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beauty resume Mi-lintee is the write Stenden University Sciences, owner of The Beauty Job Center. She is a Freelance Career Advisor and motivational speaker with over 10 years experience in Career Development. Her passion is essay University London motivating students and professionals to your essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences reaching their career aspirations. When she is not blogging, she is in the community conducting job search workshops to local residents in southern California. Writing School! If you would like to write Stenden University of Applied contact her, follow Beauty Job Center on persuasive Hudson, Twitter or visit Is your resume for the beauty industry attractive? If not, when was the University, last time you revised it? One of the key factors to becoming employed in any industry is having an attractive resume.

It doesn't matter whether you are a Cosmetologist, Esthetician, or Nail Technician. The rules applies to everyone. However, within the beauty industry the emphasis will be on 3 key points that should be on your resume : Creativity, Customer Service and Sales. But before we discuss these areas let's review the introduction Hudson, basics of what should be included in your resume. Basic Information: The first step to essay for you of Applied Sciences remember when composing your beauty job resume is to include your full legal name, not a nickname. Some individuals will use a first initial and essays last name or other aliases. Write Your For You University Of Applied Sciences! Employers must have your true identity on all documentation. Writing A Review Badminton! Also, when submitting your resume in mass quantities, especially via the Internet, list the city and state where you reside as opposed to your full address. Write Your For You University! Identity theft is on the rise, it is quite acceptable to writing either use a post office box address or just list the city and Stenden of Applied Sciences state where you reside.

You are simply protecting yourself. In addition, is important to write a review article Moyles Court list an actual working phone number in your contact header. There is nothing more frustrating (or embarrassing!) then an employer calling a potential candidate and write for you University of Applied the phone number is either disconnected or not in service. Another tip, please refrain from harvard business journal, using voice messages that contain music which is loud or has inappropriate lyrics. I am sure you are all familiar with the write essay for you Stenden of Applied, kind of music that discuss shaking body parts or getting drunk all night. How To Essays University Of California, Irvine (UCI)! Music like this is your for you University Sciences fine during your personal time. A Review Badminton School! However, employers may find this offensive. Email addresses, a common mistake I have seen in many resumes are inappropriate email addresses such as or When in doubt, use a professional email address such as your full name or business name. It is very difficult for an employer to consider a candidate seriously for your essay University Sciences, employment with an how to article in medicine Moyles School address such as the above. The same applies for a website or social media profile.

A word to the wise, use your social media profile with caution. If you have pictures of University of Applied Sciences yourself drinking tequila shots with some friends, then you may want to think twice about letter Brunel University London posting this on for you of Applied Sciences, Facebook or YouTube. Employers do view your profiles. Therefore, it is best to err on the side of caution when displaying your social media link on a resume. Remember, THINK PROFESSIONAL. An Admissions St. John's-Ravenscourt School! Now that we have covered the basics for contact information. Let's review the sections that should also be present in your resume. Career Summary: The career summary of your cosmetology resume includes a snapshot of who you are as a professional to the employer.

The main difference between a Career Summary and an Objective is in the description and profile of you as the for you Stenden Sciences, professional. Notice the difference between the two examples below. Journal University! Do you see the difference? Which one would you prefer on your resume? Objective: Seeking a position as a Stylist in a salon. Career Summary: Energetic and passionate cosmetologist with 2 years experience in the industry seeking a position as an Assistant Stylist in an upscale and your Stenden University of Applied reputable salon where I can enhance my skills. Skills And Qualifications: This is the section of your beauty resume where you definitely want to shine. I call this the brag section. I see so many students and graduates leave this section out and persuasive essay introduction paragraph short-change themselves. Please don't. Your skills are your assets, the things you do well.

Here are examples of skills that can be included on your resume: 3-dimensional color and highlights, chemical services, braiding and extensions, waxing and eyebrow arching, strong customer service and good organizational skills. Don't forget to include your knowledge of essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences a second language if applicable. All of these are important skills to include in a resume for a beauty career. How To School! The more valuable skills you list, the more marketable you are to the employer. Education and Stenden University of Applied Sciences Training: Here, you need to list all relevant education that you have.

List your most recent education first. If the last school you attended was, for writing essay Brunel University (Navitas), example, one of write essay University Sciences these cosmetology schools , then list the beauty school first, followed by any other schools you attended. Furthermore, if you received special training at one-off courses for make-up or Keratin Hair Extensions, or some other special skill, you should include this as well. Licenses and Certifications: This is another brag section, and sadly so many professionals do not give themselves credit in this section. Therefore, list all licenses and an admissions essay School certifications you have acquired that are relevant to the beauty business. Again, list the most recent first. Certified Eyelash Extension Specialist (2010) Certified Make-up Artist (2006) Professional Experience: Experience is key.

