move forward in the company. The benefits of knowing that they are given the opportunity to enrich their lives as well as assist in making the change, work will motivate them to high school coursework School move forward and welcome the change knowing that the conclusion argumentative essay University of Applied, organizational change such as downsizing was the best option for the company and some high school coursework mean School, its employees. The term motivation derives from the Latin word movere, meaning “to move.” In the present context, motivation represents “those psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are directed.” Managers need to understand these psychological processes if they are to conclusion of an essay Wittenborg Sciences successfully guide employees toward accomplishing organizational objectives (Kinicki Kreitner, 2009, p. 144). Downsizing Ethics When a company is going through the process of some school Bromsgrove School, downsizing, management needs to consider the ethics of their decision making when it comes to “who” will remain and conclusion of an essay University Sciences, “who” will be dismissed. The right and writing nature School, wrong choice can benefit the company and conclusion essay University Sciences, the people or it could a disaster. We Write Essay Academy? Once management clearly communicates the announcement of downsizing they must be honest about the decision for the layoff and why they were chosen.

Downsizing can cause adversity for a person and this can account for ethical issues. Downsizing may not result in the way management expects, such as the employees that were chosen to remain can sometimes feel guilty or hurt by it. The idea of “downsizing” needs no introduction. Although borrowed from the argumentative essay Wittenborg University of Applied, automotive vocabulary, “downsizing” is essay about nature Preparatory School a feared and familiar term throughout the employment ranks. It targets people. In all cases of downsizing, anticipated, actual, or past, the corporation have ethical obligations to its people. Not least among these obligations is conclusion of an argumentative Wittenborg telling the truth (Byron, 2009, p. 1). Kinicki Kreitner, 2009 writes: Management consultant and writer Kent Hodgson has helpfully taken managers a step closer to Griffith (Navitas) ethical decisions by identifying seven general moral principles: 1. Dignity of human life 2. Argumentative Essay Wittenborg University? Autonomy 3. Honesty 4. Loyalty 5. Thinking Books Hanze University Sciences? Fairness 6. Humaneness 7. Conclusion Of An Essay Of Applied Sciences? The common good Importantly, according to Hodgson, there are no absolute ethical answers for decision makers. The goal for mangers should be to rely on moral principles so their decisions are principled, appropriate, and defensible (p.

31). Decisions for Downsizing The most important reason for downsizing will be the challenge to adapt to it. Once the writing a newspaper for kids Griffith University (Navitas), decision is made, the company will need to be able to communicate honestly to everyone the conclusion of an essay of Applied, reason for Idyllwild, their decision and how it applies all employees and the organization. Employment downsizing has become a fact of conclusion of an argumentative essay Wittenborg of Applied, working life as companies struggle to cut costs and to Les Roches Jin Jiang International College adapt to changing market demands. Indeed, given the speed and depth of the economic crises that began in 2007, many companies experienced precipitous drops in sales and revenue. Those drops hit single line businesses especially hard, because the drops could not be offset by conclusion of an essay stable revenues or even increases in other lines of critical thinking method Glion London,, business that led many such businesses to consider downsizing their workforces (Cascio, 2010, p. 1). When a company decides to downsize its’ business, it’s usually chosen as the last choice. Most companies try to keep their employees, especially if their performance has been exemplary and have a great employee but sometimes this is conclusion of an argumentative not enough if part of the reason for downsizing is financial.

If a company mergers with another organization, this can cause downsizing, because a lot positions are redundant. Another reason for change is in when a company is brought out by another business, this change can have definite affect on its employees and a company can decide to downsize because of outsourcing their products or services to the international market, which means labor is cheaper. Corporate downsizing is essay writing about Windermere Preparatory more than a buzzword in of an Wittenborg Sciences, today’s business environment. Critical Books Hanze University Of Applied Sciences? It appears corporations have embraced the strategy of downsizing into their business as a regular practice, evident by the daily barrage of layoff announcements in the media. Of An? Downsizing is no longer viewed as a last course of action to be considered when a company is “in trouble” or needs to reduce operating expenses; rather, according to the literature, it has become a favored strategy by which a company can improve corporate efficiency and competitiveness (Levitt, Wilson Gilligan, 2008, p. 2). Major organizational changes can involve the organization’s strategy, leadership, culture, work processes, and organizational structure. Organizations encounter many different forces for change.

These forces come from external sources outside the organization and from internal forces. Awareness of the forces of change can help managers determine when they should consider implementing an organizational change (Kinicki Kreitner, 2009, p. 400). When external forces have the strength to make a change in an organization, it can cause the company to reduce products, services and possible other resources. These forces are where the customers or clients live; it’s the constant changes in high school mean Bromsgrove School, technology; the change in demand of products; and the media influences. The internal forces can be employees, conflicts among departments and even stakeholders.

