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A Rhetorical Analysis of essay jobs, U2's 'Sunday Bloody Sunday' In this critical essay, composed in meaning writing University, 2000, student Mike Rios offers a rhetorical analysis of the song #34;Sunday Bloody Sunday#34; by the Irish rock band U2. The University! The song is the opening track of the group#39;s third studio album, War (1983). The lyrics to #34;Sunday Bloody Sunday#34; can be found on U2#39;s official website. Blue Hotel School! The Rhetoric of U2#39;s #34;Sunday Bloody Sunday#34; U2 have always produced rhetorically powerful songs. From the spiritually driven #34;I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For#34; to the blatantly sexual #34;If You Wear That Velvet Dress,#34; audiences have been persuaded to examine their religious doubts as well as to give in to their emotions. Never a band content in jobs The University of Sheffield, sticking to one style, their music has evolved and how to Ashbury College, taken many forms. Essay Jobs The University Of Sheffield! Their more recent songs show a level of complexity so far unsurpassed in music, drawing heavily on meaning of essay Curtin University Singapore, the ambiguity of of Sheffield, paradox in how to review College, songs like #34;So Cruel#34; while evoking sensory overload with the aid of the list structure in #34;Numb.#34; But one of the most powerful songs dates back to essay The University of Sheffield their early years, when their style was Senecan-like, seemingly simpler and essay Court School, more direct. #34;Sunday Bloody Sunday#34; stands out as one of U2’s finest songs. Its rhetoric is successful because of its simplicity, not despite it.

Written in part as a response to jobs of Sheffield the events of January 30, 1972 when the Paratroop Regiment of the British Army killed 14 people and wounded another 14 during a civil rights demonstration in Derry, Ireland, #34;Sunday Bloody Sunday#34; takes hold of the listener instantly. It is a song speaking against not only the of essay writing Curtin University Singapore, British Army, but the Irish Republican Army as well. Bloody Sunday, as it has come to be known, was only essay jobs The University of Sheffield, one act in a cycle of violence claiming many innocent lives. The Irish Republican Army was certainly contributing to the bloodshed. The song begins with Larry Mullen, Jr. beating his drums in a martial rhythm that connotes visions of soldiers, of tanks, of guns.

Although not original, it is writing analytical The University of Kansas, a successful use of essay jobs, musical irony, enveloping a song of protest in the sounds usually associated with those it is protesting against. The same can be said of its use in the cadence-like foundations of writing essay introductions Moyles Court, #34;Seconds#34; and #34;Bullet the Blue Sky.#34; Having grabbed hold of the essay jobs The University, listener’s attention, The Edge and Adam Clayton join in with lead and of critical thinking Stenden of Applied Sciences, bass guitars respectively. Essay The University Of Sheffield! The riff is as close to concrete as sound can get. It is massive, almost solid. Methods Stenden Sciences! Then again, it has to be. U2 is endeavoring upon a subject and theme wide in scope. The message carries a great deal of significance. They must connect with every ear, every mind, every heart. The pounding beat and the heavy riff transport the listener to the scene of the killings, appealing to pathos. A violin glides in and out to add a softer, delicate touch. Caught in the musical attack, it reaches out to the listener, letting him or her know that the song’s grip will not strangle, but the firm hold must be kept nonetheless.

Before any words are sung, an ethical appeal has taken shape. The persona in this song is Bono himself. Essay Jobs! The audience knows he and the rest of the help IMG Academy, band are Irish and essay jobs The University of Sheffield, that, although not personally familiar with the event that gives the song its title, they have seen other acts of essay and conclusions, violence while growing up. Jobs! Knowing the band’s nationality, the audience trusts them as they sing about the writing, struggle in their homeland. Bono’s first line makes use of aporia. #34;I can’t believe the news today,#34; he sings. His words are the same words spoken by those who have learned of yet another attack in the name of a great cause. They express the confusion such violence leaves in its aftermath. The murdered and the wounded are not the The University of Sheffield, only victims. Society suffers as some individuals continue to try and comprehend while others take arms and join in the so-called revolution, continuing the vicious cycle.

Epizeuxis is common in songs. It helps to make songs memorable. In #34;Sunday Bloody Sunday,#34; epizeuxis is writing essay and conclusions School, a necessity. Essay Jobs The University Of Sheffield! It is of essay University Singapore, necessary because the essay The University, message against an article review Ashbury College, violence must be drilled into the audience. With this end in mind, epizeuxsis is modified to diacope throughout the song. It is found in three different instances. The first is the erotesis #34;How long, How long must we sing this song? How long?#34; In asking this question, Bono not only replaces the pronoun I with we (which serves to draw the members of the audience closer to him and to themselves), he also implies the answer.

The instinctive reply is that we should not have to sing this song any longer. In fact, we should not have to sing this song at all. But the second time he asks the question, we are not so sure of the answer. It ceases to be erotesis and essay, functions as epimone, again for emphasis. Furthermore, it is somewhat akin to ploce, in that its essential meaning changes. Before repeating the #34;How long?#34; question, Bono uses enargia to vividly recreate violence. The images of #34;broken bottles under children’s feet [and] bodies strewn across a dead end street#34; appeal to pathos in an effort to disturb the listeners. They are not disturbing because they are too horrible to thinking Sciences imagine; they are disturbing because they do not have to be imagined. These images appear too often on television, in newspapers.

These images are real. But Bono cautions against acting solely based on the pathos of a situation. To keep his pathetic appeal from working too well, Bono sings that he #34;won’t heed the essay jobs of Sheffield, battle call.#34; A metaphor for refusing the temptation to avenge the dead or hurt, this phrase conveys the strength needed in doing so. Writing Essays The University! He employs antirrhesis to support his statement. If he allows himself to be seduced into becoming a rebel for the sake of revenge, his back will be put #34;against the wall.#34; He will have no further choices in life. Once he picks up a gun he will have to use it. It is also an appeal to The University logos, weighing the consequences of meaning Curtin University, his actions beforehand. When he repeats #34;How long?#34; the audience realizes that it has become a real question. People are still being killed. Essay Jobs Of Sheffield! People are still killing.

It is a fact made all too clear on November 8, 1987. As a crowd gathered at Enniskillen town in Fermanagh, Ireland, to observe Remembrance Day, a bomb placed by the IRA was detonated killing 13 people. This sparked the now infamous dehortatio during a performance of #34;Sunday Bloody Sunday#34; that same evening. #34;Fuck the revolution,#34; Bono declared, reflecting his anger and the anger of his fellow Irishmen at another senseless act of violence. The second diacope is meaning writing Curtin, #34;tonight we can be as one. Tonight, tonight.#34; Utilizing hysteron proteron to emphasize #34;tonight#34; and therefore the immediacy of the situation, U2 offers a solution, a way in essay The University, which peace can be restored. Clearly an appeal to pathos, it evokes the emotional comfort gained by human contact. The paradox is easily dismissed by the hopefulness resonating in the words. Bono tells us it is possible to become one, to unite. And we believe him--we need to believe him. The third diacope is also the write an article review College, major epimone in the song. #34;Sunday, bloody Sunday#34; is, after all, the central image.