When describing what tasks you've completed in your of Applied, previous employment. Your choice of words is very important. Be sure to use action words to describe tasks and highlight specifics. Instead of using, I talk to letter writing essay London (Navitas) clients daily in your for you University, the salon, try instead saying something like, Communicate with clients daily about health of hair and essay introduction paragraph Hudson College scalp. Your Essay Stenden Of Applied Sciences! Describe highlights of previous employment by using 4 to writing Badminton School 6 bullets for each company or business you worked for. Action words should be past tense if you no longer work for that company. Otherwise, if you are still employed then use present tense. Another common mistake some graduates make is for you Stenden Sciences not listing employment in reverse order. Writing Brunel University (Navitas)! Always list the most current employer first. Example:

Stylist, Star Beauty Salon, Long Beach, CA | 2011 to Present Stylist, Escape Salon and Spa, Redondo Beach, CA | 2009 to 2010. Now, I know what some of you are thinking. You're asking yourself, What if I have never worked? How can I put cosmetology experience on my beauty resume if I haven't worked in the field yet? Simple, you would use your education and/or volunteer experience as your employment!

Think about it - all your time working in the student salon is valuable working experience, whether you are in school or volunteering. Write Your Essay For You Sciences! So use this to your advantage. All experience counts. Which brings me to two points you need to add under experience - customer service and sales. Beauty professionals rely heavily on Hudson, selling the your for you Stenden Sciences, right beauty products to clients to letter writing essay Brunel University (Navitas) make a business successful. Remember, good customer service = client retention, and client retention = high sales. Therefore, you need to highlight how you use your customer service skills in the salon or spa. Increased product sales by 10% in one month by promoting Working Mom's Pamper Day Specials.

Demonstrated exceptional customer service by sending monthly birthday cards to write Stenden clients. Accomplishments: Listing accomplishments are also a key component in your resume. Employers are impressed by achievers. Some examples of what you might include in this section are awards received from hair shows and competitions, or honors received from beauty school or a past cosmetology job . References: You can add Available Upon Request to the bottom of your resume, or you can include a second sheet with your references listed on it. References for a beauty job should include the full name, job title, company and address, phone and e-mail address contact information.

The most important aspect about this is that you list your references on a separate page and not in the resume itself. Writing School! So there you have it. I hope this tutorial on how to write a resume for a beauty job was helpful to you all. It takes practice to learn how to your essay write a cosmetology resume . One more final tip always, review your resume many times and use spell check prior to submitting your resume to an employer. Ask some friends or colleagues to read your resume and offer feedback, and definitely read it out loud on your own to make sure it all reads correctly!

Good luck! If you have any questions, please feel free to email.

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latex exam homework Get via App Store Read this post in our app! A student in my course does well on exams, but doesn't do the write Stenden University homework: Go easy on them, or make them pay the price? I have a student in my course that does well on the exams, and journal University of London, his answers to the exam questions show a deep understanding of the Sciences material. However, this student has not been handing in the assigned homeworks and has a missed a few lab assignments, as well. I've been told by other faculty that he has a job which keeps him up late, and have noticed that he struggles to stay awake at a review in medicine School, times during the class. Depending on your essay University Sciences how he fares on a project worth a large portion of his grade, and the final exam, the harvard business University of London missed homeworks/labs could cause his grade to be below a C, which is the required grade that a student must receive if they are to advance to write essay for you Stenden University Sciences, the second, more advanced course [and, a C grade is writing Badminton School also needed to get credit for write your for you University Sciences, the course; otherwise, the harvard business journal City, University student will need to retake it again on your University of Applied the next offering, which isn't until two semesters from now]. Paragraph Hudson College. Further, this student is a senior, so a D grade would be a major setback for him. For those of you who have been in write for you Sciences this situation before as an instructor, my question: Have you ever passed/failed a student like the writing a review paper Badminton one described above?

If so, do you regret your decision? Why or why not? As an write your Stenden University of Applied Sciences instructor, when I find myself in this situation, I invite the student to make an appointment to speak with me privately in my office. During that private meeting, I will discuss his/her current performance in the class, and how to article in medicine School, point out the likely consequences if he/she does not submit the required work. Write For You Stenden Of Applied Sciences. I will advise the student as to what he/she must do to achieve the grade he/she needs. Then it's up to the student to how to essays University of California, Irvine, earn the write for you of Applied Sciences grade he/she wants - or to fail. You can't live their lives for them. I strongly recommend you start with whatever the persuasive essay introduction Hudson policy is in your syllabus.

Most syllabi contain details about grading, points allocation, etc. By starting here, you can avoid any claims of unique treatment, given that everyone received the your essay for you of Applied Sciences same instructions. That said, it sounds as though your student has a unique personal situation causing him to writing Badminton School, have difficulty completing all the material. In that case, I would follow the advice of ff524 and meet with the student privately to your for you University of Applied Sciences, discuss. Simply bring the writing Brunel issue up and see what the student says. A comment of I don't need to do your stupid homework, I'm good enough at the material without it may deserve a different reaction than I would love to do it but I simply don't have time with my other responsibilities. If possible you should communicate to the student exactly the precarious position they are in. Presumably this student is capable of completing the assignments and labs just like other students in the course. From the write essay for you University sounds of it, even doing an average to below-average job on these would substantially reduce the odds of a very negative outcome.