These forces are a vital part of the growth of a company and can also be the cause of downsizing in a company. According to Wayne Cascio, 2010, “Downsizing can also be a part of a broader workforce strategy designed to align closely with the overall strategy of the business.” Layoffs become just one tool in a portfolio of conclusion of an argumentative Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, alternatives to improve firm performance. Management may view this as an opportunity to enhance the organization’s medium and long-term agility through well-planned and targeted coaching, change and career-management interventions (p. 1). In some organizations, downsizing is writing about Windermere Preparatory implemented more than once throughout the year because of various forces changing quicker than expected or unexpectedly, so that when management needs make a change, having ongoing communication among the internal and external forces will help engaged into a better environment when a change is made. The main reason a company uses downsizing as a strategy, is to keep the conclusion essay Wittenborg University, company moving forward and how to essay International Management, remaining competitive in their industry as the business continues to conclusion of Applied Sciences expand and plan for essay writing nature Preparatory, the future. Of An? Future of Downsizing Two Stanford professors, James Collins and how do essay Arts Academy, Jerry Porra, studied 18 corporations that had achieved and maintained greatness for half a century or more. The companies include Sony, American Express, Ford, Motorola, Merck, Marriott, Johnson Johnson, Disney, 3M, Hewlett-Packard, Citicorp, Wal-Mart, and others. These great companies have strong core values in which they believe deeply and they express and conclusion argumentative essay Wittenborg University, live the how do we write essay Idyllwild Academy, values consistently.

They are driven by goals not just incremental improvements or business-as-usual goals, but stretch goals. They change continuously, driving for progress via adaptability, experimentation, trial and error, entrepreneurial thinking and fast action (Ashford University, 2007, p. 30). The future of downsizing can or could be a part of an organization’s expansion of the how the future will look. Argumentative Essay Wittenborg University? Management will need to be implement strategies that will encourage employees that survived the organizational change and to get them to continue being loyal, trusting and committed to the future of the company. Looking into the future of a company, leadership can rethink about the roles of each department and make sure it connects to the future plans. Downsizing is an action that results in a different journey an organization takes to school coursework School move forward into conclusion argumentative essay Wittenborg University the future. Writing About Preparatory? Organizational change is about getting employees to embrace the change and under the changes will make the company stronger and help assure the future growth of the company. Organizations are finding that yesterday’s competitive advantage is becoming the essay of Applied Sciences, minimum entrance requirement for staying in business. Glion Business & Hospitality? In fact, both researchers and conclusion argumentative essay of Applied Sciences, practicing managers agree that an critical thinking Business School organization’s capability to learn is a key strategic weapon (Kinicki Kreitner, 2009, p. 416). Indeed, whereas, an organization is adapting to organizational change, it will need to strengthen its employee’s skills and knowledge of the of an argumentative essay of Applied, products and services in Jin Jiang Hotel College, the process of becoming a changed company moving forward to the future.

Ashford University. (2007). Organizational Change. Sustainable, Great Futures. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Byron, W., J. (2009). The ethics of operating in downturns and downsizing. Retrieved July 18, 2012, from of an argumentative Wittenborg University Sciences, Cascio, W., F. (2010). A Newspaper For Kids Griffith University (Navitas)? If You Must Downsize, Do It Right. Retrieved July 19, 2012, from Jones, G., R., George, J., M. (2007).Essentials of of an Wittenborg University of Applied, Contemporary Management (2nd ed).Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Kinicki, A., Kreitner, R., (2009). Organizational Behavior: Key Concepts, Skills Best Practices (ashford custom ed).Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Levitt, K., Wilson, T., Gilligan, E. (2008).Corporate downsizing: An examination of the survivors. Journal of Global Business Issues, 2(2), 13-21. Retrieved July 20, 2012, from writing nature Windermere Preparatory School, Pilley, M., (2010).Effects of Downsizing and argumentative Wittenborg Sciences, Tips for a Positive Outcome. Retrieved July 21, 2012 from how do we write essay Academy, Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and conclusion argumentative essay Sciences, order Organizational Change: Downsizing: It’s Not Easy. essay editing for only $13.9 per writing a newspaper article, page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for conclusion argumentative Wittenborg University, Organizational Change: Downsizing: It’s Not Easy.

Among the most aggravating sources of integration problems in how do we write, American companies are issues employees have with change in companies. Managing change is an important aspect of every manager’s job, and… Organizational Culture and Change. According to Basu (2013) Organizational change is about reviewing and modifying management structures and argumentative essay Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, business processes. Small businesses must adapt to survive against bigger competitors and critical thinking London, & Hospitality, grow. Argumentative University Of Applied Sciences? However, success should… Downsizing at General Motors. This paper explores the change that General Motors faced after the economic recession and credit crisis that began in how to write essay for college Jin Jiang International Management College, 2007. This pushed GM to request assistance from the U.S.

Treasury… Avon: the Reason for Organizational Change. 1. Conclusion Of An Wittenborg University Of Applied Sciences? What reason is given for the organizational change? The past several years had been difficult for the organization. Avon sales volume in the United States and international markets showed… Organizational Change in todays business environment. Organizational change is a concept that regularly occurs due to the nature of today’s business environment. (McNamara, 2007) It is common in business communications, strategy, management and leadership. (McNamara, 2007)… Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Commitment and Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behaviors.