The use of diacope differs in this phrase. Essay! By placing bloody within the two Sundays , U2 demonstrates how significant this day is. To many, thinking of the date will forever be linked with remembering the brutality inflicted on that date. Surrounding bloody with Sunday , U2 forces the audience to thinking Stenden Sciences experience, at least in some way, the link. In doing so, they provide a manner by which the audience can further unite. Essay Jobs Of Sheffield! U2 employs various other figures to persuade their audience. In the erotesis, #34;there’s many lost, but tell me who has won?#34; U2 extends the writing essay introductions Moyles School, battle metaphor. There is an example of jobs The University, paronomasia in lost . In relation to the battle metaphor, which is now the thinking University of Applied, struggle to The University of Sheffield unite, lost refers to the losers, those who have fallen victim to the violence by writing, either partaking in it or experiencing it. Lost also refers to those who do not know whether to jobs refrain or take part in the violence, and do not know which path to follow. Paronomasia is to write essay, used earlier in #34;dead end street.#34; Here dead means physically the final portion of the street. Essay The University! It also means lifeless, like the bodies strewn across it.

The two sides of these words express the how to write an article review Ashbury, two sides of the Irish struggle. On one hand there is the idealistic cause for freedom and independence. Essay The University! On the other there is the result of trying to attain these goals through terrorism: bloodshed. The battle metaphor continues when Bono sings #34;the trenches dug within our hearts.#34; Appealing to emotion again, he compares souls with battlefields. The paronomasia of #34;torn apart’ in the next line supports the metaphor by illustrating the casualties (both those physically torn and hurt by bombs and bullets, and those torn and write Ashbury College, separated by The University of Sheffield, allegiances to the revolution). The list of victims is displayed as a tricolon to suggest no importance of one over any other. #34;Mother’s children, brothers, sisters,#34; they are all equally cherished. They are all also equally vulnerable, likely to fall victim to the often random attacks. Finally, the last stanza contains a variety of rhetorical devices.

Like the paradoxical solution suggested in the opening stanza, the paradox of fact being fiction and television reality is writing Curtin University, not difficult to accept. To this day there remains controversy over the shootings that occurred more than twenty-five years ago. And with both major protagonists in the violence distorting the truth for their own sake, fact is certainly capable of being manipulated into essay jobs of Sheffield, fiction. The terrible images of thinking Stenden University of Applied, lines 5 and 6 support the television paradox. This phrase and the antithesis #34;we eat and essay of Sheffield, drink while tomorrow they die#34; add to the sense of perplexity and urgency. There is also a trace of irony in enjoying basic human elements while the next day someone else dies. It causes the listener to ask him or herself, who are they? It causes him or her to wonder if it could be a neighbor, or a friend, or a family member that dies next. Many probably think of those who have died as statistics, numbers in a growing list of murdered. The juxtaposition of we and they confronts the tendency to distance oneself from unknown victims.

It asks that they be considered as people, not numbers. Another opportunity for unification is thus presented. Besides uniting with each other, we must also unite with the memories of those slain. As the song heads towards the closing diacope, one last metaphor is employed. #34;To claim the victory Jesus won,#34; sings Bono. The words immediately connote the blood sacrifice particular to so many cultures. The listener hears #34;victory,#34; but also remembers that Jesus had to essay die in order to achieve it. This makes an appeal to pathos, stirring religious emotions. Bono wants the essay The University, listener to know that it is not an easy journey he is pleading for them to embark on. It is difficult, but well worth the price.

The final metaphor also appeals to ethos by linking their struggle to that of Jesus, and therefore making it morally right. Newspaper Mountains International Management! #34;Sunday Bloody Sunday#34; remains as powerful today as it was when U2 first performed it. The irony of its longevity is that it is essay jobs, still relevant. U2 would no doubt rather they did not have to sing it anymore. As it stands, they will probably have to continue singing it.

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Lecturer in Political Philosophy at University of Sheffield

Shake Hands with the Devil: The Journey of Romeo Dallaire. How does the film Shake Hands With The Devil: The Journey of Romeo Dallaire relate to the conflict in Rwanda in 1994, and how does it contribute to our understanding of the essay of Sheffield conflict? Shake Hands with the Devil is a documentary film, released in 2004, based on Canadian Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire’s book about the atrocities which occurred in Rwanda in 1994.[1] The Rwandan genocide began after President Habyarimana, a Hutu, was shot down in a plane on April 6 th , 1994.[2] Prior to this Hutu elite close to the deceased president had planned a Tutsi slaughter.[3] Subsequently, around eight hundred thousand were killed with ruthless efficiency by Hutu extremists before the Rwandese Patriotic Front took control of the country, on of critical, July 19 th . [4] The film is essay jobs of Sheffield centred on to write essay, the beliefs and actions of Dallaire, the jobs The University man chosen by the United Nations to oversee war torn Rwanda’s transition to peace. It focuses on Dallaire as he returns to thinking University of Applied Sciences, the country for the first time since the genocide.[5] The film explores Dallaire’s transition from The University of Sheffield, a confident military General, to a hollow eyed, traumatised man with suicidal tendencies and alcohol problems.[6] The film investigates the responsibilities behind the failure of Dallaire’s “easy peacekeeping mission”[7]. General Dallaire’s return to Rwanda, and by of essay writing Singapore, proxy this film, is his attempt to jobs, find a sense of justice amongst all the methods thinking Stenden University of Applied horror which occurred previously. During the film certain key points become clear. Essay Jobs The University Of Sheffield! Firstly, Dallaire rationalises that humans are only able to commit such horrific acts due to the influence of how to an article review Ashbury, supreme evil, the “Devil”.[8] Additionally, the lack of agency that Dallaire believes he had in Rwanda. Jobs Of Sheffield! This was due to the bureaucratic nature of the United Nations and the international system, and a lack of commitment from key nations.[9] Furthermore, that Dallaire attempted to publicise his lack of agency by help to write essay IMG Academy, utilising the freedoms of the The University western media to alert people of the severity of the horror occurring.[10] Also, the film suffers from the methods thinking Stenden of Applied stereotyping of men as aggressors, and women and children as victims.[11] [12] , Finally, the film demonstrates Dallaire trying to communicate what he believes occurred in jobs The University Rwanda.

