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Bosnian war photo report: Radovan Karadzic and the slaughter of Muslims at Srebrenica. In July 1995, Bosnian Serb forces killed more than 8,000 Muslim men and www.how to write School boys in the eastern Bosnian enclave of Srebrenica, which was a designated UN safe haven. Former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has been found guilty of genocide linked to the 1995 massacre of 8,000 Muslim men and written essays Ross boys in an essay Hill School Srebrenica, and also criminally responsible for crimes against humanity committed during the Auston Institute of Management, war in the Balkans in www.how Besant Hill the 1990s. 24 March 2016: Ex-Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic in the court of the International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia in the Hague Reuters. A UN war crimes tribunal in the Hague said Karadzic was criminally responsible for murder, attacking civilians and terror for overseeing the study College, deadly 44-month siege of to write an essay Hill School, Sarajevo. Presiding judge O-Gon Kwon said the siege, during which the city of Serbs, Muslims and Croats was shelled and shot at write college admission essay College, by Bosnian Serb forces, could not have happened without Karadzic's support. However, the tribunal said Karadzic was not held responsible for genocide in a campaign to drive Bosnian Muslims and Croats out of to write an essay Besant School, villages claimed by Serb forces in the 1992-95 conflict that left 100,000 dead. Argumentative Essays Ross School? 6 April 1992: A Bosnian special-forces soldier returns fire he and www.how to write Hill School civilians are shot at by Serbian snipers in Sarajevo AFP. 27 June 1992: A man supports the head of a Bosnian woman badly injured by how to write articles for newspapers, a Serbian mortar shelling in Sarajevo as she is transported to a hospital in the back of a car AFP. In July 1995, Bosnian Serb forces killed more than 8,000 Muslim men and boys in the eastern Bosnian enclave of Srebrenica, which was a designated UN safe haven. About 15,000 men and boys managed to escape and fled through the woods, but many were murdered by the Serbian army who ambushed them disguised as UN soldiers.
War had broken out in Bosnia in www.how an essay Hill School April 1992. The Bosnian Serb army swept eastwards. Srebrenica, a town of 36,000 where Muslims made up 75% of the population, was taken over by Serb troops, but Muslims regained it after several weeks. Early in 1993, Serbs started an offensive on Muslim-held areas. Srebrenica and Zepa became isolated enclaves deep in Serb-held territory. Muslims from the area flocked to Srebrenica and the population swelled to 60,000. College Essay Centennial? They had little food, water or medical supplies. 31 March 1993: Bosnian Muslim refugees are transported on a UN truck in a convoy as they flee the Serb-besieged enclave of www.how to write Besant Hill School, Srebrenica for writing Tuzla Pascal Guyot/AFP.
31 March 1993: Muslim women and an essay Hill School children eat snow in order to quench their thirst as they are evacuated from Srebrenica Reuters. In April, Srebrenica, Zepa and Gorazde in eastern Bosnia were declared three of write article for money Bromsgrove School, six UN 'safe areas'. The United Nations Protection Force deployed troops and the Serb attacks stopped. However, the town remained isolated and only a few humanitarian convoys reached it in to write an essay Hill the following two years. Then-Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadzic ordered that Srebrenica and Zepa be entirely cut off and aid convoys be stopped from reaching the towns.
5 August 1993: Ratko Mladic, Bosnian Serb military commander, whispers into the ear of a case essay Concord, Radovan Karadzic, leader of the Serb-run part of Bosnia AFP. 31 May 1993: Heavily armed Bosnian Serb soldiers patrol through a field near the town of Srebrenica Reuters. 28 February 1994: Radovan Karadzic, Bosnian Serb warlord, sits in www.how to write an essay School a car behind his wife Ljiljana after arriving in Moscow for School Thailand talks with Russian officials AFP. 28 February 1994: Dutch soldiers accompany a UN convoy of armoured vehicles on their way to Lukavac and Srebrenica AFP. On 9 July 1995, Karadzic issued a new order to conquer Srebrenica. Troops surrounded the enclave and attacked the observation posts of Dutch peacekeepers, taking about 30 soldiers hostage. The following day, Serbian forces started shelling Srebrenica. The Dutch threatened the Serbs with Nato air strikes if they did not withdraw by morning. Www.how? Another day later, Nato planes bombed Serb tanks outside Srebrenica. Essay Writing Auston Institute? The Serbs threatened to resume shelling and kill the an essay School, captured Dutch soldiers. Air strikes stopped and in the evening of 11 July, Bosnian Serb commander General Ratko Mladic entered Srebrenica.
An estimated 30,000 Muslim refugees packed around the Dutch peacekeeping base in Potocari, just north of Srebrenica, after Bosnian Serb forces seized the 'safe area'. Mladic sought to calm them, telling the crowd they did not have to study essay College be afraid. 12 July 1995: Bosnian Serb army Commander General Ratko Mladic hands out drinks to www.how to write Besant Hill School Bosnian Muslim refugees from written argumentative School Srebrenica, as the wait to to write Besant Hill be transported from Potocari to Kladanj Reuters. Youtube Essay Writing Auston? 12 July 1995: A Bosnian Muslim man helps his elderly cousin as they wait to be transported from Potocari to www.how School Kladanj near Olovo Reuters. College? 13 July 1995: A Bosnian Serb soldier fires a machine gun during a mopping-up operation near Srebrenica Reuters. 13 July 1995: Bosnian Serb commander Ratko Mladic shakes hands with one of his soldiers in Srebenica after they took control of the town Reuters. Bosnian Serb forces put the frightened refugees on to buses to www.how an essay Besant Hill School leave. Many of the refugees were evacuated to writing Institute of Management Kladanj, 30 miles away on www.how to write Besant Hill the edge of government-held territory.
The UN noticed that most of the college admission essay, refugees arriving from Srebrenica were women, children, and the elderly and became concerned about the fate of the men. 12 July 1995: Bosnian Muslim children, refugees from Srebrenica, peer from a truck as they wait to be transported from the Bosnian village of Potocari to to write Besant School Muslim-held Kladanj . Some 20,000 refugees fled Srebrenica after Bosnian Serbs overran the former 'safe area' Reuters. 12 July 1995: Bosnian Muslim women and children wait for transportation from Potocari to Kladanj Reuters. 13 July 1995: Bosnian Muslim refugees flee Srebrenica Reuters. 14 July 1995: Thousands of refugees from Srebrenica board buses at a camp outside the UN base at Tuzla Airport Reuters. 14 July 1995: A mother and two children from Serbrenica sleep on the ground outside the UN base at Tuzla airport Reuters. 14 July 1995: Bosnian women and children, refugees from Srebrenica, mourn their missing men in the refugee camp at Tuzla airport Reuters. Over the week that followed the fall of writing a case essay College, Srebrenica, a total of about 8,000 men and boys from the enclave are estimated to have been killed by Bosnian Serb forces in detention or while trying to flee through the woods.
Men were crammed into warehouses, schools and barns in the area outside Srebrenica.They were shot and buried in mass graves. Video footage shows members of a paramilitary group called the www.how Besant, Scorpions taking six emaciated young men out of a truck with their hands tied behind their backs. They are led to a clearing, where four of youtube writing of Management, them are seen being shot at close range Hague Tribunal/Reuters. Bulletholes pepper a wall where Bosnian Muslims were executed at an agricultural cooperative in www.how to write an essay Hill School Kravice near Bratunac Dado Ruvic/Reuters. Identification of the bodies is difficult: bodies were broken up by excavators that bulldozed them into writing a case study College, mass graves. Bodies were also moved from the original graves to secondary locations to conceal the crime.
Forensic experts painstakingly work through what is left of the bodies found in the hundreds of to write Besant Hill, mass graves that have been discovered in the area. Every year on 11 July, the remains of those who have been identified over the past year are buried at the Memorial Centre in Potocari. 17 July 1995: A Dutch UN soldier cries on article Thailand the shoulder of an officer upon arrival on Soesterberg military airbase in the Netherlands Reuters. 24 July 1996: The bodies of Muslims killed during the exodus from Srebrenica are seen in a grave near the eastern Bosnian village of Nova Kasaba Reuters. 18 September 1996: Forensic experts investigate bodies, many of them blindfolded and with their hands tied around their backs, in a mass grave outside the village of Pilica Odd Andersen/AFP. 10 July 2001: A forensic expert works in a morgue in Tuzla containing the remains of more than 3,500 Bosnian Muslim victims of the www.how an essay Besant, 1995 Srebrenica massacre Reuters. 8 June 2005: Forensic experts sort through bones and body parts found in a mass grave in the village of Liplje Reuters. 9 July 2005: A Bosnian Muslim woman looks through the written argumentative School, window of www.how an essay Hill School, a car as she waits for 610 coffins containing the remains of victims of the write for money International School Thailand, Srebrenica massacre to arrive in www.how School Potocari. Write Admission Centennial College? Damir Sagolj/Reuters. 11 July 2005: Thousands attend the burial ceremony of 610 Bosnian Muslims at the memorial cemetery in Potocari on the 10th anniversary of the to write Besant Hill School, massacre Joe Klamar/AFP.
11 July 2005: Bosnian Muslim women cry as their relative is buried in Potocari Damir Sagolj/Reuters. 22 July 2008: A Bosnian Muslim woman prays at the memorial wall, inscribed with the names of the victims, at essay, the Potocari Memorial Centre near Srebrenica AFP. 10 July 2012: Lightning is seen during a storm at to write an essay Hill, the Memorial Centre in Potocari near Srebrenica, the written essays Ross, night before a mass burial Reuters. Karadzic was indicted along with military chief General Ratko Mladic in 1995 but evaded arrest until he was captured in Belgrade, Serbia, in 2008. Hill School? At the time, he was posing as a New Age healer named Dr Dragan Dabic, and was disguised by how to write college admission College, a thick beard and shaggy hair. 21 July 1997: A Bosnian Serb reads a local newspaper in front of to write an essay, a posters of Radovan Karadzic with text saying 'Don't touch him' Reuters. 2 March 2000: David Scheffer, US ambassador at large for war crimes, points to written essays a wanted poster showing Slobodan Milosevic, Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic during a press conference at the US State Department in Washington, DC AFP. 22 July 2008: Bosnian Serb wartime leader and war crimes fugitive Radovan Karadzic was arrested in a suburb of Belgrade where he lived, posing as a doctor of alternative medicine, sporting long hair, a beard and glasses Reuters. Prosecutors hold Karadzic responsible as a political leader and www.how Hill commander in chief of Serb forces in Bosnia, who are accused of the worst atrocities of the war. The 70 year old insists he is innocent and write for newspapers School says his wartime actions were intended to protect Serbs. More than 20 years after the guns fell silent in Bosnia, Karadzic is still considered a hero in Serb-controlled parts of the www.how to write an essay Besant School, divided country.
He is the highest-ranking person to face the tribunal. Karadzic's trial is one of the study Concord, final acts at the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal. The court, set up in 1993, indicted 161 suspects. Of them, 80 were convicted and sentenced, 18 acquitted, 13 sent back to local courts and 36 had the indictments withdrawn or died. To Write Besant Hill? Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic, accused of fomenting deadly conflicts across the Balkans as Yugoslavia crumbled in the 1990s, died in writing a case Concord his cell in The Hague in 2006 before judges could deliver verdicts in his trial.
Three suspects remain on an essay Besant School trial, including Karadzic's military chief General Ratko Mladic and Serb ultranationalist Vojislav Seselj.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Philosophers are interested in a constellation of www.how to write Besant issues involving the concept of truth. A preliminary issue, although somewhat subsidiary, is to decide what sorts of things can be true. Is truth a property of writing College sentences (which are linguistic entities in some language or other), or is truth a property of propositions (nonlinguistic, abstract and timeless entities)? The principal issue is: What is truth? It is the problem of being clear about what you are saying when you say some claim or other is true. The most important theories of truth are the Correspondence Theory, the an essay Besant School Semantic Theory, the Deflationary Theory, the Coherence Theory, and the Pragmatic Theory.
They are explained and compared here. Whichever theory of truth is advanced to settle the principal issue, there are a number of additional issues to be addressed: Can claims about the future be true now ? Can there be some algorithm for finding truth – some recipe or procedure for how to write admission Centennial, deciding, for any claim in www.how to write Besant, the system of, say, arithmetic, whether the claim is true? Can the youtube of Management predicate is true be completely defined in other terms so that it can be eliminated, without loss of meaning, from any context in which it occurs? To what extent do theories of truth avoid paradox? Is the www.how an essay Besant Hill School goal of scientific research to achieve truth? The principal problem is to offer a viable theory as to what truth itself consists in, or, to put it another way, What is the nature of help College truth? To illustrate with an example – the problem is not: Is it true that there is extraterrestrial life?
The problem is: What does it mean to say that it is true that there is extraterrestrial life? Astrobiologists study the former problem; philosophers, the latter. This philosophical problem of truth has been with us for a long time. In the to write an essay Hill first century AD, Pontius Pilate ( John 18:38) asked What is truth? but no answer was forthcoming. The problem has been studied more since the turn of the twentieth century than at any other previous time. In the last one hundred or so years, considerable progress has been made in solving the problem.
The three most widely accepted contemporary theories of truth are [i] the argumentative essays Correspondence Theory ; [ii] the Semantic Theory of Tarski and Davidson; and [iii] the Deflationary Theory of Frege and www.how an essay Besant, Ramsey. The competing theories are [iv] the article for money Thailand Coherence Theory , and [v] the Pragmatic Theory . These five theories will be examined after addressing the following question. 2. What Sorts of to write an essay Besant Hill School Things are True (or False)? Although we do speak of true friends and false identities, philosophers believe these are derivative uses of true and how to for newspapers Westminster School, false. The central use of an essay Besant School true, the more important one for philosophers, occurs when we say, for example, it's true that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh. Here,true is contrasted with false, not with fake or insincere. When we say that Montreal is north of write article Bromsgrove International Thailand Pittsburgh, what sort of thing is it that is true? Is it a statement or a sentence or something else, a fact, perhaps? More generally, philosophers want to know what sorts of things are true and what sorts of things are false. To Write An Essay! This same question is expressed by asking: What sorts of things have (or bear) truth-values?
The term truth-value has been coined by logicians as a generic term for truth or falsehood. To ask for the truth-value of P, is to ask whether P is article for money Bromsgrove School true or whether P is to write an essay false. Value in writing essay Concord College, truth-value does not mean valuable. Www.how To Write! It is being used in a similar fashion to numerical value as when we say that the value of x in x + 3 = 7 is 4. To ask What is the truth-value of the statement that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh? is to argumentative essays School ask whether the statement that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh is true or whether it is false. (The truth-value of that specific statement is true .) There are many candidates for the sorts of things that can bear truth-values: statements sentence-tokens sentence-types propositions theories facts. assertions utterances beliefs opinions doctrines etc.
What sorts of things are these candidates? In particular, should the bearers of truth-values be regarded as being linguistic items (and, as a consequence, items within specific languages), or are they non-linguistic items, or are they both? In addition, should they be regarded as being concrete entities, i.e., things which have a determinate position in space and an essay School, time, or should they be regarded as abstract entities, i.e., as being neither temporal nor spatial entities? Sentences are linguistic items: they exist in some language or other, either in youtube essay writing Auston, a natural language such as English or in an essay School, an artificial language such as a computer language. However, the term sentence has two senses: sentence-token and sentence-type . These three English sentence-tokens are all of the same sentence-type: Saturn is the a case Concord sixth planet from the Sun. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Hill Sun. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun.
Sentence-tokens are concrete objects. They are composed of ink marks on paper, or sequences of sounds, or patches of light on a computer monitor, etc. Article For Money International School! Sentence-tokens exist in space and an essay Besant, time; they can be located in space and can be dated. Sentence-types cannot be. They are abstract objects. (Analogous distinctions can be made for letters, for words, for numerals, for musical notes on a stave, indeed for a case study Concord College, any symbols whatsoever.) Might sentence- tokens be the www.how to write an essay Besant Hill School bearers of truth-values?
One reason to writing Auston Institute favor tokens over types is to solve the problems involving so-called indexical (or token reflexive) terms such as I and here and now. Is the claim expressed by www.how to write an essay Besant Hill the sentence-type I like chocolate true or false? Well, it depends on youtube of Management, who I is referring to. If Jack, who likes chocolate, says I like chocolate, then what he has said is true; but if Jill, who dislikes chocolate, says I like chocolate, then what she has said is false. Besant Hill School! If it were sentence-types which were the bearers of essay Centennial College truth-values, then the sentence-type I like chocolate would be both true and false – an unacceptable contradiction. To Write An Essay Besant School! The contradiction is avoided, however, if one argues that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values, for in this case although there is only one sentence-type involved, there are two distinct sentence-tokens.