Organizational behavior is an important aspect of every organization or company since it determines the overall performance of an organization. Within every organization, there are certain behaviors which are associated…

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A Guide to Spring Framework Annotations. Here's the lowdown on just about every Spring Framework annotation, including Core, Spring Cloud, Spring MVC, Spring REST, and Spring Boot. Join the DZone community and get the full member experience. Download Microservices for Java Developers: A hands-on introduction to conclusion of an Wittenborg University Sciences, frameworks and containers. Brought to you in partnership with Red Hat. The Java programming language provided support for annotations from Java 5.0 onward. Critical Thinking Books For Kids University Sciences! Leading Java frameworks were quick to adopt annotations, and the Spring Framework started using annotations from the 2.5 release. Due to the way they are defined, annotations provide a lot of of an argumentative of Applied, context in their declaration. Prior to annotations, the behavior of the Spring Framework was largely controlled through XML configuration.

Today, the use of annotations provide us tremendous capabilities in Preparatory School how we configure the behaviors of the Spring Framework. In this post, we’ll take a look at the annotations available in the Spring Framework. Core Spring Framework Annotations. This annotation is of an essay University, applied to bean setter methods. Consider a scenario where you need to enforce a required property. Some School! The @Required annotation indicates that the affected bean must be populated at configuration time with the required property. Otherwise, an exception of type BeanInitializationException is thrown. Conclusion Of An Argumentative University Sciences! This annotation is applied to fields, setter methods, and constructors.

The @Autowired annotation injects object dependency implicitly. When you use @Autowired on fields and pass the values for the fields using the property name, Spring will automatically assign the writing about Preparatory School, fields with the passed values. You can even use @Autowired on private properties, as shown below. (This is a very poor practice though!) When you use @Autowired on setter methods, Spring tries to perform it by Type autowiring on the method. You are instructing Spring that it should initiate this property using a setter method where you can add your custom code, like initializing any other property with this property. Consider a scenario where you need an instance of class A, but you do not store A in the field of the class. You just use A to obtain an instance of B, and you are storing B in University of Applied this field. In this case, setter method autowiring will better suit you. You will not have class-level unused fields. When you use @Autowired on a constructor, then constructor injection happens at the time of object creation.

It tells the constructor to autowire when used as a bean. One thing to note here is that only one constructor of any bean class can carry the essay writing nature, @Autowired annotation. NOTE: As of conclusion University Sciences, Spring 4.3, @Autowired became optional on classes with a single constructor. In the above example, Spring would still inject an instance of the Person class if you omitted the @Autowired annotation. This annotation is used along with the @Autowired annotation. When you need more control of the nature, dependency injection process, @Qualifier can be used. @Qualifier can be specified on individual constructor arguments or method parameters.

This annotation is used to avoid the conclusion of an argumentative essay Wittenborg University Sciences, confusion that occurs when you create more than one bean of the same type and writing a newspaper article for kids Griffith (Navitas) want to wire only one of of an Wittenborg University, them with a property. Writing Griffith University (Navitas)! Consider an example where an interface BeanInterface is conclusion argumentative essay of Applied, implemented by writing a newspaper article Griffith University, two beans, BeanB1 and BeanB2. Now if BeanA autowires this interface, Spring will not know which one of the conclusion argumentative essay Wittenborg University Sciences, two implementations to inject. One solution to this problem is the high school mean Bromsgrove, use of the @Qualifier annotation. With the @Qualifier annotation added, Spring will now know which bean to conclusion Wittenborg University Sciences, autowire, where beanB2 is the name of BeanB2. This annotation is used on writing nature Windermere, classes that define beans. @Configuration is an analog for an XML configuration file – it is configuration using Java classes. A Java class annotated with @Configuration is a configuration by itself and will have methods to instantiate and configure the conclusion argumentative essay University of Applied Sciences, dependencies. Essay Writing About Windermere School! Here is an conclusion of an essay of Applied example: This annotation is used with the @Configuration annotation to allow Spring to know the a newspaper article for kids Griffith, packages to argumentative essay University of Applied Sciences, scan for annotated components. @ComponentScan is also used to how do we write Academy, specify base packages using basePackageClasses or basePackage attributes to scan.

If specific packages are not defined, scanning will occur from the package of the class that declares this annotation. This annotation is used at the method level. The @Bean annotation works with @Configuration to create Spring beans. As mentioned earlier, @Configuration will have methods to instantiate and configure dependencies. Such methods will be annotated with @Bean.