Dallaire was in Rwanda, in a position of high command, experiencing the physical and mental affects of the terror firsthand. As the analytical essays of Kansas film’s blurb states, “Dallaire’s story must be told and its lessons must be learned.”[13] The film increases our understanding of the genocide by showing the perspective of someone who experienced and understood the political intricacies behind it. The “Devil”, whom Dallaire describes himself as shaking hands with, is a reference to the Hutu hierarchy that organised the massacre. The Hutu paramilitary organisation, the Interahamwe, carried out the majority of the murders, along with the jobs The University Presidential Guard.[14] Dallaire describes them as being “cold as if another body” and that their “eyes were not human, reflecting the most evil that I could ever imagine.”[15] A devout Christian, Dallaire uses his religious beliefs to justify his actions, “as much as I was negotiating with the Devil, I felt a very positive entity come over me.”[16] This shows how, by depicting the perpetrators as inhuman and evil, Dallaire is writing essay Court School able to explain why they acted as they did and in turn justify his own actions. Jobs The University Of Sheffield! The film contrasts footage of certain interahamwe’s ferocious facial expressions against Dallaire’s calm demeanour.[17] Dallaire is portrayed as having been righteous and composed, juxtaposed against a wicked force which inspired savagery in the murderers. This is used to show the religious context behind Dallaire’s perception of the conflict, good fighting against bad. During the film, the to write essay UN Envoy for essay of Sheffield Africa, Stephen Lewis, disagrees with Dallaire’s belief that it was the Devil who made certain Hutu carry out newspaper International Hotel School rapes, murders and mutilations. Lewis claims that “human behaviour is capable of the most ferocious and irrational activity.”[18] He believes the atrocities that occurred in Rwanda were due to the evil that “lies in human behaviour.”[19] Nonetheless, Dallaire’s religious stance explains his perseverance amidst chaos.

This was despite the refusal of the United Nations to permit him to take large scale, preventative action which would have saved lives.[20] Another principle focus of the essay jobs The University film is Dallaire’s lack of agency. The Rwandan president and former rebel leader, Paul Kagame, describes Dallaire’s role as having been that of a mere “pawn”.[21] Dallaire’s numerous requests for more resources and expanded operations, to limit human losses, were ignored by the United Nations.[22] Instead, under draft resolution 488, the United Nations withdrew the majority of the thinking University of Applied two thousand five hundred UN peacekeepers.[23] This left Dallaire with an ill equipped staff of “approximately 200”.[24] Under UN orders, the Rwandans suffered whilst the peacekeepers were “sneaking away”.[25] The film shows the individuals, organisations and countries that Dallaire believes could have stopped the crisis and had the responsibility to do so.[26] They are principally, the Catholic Church in essay jobs The University of Sheffield Rwanda, General Theoneste, the United Nations, and certain western states. There is one notable instance where it is implied that Dallaire had agency, a verbal attack made by Blue International Hotel, the Belgian senator, Alain Destexhe. He claims that the UN orders Dallaire obeyed were “criminal” and that it was his moral duty to essay of Sheffield, disobey them.[27] Nevertheless, throughout the help to write essay IMG Academy film Dallaire is described as “abandoned”, “helpless”, “chopped off at the knees” and generally that he “couldn’t have done a damn thing”.[28] Thus, the film predominantly imposes agency, and consequently responsibility, not upon Dallaire, but others. In the film, the Canadian academic, Gerald Caplan states that the Catholic Church in Rwanda has “extraordinary influence” as it is “the largest Church in Rwanda”.[29] The implication is that the Church should have denounced anti-Tutsi behaviour as sinful. The refusal of the Church to discourage the essay jobs genocide leads Caplan to accuse them of “murder, literally”.[30] This blame is reiterated by footage of a Church filled with broken skulls. Also in the film, Dallaire claims that General Theoneste Bagasora, Head of the Ministry of Defence in Rwanda, “had the methods Stenden University Sciences power, the authority, to stop the whole thing.”[31] Instead, Bagasora undermined the UN force in Rwanda by essay The University, authorising the meaning of essay Singapore murder of Belgian troops, leading to the Belgian withdrawal.[32] However, Dallaire gives primary responsibility for the genocide to jobs The University of Sheffield, western nations, specifically the Belgians. He describes, upon their leaving, that the conflict was “essentially started by the same bastards who were taking off.”[33]

The film gives a historical background for newspaper International Hotel the misconceived differences between Tutsi and Hutu. Footage is shown of The University of Sheffield, Hutu in European run schools,[34] during the time from 1919 when Rwanda was colonised by Belgium.[35] The Hutu are shown being measured and and conclusions Moyles School “learning that the Tutsi were different, probably alien.”[36] It describes how European anthropologists’ work resulted in essay The University administrators including ethnicity on identity cards. This caused the “elements of difference” between the Tutsi, Hutu and Twa within Rwanda.[37] The European notion that the Tutsi were “alien” meant that the Hutu elite in of essay writing Curtin Singapore charge of essay jobs The University of Sheffield, Rwanda believed “the Hutu were not just a majority, they were the nation.”[38] The film describes how the colonial segregation of Rwandans laid the help to write essay foundations for the extremist Hutu government. It allowed them to The University of Sheffield, launch racist propaganda against the Tutsi, such as “they will take your baby away, whilst we, the methods of critical University of Applied Sciences Hutu, are innocent.”[39] Rather than discourage the radical Hutu government, certain European nations, notably the French, “worked with the Rwandan government that was planning the genocide” and thus “legitimised” their actions.[40] The blame which Dallaire and the film attribute to European nations is essay of Sheffield made clear when it states that Dallaire was “abandoned by the western powers.”[41] The film describes how the IMG Academy French, Belgians and Italians sent planes into Rwanda to rescue expatriates, but left Tutsi behind to be murdered.[42] Final, damning criticism is given to the United Nations and the international system. The United Nations’ “failure to The University of Sheffield, protect Rwandan citizens”[43] is attributed to the general disorganisation and bureaucratic chaos of its composition. The UN is described as working “as if it were held together with a piece of string.”[44] The film shows how Dallaire used what little agency he had to suggest ways of destabilising the newspaper Blue Mountains International School Interahamwe, such as raiding their arms caches.[45] However, the United Nations “forbid” such operations.[46] Rwandan President Paul Kagame claims that the United Nations was responsible for the genocide. Jobs! “The blame is on the UN Security Council, the members’ wrong, irresponsible decisions.”[47] He states that Dallaire “did not have the mandate” to carry out operations in order to protect more lives, he was, in effect, in “handcuffs”.[48] Dallaire’s supposed lack of support is write an article College backed by official documentation. The Rwandese Patriotic Front requested that the UN Security Council permit UN forces to “apprehend, put in custody, and if possible bring to justice” individuals participating in the violence in jobs The University areas under UN control.[49] However, the UN denied such permission. Meaning Of Essay Writing University Singapore! The film shows who Dallaire believes had agency during the Rwandan crisis, and The University thus had responsibility to prevent it.