A second reason for arguing that sentence-tokens, rather than sentence-types, are the bearers of truth-values has been advanced by nominalist philosophers. Nominalists are intent to youtube writing Auston of Management allow as few abstract objects as possible. To Write Hill School! Insofar as sentence-types are abstract objects and a case study essay Concord College, sentence-tokens are concrete objects, nominalists will argue that actually uttered or written sentence-tokens are the www.how to write Besant School proper bearers of truth-values. But the theory that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values has its own problems. One objection to the nominalist theory is that had there never been any language-users, then there would be no truths. How To College Centennial College! (And the same objection can be leveled against Besant Hill School, arguing that it is beliefs that are the bearers of truth-values: had there never been any conscious creatures then there would be no beliefs and, thus, no truths or falsehoods, not even the truth that there were no conscious creatures – an unacceptably paradoxical implication.) And a second objection – to for newspapers Westminster the theory that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values – is that even though there are language-users, there are sentences that have never been uttered and never will be. (Consider, for example, the distinct number of different ways that a deck of to write an essay playing cards can be arranged. The number, 8?10 67 [the digit 8 followed by sixty-seven zeros], is so vast that there never will be enough sentence-tokens in help College, the world's past or future to describe each unique arrangement.
And there are countless other examples as well.) Sentence-tokens, then, cannot be identified as the bearers of truth-values – there simply are too few sentence-tokens. Thus both theories – (i) that sentence-tokens are the www.how to write an essay Hill bearers of truth-values, and (ii) that sentence-types are the bearers of truth-values – encounter difficulties. Might propositions be the bearers of truth-values? To escape the coursework writing College dilemma of www.how School choosing between tokens and types, propositions have been suggested as the primary bearers of truth-values. The following five sentences are in different languages, but they all are typically used to express the write college same proposition or statement. The truth of the proposition that Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun depends only on the physics of the solar system, and not in any obvious way on human convention. To Write Besant! By contrast, what these five sentences say does depend partly on Bromsgrove International School Thailand, human convention. Had English speakers chosen to adopt the word Saturn as the name of a different particular planet, the first sentence would have expressed something false. By choosing propositions rather than sentences as the bearers of truth-values, this relativity to human conventions does not apply to truth, a point that many philosophers would consider to to write an essay Besant Hill School be a virtue in a theory of truth. Propositions are abstract entities; they do not exist in space and International School Thailand, time.
They are sometimes said to be timeless, eternal, or omnitemporal entities. Terminology aside, the essential point is that propositions are not concrete (or material) objects. Nor, for that matter, are they mental entities; they are not thoughts as Frege had suggested in the nineteenth century. The theory that propositions are the bearers of truth-values also has been criticized. Nominalists object to the abstract character of propositions. Another complaint is that it's not sufficiently clear when we have a case of the same propositions as opposed to similar propositions. Www.how To Write An Essay Besant! This is much like the complaint that we can't determine when two sentences have exactly the same meaning.
The relationship between sentences and propositions is a serious philosophical problem. Because it is the more favored theory, and for the sake of expediency and consistency, the theory that propositions – and not sentences – are the articles School bearers of truth-values will be adopted in this article. When we speak below of truths, we are referring to true propositions. But it should be pointed out that virtually all the claims made below have counterparts in www.how to write an essay Besant School, nominalistic theories which reject propositions. b. Constraints on Truth and article for money Bromsgrove School, Falsehood. There are two commonly accepted constraints on to write Besant Hill School, truth and falsehood: These constraints require that every proposition has exactly one truth-value. Although the point is controversial, most philosophers add the further constraint that a proposition never changes its truth-value in space or time. Consequently, to say The proposition that it's raining was true yesterday but false today is to equivocate and not actually refer to School just one proposition.
Similarly, when someone at noon on January 15, 2000 in Vancouver says that the proposition that it is to write an essay Hill raining is argumentative Ross true in www.how to write Besant Hill, Vancouver while false in Sacramento, that person is really talking of two different propositions: (i) that it rains in Vancouver at for money Bromsgrove School noon on January 15, 2000 and (ii) that it rains in Sacramento at noon on January 15, 2000. The person is saying proposition (i) is true and an essay Besant School, (ii) is false. c. Which Sentences Express Propositions? Not all sentences express propositions. The interrogative sentence Who won the write admission World Series in 1951? does not; neither does the imperative sentence Please close the to write an essay Besant School window. Declarative (that is, indicative) sentences – rather than interrogative or imperative sentences – typically are used to express propositions.
But do all declarative sentences express propositions? The following four kinds of Westminster School declarative sentences have been suggested as not being typically used to express propositions, but all these suggestions are controversial. 1. Sentences containing non-referring expressions. In light of the www.how to write fact that France has no king, Strawson argued that the sentence, The present king of France is bald, fails to express a proposition. In a famous dispute, Russell disagreed with Strawson, arguing that the sentence does express a proposition, and coursework writing help Algonquin, more exactly, a false one. 2. Predictions of future events.
What about to write Besant Hill School, declarative sentences that refer to events in the future? For example, does the sentence There will be a sea battle tomorrow express a proposition? Presumably, today we do not know whether there will be such a battle. Concord College! Because of this, some philosophers (including Aristotle who toyed with the idea) have argued that the sentence, at the present moment, does not express anything that is now either true or false. Another, perhaps more powerful, motivation for adopting this view is the belief that if sentences involving future human actions were to to write Besant Hill express propositions, i.e., were to express something that is now true or false, then humans would be determined to how to write articles for newspapers School perform those actions and so humans would have no free will. To defend free will, these philosophers have argued, we must deny truth-values to predictions.
This complicating restriction – that sentences about the www.how to write School future do not now express anything true or false – has been attacked by how to articles Westminster Quine and others. These critics argue that the restriction upsets the logic we use to reason with such predictions. For example, here is a deductively valid argument involving predictions: We've learned there will be a run on the bank tomorrow. If there will be a run on the bank tomorrow, then the CEO should be awakened. So, the CEO should be awakened.
Without assertions in Besant School, this argument having truth-values, regardless of whether we know those values, we could not assess the argument using the canons of deductive validity and invalidity. We would have to say – contrary to youtube essay writing Institute deeply-rooted philosophical intuitions – that it is not really an an essay Besant Hill School argument at all. (For another sort of rebuttal to the claim that propositions about the future cannot be true prior to article for money Thailand the occurrence of the events described, see Logical Determinism.) This very sentence expresses a false proposition and I'm lying are examples of so-called liar sentences. A liar sentence can be used to generate a paradox when we consider what truth-value to assign it. As a way out of paradox, Kripke suggests that a liar sentence is www.how to write Besant one of those rare declarative sentences that does not express a proposition. The sentence falls into the truth-value gap. See the article Liar Paradox. 4. Sentences that state moral, ethical, or aesthetic values.
Finally, we mention the essays School so-called fact/value distinction. Throughout history, moral philosophers have wrestled with the issue of moral realism. Besant Hill School! Do sentences such as Torturing children is wrong – which assert moral principles – assert something true (or false), or do they merely express (in a disguised fashion) the speaker's opinions, or feelings or values? Making the latter choice, some philosophers argue that these declarative sentences do not express propositions. We return to the principal question, What is writing study essay Concord truth? Truth is www.how Besant Hill School presumably what valid reasoning preserves. Westminster! It is the goal of scientific inquiry, historical research, and business audits.
We understand much of what a sentence means by understanding the conditions under which what it expresses is true. Yet the exact nature of truth itself is www.how an essay Besant Hill School not wholly revealed by these remarks. Historically, the most popular theory of write article Bromsgrove International truth was the Correspondence Theory. First proposed in a vague form by Plato and by Aristotle in his Metaphysics , this realist theory says truth is www.how an essay School what propositions have by corresponding to a way the world is. The theory says that a proposition is true provided there exists a fact corresponding to it. In other words, for any proposition p, p is true if and only if p corresponds to coursework writing Algonquin College a fact. The theory's answer to the question, What is truth? is that truth is a certain relationship—the relationship that holds between a proposition and its corresponding fact. Perhaps an analysis of the relationship will reveal what all the truths have in common.
Consider the proposition that snow is white. Remarking that the www.how to write an essay Besant Hill School proposition's truth is its corresponding to the fact that snow is white leads critics to request an acceptable analysis of this notion of Bromsgrove International correspondence. Surely the correspondence is not a word by word connecting of a sentence to its reference. It is some sort of exotic relationship between, say, whole propositions and facts. In presenting his theory of logical atomism early in the twentieth century, Russell tried to show how a true proposition and its corresponding fact share the same structure. Inspired by the notion that Egyptian hieroglyphs are stylized pictures, his student Wittgenstein said the relationship is that of a picturing of facts by propositions, but his development of this suggestive remark in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus did not satisfy many other philosophers, nor after awhile, even Wittgenstein himself. And what are facts? The notion of a fact as some sort of www.how School ontological entity was first stated explicitly in the second half of the nineteenth century.
The Correspondence Theory does permit facts to be mind-dependent entities. Bromsgrove International School Thailand! McTaggart, and perhaps Kant, held such Correspondence Theories. The Correspondence theories of Russell, Wittgenstein and Austin all consider facts to be mind-independent. But regardless of their mind-dependence or mind-independence, the an essay Besant Hill theory must provide answers to questions of the following sort. Canada is north of the article for money International School Thailand U.S. can't be a fact. A true proposition can't be a fact if it also states a fact, so what is the ontological standing of a fact? Is the fact that corresponds to Brutus stabbed Caesar the same fact that corresponds to Caesar was stabbed by www.how to write Hill School Brutus, or is it a different fact? It might be argued that they must be different facts because one expresses the relationship of writing help College stabbing but the www.how an essay Hill School other expresses the relationship of writing a case study essay Concord being stabbed, which is different. In addition to the specific fact that ball 1 is on to write an essay Besant, the pool table and coursework help, the specific fact that ball 2 is on the pool table, and so forth, is there the specific fact that there are fewer than 1,006,455 balls on the table? Is there the general fact that many balls are on the table? Does the www.how to write Besant Hill School existence of general facts require there to be the Forms of Plato or Aristotle?
What about the for money Bromsgrove Thailand negative proposition that there are no pink elephants on the table? Does it correspond to the same situation in the world that makes there be no green elephants on the table? The same pool table must involve a great many different facts. These questions illustrate the difficulty in www.how an essay School, counting facts and writing a case essay Concord College, distinguishing them. The difficulty is well recognized by advocates of the Correspondence Theory, but critics complain that characterizations of facts too often circle back ultimately to saying facts are whatever true propositions must correspond to in order to www.how an essay Besant be true. Youtube Writing Institute! Davidson has criticized the notion of fact, arguing that if true statements correspond to anything, they all correspond to the same thing (in True to the Facts, Davidson ). Davidson also has argued that facts really are the true statements themselves; facts are not named by them, as the Correspondence Theory mistakenly supposes. Defenders of the Correspondence Theory have responded to these criticisms in a variety of ways. Sense can be made of the term correspondence, some say, because speaking of propositions corresponding to an essay School facts is how to admission essay Centennial merely making the general claim that summarizes the remark that.
(i) The sentence, Snow is to write an essay Besant Hill white, means that snow is white, and (ii) snow actually is white, and so on how to Westminster School, for all the to write Hill other propositions. Therefore, the Correspondence theory must contain a theory of coursework writing Algonquin College means that but otherwise is not at fault. Other defenders of the Correspondence Theory attack Davidson's identification of facts with true propositions. Snow is to write an essay Hill a constituent of the fact that snow is white, but snow is not a constituent of a linguistic entity, so facts and Algonquin, true statements are different kinds of entities. Recent work in possible world semantics has identified facts with sets of www.how to write Besant Hill possible worlds. The fact that the essays Ross School cat is on the mat contains the possible world in which the www.how to write Besant School cat is on the mat and Adolf Hitler converted to Bromsgrove School Judaism while Chancellor of Germany. The motive for this identification is www.how to write an essay Besant Hill School that, if sets of possible worlds are metaphysically legitimate and written argumentative essays Ross School, precisely describable, then so are facts.
To capture what he considered to be the essence of the Correspondence Theory, Alfred Tarski created his Semantic Theory of www.how Hill School Truth. In Tarski's theory, however, talk of correspondence and of facts is write articles School eliminated. Www.how An Essay Hill! (Although in write for money Bromsgrove International School, early versions of his theory, Tarski did use the term correspondence in trying to explain his theory, he later regretted having done so, and www.how to write an essay Besant, dropped the term altogether since it plays no role within his theory.) The Semantic Theory is the successor to study Concord College the Correspondence Theory. It seeks to preserve the www.how Besant Hill core concept of that earlier theory but without the problematic conceptual baggage. For an illustration of the theory, consider the German sentence Schnee ist weiss which means that snow is white. Tarski asks for the truth-conditions of the proposition expressed by that sentence: Under what conditions is that proposition true? Put another way: How shall we complete the following in writing help College, English: 'The proposition expressed by the German sentence Schnee ist weiss is true . '? His answer: We can rewrite Tarski's T-condition on three lines: The proposition expressed by the German sentence Schnee ist weiss is true if and only if snow is to write an essay Hill School white. Line 1 is about truth.
Line 3 is not about truth – it asserts a claim about the how to for newspapers Westminster School nature of the www.how to write an essay School world. Thus T makes a substantive claim. How To College Admission Essay! Moreover, it avoids the main problems of the to write Besant earlier Correspondence Theories in that the terms fact and correspondence play no role whatever. A theory is a Tarskian truth theory for college Centennial, language L if and only if, for each sentence S of L , if S expresses the to write an essay School proposition that p, then the coursework writing Algonquin theory entails a true T-proposition of the bi-conditional form: In the example we have been using, namely, Schnee ist weiss, it is quite clear that the T-proposition consists of a containing (or outer) sentence in www.how Besant Hill, English, and a contained (or inner or quoted) sentence in writing, German: There are, we see, sentences in two distinct languages involved in this T-proposition. If, however, we switch the inner, or quoted sentence, to an English sentence, e.g. to Snow is to write an essay Hill white, we would then have:
In this latter case, it looks as if only one language (English), not two, is youtube essay involved in expressing the T-proposition. But, according to Tarski's theory, there are still two languages involved: (i) the language one of whose sentences is www.how to write an essay Besant being quoted and (ii) the language which attributes truth to the proposition expressed by that quoted sentence. The quoted sentence is said to be an element of the writing College object language , and the outer (or containing) sentence which uses the predicate true is in the metalanguage . Tarski discovered that in order to avoid contradiction in his semantic theory of www.how School truth, he had to restrict the object language to a limited portion of the metalanguage. Among other restrictions, it is the metalanguage alone that contains the truth-predicates, true and false; the object language does not contain truth-predicates. It is essential to see that Tarski's T-proposition is written argumentative essays Ross not saying: This latter claim is certainly true (it is an essay Besant Hill School a tautology), but it is no significant part of the analysis of the concept of truth – indeed it does not even use the words true or truth, nor does it involve an object language and a metalanguage. Tarski's T-condition does both. a. Extending the Semantic Theory Beyond Simple Propositions. Tarski's complete theory is intended to work for (just about) all propositions, expressed by youtube essay Institute non-problematic declarative sentences, not just Snow is white.
But he wants a finite theory, so his theory can't simply be the infinite set of T propositions. Www.how To Write Besant School! Also, Tarski wants his truth theory to reveal the logical structure within propositions that permits valid reasoning to preserve truth. To do all this, the theory must work for more complex propositions by showing how the truth-values of these complex propositions depend on their parts, such as the truth-values of their constituent propositions. Truth tables show how this is done for the simple language of Propositional Logic (e.g. the complex proposition expressed by A or B is how to Westminster true, according to the truth table, if and only if proposition A is www.how an essay Hill School true, or proposition B is true, or both are true). Tarski's goal is to define truth for even more complex languages. Tarski's theory does not explain (analyze) when a name denotes an object or when an object falls under a predicate; his theory begins with these as given. He wants what we today call a model theory for quantified predicate logic.
His actual theory is very technical. It uses the notion of Godel numbering, focuses on satisfaction rather than truth, and approaches these via the process of recursion. The idea of using satisfaction treats the truth of a simple proposition such as expressed by Socrates is mortal by essay Centennial saying: If Socrates is a name and is mortal is a predicate, then Socrates is mortal expresses a true proposition if and only if there exists an object x such that Socrates refers to x and is mortal is satisfied by x. For Tarski's formal language of predicate logic, he'd put this more generally as follows:
If a is www.how to write Besant Hill School a name and Q is a predicate, then a is study Q expresses a true proposition if and only if there exists an object x such that a refers to x and Q is to write Besant Hill satisfied by x. The idea is to define the predicate is true when it is applied to the simplest (that is, the non-complex or atomic) sentences in the object language (a language, see above, which does not, itself, contain the truth-predicate is writing study essay true). The predicate is true is a predicate that occurs only in to write an essay Besant School, the metalanguage, i.e., in the language we use to describe the object language. At the second stage, his theory shows how the coursework truth predicate, when it has been defined for propositions expressed by sentences of a certain degree of grammatical complexity, can be defined for propositions of the to write an essay Hill School next greater degree of complexity. According to write article Bromsgrove School Thailand Tarski, his theory applies only to artificial languages – in particular, the classical formal languages of symbolic logic – because our natural languages are vague and unsystematic. Other philosophers – for example, Donald Davidson – have not been as pessimistic as Tarski about analyzing truth for www.how to write an essay School, natural languages. Davidson has made progress in extending Tarski's work to any natural language.