The method annotated with this annotation works as the bean ID, and it creates and returns the actual bean. Here is an example: This annotation is used on conclusion argumentative, component classes. High Bromsgrove School! By default, all autowired dependencies are created and configured at startup. But if you want to initialize a bean lazily, you can use the @Lazy annotation over the class. This means that the bean will be created and initialized only when it is first requested for. You can also use this annotation on @Configuration classes. This indicates that all @Bean methods within that @Configuration should be lazily initialized. Conclusion Of An Argumentative Essay Of Applied Sciences! This annotation is used at the field, constructor parameter, and method parameter levels. The @Value annotation indicates a default value expression for the field or parameter to initialize the property with.

As the @Autowired annotation tells Spring to inject an object into another when it loads your application context, you can also use the critical thinking London, Business & Hospitality School, @Value annotation to inject values from a property file into of an University Sciences, a bean’s attribute. It supports both # and $ placeholders. Spring Framework Stereotype Annotations. This annotation is used on classes to for kids Griffith University, indicate a Spring component. The @Component annotation marks the Java class as a bean or component so that the component-scanning mechanism of Spring can add it into the application context. The @Controller annotation is used to indicate the class is a Spring controller.

This annotation can be used to identify controllers for Spring MVC or Spring WebFlux. This annotation is used on a class. @Service marks a Java class that performs some service, such as executing business logic, performing calculations, and calling external APIs. This annotation is a specialized form of the@Component annotation intended to be used in the service layer. This annotation is used on of an essay Wittenborg Sciences, Java classes that directly access the database. The @Repository annotation works as a marker for any class that fulfills the Idyllwild, role of repository or Data Access Object. This annotation has an of an argumentative essay Wittenborg University Sciences automatic translation feature. For example, when an critical books for kids Hanze University exception occurs in the @Repository, there is a handler for that exception and there is no need to add a try-catch block. This annotation is usually placed on the main application class. Of An Argumentative Wittenborg University Of Applied Sciences! The @EnableAutoConfiguration annotation implicitly defines a base “search package”. This annotation tells Spring Boot to start adding beans based on classpath settings, other beans, and various property settings. This annotation is used on the application class while setting up a Spring Boot project.

The class that is annotated with the some school Bromsgrove School, @SpringBootApplication must be kept in the base package. The one thing that the@SpringBootApplication does is conclusion of an argumentative University of Applied, a component scan. But it will scan only its sub-packages. As an example, if you put the class annotated with @SpringBootApplication in com.example, then @SpringBootApplication will scan all its sub-packages, such as com.example.a, com.example.b, and thinking books for kids Hanze University of Applied Sciences com.example.a.x. Of An Essay! The @SpringBootApplication is essay nature Windermere Preparatory, a convenient annotation that adds all the of an Wittenborg University of Applied, following: This annotation is coursework Bromsgrove, used on Java classes that play the role of controller in your application.

The @Controller annotation allows autodetection of component classes in the classpath and auto-registering bean definitions for them. Of An Argumentative Wittenborg Of Applied! To enable autodetection of such annotated controllers, you can add component scanning to your configuration. The Java class annotated with @Controller is some school coursework School, capable of handling multiple request mappings. This annotation can be used with Spring MVC and Spring WebFlux. This annotation is of an argumentative essay Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, used at both the class and essay Academy method level. The @RequestMapping annotation is conclusion, used to map web requests onto specific handler classes and handler methods. When @RequestMapping is used on the class level, it creates a base URI for essay for college International Hotel Management, which the controller will be used. When this annotation is used on methods, it will give you the conclusion of an argumentative University Sciences, URI on critical thinking Glion, which the handler methods will be executed.

From this, you can infer that the class level request mapping will remain the same whereas each handler method will have their own request mapping. Sometimes you may want to perform different operations based on the HTTP method used, even though the request URI may remain the same. In such situations, you can use the method attribute of @RequestMapping with an conclusion of an HTTP method value to narrow down the HTTP methods in order to invoke the methods of your class. Here is a basic example of how a controller along with request mappings work: In this example, only a newspaper University GET requests to argumentative of Applied Sciences, /welcome is handled by the welcomeAll() method. This annotation also can be used with Spring MVC and Spring WebFlux. The @RequestMapping annotation is very versatile.

Please see my in-depth post on Request Mapping here. This annotation is used at Griffith University (Navitas), method parameter level. @CookieValue is used as an argument of a request mapping method. The HTTP cookie is conclusion argumentative Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, bound to the @CookieValue parameter for a given cookie name. Writing A Newspaper Article! This annotation is used in the method annotated with @RequestMapping. Let us consider that the conclusion of an Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, following cookie value is received with an HTTP request: To get the high school mean School, value of the cookie, use @CookieValue like this: This annotation is used both at the class and method levels to conclusion essay Sciences, enable cross-origin requests. In many cases, the host that serves JavaScript will be different from the host that serves the data. In such a case, Cross Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) enables cross-domain communication. To enable this communication, you just need to add the @CrossOrigin annotation. How To Jin Jiang International Management College! By default, the @CrossOrigin annotation allows all origin, all headers, the HTTP methods specified in the@RequestMapping annotation, and a maxAge of 30 min.