The film offers an explanation for how and why the genocide happened, whilst attributing blame to certain people and groups of people. However, the to write essay IMG Academy film content is subject to essay jobs of Sheffield, the biases of its producers and Dallaire and is therefore limited in its conclusions. The film shows Dallaire’s use of the help to write essay media during the Rwandan crisis. It describes how Dallaire spoke “candidly”, using the media to “send a message”.[50] Using the media’s agency to show what was happening in Rwanda, Dallaire was attempting to compensate for his own lack of jobs The University of Sheffield, agency. The film demonstrates how he utilised the western media because it was less prone to of critical thinking Stenden of Applied Sciences, the bureaucratic processes and essay jobs inaction of states and the United Nations. Dallaire tried to help to write essay, use the media to portray to the western public the true horror of what was occurring, in the hope that it could lead to some form of assistance. This film is an additional attempt to inform people of Dallaire’s view of what happened in Rwanda. Essay Jobs The University! As a result of the writing analytical essays The University genocide, Dallaire not only lost control of a country, he lost control of himself. Essay Jobs The University! Dallaire discusses his “post traumatic stress syndrome”[51] and how he has, since leaving Rwanda, had issues with alcohol abuse and suicidal tendencies.[52] Dallaire claims that Rwanda was “where he significantly changed.”[53] He describes how he takes pills “just to stay reasonable.”[54] Dallaire’s continuing lack of agency within the analytical The University international system is shown by the confusion and delay which occurs, whilst filming, as he attempts to enter the former UN Headquarters, in Kigali.[55] After a lengthy delay to entering the premises, an extremely apologetic woman emerges.

She explains that “you know UN”, [56] as if such an excuse is reasonable. Essay Jobs! Yet, as Dallaire bitterly declares, such disorganisation is “perfectly reflective of the organisation.”[57] Throughout the film Dallaire attempts to newspaper Blue Mountains Hotel, show who he believes to be responsible for what occurred in Rwanda. He describes how he wishes to show his children and grandchildren what he did, and more poignantly did not do, in Rwanda.[58] Dallaire uses his return to Rwanda to attempt to come to terms with what occurred there previously. The University Of Sheffield! As Lewis states, “his return trip is a pretty crucial part of his therapy.”[59] The frequent footage of Dallaire’s narrow, haunted eyes and his tight grip upon his wife’s hand shows he is writing Court School still suffering from his ordeal. Dallaire’s return to Rwanda, and by proxy this film, is his attempt to use his agency, free from state and UN control, to cure his mental ailments and give his view of jobs The University of Sheffield, what occurred, and why. Despite Dallaire’s attempt to use the film to portray what he believes happened in Rwanda, the film does have limitations. Articles Blue Mountains International Management School! Whilst it is true that the majority of the perpetrators were male, and many victims were women and children, the depiction of male government troops juxtaposed against distressed women and children is not entirely objective.[60] The film attempts to demonstrate the horror of what Dallaire experienced by showing women and children subject to brutality. Essay Of Sheffield! This exploits the help common perception that women and children are innocent in war, and essay jobs men either protectors or aggressors.[61] However, many men were mutilated and killed and writing essays the video does not focus on their stories. Furthermore, women and children were not entirely blameless. An alternative account of the essay genocide describes how Gregoire, a survivor of the of critical thinking Stenden University of Applied genocide, noted that “the men killed, the women protected the essay of Sheffield killers, and the children went out looting.”[62] The film’s stance against men is shown when Bonaventure Niyibizi states that he “cannot understand how you can kill a one month old baby” or a “pregnant woman”.[63] This implies that it is easier to comprehend, and perhaps condone, killing an Moyles Court School, innocent, defenceless man.

Pauline Nyiramasuhuko, Rwanda’s Minister of Women and Family Affairs in 1994, was prosecuted for genocide and crimes against humanity.[64] There is no mention of this, or anything similar in the film. The film attempts to employ the common perception of men being strong, and essay The University women and College children being vulnerable, in order to provoke the viewer to experience Dallaire’s resentment of jobs of Sheffield, what happened. Thus, the film is subject to help IMG Academy, editing designed to promote the sympathy of the essay viewer. Furthermore, though the film is a credible portrayal of Dallaire’s opinions and experiences, it is meaning Curtin Singapore necessarily limited and subject to bias. Shake Hands with the Devil relates to the conflict in Rwanda as it portrays the unique viewpoint of Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire. Dallaire’s position caused him to experience the genocide firsthand, with the comprehension and responsibility, but inadequate resources, to resolve the situation. Nonetheless, the film contributes to our knowledge of the conflict as it shows how isolated Dallaire felt. Jobs Of Sheffield! Dallaire’s lack of agency demonstrates the failings of the United Nations system. The film highlights those who had agency to affect the genocide, and thus had a subsequent duty to protect life. These range from Hutu leaders, the Catholic Church and the United Nations itself. The key focuses of the film, Dallaire’s religious interpretation of events, his lack of help to write essay IMG Academy, agency, the essay jobs agency of other entities, and Dallaire’s attempt to utilise media, demonstrate Dallaire’s perspective of the Management genocide.

The film shows the magnitude of the catastrophe and who Dallaire feels was responsible. Thus, it contributes to our understanding of the essay The University of Sheffield genocide by showing the viewpoint of Dallaire, the man tasked with bringing peace to Rwanda. Annan, Kofi. Writing Analytical The University! Outgoing Code Cable. “Letter from the RPF” May 12 th 1994, accessed 22 nd November 2012. http://www.rwandadocumentsproject.net/gsdl/cgi-bin/library?e=d-01000-00—off-0RW2–00-1–0-10-0—0—0prompt-10-RW–4——-0-1l–11-en-1000—50-about-dallaire–00-3-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00a=dcl=searchd=HASH47de18c2c3bfd1a9299a8f.3. Barnett, Michael.

Eyewitness to a Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda (Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 2002). Byrne, Bridget. “Gender, conflict and essay The University of Sheffield development”, Volume 1: Overview, Bridge Report 34 (Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, 1996). Dallaire, Romeo. Outgoing Code Cable. “Informal Consultation on the Non-Paper” May 12 th 1994, accessed 22 nd November 2012. Help To Write IMG Academy! http://www.rwandadocumentsproject.net/gsdl/cgi-bin/library?e=d-01000-00—off-0RW2–00-1–0-10-0—0—0prompt-10-RW–4——-0-1l–11-en-1000—50-about-dallaire–00-3-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00a=dcl=searchd=HASH016f4cabc058314e5d1db5de.2. Dallaire, Romeo. Outgoing Code Cable. “Request For Protection of Informant” January 11 th 1994, accessed November 22 nd 2012. http://www.rwandadocumentsproject.net/gsdl/cgi-bin/library?e=d-01000-00—off-0RW2–00-1–0-10-0—0—0prompt-10-RW–4——-0-1l–11-en-1000—50-about-dallaire–00-3-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00a=dcl=CL1.6.1d=HASHac5d200ba6db810c1d0329.2. Keane, Fergal.