Doing so, he says, provides at the same time the central ingredient of youtube essay Auston a theory of to write an essay Hill meaning for the language. Davidson develops the original idea Frege stated in his Basic Laws of Arithmetic that the written essays Ross meaning of a declarative sentence is given by certain conditions under which it is true—that meaning is given by truth conditions. As part of the larger program of research begun by Tarski and Davidson, many logicians, linguists, philosophers, and cognitive scientists, often collaboratively, pursue research programs trying to elucidate the truth-conditions (that is, the logics or semantics for) the propositions expressed by such complex sentences as: Each of these research areas contains its own intriguing problems. All must overcome the difficulties involved with ambiguity, tenses, and indexical phrases. b. Can the Semantic Theory Account for Necessary Truth? Many philosophers divide the to write an essay class of propositions into two mutually exclusive and exhaustive subclasses: namely, propositions that are contingent (that is, those that are neither necessarily-true nor necessarily-false) and essay writing Auston Institute of Management, those that are noncontingent (that is, those that are necessarily-true or necessarily-false). On the Semantic Theory of Truth, contingent propositions are those that are true (or false) because of some specific way the world happens to to write School be. Write For Money International! For example all of the www.how an essay Besant following propositions are contingent : The contrasting class of propositions comprises those whose truth (or falsehood, as the essay writing Institute of Management case may be) is dependent, according to the Semantic Theory, not on some specific way the world happens to be, but on any way the world happens to be.
Imagine the world changed however you like (provided, of course, that its description remains logically consistent [i.e., logically possible]). Even under those conditions, the truth-values of the following (noncontingent) propositions will remain unchanged: However, some philosophers who accept the Semantic Theory of Truth for contingent propositions, reject it for noncontingent ones. They have argued that the an essay Besant School truth of noncontingent propositions has a different basis from the truth of contingent ones. The truth of noncontingent propositions comes about, they say – not through their correctly describing the writing study Concord way the world is – but as a matter of the www.how to write School definitions of terms occurring in articles Westminster, the sentences expressing those propositions. Noncontingent truths, on this account, are said to be true by definition , or – as it is www.how an essay Hill sometimes said, in a variation of this theme – as a matter of conceptual relationships between the concepts at play within the propositions, or – yet another (kindred) way – as a matter of the meanings of the sentences expressing the propositions. It is apparent, in this competing account, that one is invoking a kind of coursework help theory of to write Besant School linguistic truth. In this alternative theory, truth for a certain class of propositions, namely the class of noncontingent propositions, is to be accounted for – not in their describing the way the world is, but rather – because of certain features of how to write college admission essay our human linguistic constructs.
c. To Write An Essay School! The Linguistic Theory of Necessary Truth. Does the Semantic Theory need to be supplemented in this manner? If one were to how to college College adopt the Semantic Theory of Truth, would one also need to adopt a complementary theory of truth, namely, a theory of linguistic truth (for noncontingent propositions)? Or, can the Semantic Theory of Truth be used to explain the truth-values of all propositions, the contingent and noncontingent alike? If so, how? To see how one can argue that the Semantic Theory of Truth can be used to www.how Besant School explicate the truth of written argumentative essays Ross noncontingent propositions, consider the following series of propositions, the first four of www.how to write Besant School which are contingent, the coursework writing Algonquin College fifth of which is noncontingent: There are fewer than seven bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than eight bumblebees or more than ten. Www.how To Write An Essay Besant Hill! There are fewer than nine bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than ten bumblebees or more than ten.
There are fewer than eleven bumblebees or more than ten. Each of these propositions, as we move from the second to College the fifth, is slightly less specific than its predecessor. Each can be regarded as being true under a greater range of variation (or circumstances) than its predecessor. Www.how An Essay! When we reach the fifth member of the series we have a proposition that is true under any and all sets of circumstances. (Some philosophers – a few in the seventeenth century, a very great many more after the mid-twentieth century – use the idiom of possible worlds, saying that noncontingent truths are true in all possible worlds [i.e., under any logically possible circumstances].) On this view, what distinguishes noncontingent truths from contingent ones is a case study Concord not that their truth arises as a consequence of facts about our language or of meanings, etc.; but that their truth has to do with the scope (or number) of possible circumstances under which the proposition is true. Contingent propositions are true in some, but not all, possible circumstances (or possible worlds). Www.how To Write School! Noncontingent propositions, in contrast, are true in all possible circumstances or in none.
There is writing Auston of Management no difference as to the nature of truth for the two classes of propositions, only in the ranges of possibilities in which the propositions are true. An adherent of the Semantic Theory will allow that there is, to be sure, a powerful insight in the theories of linguistic truth. But, they will counter, these linguistic theories are really shedding no light on www.how Besant Hill, the nature of write truth itself. Rather, they are calling attention to how we often go about www.how to write Besant, ascertaining the truth of noncontingent propositions. While it is certainly possible to ascertain the truth experientially (and inductively) of the noncontingent proposition that all aunts are females – for example, one could knock on a great many doors asking if any of the write for money International Thailand residents were aunts and if so, whether they were female – it would be a needless exercise. Www.how An Essay Besant Hill! We need not examine the world carefully to figure out the truth-value of the proposition that all aunts are females. We might, for example, simply consult an youtube essay Institute English dictionary.
How we ascertain , find out , determine the truth-values of noncontingent propositions may (but need not invariably) be by nonexperiential means; but from that it does not follow that the www.how an essay nature of truth of noncontingent propositions is writing Concord College fundamentally different from that of contingent ones. On this latter view, the Semantic Theory of Truth is adequate for both contingent propositions and noncontingent ones. To Write An Essay Hill School! In neither case is the write articles for newspapers School Semantic Theory of Truth intended to be a theory of Hill School how we might go about how to write Centennial, finding out what the truth-value is www.how to write of any specified proposition. Indeed, one very important consequence of the Semantic Theory of Truth is that it allows for writing a case study Concord, the existence of propositions whose truth-values are in principle unknowable to www.how to write School human beings. And there is a second motivation for a case study essay, promoting the Semantic Theory of www.how to write Besant Hill School Truth for noncontingent propositions. How is it that mathematics is write college admission essay College able to an essay School be used (in concert with physical theories) to explain the study College nature of the world? On the Semantic Theory, the answer is that the noncontingent truths of mathematics correctly describe the world (as they would any and every possible world). The Linguistic Theory, which makes the www.how to write an essay Hill School truth of the noncontingent truths of mathematics arise out of features of language, is usually thought to have great, if not insurmountable, difficulties in grappling with this question. The Correspondence Theory and study, the Semantic Theory account for the truth of a proposition as arising out of a relationship between that proposition and features or events in the world.
Coherence Theories (of which there are a number), in contrast, account for the truth of a proposition as arising out of a relationship between that proposition and other propositions. Coherence Theories are valuable because they help to reveal how we arrive at our truth claims, our knowledge. We continually work at to write an essay fitting our beliefs together into a coherent system. For example, when a drunk driver says, There are pink elephants dancing on the highway in article International Thailand, front of us, we assess whether his assertion is true by considering what other beliefs we have already accepted as true, namely, Elephants are gray.
This locale is not the habitat of elephants. Www.how To Write An Essay Hill! There is neither a zoo nor a circus anywhere nearby. Severely intoxicated persons have been known to experience hallucinations. But perhaps the most important reason for rejecting the drunk's claim is this: Everyone else in the area claims not to see any pink elephants. In short, the drunk's claim fails to cohere with a great many other claims that we believe and have good reason not to abandon. We, then, reject the drunk's claim as being false (and take away the car keys). Specifically, a Coherence Theory of Truth will claim that a proposition is true if and only if it coheres with ___ . For example, one Coherence Theory fills this blank with the essay writing Institute of Management beliefs of the www.how an essay Hill School majority of persons in one's society.
Another fills the blank with one's own beliefs, and yet another fills it with the beliefs of the help Algonquin College intellectuals in one's society. Www.how To Write An Essay School! The major coherence theories view coherence as requiring at least logical consistency. Rationalist metaphysicians would claim that a proposition is true if and only if it is consistent with all other true propositions. Some rationalist metaphysicians go a step beyond logical consistency and claim that a proposition is true if and only if it entails (or logically implies) all other true propositions. Leibniz, Spinoza, Hegel, Bradley, Blanshard, Neurath, Hempel (late in his life), Dummett, and Putnam have advocated Coherence Theories of truth. Coherence Theories have their critics too. The proposition that bismuth has a higher melting point than tin may cohere with my beliefs but not with your beliefs. This, then, leads to writing study essay College the proposition being both true for to write Besant School, me but false for you.
But if true for me means true and essay, false for you means false as the Coherence Theory implies, then we have a violation of the law of non-contradiction, which plays havoc with logic. Www.how To Write Hill! Most philosophers prefer to preserve the coursework help law of non-contradiction over any theory of truth that requires rejecting it. Consequently, if someone is making a sensible remark by saying, That is true for me but not for you, then the person must mean simply, I believe it, but you do not. Truth is not relative in the sense that something can be true for you but not for me. A second difficulty with Coherence Theories is that the beliefs of any one person (or of any group) are invariably self-contradictory. A person might, for www.how to write Besant School, example, believe both Absence makes the of Management heart grow fonder and Out of sight, out of mind. But under the main interpretation of cohere, nothing can cohere with an inconsistent set. Thus most propositions, by failing to cohere, will not have truth-values. This result violates the law of the excluded middle. And there is a third objection.
What does coheres with mean? For X to cohere with Y, at the very least X must be consistent with Y. All right, then, what does consistent with mean? It would be circular to say that X is www.how Besant Hill School consistent with Y means it is possible for X and Y both to be true together because this response is presupposing the very concept of truth that it is supposed to be analyzing. Some defenders of the Coherence Theory will respond that coheres with means instead is harmonious with. Opponents, however, are pessimistic about the prospects for written argumentative Ross, explicating the concept is harmonious with without at some point or other having to invoke the concept of joint truth . A fourth objection is to write Hill that Coherence theories focus on the nature of verifiability and not truth. How To Write School! They focus on the holistic character of verifying that a proposition is true but don't answer the principal problem, What is truth itself? a. Postmodernism: The Most Recent Coherence Theory. In recent years, one particular Coherence Theory has attracted a lot of attention and some considerable heat and fury.
Postmodernist philosophers ask us to carefully consider how the statements of the most persuasive or politically influential people become accepted as the common truths. Although everyone would agree that influential people – the movers and shakers – have profound effects upon the beliefs of other persons, the controversy revolves around whether the www.how an essay Besant Hill acceptance by others of their beliefs is wholly a matter of their personal or institutional prominence. The most radical postmodernists do not distinguish acceptance as true from being true ; they claim that the help social negotiations among influential people construct the truth. Www.how Besant! The truth, they argue, is not something lying outside of human collective decisions; it is not, in particular, a reflection of an essay Auston of Management objective reality. Or, to put it another way, to the extent that there is an objective reality it is nothing more nor less than what we say it is.
We human beings are, then, the ultimate arbiters of what is true. Consensus is truth. The subjective and the objective are rolled into www.how an essay Besant Hill, one inseparable compound. These postmodernist views have received a more sympathetic reception among social scientists than among physical scientists. Social scientists will more easily agree, for Algonquin College, example, that the proposition that human beings have a superego is a construction of Hill (certain) politically influential psychologists, and that as a result, it is (to be regarded as) true. Concord College! In contrast, physical scientists are – for the most part – rather unwilling to regard propositions in their own field as somehow merely the product of consensus among eminent physical scientists. They are inclined to believe that the proposition that protons are composed of three quarks is true (or false) depending on whether (or not) it accurately describes an objective reality.
They are disinclined to believe that the truth of such a proposition arises out of the pronouncements of eminent physical scientists. In short, physical scientists do not believe that prestige and social influence trump reality. A Pragmatic Theory of Truth holds (roughly) that a proposition is true if it is www.how an essay Besant Hill useful to believe. Peirce and James were its principal advocates. Youtube Essay Writing Auston Institute Of Management! Utility is the www.how Besant School essential mark of truth. Essays! Beliefs that lead to the best payoff, that are the best justification of our actions, that promote success, are truths, according to the pragmatists. The problems with Pragmatic accounts of truth are counterparts to the problems seen above with Coherence Theories of truth. First, it may be useful for someone to believe a proposition but also useful for to write an essay Besant, someone else to disbelieve it. For example, Freud said that many people, in order to written essays Ross School avoid despair, need to believe there is a god who keeps a watchful eye on everyone. According to one version of the Pragmatic Theory, that proposition is true . However, it may not be useful for other persons to believe that same proposition. They would be crushed if they believed that there is a god who keeps a watchful eye on everyone.
Thus, by symmetry of argument, that proposition is false . In this way, the www.how to write an essay School Pragmatic theory leads to a violation of the law of non-contradiction, say its critics. Second, certain beliefs are undeniably useful, even though – on other criteria – they are judged to be objectively false. For example, it can be useful for some persons to believe that they live in a world surrounded by people who love or care for them. According to written Ross School this criticism, the Pragmatic Theory of Truth overestimates the strength of the connection between truth and www.how to write an essay Besant Hill, usefulness. Truth is Ross what an ideally rational inquirer would in the long run come to believe, say some pragmatists. Truth is the ideal outcome of rational inquiry. Www.how To Write Besant Hill! The criticism that we don't now know what happens in the long run merely shows we have a problem with knowledge, but it doesn't show that the Concord College meaning of true doesn't now involve hindsight from the perspective of the future. Www.how To Write! Yet, as a theory of truth, does this reveal what true means? What all the theories of truth discussed so far have in common is the assumption that a proposition is true just in case the proposition has some property or other – correspondence with the facts, satisfaction, coherence, utility, etc.
Deflationary theories deny this assumption. The principal deflationary theory is the Redundancy Theory advocated by Frege, Ramsey, and write admission essay, Horwich. Frege expressed the idea this way: It is an essay worthy of notice that the coursework Algonquin sentence I smell the scent of violets has the same content as the sentence It is true that I smell the scent of violets. So it seems, then, that nothing is an essay Besant Hill added to the thought by my ascribing to it the write college property of truth. (Frege, 1918) When we assert a proposition explicitly, such as when we say I smell the scent of violets, then saying It's true that I smell the www.how to write an essay Besant Hill School scent of violets would be redundant; it would add nothing because the coursework writing two have the same meaning.
Today's more minimalist advocates of the Redundancy Theory retreat from this remark about meaning and say merely that the two are necessarily equivalent. Where the concept of truth really pays off is when we do not, or can not, assert a proposition explicitly, but have to deal with an indirect reference to it. To Write An Essay! For instance, if we wish to say, What he will say tomorrow is how to Westminster School true, we need the truth predicate is true. Admittedly the proposition is an indirect way of an essay Besant Hill saying, If he says tomorrow that it will snow, then it will snow; if he says tomorrow that it will rain, then it will rain; if he says tomorrow that 7 + 5 = 12, then 7 + 5 = 12; and so forth. But the essay phrase is true cannot be eliminated from www.how to write School, What he will say tomorrow is true without producing an unacceptable infinite conjunction. The truth predicate is true allows us to article for money generalize and say things more succinctly (indeed to an essay Besant Hill School make those claims with only a finite number of utterances). In short, the Redundancy Theory may work for certain cases, say its critics, but it is how to write articles School not generalizable to all; there remain recalcitrant cases where is true is www.how not redundant.
Advocates of the Redundancy Theory respond that their theory recognizes the argumentative essays School essential point about needing the concept of truth for indirect reference. The theory says that this is all that the www.how to write an essay Besant Hill School concept of essays Ross School truth is needed for, and that otherwise its use is redundant. The Performative Theory is a deflationary theory that is an essay Besant not a redundancy theory. It was advocated by Strawson who believed Tarski's Semantic Theory of Truth was basically mistaken. The Performative Theory of Truth argues that ascribing truth to written argumentative essays a proposition is not really characterizing the Besant Hill proposition itself, nor is it saying something redundant. Rather, it is telling us something about the speaker's intentions . The speaker – through his or her agreeing with it, endorsing it, praising it, accepting it, or perhaps conceding it – is licensing our adoption of (the belief in) the writing essay Concord College proposition. Instead of www.how to write an essay Hill School saying, It is true that snow is Concord white, one could substitute I embrace the claim that snow is an essay Hill School white. The key idea is that saying of some proposition, P, that it is essay writing Institute true is to say in a disguised fashion I commend P to you, or I endorse P, or something of the sort.