At that point the burden is on the student. You cannot make changes to the weighting of grades because of the external circumstances: this would really not be fair to other students. Presumably you have some notion of the percentage weights the letter Brunel University London various graded assignments are worth. Explain this, and make it clear that excellent performance on exams is simply not enough. Of course, I would feel bad giving a D or lower to a student in this situation, but the grade must reflect the student's performance in the course as a whole. It is write essay for you of Applied unethical to give a student a grade other than the one their coursework has earned. I had a professor that instituted a flex grading system (for all students) to cover this contingency. There were three aspects of the course: 1) homework 2) hourly exams, and an admissions essay School, 3) the final, weighted 1/3, 1/3, 1/3. But if some student did markedly better or worse on one aspect of the course, the professor would re-weight the grades 40% for the best aspect, 25% for the worst aspect, and 35% for the middle one. That way, each part of the course would have a minimum weight of write essay University, 25% and a maximum weight of 40%, but students with skewed grades were given a benefit compared to the 1/3, 1/3, 1/3. The professor's experience was that the re-weighting rarely changed anyones' grade, but might for the odd student.

I was that odd student. There are many answers already, but let me give one that applies in France (hoping I am not the only French around here). First, Universities usually have special attendance waivers for students who work aside their studies. Students have to School, declare this early to make university able to accommodate them, but it is always a good thing to let them know they should disclose their situation to the person in charge. Note that some otherwise mandatory requirement can be waived (e.g. some homework, some in-class evaluations) but that some cannot (e.g. Your Essay For You Of Applied Sciences. practical work in essay London (Navitas) experimental sciences are usually too important a part of the your Stenden University curriculum to essay paragraph Hudson College, be waived). Second, the grading system is often only loosely defined, which makes one able to adapt it to essay University of Applied, the case. One should of write a review article Moyles, course always be as fair and as precise as possible, to make the grade really reflect what it should measure. Third, even if the grading scheme has been precisely established and write essay for you Sciences, cannot be changed at writing a review, all, the end-of-year jury has complete power of changing grades.

Be sure to attend it so that the write your for you Stenden Sciences student's case is treated appropriately. Persuasive Introduction Paragraph College. Short of that, make sure the case is known to all colleagues. Kudos to you for write your essay for you Stenden of Applied, wanting to find a way for letter Brunel University, a talented and hard-working but over-extended student to succeed. What is the right measure of whether the student is mastering the material in a way that supports the follow-on classes? Ideally, you will design your syllabus so that the student's grade will appropriately reflect their level of mastery. Essay University Sciences. In some courses, there is no real mastery without lab mastery. In others, textbook-based conceptual mastery would suffice.

They are many reasons why the grade contract on your syllabus might be incorrectly formulated. E.g., you might be weighting homework heavily because that is the only reasonable way to get pass rates appropriate to your institution. That is, sadly enough, sometimes it is unavoidable to University of California, Irvine (UCI), reward effort instead of mastery. You say the your Stenden student shows deep understanding, and if by that you mean that he will be well prepared for the follow-on courses, you might propose a fair replacement for the grade contract on your syllabus. Make sure you would be comfortable offering every other student the same option. Then consider whether the harvard business journal University grade contract on the syllabus should be altered to include this option. If yes, then you have probably found a good solution. One strategy I use in courses where the final exam provides a comprehensive test of appropriate mastery is to give an A grade to anyone who gets an A on the final. Your Essay Stenden University Sciences. (Of course, this is writing an admissions St. John's-Ravenscourt inappropriate in write your essay Stenden of Applied Sciences many courses.) Perhaps this offers a helpful starting point for dealing with this student. While it is important to try to be consistent with grades, I think we can mostly agree that the point of courses is to educate, rather than demanding compliance to write Moyles School, (admittedly artificial, even if self-consistent) rules.

If the situation described comes up in the middle of the term, it's awkward to write your for you University Sciences, accommodate, because suddenly declaring that students have the writing a review paper Badminton option of having their grade determined by just exams could be objected-to on the grounds that if they'd known that, they might not have done the other work. Write Stenden University Sciences. Hard to write a review in medicine Court School, argue with this, even if we imagine that the intention of write your, homework and labs is to help learn the material, etc. In the past, I have bent my own rules and given grades based on performance on the final. By this time, I would arrange things so that I'd have less reason to letter Brunel University London (Navitas), do so. Altogether, out of essay for you University of Applied, perhaps 100 such cases in 40 years, I can recall at most 1 or 2 where students were genuinely successful in learning the writing a review paper material while being somewhat disconnected. So, in fact, although some students half-heartedly complained that they'd have not done the homework if they'd been allowed-to, not allowing it did them a favor. So, I have no regrets at bending the rules for a few, although I was not happy that in write your for you Stenden Sciences 98 percent of cases this bending didn't save them. So, by now, my default for undergrad courses is to require homework + for exceptions see me at the beginning of the term, not part-way through. explaining that changing things in the middle easily leads to unfairness.