Season of Blood: A Rwandan Journey (London: Penguin Books, 1996). Klinghoffer, Arthur Jay. The International Dimension of Genocide in Rwanda (New York: New York University Press, 1998). Mamdani, Mahmood. The University! When Victims Become Killers: Colonisation, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001). Melvin, Linda. A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide (London, Zed Books, 2000).

Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. Help IMG Academy! Rwanda’s Genocide: The Politics of Global Justice (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005). Pottier, Johan. Re-imagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in the Late Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). CBC news. “In Depth: Rwanda History,” Last modified August 22 nd 2003. Accessed 21 st November 2012, http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/rwanda/history.html. Security Council Meeting. “The situation concerning Rwanda Special report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (S/1994/470)” 21 st April 1994, accessed 21 st November 2012. http://www.undemocracy.com/securitycouncil/meeting_3368. Shake Hands With The Devil: The Journey of Romeo Dallaire , DVD, directed by Peter Raymont (Toronto: Investigative Productions Inc, 2004).

United Human Rights Council. “Genocide in Rwanda,” accessed 21 st November 2012, http://www.unitedhumanrights.org/genocide/genocide_in_rwanda.htm. [1] Shake Hands With The Devil: The Journey of Romeo Dallaire , DVD, directed by Peter Raymont (Toronto: Investigative Productions Inc, 2004). [2]United Human Rights Council. “Genocide in Rwanda,” accessed 21 st November 2012, http://www.unitedhumanrights.org/genocide/genocide_in_rwanda.htm. [3]Keane, Fergal. Season of Blood: A Rwandan Journey (London: Penguin Books, 1996), p. 8. [4]Klinghoffer, Arthur Jay. The International Dimension of Genocide in essay The University Rwanda (New York: New York University Press, 1998), p. University Singapore! 3. [5] Shake Hands With The Devil. [12] Byrne, Bridget. Of Sheffield! “Gender, conflict and development”, Volume 1: Overview, Bridge Report 34 (Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, 1996), p. 2. [13] Shake Hands With The Devil. [14]Barnett, Michael. Eyewitness to a Genocide: The United Nations and essay IMG Academy Rwanda (Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 2002), p. 97. [15] Shake Hands With The Devil.

[20]Dallaire’s request for permission to destroy Interahamwe weapons, which was subsequently denied: Dallaire, Romeo. Outgoing Code Cable. “Request For Protection of Informant” January 11 th 1994, accessed November 22 nd 2012. http://www.rwandadocumentsproject.net/gsdl/cgi-bin/library?e=d-01000-00—off-0RW2–00-1–0-10-0—0—0prompt-10-RW–4——-0-1l–11-en-1000—50-about-dallaire–00-3-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00a=dcl=CL1.6.1d=HASHac5d200ba6db810c1d0329.2. [21] Shake Hands With The Devil. [22]Dallaire, Romeo. Outgoing Code Cable. “Informal Consultation on the Non-Paper” May 12 th 1994, accessed 22 nd November 2012. http://www.rwandadocumentsproject.net/gsdl/cgi-bin/library?e=d-01000-00—off-0RW2–00-1–0-10-0—0—0prompt-10-RW–4——-0-1l–11-en-1000—50-about-dallaire–00-3-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00a=dcl=searchd=HASH016f4cabc058314e5d1db5de.2. [23] Shake Hands With The Devil. [24]Security Council Meeting. “The situation concerning Rwanda Special report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (S/1994/470)” 21 st April 1994, accessed 21 st November 2012. http://www.undemocracy.com/securitycouncil/meeting_3368. [25]Melvin, Linda. Jobs! A People Betrayed: The Role of the Moyles Court School West in Rwanda’s Genocide (London, Zed Books, 2000), p. 4. [26] Shake Hands With The Devil.

[35]CBC news. Jobs Of Sheffield! “In Depth: Rwanda History,” Last modified August 22 nd 2003. How To Write College! Accessed 21 st November 2012, http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/rwanda/history.html. [36] Shake Hands With The Devil. [38]Mamdani, Mahmood. When Victims Become Killers: Colonisation, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001), p. 190. [39] Shake Hands With The Devil. [43]Pottier, Johan. Re-imagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and jobs Disinformation in the Late Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), p. 39. [44] Shake Hands With The Devil. [49]Annan, Kofi.

Outgoing Code Cable. “Letter from the RPF” May 12 th 1994, accessed 22 nd November 2012. http://www.rwandadocumentsproject.net/gsdl/cgi-bin/library?e=d-01000-00—off-0RW2–00-1–0-10-0—0—0prompt-10-RW–4——-0-1l–11-en-1000—50-about-dallaire–00-3-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00a=dcl=searchd=HASH47de18c2c3bfd1a9299a8f.3. [50] Shake Hands With The Devil. [61]Byrne. “Gender, conflict and articles Hotel development”, p. Jobs The University Of Sheffield! 2. [62]Pottier. Re-imagining Rwanda, p. 206. [63] Shake Hands With The Devil. [64]Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. Rwanda’s Genocide: The Politics of Global Justice (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), p. 83.

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Essay: The South China Sea Conflict. In order to better understand how these terms relate to what this paper wants to explain and develop, in what follows, a historical background of the essay jobs conflict will be contained and explained. After that the flow of arguments will be comprehensive for writing essay and conclusions Moyles School, the reader. The South China Sea conflict is not a new one and it has a lot of implications. Only an overlook of this conflict can be explanatory enough in order for the paper to jobs The University of Sheffield be relevant. 2.2 Historical background of the conflict. The South China Sea is a semi-enclosed sea that includes several islands and important resources. The area includes the Paracels and the Spratlys islands. The area started to be of importance after the 20th century, and until that moment it did not represent worth mentioning in any negotiation or war. At the beginning the Paracels and write an article review Ashbury College the Spratlys islands were under French domination and after the defeat of France in World War II, they were handed over to Japan. It remained under Japanese domination until the end of the war and after the war ended Japan renounced its sovereignty over the region.

The archipelagoes remained unoccupied. This was the moment in which the region started to raise interest in the eyes of the neighbors and they started negotiations as everyone wants a part of rich resources that the area has (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). The issue became of importance for the entire world, not only for jobs of Sheffield, those that would have a direct control over the region. Writing! For the countries surrounding South China Sea the most important issue is the issue of sovereignty. Especially for essay The University of Sheffield, the traditional countries like China, Taiwan, Vietnam sovereignty is an important factor that matters for writing, the image of the country. The retrieval of islands and of under their domination would erase to a certain extent the essay humiliation that they had to face when the area was under European domination. For China for example, the entire SCS belongs to it (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013).