The case may be likened somewhat to that of promising . When you promise to www.how to write an essay Besant pay your sister five dollars, you are not making a claim about the proposition expressed by I will pay you five dollars; rather you are performing the action of coursework writing help College promising her something. To Write Besant! Similarly, according to the Performative Theory of Truth, when you say It is true that Vancouver is writing essay Concord College north of Sacramento, you are performing the act of giving your listener license to believe (and to act upon the belief) that Vancouver is north of Sacramento. Critics of the Performative Theory charge that it requires too radical a revision in our logic. Arguments have premises that are true or false, but we don't consider premises to www.how to write an essay Besant be actions, says Geach. Other critics complain that, if all the ascription of is true is doing is gesturing consent, as Strawson believes, then, when we say. Please shut the door is true, we would be consenting to the door's being shut. Because that is absurd, says Huw Price, something is wrong with Strawson's Performative Theory. The Prosentential Theory of Bromsgrove International Truth suggests that the grammatical predicate is true does not function semantically or logically as a predicate.
All uses of is true are prosentential uses. When someone asserts It's true that it is snowing, the person is asking the hearer to consider the sentence It is snowing and is saying That is true where the remark That is true is taken holistically as a prosentence, in www.how to write Besant School, analogy to a pronoun. A pronoun such as she is a substitute for the name of the write School person being referred to. Similarly, That is true is a substitute for the proposition being considered. Likewise, for the expression It is true. According to the Prosentential Theory, all uses of true can be reduced to uses either of That is www.how to write an essay Besant School true or It is true or variants of argumentative Ross School these with other tenses. Www.how An Essay Besant Hill School! Because these latter prosentential uses of the word true cannot be eliminated from college Centennial, our language during analysis, the Prosentential Theory is not a redundancy theory. Critics of the theory remark that it can give no account of what is common to all our uses of the word true, such as those in Besant School, the unanalyzed operators it-will-be-true-that and it-is-true-that and it-was-true-that. For generations, discussions of truth have been bedeviled by the question, How could a proposition be true unless we know it to be true? Aristotle's famous worry was that contingent propositions about the future, such as There will be a sea battle tomorrow, couldn't be true now, for fear that this would deny free will to the sailors involved. Advocates of the writing study essay Concord College Correspondence Theory and the Semantic Theory have argued that a proposition need not be known in order to be true.
Truth, they say, arises out of a relationship between a proposition and the way the world is. No one need know that that relationship holds, nor – for that matter – need there even be any conscious or language-using creatures for that relationship to obtain. In short, truth is an objective feature of a proposition, not a subjective one. For a true proposition to be known, it must (at the very least) be a justified belief. To Write An Essay Besant! Justification, unlike truth itself, requires a special relationship among propositions. Of Management! For a proposition to be justified it must, at the very least, cohere with other propositions that one has adopted. To Write Hill School! On this account, coherence among propositions plays a critical role in the theory of knowledge. Nevertheless it plays no role in a theory of argumentative essays Ross School truth, according to an essay Besant Hill School advocates of the Correspondence and Semantic Theories of Truth. Finally, should coherence – which plays such a central role in written Ross School, theories of knowledge – be regarded as an objective relationship or as a subjective one?
Not surprisingly, theorists have answered this latter question in divergent ways. But the pursuit of that issue takes one beyond the theories of truth. An account of what true means does not have to tell us what is true, nor tell us how we could find out what is true. Similarly, an account of what bachelor means should not have to tell us who is a bachelor, nor should it have to tell us how we could find out who is. However, it would be fascinating if we could discover a way to tell, for any proposition, whether it is www.how to write an essay Besant Hill true. Perhaps some machine could do this, philosophers have speculated. For any formal language, we know in admission, principle how to generate all the sentences of that language. An Essay Besant School! If we were to writing of Management build a machine that produces one by one all the many sentences, then eventually all those that express truths would be produced. Unfortunately, along with them, we would also generate all those that express false propositions. Www.how To Write An Essay Besant School! We also know how to build a machine that will generate only sentences that express truths. For example, we might program a computer to generate 1 + 1 is not 3, then 1 + 1 is not 4, then 1 + 1 is not 5, and so forth.
However, to generate all and only those sentences that express truths is quite another matter. Leibniz (1646-1716) dreamed of achieving this goal. By mechanizing deductive reasoning he hoped to build a machine that would generate all and only truths. Admission Essay Centennial! As he put it, How much better will it be to bring under mathematical laws human reasoning which is the most excellent and useful thing we have. This would enable one's mind to be freed from having to think directly of things themselves, and yet everything will turn out correct. His actual achievements were disappointing in www.how Hill, this regard, but his dream inspired many later investigators. Some progress on the general problem of capturing all and only those sentences which express true propositions can be made by write for newspapers Westminster School limiting the focus to a specific domain. For instance, perhaps we can find some procedure that will produce all and only the www.how to write truths of arithmetic, or of chemistry, or of Egyptian political history. Here, the key to progress is to appreciate that universal and probabilistic truths capture or contain many more specific truths. How To Essay College! If we know the universal and probabilistic laws of quantum mechanics, then (some philosophers have argued) we thereby indirectly (are in a position to) know the more specific scientific laws about chemical bonding.
Similarly, if we can axiomatize an area of mathematics, then we indirectly have captured the to write an essay Hill infinitely many specific theorems that could be derived from those axioms, and we can hope to find a decision procedure for the truths, a procedure that will guarantee a correct answer to the question, Is that true? Significant progress was made in the early twentieth century on the problem of coursework writing axiomatizing arithmetic and other areas of mathematics. Let's consider arithmetic. In the 1920s, David Hilbert hoped to represent the sentences of arithmetic very precisely in a formal language, then to generate all and only the theorems of arithmetic from uncontroversial axioms, and www.how to write Besant Hill, thereby to show that all true propositions of arithmetic can in principle be proved as theorems. This would put the concept of truth in arithmetic on a very solid basis. The axioms would capture all and articles for newspapers Westminster School, only the truths. However, Hilbert's hopes would soon be dashed. An Essay! In 1931, Kurt Godel (1906-1978), in his First Incompleteness Theorem, proved that any classical self-consistent formal language capable of expressing arithmetic must also contain sentences of arithmetic that cannot be derived within that system, and hence that the propositions expressed by those sentences could not be proven true (or false) within that system.
Thus the concept of coursework writing Algonquin College truth transcends the concept of to write an essay Hill proof in classical formal languages. This is a remarkable, precise insight into the nature of Auston Institute of Management truth. Can is true be defined so that it can be replaced by its definition? Unfortunately for Besant, the clarity of this question, there is no one concept of how to write essay College definition. A very great many linguistic devices count as definitions. These devices include providing a synonym, offering examples, pointing at objects that satisfy the www.how to write School term being defined, using the term in sentences, contrasting it with opposites, and contrasting it with terms with which it is often confused. (For further reading, see Definitions, Dictionaries, and Meanings.) However, modern theories about definition have not been especially recognized, let alone adopted, outside of certain academic and how to Centennial College, specialist circles. Many persons persist with the earlier, naive, view that the role of a definition is only to offer a synonym for the term to be defined. These persons have in mind such examples as: 'hypostatize' means (or, is a synonym for) 'reify' . If one were to adopt this older view of www.how to write an essay definition, one might be inclined to demand of a theory of truth that it provide a definition of is how to write School true which permitted its elimination in www.how an essay Hill, all contexts in the language. Tarski was the College first person to show clearly that there could never be such a strict definition for is true in Hill School, its own language.
The definition would allow for a line of reasoning that produced the Liar Paradox (recall above) and thus would lead us into self contradiction. (See the discussion, in a case study essay College, the article The Liar Paradox, of Tarski's Udefinability Theorem of 1936.) Kripke has attempted to avoid this theorem by using only a partial truth-predicate so that not every sentence has a truth-value. In effect, Kripke's repair permits a definition of the truth-predicate within its own language but at the expense of allowing certain violations of the law of excluded middle. d. Can a Theory of Truth Avoid Paradox? The brief answer is, Not if it contains its own concept of truth. If the www.how an essay Hill language is youtube Auston Institute of Management made precise by being formalized, and if it contains its own so-called global truth predicate, then Tarski has shown that the language will enable us to www.how to write Hill reason our way to a contradiction. Concord College! That result shows that we do not have a coherent concept of truth (for a language within that language). Some of our beliefs about truth, and about related concepts that are used in the argument to the contradiction, must be rejected, even though they might seem to be intuitively acceptable.
There is no reason to believe that paradox is to be avoided by to write School rejecting formal languages in favor of natural languages. The Liar Paradox first appeared in natural languages. And there are other paradoxes of truth, such as Lob's Paradox, which follow from principles that are acceptable in either formal or natural languages, namely the principles of modus ponens and conditional proof. The best solutions to the paradoxes use a similar methodology, the systematic approach. That is, they try to remove vagueness and be precise about the ramifications of their solutions, usually by showing how they work in a formal language that has the essential features of our natural language. The Liar Paradox and essay writing Auston, Lob's Paradox represent a serious challenge to understanding the logic of our natural language. The principal solutions agree that – to resolve a paradox – we must go back and systematically reform or clarify some of our original beliefs.
For example, the solution may require us to revise the meaning of is true. However, to be acceptable, the solution must be presented systematically and be backed up by an argument about the general character of our language. In short, there must be both systematic evasion and systematic explanation. Also, when it comes to developing this systematic approach, the goal of to write Besant Hill establishing a coherent basis for a consistent semantics of how to articles School natural language is much more important than the goal of explaining the naive way most speakers use the terms true and not true. Www.how School! The later Wittgenstein did not agree. He rejected the systematic approach and elevated the need to preserve ordinary language, and our intuitions about it, over how to articles Westminster School the need to www.how an essay Besant Hill create a coherent and consistent semantical theory. e. Is The Goal of Scientific Research to Achieve Truth?
Except in special cases, most scientific researchers would agree that their results are only write for newspapers Westminster School approximately true. Nevertheless, to make sense of this, philosophers need adopt no special concept such as approximate truth. Instead, it suffices to say that the researchers' goal is to achieve truth, but they achieve this goal only approximately, or only to some approximation. Other philosophers believe it's a mistake to to write an essay Hill School say the write Bromsgrove School Thailand researchers' goal is to achieve truth. Www.how Besant Hill! These scientific anti-realists recommend saying that research in, for example, physics, economics, and writing a case Concord College, meteorology, aims only for usefulness. When they aren't overtly identifying truth with usefulness, the instrumentalists Peirce, James and Schlick take this anti-realist route, as does Kuhn. They would say atomic theory isn't true or false but rather is useful for predicting outcomes of experiments and for explaining current data. Giere recommends saying science aims for the best available representation, in the same sense that maps are representations of the landscape. Maps aren't true; rather, they fit to a better or worse degree. Similarly, scientific theories are designed to fit the world.
Scientists should not aim to create true theories; they should aim to construct theories whose models are representations of the world.
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See our Sample Resumes and Cover Letters: Jan was aiming to use this resume to move up within his current company as well as to present to companies that might want his consulting services. Although Jan is quite young, he has been a successful entrepreneur for www.how to write an essay Besant Hill School, many years and we wanted his energy and thought leadership to shine. But his current resume had a very junior look and did not showcase his accomplishments. We chose to put Jan’s “Success Formula” at how to write articles for newspapers School, the top of the www.how to write Besant resume as an example of the forward thinking he brings to essay of Management, any organization. We also utilized supporting testimonials throughout to highlight Jan’s behavioral strengths. For Jan’s most recent work history, we presented him as an expert in business in www.how to write an essay Hill School, this region with the header “Turnaround and Business Establishment Success in Norway / Nordics.” Graphs were used to article Bromsgrove International School, display company growth in both percentages and an essay School revenues under Jan’s leadership at two different positions. His new resume clearly paints him as a senior executive with significant strengths to essays, offer a successful growing company.
Karen is clearly a rising star. Yet she had been applying for www.how to write an essay, competitive positions in large corporations’ training programs, many of them in how to for newspapers Westminster, Asia, and not getting calls for www.how an essay School, interviews. For Money International School. We worked to to write, match her resume to the keywords in coursework writing help Algonquin, the job descriptions for www.how an essay Besant School, those training programs, expanded her resume from a one-pager (crammed with 10.5pt Garamond) to two pages (clearly she was missing opportunities by fitting everything on one page!) and gave her a new, modern format. Write Thailand. We also categorized her very impressive accomplishments and emphasized her trilingual capabilities and multiculturalism, which were hidden on www.how to write an essay School, her original resume and writing Auston Institute clearly important for www.how an essay Besant Hill, programs in Asia. Although Karen was applying for programs that were specifically recruiting for students, we did not want to paint her as just another student. We made her Ivy League education apparent by putting Ivy U in coursework Algonquin College, a line directly under the header, showcasing that important piece of her background. Www.how To Write Besant Hill School. Instead of articles for newspapers listing “Relevant Coursework” under the Education section, we integrated her courses in the Skills section, since these were areas in which she offered experience and expertise. And we used the recognition she had received at to write an essay, Moore College to boost her credentials as someone chosen to admission essay College, represent a school in China; the logic was that a company would see “China Distinction” and be persuaded that they wanted her in their Asia program as well. Shortly after submitting her new resume, Karen began getting interviews and offers at companies including Coors, Burger King, HSBC and www.how an essay Hill Capital One. Graphic Designer / Marketer Resume. Ofer’s original resume was basically a notepad document that included a long paragraph entitled “Background” written in youtube essay writing Auston of Management, the first person; an Objective statement; and bullets that were duty- rather than accomplishment-focused.
As soon as I let Ofer know he could design his resume, a whole world opened up. Www.how An Essay Besant. I helped him with the how to articles for newspapers Westminster words, and he crafted the format. We created a couple of categories for his achievements — “Successful Client Campaigns” and www.how to write an essay “Revamp of Company’s Digital Image” — that draw attention to a case study, two of his strengths. The other bullets show his success on both the artistic and strategic sides of marketing. Finally, Ofer made the unconventional and gutsy decision to include his photo in www.how Besant, order to create a personal connection with the prospective employer.
The final resume is evidence of Ofer’s capability to design an “out-of-the-box” identity for a client — in this case, himself. Ofer used a text-based version of this resume for his on-line applications and succeeded in obtaining multiple interviews and ultimately a job with Aptima, an artificial intelligence company. Stay at Home Mom MBA Project Manager Resume. When Sara first came to us, she saw herself as a stay-at-home mom with a 10-year history of working on small projects that didn’t fully reflect her goals; her resume reflected that lack of confidence. To make Sara’s experience relevant to her target position as a lease manager/site developer at a large national company, we prioritized her project management experience and leveraged her architecture background. In the final product, her ten years of “not working” are almost indistinguishable from her other accomplishments; she paints herself as a powerful driver of projects for large multi-national companies who contributes to corporations like BIG BIZ and will be a valuable addition to her next company. Capital Project Management Executive – VP / Director. Seth had been sending out an old resume to his networks that was not achievement and metrics focused, and he was getting a lukewarm response. Articles Westminster. We loaded his resume with lots of numbers that would convey his value to an essay Besant Hill School, his next employer.
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Patricia was very eager to transition out of her current position. We chose a format appropriate for the non-profit world (yes serifed fonts!) and emphasized her success with turnarounds, her mad fundraising skills, her bilingual capabilities, her passion for youtube writing Auston of Management, making a difference for children and families, and her strong connections with community and government institutions. We organized her bullets in sections based on her biggest accomplishments, followed by sub-bullets of how she reached those goals. We chose a serifed font and format that’s a bit “old school” while being clean and professional. In my experience with non-profit executives, this format continues to www.how to write an essay Besant Hill School, be very successful. Youtube Of Management. It was for Patricia. Pat was extremely successful with this resume.
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Julie found a job in 90 days with this resume doing exactly what she loves! Linda?s resume did not draw the reader?s attention to write article School, anything in particular. To Write An Essay Besant Hill. Her format was “blah” and a case College her bullets had no focus. Www.how To Write Hill. Although there were some accomplishments scattered throughout the resume, they were hard to find. We gave Linda a much-improved format with strong visual appeal. College Admission Essay College. We pulled some of her key strengths into www.how to write an essay Hill School, a list of highlights in write articles Westminster, the top third of the resume, added graphs to www.how an essay Besant Hill, visually represent her achievements, and inserted functional headings above strictly accomplishment-oriented bullets.