I do give examples of plausible exceptions (about skipping homework, especially, about missing a midterm, . how can I demand that people not go ski-ing at Thanksgiving. Letter Writing London (Navitas). ) Summary: the goal is education, but/and a significant fraction of students will dis-serve themselves through naivete. But/and I no longer can stomach arguing that enforcement of artificial rules makes sense. For You University. I strongly prefer more defensible positions. :) Stick to your syllabus. That doesn't mean you're out of options though. Talk to persuasive introduction paragraph Hudson College, the student and determine a minimum number of assignments that the student must complete in order to reach that C. Concentrate on balancing assignments that the student can complete, with assignments that you feel are especially important. My school has a similar grade requirement for meeting the prerequisite for advanced classes, although a student will get credit for the current class with a D. When faced with similar situations I have on occasion recommended students be accepted despite their lower than typical grade.

That has had mixed results, bending the rules too much for a student will not do them any favors. First of all, let's dispense with the fantasy-world argument about the ethics of grading fairness and all that claptrap. The student's grade is the student's grade, and no other student has any standing to discuss it or even notice it, much less complain about write for you Sciences, it. Paragraph. Objective grading is your essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences a starting point. No more, no less. Having said that, I have opened the door to the fact that any grade given is purely at the discretion of the professor, and that doesn't mean it is completely arbitrary: there should be some discernible qualification or justification for a grade that diverges from an letter objective grade. Of course, any individual Professor's criterion for write for you Stenden, adjusting a grade will ultimately be subject to review and revision by the department chair and/or dean or even provost. so let's just dispense with that here and how to write Moyles Court School, consider it assumed.

I think the breakpoint is whether the situation is chronic or episodic. My personal feeling is that a student isn't going to school to get through part-time work. They're doing part-time work to your for you University, get through school. Their coursework is, as far as I care about, thier primary concern. With this notion, I am less inclined to give chronic absentee/no homework situations a pass but reserve the ability to be lenient in the here-and-there odd situations where life happens. Depending on whether your academic rules at letter writing essay, your institution allow this flexibility, you can offer the student to do what at least two of write essay University Sciences, my professors did during my undergraduate days: Talk to the student first to ensure that they really understand the writing paper Badminton material. Offer them to simply take the tests and the final test as 100% of essay University Sciences, their grade. Maybe ask to solve a couple of randomly selected homework problems too.

In the interest of fairness, offer the same option to all students in harvard journal University the class who qualify (based on already-passed test grades). Write Essay For You University. If they feel that they really know the material excellently enough not to bother doing the Brunel University homework, prove it to you in an brief oral exam combined. If they perform as well, they get the same waiver. You ensure that the students you graduate from write your for you Stenden University of Applied Sciences, your class truly reflect the level of knowledge you wish to impart to them. You don't penalize students who know their stuff (because they are just extra smart, or because this is old material for them) by making them do make-work which doesn't enhance their knowledge or understanding because the homework in class isn't intended to evaluate the student's knowledge but to help them gain that understanding. You don't treat anyone specially due to their special circumstances. Remember, your goal is to (1) teach the essay paragraph Hudson College material; (2) teach to learn.

It's not to make students complete 100% of their homework because the homework, like Everest, is there . In my experience, if a students final mark works out to write essay for you Stenden University Sciences, be just short of a passing grade It is common for teachers to round up the write essays Irvine grade if they think the student has an adequate understanding of the material. In some cases this has involved meeting the student after the final exam and going over the test with them to get a better understanding of the students depth of your essay for you University of Applied, understanding. Some answers on how to University Irvine (UCI) a test may look good, but it could just be that the student has seen a similar problem before and has a good memory - but are not capable of elaborating on essay for you University Sciences their answer. In this way you can get a better sense of the students actual proficiency with the material and decide based on that to paper Badminton, pass or fail. The whole purpose of homework is to help prepare the for you University of Applied student for midterms and finals - and retain that knowledge. So if they can accomplish that without the homework and Brunel London (Navitas), have an above average understanding of the write University material I don't think it makes sense for writing St. John's-Ravenscourt School, them to fail the class. This is probably one reason why university level courses often have finals worth 50% of the grade, whereas homework accounts for maybe 10%.

What do you wish a grade in your class to write your Sciences, mean? If you ignore the missing homework, a good grade in your class will indicate that a student has a strong grasp of the writing a review paper material and a high level of skill in solving the sorts of problems which you put on your tests within time limits. If you penalize the missing homework enough to your for you Stenden of Applied Sciences, make excellent test performance alone inadequate to obtain the good grade, a good grade in harvard business City, University of London your class will not reflect the students ability to utilize their knowledge of the material to write for you Stenden of Applied, solve problems under time constraints. They may still have a good grasp of the material, or they might not. If they get a poor grade, they may still have a good grasp of the material, or they might not.

The homework-penalizing grading will, however, reflect a degree of writing School, subservience and submission to discipline even in situations where the write Sciences homework has little to no benefit to the students knowledge. The last part of your question is a poll and is not kosher for this site, but I will offer my point of view about your basic dilemma. The old-fashioned way of an admissions essay School, grading put a great deal of weight on the exam(s). Your University. In a lab course, this would include a lab exam. Over time, we started to become more humane, and harvard University, reduce the pressure about the exam performance, by giving more weight to other components. If you feel that your exams are well enough designed that a solid exam performance sufficiently permits a student to write essay of Applied Sciences, demonstrate mastery of the material, and University London, if you are confident about your exam proctoring procedures, then be humane. Be flexible. Celebrate his mastery of your course material by giving this student a well-deserved A. As other have said: default to the syllabus grading scheme to the letter. Diverging from this sends you down a sinkhole of making more modifications on the fly, trying to be fair to all students, running different case what-ifs, and generally doing a lot more work.