The economic benefits are an important factor that heightens the desire of PRC for the region. Resources are mainly of interest for all the newspaper Blue International Hotel Management parties involved in this conflict and ultimately high stakes mean hard negotiation. The large quantities of natural resources, especially energy and The University of Sheffield a large amount of fish resources made countries that do not consider sovereignty such an important issue to become interested in writing analytical The University, the area as well. Another debatable issue would the amount of oil that could be exploited in the South China Sea, but the numbers are high (Ma Shaohua, 2006). Given the fact that most of the countries in the area are oil importers, the essay The University eagerness to dominate the region becomes clearer. Great emphasis is put on the fishery business especially because of the shortages announced in what regards the seafood stock of newspaper Blue Mountains International School, Asian countries in the region. Essay The University Of Sheffield! In China, for example, the seafood consumption has grown to a high extent in the last years (Ma Shaohua, 2006). It is write an article Ashbury important to note the reasons for jobs, which non-claimants are interested in the area. If the writing analytical of Kansas region would pass under the sovereignty of a given state the free pass of ships in the area would not be free anymore.

Under these circumstances free navigation is an important element that needs to jobs The University be taken into write an article Ashbury College consideration in this equation (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). Important shipments pass through the region with cargos that are directed towards United States, Japan and Middle East. Trade is exercised to essay jobs The University a great extent there and domination would restrain the trade. These countries would prefer a free lane of review Ashbury, passage in order to ensure that their shipments reach the destination and essay jobs they want to to write IMG Academy ensure this as peacefully as possible (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013). China assumes that some ancient Chinese objects found in jobs of Sheffield, the area ensure the Chinese sovereignty in the region. Also, documents and writing essay introductions Court ancient Chinese writings have been presented as proof for the sustaining China’s point of view. Besides the upper mentioned attempts China also forcibly tried to gain access to Paracels islands in 1947 when it they attacked the Vietnamese forces. Jobs Of Sheffield! In that moment they were more interested in writing The University, the Paracels islands and in this way they ended the essay The University Vietnamese presence in the western part of the archipelago (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002).

Vietnam considers on writing essay introductions and conclusions Moyles Court School the other hand that the Paracels islands were part of jobs The University, Vietnam and this is the reason for which they were together colonized by France. Also, they claim that the islands were returned to Vietnam by France after WWII . Vietnam still maintained its territorial claim even if after 1974 the area was under Chinese control (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). Attempts have been made on Mountains International both sides to start military actions against the other, but except for the 1974 violent encounter, they did not take under domination the archipelago in a violent manner. The Paracels islands are disputed mainly by China, Vietnam and of Sheffield Taiwan. The archipelago is located in the northwestern part of the South China Sea and in this particular part the main issue is help to write IMG Academy that of domination over the region. The other archipelago that is disputed is the essay of Sheffield Spratlys that is located to the South of the Sea.

Here the controversies are of a higher degree because it involves as well the free pass of shipments mentioned before. Of Critical Thinking Of Applied! This area is disputed by several countries like China, Vietnam and Taiwan and essay of Sheffield besides these three by Brunei, The Philippines and Malaysia. Indonesia only wants the Natuna, an island close to the Indonesian shore, territory that is essay and conclusions Court claimed by essay jobs The University of Sheffield, China as well (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). The countries involved in the Paracels dispute sustained their claims based on historical proves, however the methods of critical Stenden Sciences other actors involved decided to use International law to back-up their stories. With regards to this they used especially the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea that helped them contra-argument the historical implications presented by the others. Military forces have been deployed on the islands from all parties involved except Brunei. Of Sheffield! In this way China sent troops on 9 islands, Taiwan enjoys one island, but the biggest one from the Spratlys archipelago, Malaysia has three, Philippines 8 and Vietnam is the proud occupant of College, 25 little islands (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Martin, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002).

The distribution of islands started in 1970 and since then each of the countries involved started to get their fair share of islands. Even if China claims the entire region, it was the last one to actively occupy islands (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). China wants everything and considers that the islands belong to it entirely without possibility for division. Important to mention here is jobs The University that China started its occupation through an attack against Vietnam and to write it was the only one that adopted this type of method of occupation. That particular moment was the trigger that made China to be seen as a possible danger by the entire international scene and jobs of Sheffield it always raised international concern. China made another attempt against Philippines and an article College this turnover made things worse as the Philippines was part of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations . This pin point represented the moment in which everyone realized the essay The University of Sheffield importance of the matter and the fact that an unresolved conflict may start another violent treat from China. Especially after the Cold war China became an important power, fact which made its neighbors be afraid of a possible treat from how to an article review College, China (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002).

After 1990 the region started to present tensions and unrest and starting to gain more and more attention from the international scene. The first matter on the list was to stop China from the violent stand that it took and to make sure that the The University of Sheffield conflict would be solved peacefully. In that moment multilateral negotiations started to meaning writing Curtin seem a good option, engaging in this way the jobs parties into a coordination of policies that would allow further development. Methods Of Critical Thinking Stenden University! This approach was embraced by jobs The University of Sheffield, the Asian states and especially within ASEAN that has as a main bases of functioning this cooperative method. Meaning Of Essay University! Member states of ASEAN are confident about this method and the unilateral way in of Sheffield, which China tried to continue its endeavors started to become a great issue (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). The fact that China represented and still represents a great power, made it difficult for write an article, the other countries to engage or not in a negotiation process. The main topic of discussion was to essay jobs The University introduce China in the multilateral process.

The conflict itself involves several actors, so for all of them it is newspaper articles Blue International Hotel School clear that a multilateral negotiation would be of a great importance. A bilateral approach would only increase tensions and suspicion. Also, the parties involved believe that bilateral negotiations would represent an advantage for China to continue its hegemonic expansion in The University, the region and in writing analytical essays The University of Kansas, the same time this ASEAN way would make China embrace this type of conflict resolution for the future. Important to note is that China does not have the exercise of jobs The University, multilateralism and it is of great importance to take into consideration the fact that the Chinese way of articles Blue International, government does not permit external intervention is national business (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Martin, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). Even if China was reluctant at the beginning Premier Li Peng’s visit in 1990 was an attitude considered as a proof that China would engage in peaceful conflict settlement.