Linda?s new resume shows her off as a powerful, savvy Executive. Write Article For Money International School. It got her multiple interviews — and www.how to write Besant School a job with Lockheed Martin! Sandra’s resume was written in how to essay Centennial College, an “old school” format that had little visual interest. Her bullets were very broad and duty-focused, and an essay School were not organized in any particular way. Writing Study Essay Concord. We gave her a new modern format, made sure to load the resume with keywords, and added categories for her bullets to help guide the Hill School reader’s expectations. Written Argumentative Essays Ross School. With her new resume, Sandra can be confident that if anyone is looking for a Financial Executive with skills in Cost Reduction Containment, Process Improvement, Relationship Building, or Finance Planning, they will be encouraged to read about her accomplishments in those areas. Brad was seeking a VP of Operations position in www.how to write an essay School, the construction industry, and was realistic that he might need to expand his search to other fields. We crafted his resume so that it would be effective both in articles for newspapers Westminster School, his industry of choice and across related industries (he had the option of deleting “within construction industry” from his Summary). The resume was originally in a very simplistic format, and the summary was essentially a list of keywords and cliched language like “respected senior leader” and “proven track record.” We crafted a powerful branding statement, pulled Brad’s keywords into www.how to write Besant Hill School, a clear list of Areas of School Expertise, and gave him a format that spoke to his level of www.how to write an essay Hill accomplishment. We also carved away terms like “responsible for” and “responsibilities included” and ratcheted up his power verbs.
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This font is to write Besant Hill challenging to the eye and the flow of the writing Algonquin College text is difficult to follow. The dates in the column on the left inefficiently occupy important space. The 11 bullets in the first experience section reduce readability. There are distracting links inserted into the resume body. Finally, despite this client’s years of work experience, his education is listed first. The final resume has a new cleaner and more professional look with more white space.
Some of the architect’s accomplishments are combined; we had conversations with him to determine which bullets could be deleted. Www.how Besant. All extraneous, duplicative and unnecessary text was carved away to produce a clean, sharp and beautiful resume – a visual match for how to Westminster, this accomplished architect, and www.how an essay Besant Hill School one that helped him secure a position with a prominent firm in Milwaukee and later a position at Harvard University! Recent Graduate – Marketing Resume. Aaron had applied to several jobs using his existing resume, with no success. It took him just three days to get an interview using his new resume.
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92A Automated Logistical Specialist Duty Descriptions. Automated Logistical Specialist. Serves as Material Control NCOIC and Storage and Receiving NCOIC of a Forward Support Battalion Class IX warehouse that supports 22 combat maneuver units of 2nd Brigade 1st Infantry Division in the Republic of Korea; supervises eleven subordinates in to write an essay Besant, receiving and storing of 340 lines of ASL valued at over $8,000,000; ensured procedural accuracy in using the Standard Army Retail Supply System-Objective (SARSS-O), the Integrated Logistics Analysis Program (ILAP), and Material Release Order Control System (MROCS). 92A4 Platoon SGT/Material Control Supervisor. Serves as the Sustainment Platoon Sergeant and Material Control Supervisor for a _______________________, in how to write School, a Multi-Class II, IV, VII, and IX Supply Support Activity (SSA), in support of www.how to write ___________; advises platoon leader on training and care of Soldiers; assists the accountable officer in how to write admission essay, managing a _____ Authorized Stockage Listing (ASL) valued at $_,___,___million; responsible for the health, welfare, training, discipline, and morale of 53 Paratroopers; accountable for 13 automation workstations, nine shipping containers, four forklifts, two M129A4 vans, two satellites, and one TMP valued in excess of www.how Hill $3.1 million. Supply Accounting Supervisor. Served as the Supply Accounting Supervisor in support of youtube writing Institute a Special Forces unit; served as Standard Army Maintenance System-2 Enhanced manager; responsible for www.how resolving all AHO-026 maintenance issues within the Group; interfaced directly with all levels of repair and provide guidance to all units on maintenance related matters; ensured the accuracy of maintenance tracking data; responsible for the monthly accuracy and timely submittal of Army Materiel Status System (AMSS); directly responsible for the health, welfare, morale, and training of two Soldiers; accountable for two STAMIS systems, one HMMWV, and lawn equipment in excess of $185,000. Materiel Supply Sergeant.
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Establishes and write article School, maintains stock records and www.how School, other documents such as inventory, materiel control, accounting and supply reports. Establishes and maintains automated and manual accounting records, posts receipts and turn-ins, and performs dues-ins and dues-outs accounting. Corrects error and essay Institute of Management, exception documents. Reviews and verifies quantities received against bills of lading, contracts, purchase requests, and shipping documents. Unloads, unpacks, visually inspects, counts, segregates, palletizes, and stores incoming supplies and equipment. Maintains stock locator system and administers document control procedures. An Essay School? Repairs and constructs fiberboard or wooden containers.
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Establishes issue schedules and procedures. 40 Level Duty Description. Performs supervisory duties shown in preceding level of skills. Conducts inspections and provides technical assistance to storage activities. Assists in development and preparation of operations information including plans, maps, sketches, overlays, and other data related to supply organization employment. Centennial? Performs liaison and staff duties in a supply and maintenance activity or in a command and staff logistics activity. Analyzes operations statistical data and reports to ascertain functional trends, conformance to standards and directives, and efficiency of an essay operations.
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Analyzes reports on supply and service support operations. MATERIEL CONTROL ACCOUNTING SUPERVISOR: Assigns duties, instructs and supervises subordinates in proper work techniques and procedures. Plans and analyzes operational data and reports to ascertain degree of conformity with established policies, work standards and procedural directives. Supervises preparation of to write an essay materiel control and a case study Concord College, accounting input for data processing and reviews output documents. Analyze statistical data to determine effectiveness of technical edit. Reconcile problems in automated supply accounting system.
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Equal Opportunity Advisors will; Understand and articulate Department of Defense (DOD) and Army policies concerning equal opportunity; Assist the commander in implementing a Consideration of Others Program; Recognize and assess indicators of institutional and individual discrimination in organizations; Recognize sexual harassment in both overt and subtle forms. INSPECTOR GENERAL NCO: Support the installation and the surrounding community by youtube writing Auston, providing the Commanding General with a continuous assessment of the effectiveness of the command thru; assistance to commanders, Soldiers, families, and to write Hill, civilians from both on and off post; conducting investigations, inspections, inquiries, and teaching/training; monitoring and providing feedback on trend analysis; assessing the state of and School, improving readiness, mission performance, discipline, efficiency, economy, and esprit/morale; supporting commanders and assisting Soldiers; identifying systemic problems and recommending viable solutions; improving quality of life for the entire community. Www.how To Write Besant Hill? 92A Duty Description: 92A3O - Skill Level Three. DRMS NCO: There is a wide variety of Defense Reutilization Marketing Service (DRMS) positions with many differences in responsibilities. These assignments may vary from staff level assignments that require interacting predominantly with civil servant GS/WG employees and senior officers on a daily basis to positions within a DRMS facility. Positions within a DRMS facility may have responsibility for overseeing operations, establishing operations and write article for money Bromsgrove, ensuring compliance with established policies and www.how to write an essay Hill School, procedures. Must provide staff advice and liaison assistance to those agencies with which there is interaction.
Soldiers that are screened and selected for these assignments are usually of the highest caliber and have proven themselves in previous assignments. Soldiers must posses a high level of technical knowledge within their MOS as well as the analytical skills necessary to solve problems and work on coursework writing Algonquin, projects that are outside of their specialization. These jobs are usually high visibility and offer unique challenges. MATERIEL CONTROL ACCOUNTING SUPERVISOR: Assigns duties, instructs and supervises subordinates in proper work techniques and procedures. Plans and analyzes operational data and reports to ascertain degree of conformity with established policies, work standards and procedural directives.
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A Materiel Management NCO usually performs duties directly related to their MOS; however, duties such as working in a CSSAMO are unique and challenging. SUBSISTENCE NCO: Responsible for the requisition, accountability, wholesomeness and the safe storage of subsistence items. Assists in planning subsistence support for field exercises. Ensures compliance with directives related to subsistence supply storage and distribution operations, including world wide operations. Prepare and updates warehouse planigrams. Ensures compliance with standards of serviceability, reclamation, salvage and disposal procedures.
Conduct warehousing surveillance and inspections. Prepares reports on personnel and write for newspapers, equipment availability, storage space, relocation of materiel. SUPPLY ACCOUNTING SUPERVISOR: Supervises the review and verification of quantities received against bills of lading, contracts, purchase requests and shipping documents. Coordinates and supervises the unloading, unpacking, visual inspection, counts, segregation, palletization and storage of incoming supplies and equipment. Ensures that the stock locator system is maintained and administers document control procedures. Processes inventories, surveys and warehousing documents. STOCK CONTROL SUPERVISOR: Assigns duties, instructs and www.how an essay School, supervises subordinate Stock Control personnel by providing guidance in proper work techniques and procedures. The Stock Control office will vary depending on the size of the facility and customer base. A Stock Control Supervisor can plan on having between 2 to 5 personnel working within Stock Control. A Stock Control Supervisor analyzes operations statistical data and reports to ascertain functional trends, conformance to standards and directives and efficiency of operations.
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92A Duty Description: 92A2O - Skill Level Two. EQUIPMENT RECORDS PARTS NCO: At the Unit Level, 92As work as PLL/TAMMS clerks (Prescribed Load List/The Army Maintenance Management System), and are responsible for maintaining records of services performed, ordering and managing repair parts, dispatching vehicles and equipment, and www.how, maintaining operator licensing records. 92A's are assigned to, and supervised by the maintenance NCO, and will usually be the only 92A in the company. This is a very high profile job and the Equipment Records Parts Specialist/NCO will interface with vehicle drivers, mechanics, armorer, unit supply sergeant, company Executive Officer, Maintenance Officer, and Commander while conducting daily duties. A good PLL/TAMMS clerk can make or break a companys maintenance program. MATERIEL CONTROL ACCOUNTING NCO: Provides technical guidance to lower graded personnel. Establishes and maintains stock records and other documents such as inventory, materiel control, accounting and supply reports. Establishes and maintains automated and manual accounting records, posts receipts and how to admission essay College, turn#8209;ins and performs dues#8209;ins and dues#8209;outs accounting. Corrects error and exception documents. Processes inventories, surveys and warehousing documents. Maintains stock locator system and administers document control procedures.
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These NCOs may review and verify quantities received against bills of lading, contracts, purchase requests and essay writing of Management, shipping documents. Unloads, unpacks, visually inspects, counts, segregates, palletizes and stores incoming supplies and equipment. Maintains stock locator system and administers document control procedures. Prepares warehouse and stock for inventory by performing location surveys and ensuring location accuracy. Repairs and www.how to write Besant School, constructs fiberboard or wooden containers.
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Configures unit loads for aerial delivery. Responsible for www.how to write Besant Hill safe storage and proper care of subsistence items. SUPPLY ACCOUNTING NCO: Reviews and verifies quantities received against bills of lading, contracts, purchase requests and shipping documents. Unloads, unpacks, visually inspects, counts, segregates, palletizes and stores incoming supplies and article for money School Thailand, equipment. Hill? Maintains stock locator system and essay writing Auston Institute, administers document control procedures. Processes inventories, surveys and warehousing documents. SUBSISTENCE SUPPLY SUPERVISOR: Supervises the www.how to write an essay Besant, consolidation of requisitions, accountability, and the safe storage of subsistence items before distribution to requesting units. Coursework Writing Help Algonquin College? Assists in www.how to write Besant School, planning subsistence support for field exercises. Ensures compliance with standards of serviceability, reclamation, salvage and disposal procedures. Prepares reports on personnel and equipment availability, storage space, relocation of materiel. STOCK ACCOUNTING NCO: Provides guidance to subordinates and establishes work priorities.
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SUBSISTENCE SUPPLY SPECIALIST: Assists in the collection and to write an essay Hill School, consolidation of ration requisitions, provides accountability, and safe storage of subsistence items before distribution to requesting units. Unloads and uploads rations using MHE and manual methods. Ensures rations that must be stored are properly segregated and maintained according to established guidelines. Maintains serviceability of assigned equipment. STOCK ACCOUNTING SPECIALIST: Establishes and maintains stock records and other documents such as inventory, materiel control, accounting and supply reports.
Establishes and maintains automated and manual accounting records, posts receipts and turn#8209;ins and performs dues#8209;ins and dues#8209;outs accounting. Correct error and exception documents. VEHICLE OPERATOR: Responsible for the operation of military vehicles for both supply and non supply operations, ranging from small two axle passenger vehicles to large cargo carrying vehicles. How To College Admission Essay? These vehicles will be operated in varying terrain conditions. Conducts Preventative Maintenance Checks and Services (PMCS) and is responsible for maintaining the operational readiness of assigned equipment.
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Besant Hill School of Happy Valley - среднее образование в США
Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications. School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University Search for more papers by this author. Donald S. Siegel, Department of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 3506 Russell Sage Laboratory, 110, 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA (email@example.com). abstract We describe a variety of www.how to write an essay Hill School perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which we use to develop a framework for consideration of the strategic implications of CSR. Based on this framework, we propose an writing study essay Concord College agenda for additional theoretical and empirical research on CSR. We then review the papers in to write Besant Hill this special issue and relate them to the proposed agenda. In recent years, scholars and managers have devoted greater attention to the strategic implications of corporate social responsibility (CSR).
Consistent with McWilliams and Siegel (2001), we define CSR as situations where the firm goes beyond compliance and engages in actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the writing, interests of the firm and that which is required by law’. Www.how An Essay School? However, this is just one interpretation of CSR. Numerous definitions of CSR have been proposed and often no clear definition is given, making theoretical development and measurement difficult. CSR activities have been posited to include incorporating social characteristics or features into products and manufacturing processes (e.g. aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or using environmentally-friendly technologies), adopting progressive human resource management practices (e.g. Write Admission Essay Centennial? promoting employee empowerment), achieving higher levels of environmental performance through recycling and pollution abatement (e.g. adopting an www.how to write Besant Hill School aggressive stance towards reducing emissions), and advancing the goals of community organizations (e.g. working closely with groups such as United Way).  Researchers are moving beyond just defining and identifying CSR activities, to youtube writing Institute examine the strategic role of CSR in organizations. Similarly, there is growing interest among managers in the antecedents and consequences of CSR, especially for executives at www.how to write an essay Besant Hill multi-national, multi-divisional companies. These corporate leaders are mindful of the fact that business norms and standards, regulatory frameworks, and stakeholder demand for a case essay Concord CSR can vary substantially across nations, regions, and lines of business. They are also aware that their divisional managers are under constant pressure from an essay Besant Hill School, employees, suppliers, community groups, NGOs, and government to increase their involvement in CSR. Unfortunately for both academicians and practitioners, the analysis of CSR is still embryonic, and thus theoretical frameworks, measurement, and empirical methods have not yet been resolved.
Furthermore, this topic cannot be analysed through the lens of a single disciplinary perspective. Thus, it appears that CSR is fertile ground for theory development and empirical analysis such as takes place in college admission essay College the Journal of Management Studies . The purpose of this special issue is to further the CSR research agenda by bringing together multiple perspectives. Www.how An Essay? After issuing an open call for papers on the Academy of Management website and other venues, we received 32 manuscripts. Writing Help College? We reviewed these papers and selected several for presentation at a Special Issue Workshop at the University of Illinois at Chicago.  Among the www.how to write an essay Besant, authors and discussants at the workshop were scholars from several academic disciplines (management, political science, accounting, marketing, and economics), many international contributors, and a high proportion of junior scholars. The papers presented at the workshop were critiqued by reviewers and participants and then reviewed again after the how to admission essay Centennial College, workshop. From these revised manuscripts, we selected the five best for an essay School publication in the special issue. Several themes emerged from these studies: the relation between CSR and competitive advantage, the role of youtube essay Auston Institute differences in institutional environments in framing stakeholder expectations regarding the propensity of firms to engage in CSR, a comparison of the www.how Besant Hill, social desirability of the strategic use of CSR versus coerced’ CSR, the essay writing Institute, role of www.how an essay Besant economic, philosophical, and how to for newspapers Westminster School global corporate citizenship perspectives on www.how to write Besant CSR, and essay Centennial College the evolution and influence of the academic literature on CSR. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we discuss a variety of to write Besant School theories that shed light on the strategic implications of CSR.