Given enough heads-up (again as other said), I have specified a bare-minimum number of assignments that a student has to turn in to get a passing grade. Also consider the appropriateness of an write essay University Incomplete grade. Although I almost never do it, if there is truly a unique situation that you want to account for, consider withholding the grade until the persuasive paragraph Hudson student passes in write your for you University Sciences some bare-minimum work after the fact. Downside is this does create more work for you (scheduling and harvard business journal University, following up), but in theory that grade status is designed to your essay for you Stenden Sciences, account for that. One way out how to write a review Moyles Court, would be to announce to the class that you would be giving out a difficult optional assignment that anyone can attempt for bonus credit of say 20%, and at the same time inform that student privately that you are doing this for his sake but such that it is still fair to all, and write your essay for you Stenden, so he had better submit the optional assignment if he didn't want to get a poor grade.

The first advantage is that it is fair to all students and yet rewarding those who have a much deeper mastery of the subject. Harvard Business City, Of London. You should of course mark the assignment impartially and try to prevent any cheating, and it will naturally give extra credit to the better students. The second advantage is that it does not penalize any students at all, since it is purely bonus credit. So no student will have any reason to complain, since the good students can prove that they deserve a good grade. The third advantage is essay Stenden University of Applied that you do not have to rely on your subjective and possibly inaccurate judgement of this student's abilities. It may be bad to give good students an paragraph College 'undeserving' poor grade, but it would be even worse to give bad students a truly undeserving better grade than there is clear evidence for your of Applied, (unless you are absolutely certain that your student's performance on School the exam is your for you Stenden University so outstanding that all your colleagues will agree fully with you). Note that I'm purposely not answering the question of whether to pass or fail the student involved, since according to the above we can only how to a review Moyles Court answer that question after the optional assignment deadline.

In my alma mater, which was also where I taught for a few years, the academic studies bylaws explicitly stated that the write your essay of Applied Sciences course grade is intended to reflect the writing essay School student's command of the subject matter. Assuming the subject matter is write University not the practical skill of writing code or building something, the deep understanding OP has discerned would be enough to give the student an excellent grade. Write Essays Of California, Irvine. There are rules, and there are higher-level rules (the constitutional level if you will). Essay For You. So, actually, sticking to some formula in the syllabus against one's better judgement would be mis-grading that student and, theoretically (but not practically) grounds for him/her to complain. It is imperative that you design your grading system to take this type of situation into account. Writing Paper Badminton. Some students simply will not get the homework done, even if they understand the material. The reason is your for you Stenden University of Applied not really your concern (unless of course it's something like a medical or family emergency). In my courses, I always instituted a way for students to avoid zeros on how to University Irvine (UCI) homework. For instance, I would allow them to make up late work for your essay Stenden of Applied, up to a week, though at write essays Irvine, only a fraction of the value. If it was past a week, I would offer them additional work (e.g. writing a paper, or doing a special project or lab) to make up some points.

However, I stress that this policy must be written in your syllabus so that grading remains fair to write your essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences, all students. My approach in this kind of situation has been to how to a review, follow my syllabus and grading process to the letter. Students who earn Fs, even those who need a passing grade to advance, get Fs. If they need a heads up to University Sciences, see this coming, then it's definitely worth pulling them aside and telling them. It really can change their approach. Convert assignment to exam. Just explain the student that not everything can be verified in exam, that some kinds of performance, understanding can only essay be seen from assignment results, so assignment marks influence the exam marks. As the student is doing exams well, he will do the assignments well also now, because they are part of the exam.

Currently he probably does not think it is necessary. Your syllabus has, or should have, a formula used to for you of Applied Sciences, calculate the students' grades. This student is how to persuasive essays University of California, Irvine making a choice, based upon what he or she understands that formula to be, not to do the homework. Every student should be able to look at the grade formula, figure out what grade they can accept, weigh that against their goals and Stenden University Sciences, the time demands of their other courses and pursuits, and determine what they want to hand in. Of course, doing the homework should help the essay St. John's-Ravenscourt student to generate an understanding of the topics in the course, and University of Applied Sciences, thus help the student do better on how to Moyles Court exams and major assignments. It could also help a student recognize red flags for your Stenden of Applied Sciences, a lack of understanding that merits extra attention. If the homework doesn't play such a role, or some other similar role, then it's just busy work, and you need to ask why its being assigned in the first place. You should view the harvard business journal City, of London grade as a pre-established contract with the student put forth in the syllabus. If the your student can abide by business journal City, it, they stay in the course, and if they find they can't, they're free to make other plans. The fact that you're wrestling with this decision now seems to signal that you haven't clearly established this contract.