The Chinese Premier announced that China would like to cooperate in the settlement of the conflict. Of Sheffield! Soon, the Chinese foreign minister decided that they would still like the an article College bilateral negotiation. They tagged the essay jobs The University of Sheffield multilateral negotiations as consultations, but never acknowledged their true essence. The first attempt to start multilateral cooperation was the workshop hosted by Indonesia called ‘Managing Potential Conflicts in the South China Sea’ . The first meeting was supposed to find out the real strategy of China and it was exclusively created for ASEAN members (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). From then on writing essays The University of Kansas China embraced thise project and joined the meetings organized. In 1991 China had the chance for the first time to jobs have a stand in multilateral discussions. At first the members tried to discourage Chinese participation in dialogue being afraid of what they may say. In this way they avoided the Moyles Court School discussions regarding the disputes and this first meeting with China was an essay jobs The University, introductory discussion more than an actual dialogue. Chinese representatives embraced this approach and during the meeting in 1992, when Vietnam started the discussions with regards to the issue in the South China Sea, China reiterated its position and of essay Curtin Singapore adopted the formal position again. In 1995 the First ASEAN Regional Forum was organized and essay it represented the help to write IMG Academy moment in The University, which the issue was actually discussed.

In 1995, after the Mishief Reef incident, China announced that wanted to negotiate peacefully the entire issue, but its actions were others (Ma Shaohua, 2006) Of course that not all disputes are centered on China and another country, other countries have overlapping claims, the difference is that they adopted the multilateral method before and negotiations were started earlier. Malaysia and the Philippines also had disputes regarding the Louisa Reef, but did not result in a violent encounter (Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014). The other countries managed to show solidarity and to meaning University Singapore share their concerns upon jurisdictional issues. After 2000 various encounters took place and for jobs The University, example, in Blue Mountains, 2001, US EP-3 conducting a reconnaissance flight in the South China Sea entered a collision with one Chinese F-8. Essay Jobs Of Sheffield! The circumstances of the collision are not clear and it was all interpreted as a miscalculation, representatives of both countries being advised to better calculate trajectories in order to avoid such incidents (Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014). In 2009, the newspaper International Hotel Management School issue of international security was raised again when in March Chinese vessels clashed with US surveillance ships. China accused the United States, claiming that the presence of the American vessels in of Sheffield, the area is not legal. The requests for the America Impeccable vessel to leave the area were quite violent from the Chinese party and ASEAN started to be more and more concerned (Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014).

These types of issues continue to occur all the time and most of the declared encounters on sea are portrayed as harassments of Chinese ships. The delimitations imposed by Blue International Hotel School, law are not clear and in many instances there was a necessity to delimitate the continental shelf. The first limit imposed was that each island should be entitled to 12 miles of territorial sea. There are no concrete requirements in what regards the of Sheffield rights of exploitation of resources or fishery in the rest of the sea and this has also raised tensions between the neighboring countries in writing The University, the region (Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014). Even after tens of years since the dispute started the situation is basically the same. After many negotiations, multilateral or bilateral, this situation escalated in 2014 when China placed an oil rig the South China Sea, near the Paracel Islands (The Guardian, 2014; CNN, 2014; The Diplomat, 2014; The Times, 2014). In 2014, China, Vietnam and essay jobs The University of Sheffield the Philippines were involved in a series of incidents. Vietnam accuses China of treats against the ships that were passing near the Paracels islands, currently under Chinese administrative control. China responds that they were treated as such because they were interrupting the drilling activities and are undergone by China in the region. Also, another Chinese ship this time was stopped by the Philippines’ authorities when it was trying to pass near the Spratlys islands. More and more scholars debated the idea of an imminent armed conflict in the region.

As mentioned before in of critical University, the paper, one of the most important and defining issues that escalated the conflict was the oil rig planted by China near the essay jobs The University Paracels islands (The Guardian, 2014; CNN, 2014; The Diplomat, 2014; The Times, 2014). Vietnam was the country that opposed the most this move made by the Chinese oil company CNOOC. China deployed military vessels in the region to ensure the free activity of the rig with its three miles of exclusion zone. The vessels collided with several US and other types of ships trying to free pass the area. Writing Analytical Essays Of Kansas! Most of the ships were fishing ships and jobs trade ships. Chinese representatives declared that Vietnam is the analytical The University of Kansas one causing conflict given the fact that they consider the area China’s territorial waters (The Guardian, 2014; CNN, 2014). China’s actions to jobs of Sheffield put the drill in the disputed area was interpreted by all the actors involved in the conflict and the international actors as a type of unilateral behavior that was settled way back. The most important result of the latest events was an US-Philippines security past called Enhanced Defense Cooperation agreement that permits US access in the area (The Guardian, 2014; CNN, 2014; The Diplomat, 2014). After pressure from the outside actors and in order to avoid an incident as a result against China from Vietnam, China decided to help essay move the oil rig from the contested area (The Guardian, 2014).

Even if they decided to do this, the tensions between China, Vietnam and all the other countries that have a share or would like to have a share of the of Sheffield South China Sea continue. China still prefers bilateral negotiations and writing essay Moyles School wants the biggest share of the pie. The other countries do not stand back and lock for more and more outside support like United Sates, Japan and essay jobs The University other Asian countries. 2.3 Theories on the South China Sea. This paper gathered together several papers on the subject. At first it might have seemed difficult to find the necessary support to write this paper on help essay the Conflict in the South China Sea given the fact that the latest events occurred only in 2013, 2014. It was more than interesting to find out that this subject raised a lot of interest lately and essay jobs The University that more and more states are involved in the conflict. The main issue concerning for all the authors is the reason for which this conflict was not handled yet and newspaper Mountains Hotel School also for them it was interesting to essay The University of Sheffield check the reasons for which this conflict is still dangerous and may escalate quickly.

In order for us to better understand the notion of negotiation and the practice of it within several domains, also this paper used Tanya Alfredson’s and Azeta Cungu’s article on ‘Negotiation Theory and Practice’. This paper allowed for a faster recognition of the relevant authors that allowed concretizing the definition of terms. Writing And Conclusions Court School! Alfredson and Cungu showed in its paper that we live in a world in which people and essay The University actors in general interact in million of essays of Kansas, ways and essay jobs The University of Sheffield that there is an imperative need to try to find ways to solve daily conflicts that may appear. Write Review Ashbury! As already mentioned, we live in a totally globalized world and it is essay of Sheffield harsh to writing essay introductions and conclusions Moyles Court School imagine that since now this South China Sea conflict was not solved. The South China Sea conflict started to become an issue especially After the Cold War and yet as the author mentions in essay, her article, negotiation started to be developed especially after the Cold war (Alfredson #038; Cungu, 2008). On the same path as the upper mentioned article, Professor Michael Dues explains to his students the meaning of methods Stenden University, negotiation as a peaceful way of jobs of Sheffield, conflict management. As he mentions, all conflicts should have a resolution. Especially conflicts that are usually located on a lower scale on how to write Ashbury College the stages of conflict should be solved easily compared to essay other conflicts (Dues, 2010). In the case of South China Sea it should be easier to peacefully solve a conflict through negotiation given the circumstances. There are no premises of violent conflict and it has not become yet an writing essay introductions and conclusions School, international incident. Only lately when China decided that it basically wants the entire sea.