Following that, we outline an agenda for theoretical and empirical research on the strategic implications of CSR. We conclude with a brief review of each study in the special issue and its importance to how to articles for newspapers School our proposed research agenda. Numerous theories have been brought to bear on the subject of CSR. We summarize selected articles on theoretical perspectives in Hill Table I. Theodore Levitt could be credited with setting the agenda for the debate about the social responsibility of business in his Harvard Business Review article The Dangers of Social Responsibility’, in which he cautions that government's job is not business, and coursework writing Algonquin College business's job is not government’ (1958, p. 47). Milton Friedman (1970) expressed the same sentiment and added that the mere existence of CSR was a signal of an agency problem within the firm. An agency theory perspective implies that CSR is a misuse of corporate resources that would be better spent on valued-added internal projects or returned to shareholders. It also suggests that CSR is an www.how Besant School executive perk, in the sense that managers use CSR to advance their careers or other personal agendas. R. Edward Freeman (1984), building on Chester Barnard's (1938) inducement-contribution’ framework, presented a more positive view of managers’ support of CSR. Auston Institute Of Management? Freeman's stakeholder theory asserts that managers must satisfy a variety of constituents (e.g. School? workers, customers, suppliers, local community organizations) who can influence firm outcomes. Write College Admission College? According to this view, it is not sufficient for managers to focus exclusively on the needs of stockholders, or the www.how Hill School, owners of the corporation. Stakeholder theory implies that it can be beneficial for writing a case Concord College the firm to www.how an essay Besant School engage in certain CSR activities that non-financial stakeholders perceive to be important, because, absent this, these groups might withdraw their support for the firm.
Stakeholder theory was expanded by Donaldson and Preston (1995) who stressed the moral and ethical dimensions of admission College CSR, as well as the www.how, business case for how to write articles Westminster engaging in such activity. Another perspective, stewardship theory (Donaldson and Davis, 1991) is based on the idea that there is a moral imperative for managers to do the right thing’, without regard to www.how an essay School how such decisions affect firm financial performance. Institutional theory and classical economic theory have also been applied to CSR in how to for newspapers Westminster School a paper by Jones (1995). The author concludes that companies involved in repeated transactions with stakeholders on the basis of www.how an essay School trust and cooperation are motivated to be honest, trustworthy, and ethical because the returns to such behaviour are high. Institutional approaches have also been used to analyse environmental social responsibility. More specifically, Jennings and Zandbergen (1995) analyse the role of institutions in shaping the consensus within a firm regarding the establishment of an ecologically sustainable’ organization. Finally, a recent paper by Waldman et al. (2004) applies strategic leadership theory to CSR. For Money Bromsgrove School? These authors conjecture that certain aspects of transformational leadership will be positively correlated with the propensity of firms to engage in CSR and that these leaders will employ CSR activities strategically.
To the extent that firms engage in CSR strategically, this behaviour can be examined through the lens of the resource-based-view-of-the-firm (RBV). Www.how To Write Besant? RBV, as introduced by Wernerfelt (1984) and refined by Barney (1991), borrows heavily from earlier research by Penrose (1959).  This theory presumes that firms are bundles of heterogeneous resources and capabilities that are imperfectly mobile across firms. Barney (1991) maintains that if these resources and capabilities are valuable, rare, inimitable and Westminster School non-substitutable, they can constitute a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The first theoretical paper to apply the www.how to write Hill School, RBV framework to corporate social responsibility was Hart (1995), who focused exclusively on writing Auston environmental social responsibility. Hart asserted that, for certain types of firms, environmental social responsibility can constitute a resource or capability that leads to a sustained competitive advantage.
Russo and Fouts (1997) tested this theory empirically using firm-level data on environmental and accounting profitability and found that firms with higher levels of environmental performance had superior financial performance, which they interpreted to Besant School be consistent with the written Ross School, RBV theory. Using the RBV framework, a more formal theory-of-the-firm model of profit-maximizing’ CSR was posited in McWilliams and Siegel (2001). These authors outlined a simple model in which two companies produce identical products, except that one firm adds an additional social’ attribute or feature to the product, which is www.how an essay Besant School, valued by how to some consumers or, potentially, by other stakeholders. In this model, managers conduct a cost/benefit analysis to determine the level of resources to www.how an essay devote to CSR activities/attributes. Argumentative Essays? That is, they assess the demand for CSR and to write Besant Hill also evaluate the cost of satisfying this demand. The theory of the firm perspective on CSR has several strategic implications. The first is article International, that CSR can be an www.how to write an essay Hill integral element of a firm's business and corporate-level differentiation strategies. Therefore, it should be considered as a form of article for money Thailand strategic investment. Www.how Besant Hill? Even when it is not directly tied to write a product feature or production process, CSR can be viewed as a form of reputation building or maintenance. A second strategic implication of www.how to write an essay Besant School a theory of the firm perspective is that one can apply the written essays Ross, RBV logic to to write Hill CSR, in the sense that it is possible to writing a case study Concord generate a set of predictions regarding patterns of investment in CSR across firms and industries.
For example, we expect to observe a positive correlation between CSR and both RD and advertising (McWilliams and Siegel, 2000), an www.how to write an essay Hill assertion that we will explain below. Coursework Help? Expanding on this theory of the firm perspective, we can shed further light on the strategic implications of CSR. Www.how To Write Besant? In particular, we wish to focus on issues relating to industry evolution, market structure, firm dynamics, and the role of asymmetric information in writing the context of CSR. We first note that in the context of using CSR to differentiate products, it is important to distinguish between two types of product differentiation. Www.how To Write An Essay Besant? The first is vertical differentiation which occurs when most consumers prefer one product to another. Other things being equal, most consumers prefer a more fuel-efficient vehicle. In the context of CSR, such a situation could occur when it is how to admission essay Centennial College, clear in the mind of consumers that the product with a CSR characteristic is better than the product without such a characteristic.
For example, a hybrid’ version of a Honda Accord generates less pollution than a standard Honda Accord. Thus, it is Besant School, clear to most consumers that the College, hybrid car is to write Besant Hill School, better than the standard model. Some consumers are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, given that the social characteristic of less pollution is valuable’ to them. This type of differentiation can strengthen or maintain the written essays School, reputation of the firm which adds value in addition to allowing the firm to meet a particular market demand (Fombrun and Shanley, 1990). In contrast, horizontal differentiation occurs when only some consumers prefer a particular product, but the preference is based on taste, rather than quality. For example, some consumers choose a particular vehicle because of the colour. This type of differentiation does not contribute to the reputation of the firm and does not allow the firm to charge a premium price. Horizontal differentiation also operates for different brands. Www.how An Essay Besant Hill? For example, some consumers prefer Coke to Pepsi, while others have the opposite view. In contrast to the ease of valuing CSR attributes, consumers often find it difficult to determine if a firm's internal operations meet their moral and political standards for social responsibility.
The level of asymmetric information regarding internal operations can be mediated by how to college College the firm itself or by activists. For instance, companies such as McDonalds, Motorola, and Nike publish annual reports on social responsibility. One can view this activity as a form of advertising, especially for more general types of CSR. While such reports may be useful, some consumers perceive this information as biased, since it is filtered through senior management. Fedderson and Hill Gilligan (2001) assert that activists can play an important role in write article Bromsgrove School addressing this concern, by supplying consumers with information they can rely on www.how an essay to choose socially responsible firms. The relationship between CSR and advertising is an writing Algonquin College interesting one, which bears further reflection. Several stylized facts relating to to write an essay Hill School industry evolution and the nature of advertising are useful to consider. The first is that we expect levels of investment in CSR to be higher for a case study established firms in more mature industries, since the extent of production differentiation will be greater in such sectors and consumers will, in general, have more sophisticated tastes and knowledge regarding products and to write an essay Besant firms. It is clear that such companies are likely to derive greater benefits from the use of CSR for reputation enhancement/protection. A second point is that if some forms of CSR do indeed constitute advertising, then it is Algonquin, important to distinguish between persuasive CSR advertising and informative CSR advertising. Persuasive CSR advertising attempts to positively influence consumer tastes for to write Besant products with CSR attributes.
It follows that this type of advertising need not be firm-specific. Informative CSR advertising merely provides information about the CSR characteristics or CSR managerial practices of the firm. Following Milgrom and coursework Roberts (1986), one could also view a high level of CSR advertising (either persuasive on informative CSR advertising) as a signal of product or firm quality. Another critical issue concerns the nature of the market structure of the firm's industry. A key conclusion of the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) paper was that, in to write an essay Besant Hill School equilibrium, firms that engage in CSR will earn the same rate of profit as firms that do not engage in youtube essay writing Auston Institute of Management CSR.
We refer to this finding as the neutrality result. This finding was misinterpreted by Piga (2002) as implying that CSR can only occur in www.how to write Besant Hill School monopolistically competitive industries, since some oligopoly models of vertically differentiated markets predict that (in equilibrium) firms selling the higher quality product (in our case, the firm that sells a good with a CSR characteristic) reap abnormal’ profits. A monopolistically competitive industry consists of numerous firms, some product differentiation, and relative free entry. Some examples of such sectors are restaurants and retail establishments. On the other hand, oligopolies are characterized by a consolidated industry structure, considerable entry barriers, and written essays substantial product differentiation (e.g. autos, computers). We believe that the to write an essay Besant School, neutrality result holds under both oligopoly and monopolistic competition. Youtube Auston Institute Of Management? This is implied for monopolistic competition because sectors with such a structure are characterized by both horizontal and vertical differentiation, a fragmented industry structure, and very low entry barriers. Under this scenario, it is impossible for firms to use CSR to outperform rivals. Examples of firms in monopolistically competitive industries that engage in CSR include restaurants, hotels, companies selling organic produce, and www.how to write Besant Hill different types of argumentative retail establishments. The neutrality result likely holds for monopolistic markets as well.
That is because, while some oligopoly models predict that firms producing a higher quality product earn abnormal’ returns, these findings hinge on the assumption that costs are constant and independent of quality. These assumptions were not invoked in the McWilliams and Hill School Siegel (2001) model. Furthermore, recent economic models of CSR (Baron, 2001; Fedderson and Gilligan, 2001) identify an important countervailing force on the ability of companies to essays School engage in strategic CSR in www.how to write an essay Besant Hill School oligopolistic industries: activists who target leading firms (e.g. the attack on Nike's Asian production). This countervailing force makes it difficult for oligopolistic firms to youtube of Management achieve a competitive advantage through the strategic use of Besant School CSR. The question of a case study essay whether firms can use CSR to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage is another important question. A paper by Reinhardt (1998) finds that a firm engaging in a CSR-based strategy can only generate an abnormal return if it can prevent competitors from imitating its strategy. In competitive markets this is unlikely, since CSR is highly transparent, with little causal ambiguity. Other theoretical studies (Dutta et al., 1995; Hoppe and Lehmann-Grube, 2001) show that any early mover advantages that might be gained by offering higher quality products (recall that CSR is modelled as a quality improvement’ in McWilliams and Siegel, 2001) are eroded when competitive strategies are observable.
However, CSR may be used in the context of political strategies that result in regulatory barriers to imitation. One such strategy would be for firms to use government regulation to an essay Besant School impose CSR on rivals who do not employ an appropriate technology, thus raising the costs of written essays those rivals relative to the initiating firm. Marvel (1977) provided an example of Besant School this in the British textile industry in the early 1800s. The first child labour law was passed in Great Britain after the writing a case study essay Concord College, mill owners who employed modern technology banded together and lobbied for restrictions on child labour, which was used more by the older, smaller mills. McWilliams et al. (2002) applied the an essay Hill School, RBV framework to demonstrate how US firms can use political strategies based on CSR to raise regulatory barriers that prevent foreign competitors from write articles School, using substitute (e.g. low labour cost) technology. This discussion focused primarily on understanding CSR from an applied perspective. To Write Besant Hill? However, it begins to point to a broader and deeper set of write for money Bromsgrove International School research issues that have yet to be resolved. RESEARCH AGENDA ON THE STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF CSR. There are numerous unresolved theoretical and Besant School empirical issues relating to the strategic implications of CSR.
These include defining CSR, identifying institutional differences in CSR across countries, determining the motivations for CSR, describing CSR strategies, modelling the effects of CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, determining the effects of leadership and corporate culture on CSR activity, assessing the effect of CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, measuring the demand for CSR, measuring the costs of CSR and assessing the current knowledge base. Theoretical Issues To Be Resolved. As noted in our introduction, there is a no strong consensus on a definition for essay CSR. CSR has been used as a synonym for business ethics, defined as tantamount to corporate philanthropy, and considered strictly as relating to environmental policy. CSR has also been confused with corporate social performance and www.how Besant School corporate citizenship. The lack of consistency in the use of the term CSR makes it difficult to compare results across studies, hampering our ability to understand the implications of CSR activity. As other issues are resolved, we hope that they lead to the emergence of an agreed-upon definition of CSR.
Having a good definition of CSR, with a common terminology, would aid us in modelling the role of organizational culture and leadership in determining the importance of CSR within an organization. Researchers could analyse how changes in corporate control, particularly through merger or acquisition, affect the type and writing Institute level of CSR activity within firms. Alternatively, changes in top management (CEO or team) might be examined to www.how to write Besant determine whether leadership style and characteristics are more important than corporate control/culture for predicting CSR activity. Understanding the role of leadership could be extended to a case essay Concord College understanding the decision making process and how decisions about CSR activity are affected by demands from multiple stakeholders. Asymmetric information makes it difficult to study the antecedents and consequences of CSR.
Managers may perceive that many external stakeholders view CSR activity more favourably if it is divorced from any discussion of the bottom line. With this in mind, managers may not reveal the more practical motivations (such as product promotion, labour cost control and reputation building) behind their CSR activities, especially in corporate publications such as annual reports. This lack of candid information has made it difficult to distinguish and discuss the different motivations for www.how Hill CSR, which may be private or social. The use of CSR to capture value is referred to as strategic CSR by Baron (2001) who points out that it is the article International, motivation for the action that identifies socially, as opposed to privately, responsible action’. That is, if the motivation is to serve society, at the cost of profits, the action is www.how an essay Besant Hill, socially responsible, but if the motivation is to serve the bottom line, then the action is privately responsible. For privately responsible actions, there may well be social benefits that exceed the cost of the action to the firm. College Admission Centennial? However, this does not change the motivation, unless these social benefits are of value to managers. For example, providing day care may lower the number of juvenile crimes in www.how to write an essay Besant Hill a community, but the firm might provide the day care only because it increases the availability of workers and lowers the cost of absenteeism. This is reminiscent of the consideration of positive externalities associated with innovative activity. An externality is defined as the impact of an economic agent's actions on youtube Auston of Management the well-being of a bystander. Pollution is a classic example of a negative externality, while innovation (whose benefits cannot be entirely appropriated by its creator) is a classic example of www.how an essay Besant Hill School a positive externality.
While the private returns to innovation (or those that accrue to the company) may be high, the for money International, social returns to innovation (through the creation of new or improved products and processes) may be even greater. Researchers need to use more direct methods, such as interviews and surveys, to tease out’ less self-serving information about the motivations for CSR activity and improve the precision of measurement of the private and social returns to an essay Besant Hill School CSR. In addition to understanding the how to write college Centennial, motivation for the provision of to write Besant social benefits, we need to understand how the provision of these goods, through strategic CSR, affects society. An example of strategic CSR is when a firm links the provision of a public good to the sale of their (private) products (e.g. eco-labelling). Bagnoli and Watts (2003) model this behaviour and find that the writing help College, propensity of firms to Hill School engage in strategic CSR depends on two factors: the intensity of competition in the market and the extent to which consumers are willing to pay a premium for Algonquin social responsibility. The authors conclude that there is an inverse relation between intensity of competition and provision of CSR. That is, in more competitive markets, less of the public good will be provided through strategic CSR. Besant School? Conversely, in less competitive markets, more of the public good will be provided. This is easy to understand, since more competition results in lower margins and, therefore, less ability to provide additional (social) attributes or activity. Write Article Bromsgrove International Thailand? Conversely, less competition leads to to write Hill School the potential for higher margins and more ability to provide additional attributes or activity.
An analysis of the provision of public goods by private firms is a welcome addition to the management literature on CSR, which has been primarily concerned with answering the following question: do firms do well by doing good’? Showing that a firm does well by doing good is write college essay Centennial College, often referred to as making the business case for CSR. While understanding the relation between firm performance and social performance is www.how an essay Hill, of primary importance in the management literature, a more thorough understanding of the CSR phenomenon requires that we take account of other stakeholders as well. These stakeholders include: customers, employees, governments, suppliers, taxpayers, community groups, and underrepresented groups. Our understanding of CSR should be extended to an examination of the writing help, strategic use of CSR activities. Fombrun and Shanley (1990) established that investing in CSR attributes and activities may be important elements of product differentiation and www.how an essay Besant School reputation building. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) suggest that CSR activities be included in strategy formulation and that the write for money Bromsgrove International School, level of resources devoted to CSR be determined through cost/benefit analysis. Analysis of the strategic implications of CSR is hampered by cross-country/cultural differences in the institutions that regulate market activity, including business, labour and social agencies. Institutional differences lead to different expectations and different returns to activity.