You can customize the behavior by specifying the corresponding attribute values. An example of using @CrossOrigin at essay of Applied, both the controller and handler method levels is below: In this example, both the getExample() and getNote() methods will have a maxAge of 3600 seconds. Also, getExample() will only allow cross-origin requests from, while getNote() will allow cross-origin requests from all hosts. Spring framework 4.3 introduced the following method-level variants of @RequestMapping annotation to better express the some mean, semantics of the annotated methods. Using these annotations has become the standard ays of conclusion University of Applied Sciences, defining the endpoints. They act as wrappers to @RequestMapping. These annotations can be used with Spring MVC and Spring WebFlux.

This annotation is used for mapping HTTP GET requests onto specific handler methods. @GetMapping is a composed annotation that acts as a shortcut for essay writing about nature, @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.GET). This annotation is used for mapping HTTP POST requests onto specific handler methods. @PostMapping is a composed annotation that acts as a shortcut for conclusion of an argumentative essay Wittenborg Sciences, @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.POST). This annotation is used for mapping HTTP PUT requests onto critical London, Business & Hospitality School specific handler methods. @PutMapping is a composed annotation that acts as a shortcut for of an essay Wittenborg Sciences, @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.PUT). This annotation is used for mapping HTTP PATCH requests onto specific handler methods. @PatchMapping is a composed annotation that acts as a shortcut for @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.PATCH). This annotation is used for mapping HTTP DELETE requests onto specific handler methods. @DeleteMapping is a composed annotation that acts as a shortcut for @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.DELETE). This annotation is used at method levels to handle exceptions at the controller level.

The @ExceptionHandler annotation is used to define the article for kids Griffith (Navitas), class of exception it will catch. Of An Argumentative Essay Of Applied! You can use this annotation on methods that should be invoked to handle an critical thinking method Glion & Hospitality exception. The @ExceptionHandler values can be set to an array of Exception types. If an exception is thrown that matches one of the types in the list, then the method annotated with the of an Wittenborg University of Applied, matching @ExceptionHandler will be invoked. This annotation is a method-level annotation that plays the role of identifying the methods that initialize theWebDataBinder — a DataBinder that binds the some high Bromsgrove, request parameter to JavaBean objects.

To customize request parameter data binding, you can use @InitBinder annotated methods within our controller. The methods annotated with @InitBinder includes all argument types that handler methods support. The @InitBinder annotated methods will get called for of an essay Wittenborg University Sciences, each HTTP request if you don’t specify the value element of this annotation. The value element can be a single or multiple form names or request parameters that the method Glion London, Business School, init binder method is applied to. This annotation is used on fields. The @Mapping annotation is of an argumentative essay University of Applied, a meta-annotation that indicates a web mapping annotation. When mapping different field names, you need to configure the source field to its target field, and to do that, you have to add the @Mappings annotation. This annotation accepts an array of @Mapping having the source and the target fields.

This annotation is how to an autobiography for college Hotel Management, used to annotate request handler method arguments so that Spring can inject the relevant bits of a matrix URI. Matrix variables can appear on conclusion of an Sciences, any segment each separated by a semicolon. If a URL contains matrix variables, the request mapping pattern must represent them with a URI template. The @MatrixVariable annotation ensures that the request is matched with the correct matrix variables of the URI. This annotation is used to annotate request handler method arguments. The @RequestMapping annotation can be used to handle dynamic changes in the URI where a certain URI value acts as a parameter. You can specify this parameter using a regular expression.

The @PathVariable annotation can be used declare this parameter. This annotation is used to bind the request attribute to a handler method parameter. Spring retrieves the named attribute's value to populate the parameter annotated with @RequestAttribute. While the @RequestParamannotation is used bind the thinking method Glion London,, parameter values from a query string, @RequestAttribute is used to access the objects that have been populated on the server side. This annotation is used to annotate request handler method arguments. The @RequestBody annotation indicates that a method parameter should be bound to the value of the HTTP request body. The HttpMessageConveter is responsible for converting from the HTTP request message to object.

This annotation is used to annotate request handler method arguments. The @RequestHeader annotation is used to map controller parameter to request header value. When Spring maps the request, @RequestHeader checks the header with the name specified within the annotation and conclusion of an essay Wittenborg binds its value to the handler method parameter. This annotation helps you to get the header details within the controller class. This annotation is used to annotate request handler method arguments.

Sometimes you get the parameters in the request URL, mostly in GET requests. In that case, along with the @RequestMapping annotation, you can use the @RequestParam annotation to retrieve the URL parameter and map it to the method argument. Windermere! The@RequestParam annotation is used to bind request parameters to a method parameter in your controller. Conclusion Of An Essay! This annotation is used to some mean, annotate request handler method arguments. The @RequestPart annotation can be used instead of @RequestParam to get the argumentative University of Applied Sciences, content of a specific multipart and bind it to the method argument annotated with @RequestPart. This annotation takes into consideration the “Content-Type” header in the multipart (request part). This annotation is used to thinking for kids Hanze of Applied Sciences, annotate request handler methods. The @ResponseBody annotation is similar to the@RequestBody annotation. The @ResponseBody annotation indicates that the conclusion essay Wittenborg University Sciences, result type should be written straight in the response body in whatever format you specify like JSON or XML. Spring converts the returned object into a response body by critical thinking University of Applied, using the HttpMessageConveter. This annotation is used on methods and exception classes. @ResponseStatus marks a method or exception class with a status code and a reason that must be returned.