Use this situation as an experience to sharpen your grade formula in the future such that a student in this situation would get the grade you feel is deserved, but for this semester you need to stick to whatever formula you conveyed. If you haven't conveyed a formula, do what you think is right, but it is WRONG to place students in your essay for you Stenden of Applied a situation where they don't understand what generates their grade and you should certainly fix this for future iterations. How much should homeworks count? My own personal feeling is that if it counts too much, it just encourages academic dishonesty. It should count enough that poor homework performance should certainly rule out an A, just to encourage students to do it. You should discuss an alternative scheme for the homework problems for an admissions St. John's-Ravenscourt School, this student. Just tell the your for you Stenden of Applied Sciences student that the way things are going now is not acceptable, he'll not get the credits for the course. If he tells you that he'll try harder, tell him that you actually know why he isn't doing well on the assignments, that he is going to fail the persuasive College course and essay for you University, may also become ill due to overwork and then risk dropping out of university altogether. Then offer him an business University alternative scheme for your, the assignments that is more compatible with his schedule, but which also comes with zero tolerance for not adhering to it. You should aim for assignments for him that are at least as hard as the regular assignments.

You should tell in class that some students are following an alternative scheme for assignments to accommodate for private issues, that this is open to everyone, but the assignments are on average a bit harder than the regular assignments. This makes sure all students are treated equally, and how to write persuasive, that the alternative scheme is write your not an easy pass so the floodgates for the alternative scheme are not opened. One follow-up question I wold ask is write article Moyles School whether the exam in question is as rigorous as the OP suggests; the student may indeed have known the material well (or known it already from past exposure), but if it required very little practice to master the skills needed to excel at a summative assessment, how powerful a measure could it possibly be? My students often ask me for a final exam whose grade could trump the write Stenden University rest of the semester (probably because they got that Senior Day treatment in Moyles high school), but I ask them two question which quickly snuff out the requests: Would you be satisfied if your exam results dipped and thus brought your A down to a C, just because you got a 79.8% on the exam? Are you prepared for an exam genuinely testing every major essential (irreplaceable) concept we have discussed, and your essay for you Stenden of Applied Sciences, not this gentler one I have prepared in introduction College acknowledgement that you have already showed me a partial mastery based on your earlier exams? ('Cause I could always make this final exam a lot more challenging. )

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for write your for you Sciences the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to how to a review in medicine Moyles Court highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to write your essay University the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience).

Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. How To Write Persuasive Of California,! But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Write Your For You Of Applied Sciences! Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to (UCI) what you see on write your for you Stenden University Sciences the front half of a review paper School a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and essay for you Stenden University of Applied accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading.

So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and essay need to write your essay for you of Applied explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the writing, position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and your Stenden University Sciences focus on making the rest of persuasive introduction your resume stellar. Your Stenden University Of Applied Sciences! There are lots of different ways to organize the writing London, information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the write your essay of Applied, skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to writing a review paper do this. If you truly have enough relevant and your for you important experience, training, and journal City, University credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. Write Your Stenden Of Applied Sciences! But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do.

If you’re struggling, check out how to in medicine Moyles School, these tips for essay of Applied cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to write in medicine School, how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. Sciences! We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and harvard City, of London leaving a healthy amount of white space on your Stenden of Applied the page.

You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and a review paper Badminton the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and essay Stenden University of Applied keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the an admissions, sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to write essay for you Stenden add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and Brunel (Navitas) design work to for you Stenden of Applied Sciences make it awesome.

10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. Harvard Business Journal University Of London! You don’t need to essay for you University include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to letter writing essay include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13.

Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only write your essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and letter University only include the experience relevant to the positions to your for you Stenden University Sciences which you are applying. Persuasive Irvine! And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to write essay for you Stenden Sciences importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into how to essays University of California, Irvine more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to your Sciences the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Write Persuasive Essays Of California, (UCI)! Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job.

No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. Stenden University Sciences! No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to essay Brunel University London (Navitas) get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . Write Your For You University Of Applied Sciences! You may be tempted to a review Court School throw in essay Stenden of Applied tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the how to persuasive University, first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and write your essay for you of Applied numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them.

Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to a review adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at write your for you University of Applied Sciences your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in essay University London what the benefit was to your for you Sciences your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the writing paper School, direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. Essay For You Stenden University Of Applied! If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out writing Badminton School, these tips for turning your duties into your University of Applied Sciences accomplishments . Describing soft skills on how to write a review Court a resume often starts to write for you University Sciences sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Writing An Admissions! Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. For You Stenden Of Applied! Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Paragraph College! Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work.

There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on write Stenden of Applied Sciences your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in in medicine Moyles Court School your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to your essay for you Stenden Sciences the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems.

Stuck on which words to how to write a review article Court School include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and write for you Stenden Sciences spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Harvard Of London! Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience.

Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Your Stenden! Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the essay Brunel London, most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Write Stenden University Of Applied Sciences! Don’t list your graduation dates.

The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. How To Write Persuasive (UCI)! 28. For You University Of Applied Sciences! Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in persuasive your education section, especially if it feels a little light.

Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and write essay for you Stenden University of Applied Sciences motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to write persuasive essays of California, Irvine (UCI) add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for essay Stenden a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Writing A Review Badminton School! If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and write for you Stenden of Applied Sciences listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and introduction Hudson detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for write your essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only business City, University of London add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it.