For firms operating in www.how School multiple countries/cultures this complicates the process of determining which activities to write for money International School Thailand engage in and how much to invest. Www.how To Write Besant Hill? As the knowledge base of CSR develops world-wide, we will be better able to analyse and advise on CSR. In summary, the CSR literature suffers from definitional questions that limit the future research. Distinguishing among strategic CSR, altruistic CSR, and even coerced CSR (e.g. Husted and De Jesus Salazar, 2006) constitutes a significant theoretical breakthrough. However, until theory and research can adequately agree upon what, specifically, constitutes CSR, research will continue to provide a lack of consistent results.
It is to this empirical research that we next turn our attention. Problems with measurement of the costs and benefits of CSR activities continue to cloud our understanding of the strategic implications of CSR. A major impediment to empirical research is the continuing confusion over definition that we mentioned above. It is impossible to measure what we cannot define and, as long as we use different definitions, we will get empirical results that cannot reliably be compared. Table II presents selected empirical studies of CSR. Most of these papers focus on the relation between CSR and firm performance. Early studies used either the event study methodology (which is based on analysis of short-run changes in stock prices as a proxy for article for money International Thailand firm performance in to write Hill School the aftermath of a CSR-related event) or regression analysis (which uses an accounting measure of written essays Ross School profitability, such as return on assets, as the dependent variable in a regression model that explains’ firm performance). These studies usually attempted to answer the to write School, question: do firms do well by doing good? The reported results have ranged from showing a negative relation between CSR and firm performance, to showing no relation, to showing a positive relation (e.g. the results of college College divesting from South Africa shown in Table II). There is little consistency in these findings.
This may be a result of inconsistency in defining CSR, inconsistency in defining firm performance, inconsistency in samples, imprecision and inconsistency in Besant Hill research design, misspecification of models, changes over time, or some more fundamental variance in the samples that are being analysed. McWilliams and Siegel (1997) critiqued the use of the admission essay, event study methodology to measure the consequences of Besant Hill School CSR. The authors reported that the youtube essay writing, findings of event studies of CSR appearing in top management journals were unreliable, due to serious flaws in the research design and www.how to write School implementation of the event study methodology (see also McWilliams et al., 1999). They also cautioned that the use of stock price as a metric for performance is not appropriate for studying CSR. That is because CSR is a firm level measure and many socially responsibility activities occur at the plant level or the product level. Another concern is that an analysis of stock price effects only essay College relates to financial stakeholders and it is clear that non-financial stakeholders are also affected by CSR activities. McWilliams and to write Hill School Siegel (2000) challenged the conventional regression model used to written essays Ross assess the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP), which is often used as a synonym for CSR, and to write an essay Besant School firm performance. They noted that the typical regression equation estimated was misspecified because it did not include two key variables: the level of RD spending and advertising expenditure. Both of write college admission these variables have been shown to be determinants of firm performance and, because all three (RD, advertising, and CSP) are elements of a differentiation strategy, they hypothesized that RD and advertising would be correlated with a measure of CSP. The results of McWilliams and Siegel's estimation of the correctly-specified, expanded equation demonstrated that the three explanatory variables were correlated. Thus, the model that excluded RD and advertising variables was misspecified.
Most notably, they showed that when RD and advertising were included in the model, CSP was not a significant determinant of firm performance, as had been reported in several widely-cited studies. Consistent with Baron's (2001) distinction between altruistic CSR and strategic CSR, Hillman and Keim (2001) conjecture that empirical tests of the relation between CSR and www.how to write an essay School firm performance should disaggregate CSR activities into those that are strategic (stakeholder management) and those that are altruistic (social issue participation). Based on estimation of a disaggregated model, they report that there is a positive relation between firm performance (measured using market value added) and strategic CSR and a negative relation between altruistic CSR and firm performance. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) provide a framework for analysing CSR within the context of the a case study essay Concord College, theory of the firm. Based on this framework, they develop hypotheses regarding the provision of CSR attributes across industries and to write Hill School market structures. They hypothesize that the provision of CSR will depend on for newspapers Westminster School RD spending, advertising intensity, the extent of product differentiation, the percentage of government sales, consumer income, the tightness of the labour market, and the stage of the industry life cycle’ (2001, p. To Write An Essay Besant? 125). All of these should be tested empirically to see if the write article for money International Thailand, results support the hypotheses. McWilliams and Siegel conclude that there is some level of CSR that will maximize profits while satisfying the www.how to write Besant Hill School, demand for CSR from write for money School, multiple stakeholders. The ideal level of CSR can be determined by cost-benefit analysis’ (2001, p. 125). While costs of providing CSR attributes may be easy for managers to determine, consumer demand (benefit) may not be. Consumer demand for CSR could be difficult to measure because CSR attributes are among many attributes of a product.
For example, a particular shampoo may have the CSR attribute that it is an essay Hill, not tested on animals’. College Essay Centennial? But, it also has a particular scent, colour, consistency, and package. This makes it difficult to separate out the demand for the CSR attribute. A method for assessing how much consumers are willing to pay for www.how to write Hill a given product characteristic or feature is hedonic pricing. Hedonic pricing involves using data on actual purchases, in order to how to write college admission essay Centennial College determine the implicit price’ of a particular attribute. For example, new homes have many attributes, one of which might be central air conditioning. Examining a large number of new home sales, with and without central air conditioning, but holding other attributes constant, it would be possible to determine how much consumers are willing to pay for the central air conditioning. Similarly, to determine the demand’ for not tested on animals’, researchers can compare sale data on many shampoos, with and without the CSR attribute and can determine how much consumers will pay for that attribute.
This information could then be used in a cost/benefit analysis of the CSR attribute. To illustrate, we return to to write Besant the example of hybrid cars, which are highly fuel efficient. How To Write Articles For Newspapers? Given the high price of gasoline, it is clear that some consumers will be attracted to these automobiles because they want to save money on fuel. Others may choose to purchase a Honda hybrid, as opposed to GM hybrid, because Honda has a superior reputation for quality. Still others are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, strictly because the social characteristic of an essay School less pollution is valuable’ to them. The beauty of the hedonic method is that it allows us tease out the value to writing a case essay College the consumer of www.how Besant each of these three factors (fuel efficiency, quality differential, and the social characteristic of less pollution). The hedonic method is based on the notion that the (logarithm of the) price of written essays a good or service is related to www.how to write an essay its characteristics or features as follows: where #x25b; is writing Algonquin, a random error term and Z is a vector of k characteristics or attributes. These attributes are typically sources of www.how to write private satisfaction, such as the speed of a computer or the horsepower of an auto engine. Written Argumentative Essays? The researcher typically estimates a regression, in order to determine the values of the β coefficients.
The β coefficients provide estimates of www.how School how much customers are willing to college admission College pay for a given attribute. Some characteristics may also have social dimensions, such as aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or environmentally-friendly lighting. To Write Besant? A major advantage of hedonics, relative to other methods (e.g. focus groups), is that it is based on observed, not hypothetical data. Hedonics have been used by essay College government agencies and other researchers to price’ individual attributes of computers, autos, housing, land, and dowries. They are also increasingly being used for more abstract non-market environmental goods’, such as views, clean air, and open space. These estimates can have important managerial and policy implications, since they help managers estimate demand for social characteristics and can also be used in national price/cost of living statistics.
The theoretical and empirical issues discussed above provide an important foundation for www.how to write an essay Besant Hill School understanding the write Westminster School, contributions of the articles in this special issue. These papers shed light on www.how to write School the definitional issues that plague this research, and demonstrate, both theoretically and empirically, how making clear, specific definitions can result in deeper understanding and guide more rigorous research in CSR. The article by Alfie Marcus and Marc Anderson (2006) poses an interesting research question, especially in light of our previous discussion of the strategic implications of CSR. The authors ask whether a firm's dynamic capability’ influences its competence in CSR. To address this question, they provide a novel and interesting application of the RBV framework to the case of CSR.
In the theoretical section of the how to articles for newspapers Westminster School, paper, the authors make two important points. To Write An Essay Besant Hill School? The first is that they distinguish between business and social competencies. They also consider a general dynamic capability’, a term coined by Ghemawat (2001), which describes such activities as enhancing the how to write for newspapers School, absorptive capacity of the www.how an essay Besant Hill School, firm, benchmarking, and experimentation. The authors examine their research question using a detailed firm-level survey in the US retail food industry. Specifically, they surveyed 806 grocery stores/chains with operations in North America as of 1997. The results indicate that a general dynamic capability has a positive influence on a firm's competence in supply chain management, which is a key business competence in this industry. However, a general dynamic capability does not appear to youtube writing Institute of Management have any influence on a firm's competence in environmental management, which is a key social’ competence in this industry. The authors conclude that their findings suggest that the factors driving competitive advantage are different than those that influence CSR. Jonathan Doh and Terrence Guay (2006) assess the role of differences in the institutional environments of to write an essay Besant Hill School Europe and the USA in explaining expectations regarding the propensity of firms to be socially responsible. As such, the paper is an interesting synthesis of neo-institutional and write article Bromsgrove Thailand stakeholder theory. It is a qualitative analysis, consisting of three case studies.
Specifically, the authors assess the roles that US and European non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played in influencing CSR policies in Besant Hill School three areas: the essay College, trade and regulation of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), pharmaceutical pricing and distribution policies, and international environmental agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol Treaty. The case studies reveal the role of institutional differences in these two regions in influencing government policy, corporate strategy and NGO activism related to CSR. To Write An Essay Hill School? Specifically, the how to admission essay, authors find that these factors play an important role in determining how CSR is perceived and www.how to write implemented in the USA and Europe. A key implication of the Doh and School Guay study is that any cross-country comparison of the propensity of Besant Hill firms to how to engage in CSR should take into account these institutional differences. In the next article, Bryan Husted and Jos de Jesus Salazar pose another interesting research question: is it better for firms to act strategically with respect to CSR than to be coerced into making such investments? More generally, the www.how, authors analyse the conditions under which firms can maximize profit and enhance social performance. As such, they take the theory of the firm perspective on CSR seriously, since they conduct a cost/benefit analysis of social responsibility. Written Argumentative Essays? This technique was proposed by McWilliams and Siegel (2001). Husted and De Jesus Salazar model this cost/benefit analysis under three scenarios concerning the firm's desire to engage in CSR: altruism, coerced egoism’, and the strategic use of CSR. To Write An Essay Besant Hill? Altruism describes the case when firms sincerely want to be socially responsible, without regard to how such activities affect the bottom line. Coerced egoism occurs when firms act in a socially responsible manner only when they are compelled by written argumentative essays regulation (and other factors) to do so.
The strategic use of CSR is www.how to write an essay Hill School, defined as instances where there are clear benefits to the firm for engaging in essay Auston of Management CSR. The authors employ standard microeconomic analysis to determine the optimal level of social output that results under each of these cases. They demonstrate that both society and firms are better off when firms use CSR strategically than when they are coerced into making such investments. School? This is a conclusion that would make Adam Smith smile. In the coursework writing help Algonquin College, next paper, Duane Windsor (2006) examines different perspectives on CSR. As noted earlier, CSR is still an embryonic concept in to write Besant School the academic literature. Windsor's essay is a tour-de-force on the evolution on three opposing perspectives on CSR: economic, philosophical, and for newspapers Westminster global corporate citizenship. As he defines it, the economic viewpoint focuses on the firm's ability to use CSR as a tool to to write Besant Hill create wealth, implies minimal government intervention to promote CSR, and advocates that the firm adopt prevailing business ethics. On the other hand, the philosophical perspective results in moral reflection on CSR and write article for money Bromsgrove School should lead to higher levels of CSR and other forms of altruism. He also notes that this view supports active government intervention to promote CSR, as well as policy initiatives that strengthen stakeholder rights.
The global corporate citizenship perspective seems to fall somewhere in between the economic and philosophical views, although this perspective can be used instrumentally to enhance market opportunities and the firm's moral reputation. To Write Hill? The author concludes by discussing the Concord, implications of www.how to write an essay Hill each of Bromsgrove School Thailand these perspectives for CSR scholarship. This special issue concludes with an article by Andy Lockett, Jeremy Moon, and Wayne Visser (2006), which assesses the status of CSR research in the management literature. Www.how An Essay Besant? Specifically, they assess the write for newspapers Westminster School, focus and nature of CSR research and to write an essay Besant Hill the use of the accumulated knowledge in management and related fields. The authors also attempt to determine the key intellectual influences on the field of CSR and whether CSR research has a dominant paradigm. Their empirical analysis is based on data on CSR-related publications and citation analysis over essay Auston Institute, the period 19922002.
The authors identified CSR-related articles in the following journals: Academy of Management Journal , Academy of to write an essay Hill Management Review , Administrative Science Quarterly , Journal of Management , Organization Science , Strategic Management Journal , Journal of Management Studies , Harvard Business Review , Sloan Management Review , and California Management Review . They analysed both the articles cited in these CSR-related papers and the citations that CSR-related articles generated in other journals. They found that the write, field’ is in a continuing state of emergence’, a term coined by Thomas Kuhn (1962). To Write An Essay Hill School? That is, based on its overall profile in these leading management journals and written argumentative essays Ross School the citations these articles generate, CSR lacks a dominant paradigm. This is an www.how to write an essay Besant Hill obvious call to action for concerned researchers. It is a case Concord College, this state of emergence that we hope to advance with this special issue.
The papers here exemplify the www.how to write an essay School, variety of perspectives that have been brought to bear on CSR. Written Argumentative School? They also demonstrate an increasing ability to to write Besant clearly define the construct of CSR (albeit not necessarily all agreeing on the definition) and build strong theoretical arguments and high-quality empirical studies that will provide an effective springboard for future research in CSR. We thank participants at the April 2004 University of Illinois at Chicago/International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility Workshop on Corporate Social Responsibility, Ann Buchholtz, Steve Floyd, Mark Shanley, and Mike Wright for their insightful comments on write articles for newspapers Westminster School a previous version of this paper. The second author also gratefully acknowledges financial support from the School of Humanities and an essay Hill Social Sciences and the Lally School of Management and writing College Technology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. For the benefit of non-US readers, the www.how Besant School, United Way is a global network of non-profit, philanthropic organizations. In the for money, USA, many employees (especially those working for large organizations) donate a small fraction of their salaries to United Way, which is an essay, then distributed to a specific charity (or charities) that is how to write articles School, part of the network. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the College of Business Administration at the University of Illinois at Chicago and the International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR) at an essay Besant Hill School the University of written argumentative Nottingham in the United Kingdom. See Kor and Mahoney (2004), Lockett and Thompson (2004), and Rugman and Verbeke (2004) for www.how to write an essay Hill School an excellent series of articles on Edith Penrose and the resource-based view of strategic management. Issue online: 10 January 2006 Version of record online: 10 January 2006.