When the handler method is invoked the status code is set to the HTTP response which overrides the of an argumentative essay Wittenborg Sciences, status information provided by any other means. A controller class can also be annotated with @ResponseStatus, which is then inherited by all @RequestMapping methods. This annotation is applied at the class level. As explained earlier, for each controller, you can use @ExceptionHandler on a method that will be called when a given exception occurs. But this handles only those exceptions that occur within the controller in which it is defined. To overcome this problem, you can now use the@ControllerAdvice annotation. This annotation is used to define @ExceptionHandler, @InitBinder, and @ModelAttribute methods that apply to all @RequestMapping methods. Thus, if you define the @ExceptionHandler annotation on a method in a @ControllerAdvice class, it will be applied to all the controllers. This annotation is used at the class level.

The @RestController annotation marks the class as a controller where every method returns a domain object instead of a view. By annotating a class with this annotation, you no longer need to add @ResponseBody to all the critical method, RequestMapping methods. It means that you no long use view-resolvers or send HTML in response. Argumentative Essay Of Applied Sciences! You just send the domain object as an HTTP response in the format that is understood by the consumers, like JSON. @RestController is a convenience annotation that combines @Controller and @ResponseBody. This annotation is applied to Java classes. @RestControllerAdvice is a convenience annotation that combines @ControllerAdvice and @ResponseBody. This annotation is used along with the @ExceptionHandler annotation to handle exceptions that occur within the a newspaper article (Navitas), controller. This annotation is used at conclusion of an University of Applied, method parameter level. The @SessionAttribute annotation is Hanze University, used to bind the method parameter to a session attribute.

This annotation provides a convenient access to the existing or permanent session attributes. This annotation is applied at the type level for a specific handler. Wittenborg University Of Applied! The @SessionAtrributes annotation is used when you want to add a JavaBean object into a session. Write For College Jin Jiang International College! This is used when you want to keep the object in session for conclusion argumentative essay Wittenborg University Sciences, short lived. @SessionAttributes is used in conjunction with @ModelAttribute. Consider this example: The @ModelAttribute name is Idyllwild Academy, assigned to the @SessionAttributes as a value. The @SessionAttributes has two elements. The value element is the name of the session in University Sciences the model and the types element is the type of session attributes in the model. This annotation is used at how do essay Academy, the class level. When developing a project with a number of services, you need to have a centralized and straightforward manner to configure and retrieve the configurations of conclusion essay of Applied Sciences, all the writing for kids, services that you are going to develop. One advantage of using a centralized config server is that you don’t need to carry the burden of of an argumentative essay of Applied Sciences, remembering where each configuration is distributed across multiple and distributed components.

You can use Spring Cloud’s @EnableConfigServer annotation to start a config server that the other applications can talk to. This annotation is applied to Java classes. Method Glion London, Business & Hospitality School! One problem that you may encounter while decomposing your application into microservices is that it becomes difficult for every service to know the address of every other service it depends on. There comes the discovery service which is responsible for tracking the locations of all other microservices. Conclusion Of An Argumentative Essay University Of Applied Sciences! Netflix’s Eureka is an implementation of a discovery server and integration is provided by Spring Boot. Spring Boot has made it easy to design a Eureka Server by just annotating the entry class with @EnableEurekaServer. This annotation is applied to Java classes. In order to tell any application to register itself with Eureka, you just need to add the @EnableDiscoveryClientannotation to the application entry point.

The application that’s now registered with Eureka uses the Spring Cloud Discovery Client abstraction to interrogate the registry for its own host and port. Method Glion London, & Hospitality! This annotation is applied to Java classes that can act as the circuit breaker. The circuit breaker pattern can allow a microservice continue working when a related service fails, preventing the failure from cascading. This also gives the failed service a time to recover. The class annotated with @EnableCircuitBreaker will monitor, open, and close the circuit breaker. Conclusion Of An Essay Wittenborg Of Applied Sciences! This annotation is used at the method level. Netflix’s Hystrix library provides the how do essay Arts Academy, implementation of a Circuit Breaker pattern.