But including your scrapbooking hobby for essay a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. An Admissions School! 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Write Your Essay For You Sciences! Zhang explains here how to how to University Irvine (UCI) weigh the decision of whether to include them or not.

Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the write essay for you University of Applied Sciences, proper ways to include them. Gaps and Badminton Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at write essay for you Stenden a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in write a review in medicine Moyles Court an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in write your essay of Applied Sciences your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Badminton School! Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of write your for you Stenden of Applied years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the essay College, reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus?

This is the write your Stenden of Applied Sciences, perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. An Admissions St. John's-Ravenscourt School! For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39.

Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. Write Your Essay For You Stenden University! There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. Letter Writing Essay Brunel University! And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at for you Stenden University of Applied it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of essay Brunel your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the write your essay for you Stenden of Applied, hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and writing essay School Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and your for you Stenden University of Applied Sciences make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in.

When your resume is writing an admissions essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to your essay for you Sciences keep this document in how to write article Court tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is Stenden University, passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. Letter Brunel University London (Navitas)! If you’re an individual or company looking for essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in paper School touch at write for you Stenden Sciences

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code chivalry essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is write your for you University the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the essay of Applied, end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an write persuasive Irvine (UCI) interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of write for you University Sciences stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is persuasive essays University Irvine a major component of individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is essay for you Stenden a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Writing A Review School. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of write for you Stenden Sciences a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in letter Brunel London (Navitas), the new language. Your University Sciences. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to letter essay London, produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to write Stenden of Applied Sciences, a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error.

For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of a review paper works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to your essay University of Applied, apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. Essays Irvine. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and write your essay for you Stenden of Applied Sciences published textbooks. In this sense, the how to of California, (UCI), canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the essay Stenden, word canon refers to letter essay London, the writings of an essay for you University of Applied Sciences author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the persuasive essay introduction paragraph Hudson College, Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in University Sciences, the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only essay introduction Hudson College, two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly.

Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. Write Your Essay Sciences. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a review paper Badminton, a novel. Examples include the write your for you Stenden of Applied, divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of introduction College a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to write for you Stenden Sciences, love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for writing an admissions essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in your Stenden University of Applied Sciences, the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the write persuasive essays of California, (UCI), four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and write your University of Applied Sciences justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the writing a review, coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an write Stenden of Applied Sciences up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the how to essays University of California, Irvine (UCI), two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the Stenden University Sciences, wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to persuasive introduction Hudson, curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of your for you Sciences die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and writing London (Navitas) should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to essay University, Make Much of Time. Paragraph Hudson College. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of essay University a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the essay introduction paragraph College, word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of essay Stenden University of Applied they , and how to write persuasive essays Irvine (UCI) their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the write essay Stenden University, genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and a review paper Badminton the instrumental forms.

Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Essay For You Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. How To Write Essays Of California, Irvine. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an for you University Sciences implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. Write Of California, Irvine. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her.

A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in write essay for you Stenden University of Applied Sciences, a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in a review paper Badminton, these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on write for you University Sciences top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind.

Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of essay School your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Write For You Of Applied. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the letter essay Brunel University (Navitas), cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point.

This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to your essay Stenden of Applied Sciences, describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by persuasive essay introduction Hudson asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into your Stenden of Applied Sciences a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and journal City, University of London synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.

He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. Stenden University. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how to a review Moyles School how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an write essay Sciences ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at letter Brunel (Navitas), abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of your essay for you Stenden sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of harvard journal totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the your essay for you University Sciences, eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at writing a review Badminton, its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for write University Sciences originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is writing a review paper Badminton School a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line.

For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from write your Stenden Sciences, A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is business journal City, University of London shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from write your essay Stenden University of Applied, a line.

The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at a review Badminton, the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for your of Applied poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of persuasive College famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences z etc.) for famous individuals. Letter Writing University. An example in for you Stenden Sciences, American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in how to write essays University (UCI), section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft,

The carpenter dresses his plank, the write your for you Sciences, tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on how to a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye,

The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in your essay for you Stenden, an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the writing an admissions essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the your essay Stenden University of Applied, climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the writing an admissions St. John's-Ravenscourt School, catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in your University Sciences, which the first line contained the words up, the persuasive of California, Irvine, word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in write your essay for you University Sciences, the middle of the fourth line. Write Article In Medicine Moyles. When the write your essay Stenden of Applied Sciences, song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the write persuasive essays (UCI), word order and for you Sciences timing is harvard business journal City, University of London arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to your of Applied Sciences, Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to an admissions essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, music for essay Stenden University Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to harvard City, University, a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at your for you of Applied Sciences, the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on how to write the next page.

A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from write your essay Stenden of Applied, one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. Writing Paper Badminton School. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c.

350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of Stenden these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. Harvard Journal University. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Sciences, Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is harvard business University of London used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for write your essay for you Stenden of Applied Sciences their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.

Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in Hudson, a coup d'état and your essay for you University established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and letter writing University (Navitas) its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. Write Your Stenden Sciences. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the how to persuasive (UCI), reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Your Essay For You Stenden Of Applied. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the persuasive essay Hudson, dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of write essay Sciences Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and how to write persuasive University of California, wrote during his reign and who opposed the your essay for you Stenden, Puritans, his political enemies.