It is essay jobs of Sheffield important to note that there is always place for negotiation. Ury and Fisher, develop in Getting to Yes the essay introductions and conclusions Court School principled negotiation theory. Their theory implies knowing the reason behind the demand in order to be able to delimitate a good negotiation (Fisher #038; Ury, 1991). In the case of the essay jobs SCS conflict, a principled negotiation between the states involved would probably ease the IMG Academy tensions and the true reasons behind their arguments will be revealed. China claims only that it wants the region because of historical purposes. The University Of Sheffield! Of course that behind its demands there are other reasons as well and probably more significant.

Also, Vietnam, Taiwan, Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia, they also have economic and other types of reasons for which they want the region. For example one may want a certain area because of security, one for mineral resources and one for oil, but it is important to find each country’s reasons in order to be able to find a suitable solution for all. Deepak Malhotra writes about the importance of trust in negotiation. Newspaper Articles Blue Mountains International Hotel Management! In order to a negotiation to work it is demanding to have faith in the other. Trust is earned and it is consolidated in time, without trust there is jobs of Sheffield no relation and no concession, the entire purpose of the negotiation fails.

In the case of the countries discussed before, a bilateral negotiation process will mean a change in trust. Mistrust can develop because of the how to an article review Ashbury College secret nature of the The University of Sheffield bilateral discussions (Deepak Malhotra, 2003). Countries can become suspicious and trends can change. In this case a multilateral approach seems more feasible. Graham and Lam in their article regarding Chinese negotiation talk about the how to Ashbury way in which Chinese negotiation goes in essay jobs The University of Sheffield, the context of business and political issues. They rely on principles and meaning of essay writing Curtin Singapore idea that the roots of the culture are deeply combined with the daily life. There are eight main elements to take into consideration when negotiating with Chinese (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). The University! All these elements lead to the fact that China would adopt a bilateral position because of cultural reasons as well. First of of essay, all, the personal connection is important for the Chinese and Asian countries. The Westerners put a lot of emphasize on information and innovation while the Chinese price personal relations and connections that built trust among the group (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). Secondly, Chinese people like to work with intermediaries.

The intermediary works as a mediator between those who negotiate and usually is a person trusted by both parties. Friendship is appreciated in essay jobs, the Chinese culture (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). Westerners tend to rely more on personal face to face talks and to push the methods of Applied Sciences limits to the point that the essay jobs The University system may break. Chinese also appreciate social status; they are motivated when talking with people of the same position and not of a lower rank (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). For example in the South China Sea conflict China might think that the countries with which has to negotiate are not of the same rank as China is. Also, with respect to this it is important to mention that in all the meetings that China was invited for this purpose, they sent a person with a high position. Interpersonal harmony would be the next factor that we have to take into writing The University consideration when negotiating business with the Chinese (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). They admire and value friendly relations, friendship produces money.

This may be a good theoretical explanation for The University of Sheffield, which China did not start a violent conflict yet, they know that there is a high chance for the other countries to become allies and together with the international allies to writing Curtin Singapore become a real danger for China. Holistic thinking is one of the essay most valued principles by the Chinese. The main issue that is not understood by the other countries when talking about negotiation is that Chinese tend to see everything as a whole while the others take everything piece by piece (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). China for write an article Ashbury College, sure sees the South China Sea as a whole while the others can see it as regions and islands and essay The University of Sheffield resources. From here the help essay IMG Academy drive demonstrated by China to have control over the entire area. They also have the exercise of thrift, meaning they like to save as much as they can and to try to negotiate until they know that they got the best prices, agreements and advantages (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). Again, as talked before here can be identified the bilateral nature of the Chinese negotiation and essay jobs The University of Sheffield also this may be the reason for which so far no agreement has been reached in the area. For the Blue International Chinese the position and prestige is very importance. The idea of saving face is important for all nations, but in the case of China it can be said that it is heightened (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). China is used with hard labor and hard bargaining. Under these circumstances it developed endurance to time and complicated situations and people.

In this way it is important to give time it time and patience. This is how they think, negotiate and decide, upon The University these terms it is mandatory to work and write review Ashbury College even if attempts are made for a multilateral method to be accepted by China, it is still debatable if this will be possible. As Moffit and Bordon say in their book ‘The handbook of The University of Sheffield, dispute resolution’ each conflict resolution technique needs to be tailored and adjusted in such a way in help to write IMG Academy, order for essay jobs The University of Sheffield, it to to write IMG Academy be the best resolution possible for that particular conflict (Moffit #038;Bordon, 2005). Peaceful conflict resolution is not very developed in the Asian countries and this represents a risk as well. Only one that handles with care and greatness the jobs The University art of negotiation can alienate the demands of all in one offer. With regards to the reasons for which the conflict in how to write an article, the South China sea persists and the reasons for which it did not escalate yet, Hermans in 2012 for example was analyzing the perpetuating status of the South China Sea conflict in a thesis quite self explanatory and captivating.

In this thesis, the author tries to explain the reasons for which this conflict did not escalate, but it wasn’t solved either through three perspectives: process based constructivism, hedging, and regional multilateralism (Hermans, 2012). As it can be seen the multilateral issue is debated and linked with the conflict by other writers on the subject as well. First it is important to find reasons for which they failed in order to essay of Sheffield be able find possible solutions. The author acknowledges the fact that these region avoided violent conflict so far, but it is highly possible for an armed conflict to start in the area if this situation persists. Also, given the essay Moyles School fact that this paper will put emphasis on the negotiation process, Herman’s paper provides enough information with regards to the ASEAN failures in what regards the negotiation processes. According to the author, multilateral and bilateral negotiations have their advantages and disadvantages. Essay Jobs! As in the case of the discussed region, multilateral negotiations have failed to deliver an outcome yet. Meaning Curtin Singapore! It is important to mention here that the Chinese part did not want multilateral negotiation from the beginning, wanting to jobs The University of Sheffield adopt a bilateral process. The Multilateral method in this way could have delayed the IMG Academy agreement and in one way it would have been better to adopt China’s way, at essay jobs The University of Sheffield, least to analytical The University try to solve what is of a higher importance for the moment and to jobs stabilize the area. As already mentioned this conflict does not evolve around China and other country only, even if China has the highest claims of all, but the conflict affects other countries as well. Ravi A. Balaram wrote ‘Case Study: The Myanmar and Bangladesh Maritime Boundary Dispute in the Bay of Bengal and Its Implications for South China’, a paper that talks about one dispute upon the claims that have been made within the South China Sea during the years.

The paper explains and dissects the methods of critical thinking Stenden implications of the essay jobs of Sheffield Myanmar and Bangladesh dispute upo. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom History essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and an article College we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised History work in your email box, in essay The University of Sheffield, as little as 3 hours. This History essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: The South China Sea Conflict . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/history/essay-the-south-china-sea-conflict/ [06-10-17].

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