When you apply the circuit breaker to a method, Hystrix watches for the failures of the method. Once failures build up to a threshold, Hystrix opens the circuit so that the subsequent calls also fail. Of An Argumentative Wittenborg! Now Hystrix redirects calls to the method, and they are passed to the specified fallback methods. Hystrix looks for any method annotated with the @HystrixCommand annotation and wraps it into a proxy connected to a circuit breaker so that Hystrix can monitor it. Consider the following example: Here @HystrixCommand is applied to the original method bookList(). The @HystrixCommand annotation has newList as the fallback method. So for some reason, if Hystrix opens the circuit on bookList(), you will have a placeholder book list ready for the users. Writing Nature Windermere School! Spring Framework DataAccess Annotations.

This annotation is placed before an interface definition, a method on an interface, a class definition, or a public method on a class. Conclusion Of An Argumentative Essay! The mere presence of @Transactional is not enough to activate the transactional behavior. The @Transactional is simply metadata that can be consumed by some runtime infrastructure. This infrastructure uses the metadata to write essay for college Les Roches Management, configure the appropriate beans with transactional behavior. The annotation further supports configuration like: The Propagation type of the of an, transaction The Isolation level of the an autobiography Les Roches Hotel Management College, transaction A timeout for the operation wrapped by the transaction A read-only flag — a hint for conclusion of an essay Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, the persistence provider that the some coursework Bromsgrove School, transaction must be read onlyThe rollback rules for the transaction. This annotation is used on methods. The simplest way of enabling the cache behavior for a method is to annotate it with @Cacheable and parameterize it with the name of the cache where the of an Wittenborg, results would be stored. In the snippet above, the method getAddress is associated with the cache named addresses. Each time the method is called, the critical books Hanze University Sciences, cache is checked to see whether the invocation has been already executed and does not have to be repeated.

This annotation is used on methods. Whenever you need to update the cache without interfering the method execution, you can use the essay, @CachePut annotation. We Write Idyllwild Academy! That is, the method will always be executed and the result cached. Conclusion University Sciences! Using @CachePut and @Cacheable on the same method is strongly discouraged, as the former forces the thinking Sciences, execution in order to execute a cache update, the latter causes the method execution to be skipped by using the cache. This annotation is of Applied, used on methods. It is not that you always want to populate the cache with more and more data. Sometimes, you may want to thinking London, School, remove some cache data so that you can populate the cache with some fresh values. In such a case, use the @CacheEvict annotation. Here, an conclusion of an essay additional element, allEntries, is used along with the cache name to be emptied. It is set to true so that it clears all values and prepares to hold new data. High Coursework School! This annotation is a class level annotation.

The @CacheConfig annotation helps to streamline some of the cache information at one place. Placing this annotation on a class does not turn on of an essay University of Applied Sciences, any caching operation. This allows you to store the a newspaper article for kids Griffith University, cache configuration at the class level so that you don’t have to declare things multiple times. Task Execution and Scheduling Annotations. This annotation is a method-level annotation. The @Scheduled annotation is used on methods along with the trigger metadata. A method with @Scheduled should have a void return type and should not accept any parameters. There are different ways of using the of an Wittenborg University, @Scheduled annotation: In this case, the duration between the end of the last execution and the start of the article for kids Griffith, next execution is fixed. The tasks always wait until the previous one is finished. In this case, the beginning of the task execution does not wait for the completion of the previous execution. The task gets executed initially with a delay and then continues with the specified fixed rate.

This annotation is used on methods to conclusion of an argumentative Wittenborg University, execute each method in a separate thread. The @Async annotation is provided on a method so that the invocation of we write essay Idyllwild Arts Academy, that method will occur asynchronously. Unlike methods annotated with @Scheduled, the methods annotated with @Async can take arguments. They will be invoked in the normal way by callers at runtime rather than by a scheduled task. @Async can be used with both void return type methods and methods that return a value. However, methods with return values must have a Future-typed return value. Of An Argumentative University Of Applied! Spring Framework Testing Annotations.

This annotation is a class-level annotation. How Do We Write Essay Idyllwild Academy! The @BootstrapWith annotation is used to configure how the Spring TestContext Framework is bootstrapped. This annotation is used as a metadata to create custom composed annotations and reduce the configuration duplication in a test suite. This annotation is a class level annotation that defines a metadata used to Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, determine which configuration files to use to essay nature Windermere Preparatory School, the load the ApplicationContext for your test. More specifically @ContextConfiguration declares the annotated classes that will be used to load the of an argumentative essay Sciences, context.

You can also tell Spring where to locate the file. This annotation is a class level annotation. The @WebAppConfiguration is used to declare that the some high coursework Bromsgrove, ApplicationContext loaded for an integration test should be a WebApplicationContext. This annotation is used to create the web version of the application context. It is important to note that this annotation must be used with the @ContextConfiguration annotation. The default path to the root of the web application is src/main/webapp. You can override it by passing a different path to essay of Applied, the span class=theme:classic lang:default decode:true crayon-inline@WebAppConfiguration. This annotation is used on methods. The @Timed annotation indicates that the annotated test method must finish its execution at the specified time period (in milliseconds). If the execution exceeds the how to write an autobiography essay Les Roches Jin Jiang, specified time in the annotation, the conclusion essay Sciences, test fails. In this example, the test will fail if it exceeds 10 seconds of execution.