Abowd, J. , Milkovich, G. and Hannon, J. For Money Thailand? ( 1990 ). The effects of human resource management decisions on shareholder value . Industrial and to write an essay School Labor Relations Review , 43 , 203 36 . Writing Help Algonquin? CrossRef | Web of Science® Aupperle, K. , Carroll, A. and Hatfield, J. ( 1985 ). An empirical examination of the to write an essay Besant School, relationship between corporate social responsibility and profitability . Academy of write for money School Management Journal , 28 , 446 63 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Bagnoli, M. and to write Watts, S. Youtube Writing Auston Institute? ( 2003 ). Selling to socially responsible consumers: competition and the private provision of www.how an essay Besant School public goods . Journal of Economics and Management Strategy , 12 , 419 45 . Argumentative Ross? CrossRef | Web of Science® Barnard, C. ( 1938 ). The Functions of the Executive . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Barney, J. ( 1991 ). 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Edith Penrose's contributions to the resource-based view of strategic management: an alternative perspective . An Essay Besant Hill School? Journal of Management Studies , 41 , 192 204 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 20 Lockett, A. , Moon, J. and Visser, W. ( 2006 ). Corporate social responsibility in management research: focus, nature, salience and articles for newspapers sources of influence . Journal of Management Studies , 43 , 1, 115 35 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 38 Marcus, A. A. and Anderson, M. Besant? H. ( 2006 ). A general dynamic capability: does it propagate business and social competencies in the retail food industry? . Journal of Management Studies , 43 , 1, 19 46 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 13 Marvel, H. ( 1977 ). Factory regulation: a reinterpretation of early English experience . Written Argumentative Ross? Journal of Law and Economics , 20 , 379 402 . CrossRef | Web of Science® McGuire, J. 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Piga, C. ( 2002 ). Www.how An Essay? Corporate social responsibility: a theory of the youtube essay writing of Management, firm perspective. A few comments and to write Hill School some suggestions . Youtube Writing Of Management? Academy of Management Review , 27 , 13 15 . Web of to write Besant Hill Science® Posnikoff, J. ( 1997 ). Disinvestment from South Africa: they did well by doing good . Contemporary Economic Policy , 15 , 76 86 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Reinhardt, F. Write Articles For Newspapers? ( 1998 ). Www.how An Essay Besant? Environmental product differentiation . California Management Review , 40 , Summer, 43 73 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 54 Rugman, A. M. and Verbeke, A. ( 2004 ). A final word on Edith Penrose . Journal of writing study essay Concord College Management Studies , 41 , 205 17 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Russo, M. and Fouts, P. ( 1997 ). A resource-based perspective on corporate environmental performance and profitability . Academy of Management Journal , 40 , 534 59 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Siegel, D. ( 2001 ). Do British companies really need a minister to to write Besant Hill School make them socially responsible? . How To Admission Essay? Parliamentary Brief , 7 , 7 8 , Special Supplement on Business and www.how the Community. Teece, D. , Pisano, G. and Shuen, A. ( 1997 ). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management . Strategic Management Journal , 18 , 509 33 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2351 Teoh, S. , Welch, I. and Wazzan, C. ( 1999 ). The effect of socially activist investment policies on the financial markets: evidence from the South African boycott . Writing A Case Study Essay? Journal of Business , 72 , 35 89 . To Write Hill School? CrossRef | Web of Science® Waddock, S. and how to write for newspapers School Graves, S. ( 1997 ). The corporate social performance financial performance link . Strategic Management Journal , 18 , 303 19 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Waldman, D. , Siegel, D. and Javidan, M. ( 2004 ). CEO transformational leadership and Besant School corporate social responsibility ’. Working paper, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Wernerfelt, B. ( 1984 ). A resource based view of the firm . Strategic Management Journal , 5 , 171 80 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Windsor, D. Help Algonquin College? ( 2006 ). Corporate social responsibility: three key approaches . Journal of Management Studies , 43 , 1, 93 114 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 33 Worrell, D. School? , Davidson, W. and articles Westminster School Sharma, V. ( 1991 ). Layoff announcements and stockholder wealth . Academy of Management Journal , 38 , 662 78 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 62 Wright, P. and www.how an essay Besant Hill School Ferris, S. ( 1997 ). Agency conflict and corporate strategy: the effect of divestment on corporate value . Strategic Management Journal , 18 , 77 83 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Articles related to write article for money Bromsgrove International the one you are viewing. 1 Suska Dreesbach-Bundy , CSR und Corporate Volunteering, 2018 , 353 CrossRef 2 Merryn Paynter , Abdel K. Halabi , Alan Lawton , The Goals of Sustainable Development, 2018 , 193 CrossRef 3 Jonathan Pryshlakivsky , Cory Searcy , A Heuristic Model for Establishing Trade-Offs in Corporate Sustainability Performance Measurement Systems, Journal of Business Ethics , 2017 , 144 , 2, 323 CrossRef 4 Gerrit Willem Ziggers , Advances in to write School Dairy Products, 2017 , 438 CrossRef 5 Simone Ruchdi Barakat , Jo o Maur cio Gama Boaventura , Edilson Fernandes Polo , ALINHAMENTO ESTRAT GICO DA RESPONSABILIDADE SOCIAL CORPORATIVA: UM ESTUDO DE CASO NO SETOR BANC RIO BRASILEIRO, REAd. 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Essay: A Doll#039;s House by Henrik Ibsen. The play ‘A Doll’s house’ is www.how to write an essay Besant School a three act play written by Henrik Ibsen. The play is significant for its critical attitude toward 19th century marriage norms. It aroused great controversy at School the time, as it concludes with the protagonist, Nora, leaving her husband and children because she wants to discover herself. Ibsen was inspired by the belief that “a woman cannot be herself in modern society,” since it is “an exclusively male society, with laws made by men and with prosecutors and judges who assess feminine conduct from a masculine standpoint. Henrik Ibsen, considered by many to be the to write Besant father of modern prose drama, was born in Skien, Norway, on March 20, 1828. He was the second of six children. Ibsen’s father was a prominent merchant, but he went bankrupt when Ibsen was eight years old, so Ibsen spent much of his early life living in poverty. From 1851 to how to articles School 1864, he worked in theaters in Bergen and in what is now Oslo (then called Christiania). At age twenty-one, Ibsen wrote his first play, a five-act tragedy called Catiline.
Like much of his early work, Catiline was written in www.how to write Besant Hill, verse. In 1858, Ibsen married Suzannah Thoreson, and eventually had one son with her. Ibsen felt that, rather than merely live together, husband and wife should live as equals, free to become their own human beings. This belief can be seen clearly in A Doll’s House. In A Doll’s House, Ibsen paints a bleak picture of the sacrificial role held by write for money International School, women of all economic classes in his society. In general, the an essay play’s female characters exemplify Nora’s assertion (spoken to Torvald in Act Three) that even though men refuse to sacrifice their integrity, ‘hundreds of thousands of women have.’ At the beginning of Algonquin, A Doll’s House, Nora seems completely happy.
She responds affectionately to Torvald’s teasing, speaks with excitement about the extra money his new job will provide, and takes pleasure in the company of her children and friends. She does not seem to mind her doll-like existence, in Besant Hill School, which she is coddled, pampered, and patronized. Protagonist, Nora, seems like a bit of a ditz. When her husband, Torvald, calls her things like his “little squirrel,” his “little lark,” and, worst of all, a “featherhead,” she doesn’t seem to mind (1.5-1.16). Essays School! In fact she seems to enjoy and even play into it. When Torvald first calls her a spendthrift, we’re inclined to agree. So far, we’ve seen her give the porter an overly generous tip, come in with tons of Besant School, Christmas presents, and shrug at the idea of incurring debt. Soon, though, we see that Nora has a lot more going on than we first imagined . On the other hand the other female in how to college admission essay College, the play, Christine is to write an essay Hill School a tough, world-wise woman.
This lady has been through a lot. She tells Krogstad, “I have learned to act prudently Life, and hard, bitter necessity have taught me that”. In this paper I want to show that at time women used to written argumentative sacrifice everthing for their husbands. Still then they were not considered to know the aspect of the an essay Hill world. As like nora , she did everything she can for her husband that she can. SACRIFICE BY NORA. As the youtube essay Auston of Management play progresses, Nora reveals that she is not just a ‘silly girl,’ as Torvald calls her. That she understands the business details related to the debt she incurred taking out a loan to preserve Torvald’s health indicates that she is to write School intelligent and possesses capacities beyond mere wifehood. Written Essays School! Her description of her years of secret labor undertaken to pay off her debt shows her fierce determination and ambition. Additionally, the fact that she was willing to www.how Besant Hill break the law in order to ensure Torvald’s health shows her courage. Krogstad’s blackmail and the trauma that follows do not change Nora’s nature; they open her eyes to her unfulfilled and underappreciated potential. Argumentative Essays! ‘I have been performing tricks for you, Torvald,’ she says during her climactic confrontation with him.
Nora comes to realize that in an essay Besant School, addition to her literal dancing and singing tricks, she has been putting on a show throughout her marriage. She has pretended to be someone she is not in order to fulfill the role that Torvald, her father, and write Bromsgrove School Thailand society at www.how to write Besant Hill School large have expected of her. Though Nora is for money Bromsgrove economically advantaged in comparison to the play’s other female characters, she nevertheless leads a difficult life because society dictates that Torvald be the marriage’s dominant partner. Torvald issues decrees and condescends to Nora, and Nora must hide her loan from him because she knows Torvald could never accept the idea that his wife (or any other woman) had helped save his life. Furthermore, she must work in secret to www.how Besant Hill School pay off her loan because it is writing study essay Concord College illegal for a woman to obtain a loan without her husband’s permission. By motivating Nora’s deception, the attitudes of Torvald’and society’leave Nora vulnerable to Krogstad’s blackmail. De Beauvoir argues that throughout history, woman has been viewed as a ‘hindrance or a prison’. Nora’s abandonment of Besant, her children can also be interpreted as an act of self- sacrifice. Despite Nora’s great love for her children’manifested by how to admission essay Centennial, her interaction with them and her great fear of corrupting them’she chooses to leave them. Nora truly believes that the nanny will be a better mother and that leaving her children is in their best interest. Nora’s understanding of the www.how to write an essay Hill meaning of freedom evolves over the course of the play.
In the first act, she believes that she will be totally ‘free’ as soon as she has repaid her debt, because she will have the opportunity to devote herself fully to her domestic responsibilities. After Krogstad blackmails her, however, she reconsiders her conception of freedom and questions whether she is happy in Torvald’s house, subjected to his orders and edicts. By the coursework writing help Algonquin College end of the play, Nora seeks a new kind of freedom. She wishes to be relieved of her familial obligations in order to pursue her own ambitions, beliefs, and identity. Mrs.
Christine linde , In her younger days, she had to sacrifice love for the sake of www.how an essay Hill, her family. Rather than marrying the coursework writing Algonquin dashing young Nils Krogstad, she married a businessman, Mr. Linde, so that she could support her sick mother and www.how an essay Hill her two younger brothers. In order to sever herself from her beloved Nils, she wrote him a nasty note saying that she didn’t love him anymore. (A little harsh, Christine.) Now her brothers are all grown up and her mother is how to write college College dead. Www.how An Essay Hill School! Her husband has passed away, too. Mr. Linde’s business went kaput after he died and she’s had to work a lot of crumby jobs.
Still, Christine is finally free. It’s true that Christine is free from the responsibilities of family, but she absolutely hates it. She’s not happy again until she reunites with Nils, telling him “I want to be a mother to someone, and your children need a mother. Argumentative Ross! We two need each other”. It might be seen as tragic: women are so programmed by society, that the only thing they know how to do is www.how an essay Besant be a homemaker. On the how to college admission Centennial other hand, it’s not like Christine is making this decision from www.how Besant Hill, a place of ignorance. Write For Money Bromsgrove International Thailand! Unlike Nora, Christine is well aware of what life is like without men. The major difference between Christine’s new relationship and that of the Helmers seems to be that Christine and an essay Besant School Krogstad are entering into it as equals. Perhaps, the union of Nils and Christine is Ibsen’s example of “the most wonderful thing of all,” which Nora defines as “a real wedlock”
A Doll’s House ends with the essay Institute slamming of a door. Nora turns her back on her husband and kids, and takes off into the snow to make her own way in the world. It’s a pretty bold decision, to say the least. To Write An Essay Besant! Some might even call it foolish. She doesn’t have a job. Not a whole lot of marketable skills.
No home. No prospects of writing a case study essay College, any kind. By making this choice, she’s ostracizing herself from the society she’s always been a part of. Most “respectable” people just aren’t going to hang out with her. The comfortable life she’s leading will be totally destroyed. So, why does she do such a thing? Nora makes he reason for www.how to write Hill School, her decision pretty clear in her last argument with Torvald. Before she makes her grand exit, he scathingly criticizes her, saying that by deserting her husband and children she is forsaking her “most sacred duties” . Nora doesn’t see it this way. She tells him that the duties that are most sacred to her now are the “duties to [herself]” Furthermore, it can be debated that the male-female relationship in A Doll’s House is based on a Master-Slave ideology which Friedrich Hegel, the great Enlightenment theorist, started. The relationship between Torvald and Helmer evolves according to write School Thailand a Master-Slave relationship.
Hegel argues that the consciousness of one’s self as a self cannot be achieved except through confrontation with another. Both Nora and Besant Hill her husband Torvald recognized their dependency on each other and that self-consciousness led to argumentative Ross School Nora’s awakening in the end. Thus, Nora’s character self was made through the dialectical special interrelationship between her and her husband on one side and between her and www.how an essay School the patriarchal society on the other. Hegel says that the self ‘through supersession, receives back its own self, because, by superseding its otherness, it again becomes equal to how to write articles for newspapers School itself; but secondly, it equally gives the other self-consciousness back again to itself, for it saw itself in the other, but superseded this being of www.how to write an essay Besant Hill, itself in the other and thus lets the other again go free.’ First Nora acknowledges Torvald as her master and she dutifully assumes her role as the slave who is dependent on her master. After the confrontation, Nora realizes the master’s dependency on write Thailand, her which leads her to supersede him and Hill be free of him. After reading ‘A Doll’s House’ by Hendrik Ibsen. I can conclude that there is both a parallel and help a contrast structure in the characters of Mrs. Www.how School! Linde and Nora.
A contrasting difference in the characters, are shown not in the characters themselves, but the role that they play in their marriages. These women have different relationships with their husbands. Torvald and Nora have a relationship where there is no equality. To Torvald Nora is an object. Hence, she plays the write articles School submissive role in a society where the www.how an essay Hill lady plays the for newspapers Westminster School passive role. Her most important obligation is to www.how to write Besant School please Torvald, making her role similar to a slave. He too considers himself superior to her. As for Kristine and Krogstad their relationship is much more open to essays Ross us. Www.how To Write An Essay Besant! It is apparent that if Kristine and Krogstad were to engage in an argument, it is more likely that that they would come to a compromise.
A strong sign that Mrs. Linde brings us a better understanding of Nora is their parallel in characters. Both are willing to sacrifice themselves for International School, values dear to their lives. This act of aiding significant loved ones gives us a better understanding of Nora. It gives us an image of who the character Nora really is. Mrs. Linde shows her loyalty to her family when she did not think that she ‘had the right’ to refuse her husband’s marriage proposal. After taking into consideration her sick mother, her brothers, and Krogstad having money. She married for the welfare of her family. Which means that in Besant, this society family is top priority. Articles School! To the women is this era, loyalty to their loved ones is highly expected.
Then, we have Nora, who on the same token saves her husband (Torvald’s) life, which portrays again, the trend of women sacrificing for their families. Www.how To Write An Essay Hill! They both (Mrs. Linde and Nora) express their feelings of pride and fulfillment in writing study essay Concord College, helping their significant others by www.how to write School, sacrificing themselves. A Case Concord! Nora’s character is made more obvious to Hill School us by Mrs. Linde’s actions. Not only did Nora open her mouth about written argumentative essays, saving her husband’s life, but she did it with the utmost pride. Claiming to www.how an essay Besant have raised all the money herself she soaks in write for money International Thailand, her self-importance. In Act 1, Nora seems to thrive on the pride she gets from borrowing the money. I suppose that she is feeling useful for a change. It seems also, that Mrs.
Linde comes off as superior to Nora because she feels that Nora has never done hard work in her life. Mrs. Linde is referring to www.how an essay the sacrifice she has made. She makes a remark about written essays Ross School, Nora still being a child. As if to say that she was inexperienced. She is www.how an essay Hill School half-right. At the end of the play Nora agrees that is it ‘true’, She does not know much about the world and that if she is to learn, then she will have to writing a case Concord experience that for herself.
This remark tells us that Nora is to write School capable of choosing herself over her husband. And that she has to be herself before she can be a wife or mom for that matter. Norma Helmer is the write college essay best illustration of the illusioned woman who lives in www.how an essay Hill School, a society where the male oppresses the write college admission essay College female and reduces to a mere doll or plaything. Www.how To Write Hill! Nora Helmer is that doll living in her fake doll house, which reinforces the fragile idea of a stable family living under a patriarchal and traditional roof. One can argue that Nora Helmer and the other female figures portrayed in A Doll’s House are the write Westminster School best models of the ‘second sex’ or. the ‘other’ that the French revolutionary writer Simone de Beauvoir discussed in her essay, The Second Sex. It seems like Nora has gone through a kind of www.how an essay Hill, personal awakening. Youtube Auston! She’s come to the conclusion that she’s not a fully realized person. She has to spend some time figuring out who she is www.how to write an essay as an individual or she’ll never be anything more than someone’s doll.
This would be impossible under the smothering presence of how to college essay College, Torvald. Yet, the doll house is shattered as well as Nora’s illusion. Besant Hill! The doll finally recognizes that her role has been nothing but the ‘Other’. She is aware that it is she who agreed to written argumentative Ross School the definition of the ‘One’ and the’ Other’. It’s a moment of profound awakening when Nora realizes that her husband values his reputation and job more than he values his love for her. Www.how! Torvalds’s resentment and accusations after knowing about what she had done comes as a blessing in disguise. We hear Torvald telling her, ‘For all these years, for eight years now, you’ve been my pride and joy, and now I find you’re a hypocrite and a liar, and worse, worse than that’a criminal! The whole thing is an abyss of ugliness! You ought to be ashamed.’ Simone de Beauvoir says that if the coursework help Algonquin College woman seems to be the inessential which never becomes the essential, it is because she herself fails to bring about the change. But here we tell De Beauvoir that Nora is willing to bring about the change. The harsh reality smacks her in the face; a wave of www.how to write Besant School, disillusionment wakes her up.
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