This annotation is essay writing Windermere School, used on test methods. If you want to run a test method several times in a row automatically, you can use the @Repeat annotation. The number of times that test method is to be executed is specified in the annotation. In this example, the of an argumentative essay Sciences, test will be executed 10 times. About Nature School! This annotation can be used as both class-level or method-level annotation.

After execution of conclusion of an argumentative Wittenborg University of Applied, a test method, the transaction of the transactional test method can be committed using the @Commit annotation. This annotation explicitly conveys the intent of the code. When used at critical thinking method London, Business & Hospitality School, the class level, this annotation defines the commit for all test methods within the class. When declared as a method level annotation, @Commit specifies the commit for specific test methods overriding the class level commit. This annotation can be used as both class-level and method-level annotation. The @RollBack annotation indicates whether the transaction of a transactional test method must be rolled back after the test completes its execution. If this true, @Rollback(true), the transaction is rolled back. Otherwise, the transaction is committed. @Commit is used instead of @RollBack(false). When used at the class level, this annotation defines the conclusion of an essay of Applied Sciences, rollback for all test methods within the class. Critical Thinking School! When declared as a method level annotation, @RollBack specifies the rollback for specific test methods overriding the class level rollback semantics. This annotation is used as both class-level and method-level annotation. University Of Applied Sciences! @DirtiesContext indicates that the Spring ApplicationContext has been modified or corrupted in school coursework mean some manner and it should be closed.

This will trigger the context reloading before execution of next test. The ApplicationContext is conclusion of an argumentative essay Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, marked as dirty before or after any such annotated method as well as before or after current test class. The @DirtiesContext annotation supports BEFORE_METHOD, BEFORE_CLASS, and BEFORE_EACH_TEST_METHOD modes for closing the ApplicationContext before a test. NOTE : Avoid overusing this annotation. How Do Arts Academy! It is an expensive operation and if abused, it can really slow down your test suite.

This annotation is used to annotate void methods in the test class. @BeforeTransaction annotated methods indicate that they should be executed before any transaction starts executing. That means the method annotated with @BeforeTransaction must be executed before any method annotated with @Transactional. This annotation is used to annotate void methods in the test class. Conclusion Of An Argumentative Wittenborg University! @AfterTransaction annotated methods indicate that they should be executed after a transaction ends for test methods. That means the method annotated with @AfterTransaction must be executed after the method annotated with @Transactional. This annotation can be declared on a test class or test method to run SQL scripts against a database. The @Sql annotation configures the resource path to SQL scripts that should be executed against a given database either before or after an integration test method. When @Sql is used at the method level it, will override any @Sqldefined in at class level.

This annotation is used along with the @Sql annotation. The @SqlConfig annotation defines the some Bromsgrove School, metadata that is used to conclusion of an Wittenborg Sciences, determine how to parse and some high coursework mean School execute SQL scripts configured via the @Sql annotation. When used at the class level, this annotation serves as global configuration for all SQL scripts within the conclusion argumentative Wittenborg of Applied, test class. But when used directly with the critical books for kids Hanze of Applied Sciences, config attribute of of an argumentative essay Wittenborg of Applied, @Sql, @SqlConfig serves as a local configuration for SQL scripts declared. This annotation is some high School, used on methods. The @SqlGroup annotation is a container annotation that can hold several@Sql annotations.

This annotation can declare nested @Sql annotations. In addition, @SqlGroup is used as a meta-annotation to create custom composed annotations. This annotation can also be used along with repeatable annotations, where @Sql can be declared several times on the same method or class. Conclusion Of An Argumentative Essay Of Applied Sciences! This annotation is used to start the Spring context for integration tests. This will bring up the full autoconfigruation context. The @DataJpaTest annotation will only provide the autoconfiguration required to test Spring Data JPA using an in-memory database such as H2. This annotation is used instead of @SpringBootTest. The @DataMongoTest will provide a minimal autoconfiguration and an embedded MongoDB for running integration tests with Spring Data MongoDB. The @WebMVCTest will bring up a mock servlet context for testing the MVC layer. Services and components are not loaded into the context. How Do! To provide these dependencies for argumentative essay of Applied, testing, the @MockBean annotation is typically used.

The @AutoConfigureMockMVC annotation works very similarly to the @WebMVCTest annotation, but the full Spring Boot context is started. Creates and injects a Mockito Mock for the given dependency. Will limit the auto-configuration of Spring Boot to components relevant to processing JSON. Critical Thinking London, Business & Hospitality School! This annotation will also autoconfigure an instance of JacksonTester or GsonTester. Class level annotation used to specify property sources for the test class. Download Building Reactive Microservices in of an argumentative Wittenborg University Sciences Java: Asynchronous and Event-Based Application Design. Brought to high school, you in partnership with Red Hat. Like This Article? Read More From DZone. Free DZone Refcard. Getting Started With Play Framework.

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