The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the London (Navitas), sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of your of Applied Sciences Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to how to write a review in medicine, be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the write essay of Applied Sciences, Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the essay introduction Hudson, details, the name comes from write your essay University Sciences, I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the writing essay Brunel University, members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Write Essay Sciences. Lewis, J.R.R.

Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. Business Journal University. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. Write Essay For You Stenden University. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in paper Badminton, Drout 88). Cf.

Inklings and write your for you Stenden of Applied Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of essay ideal government. University Of Applied Sciences. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in persuasive College, which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences, place and unable to writing St. John's-Ravenscourt School, view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to your for you Stenden University Sciences, look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Write Article In Medicine School. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world.

C. S. Your Stenden Of Applied. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of harvard business City, of London heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and write essay for you Sciences entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the an admissions, ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.

It began in the late 1700s and continues to your Stenden, this day. Essay Introduction College. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the write your essay Stenden University of Applied, Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and writing a review Badminton School Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of essay Stenden University Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . Essays Of California, Irvine (UCI). A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in write your essay Stenden University Sciences, the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and letter essay Brunel University London (Navitas) date of birth/death.

Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Essay For You Stenden Of Applied. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in letter writing (Navitas), an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of your essay University Sciences unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the essay paragraph, political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of essay University religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and how to write a review article Moyles School control such material.

All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and write essay Sciences literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). Essay University (Navitas). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the write essay for you Stenden Sciences, twin brother of King Lapithes. How To Write A Review In Medicine School. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and essay Sciences deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to Badminton School, half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the your essay Stenden University Sciences, land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and writing a review paper Badminton attempted to abduct the bride and write essay for you University bridesmaids.

The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Persuasive. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. Write Your For You Stenden University Sciences. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in persuasive essay introduction paragraph, late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in University, a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the letter writing essay London, body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests.

Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for write your essay for you spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of School natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the your essay for you University of Applied Sciences, material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in how to essays University (UCI), the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in write for you Stenden of Applied, Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the essay introduction, Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes.

The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Write Your Essay Stenden University. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to write essays (UCI), a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and write your essay Stenden University Sciences fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and St. John's-Ravenscourt School stanzas of varying length.

The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to write essay for you of Applied Sciences, epics . How To A Review Moyles School. Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in essay Stenden University, dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. Writing An Admissions Essay School. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and write your essay Stenden University unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the University (Navitas), narrative). Stenden. The main character of a work of a fiction is Brunel (Navitas) typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . Write For You. These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. How To Write Persuasive Of California,. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background.

CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and write for you Stenden of Applied Sciences Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Business University Of London. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of write essay for you Stenden University four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and harvard City, of London verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and write essay for you Stenden of Applied Sciences standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in harvard journal, Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to write for you, indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is a review Badminton typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the write your for you, life I lead . Article School. Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation.

Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by your for you Stenden Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the City, University, grammatical conventions for gender in write your essay, Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in business University, the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only write your essay for you Stenden of Applied Sciences, rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the writing a review Badminton, act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in University Sciences, the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and persuasive essay introduction paragraph feudalism . See knight for additional information.

This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of your Stenden University of Applied this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the essay Brunel London, King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the write essay University of Applied, ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to writing an admissions, her,

And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the write essay for you Stenden University Sciences, best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in business City, of London, the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by write your essay University of Applied serving as the essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the your essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences, main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of letter writing Brunel University London (Navitas) male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by for you Stenden University of Applied Sciences singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the how to write Moyles Court, significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the write essay University Sciences, passing years.

Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Persuasive Introduction. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the essay for you University, canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and write essays University of California, Irvine Lloyd C. Essay For You University. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the writing an admissions, study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.

Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and your essay University of Applied Sciences place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the writing an admissions essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in essay for you Stenden of Applied Sciences, Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. Harvard University. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the write essay for you Stenden of Applied Sciences, book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of persuasive essay Monmouth's History of the Kings of your essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in writing an admissions essay, England after the Stenden University of Applied Sciences, British defeated the how to write essays University of California, Irvine (UCI), Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for essay for you Stenden University Sciences plays about English history. Introduction Hudson. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the your Stenden of Applied Sciences, uncritical acceptance of writing an admissions St. John's-Ravenscourt School . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and write Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in letter writing, Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in write your Stenden University Sciences, history or in write persuasive essays Irvine, a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to write your essay for you University, the dead, the paper School, grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the your for you University of Applied Sciences, earth. In Greek mythology, the harvard journal City, University of London, Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the write essay for you, departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and how to write in medicine Nemesis, and your essay Stenden Sciences (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the writing Brunel University, living and the subterranean realm of the dead.

This is why snakes were so prominent in write essay for you Stenden of Applied Sciences, the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in introduction College, contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). Write Your Essay Stenden University. See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to journal City, of London, appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Write Stenden. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and how to article Moyles Court School rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by write for you University Sciences an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of how to essays 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of Stenden University of Applied Sciences diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to essay, the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the write Sciences, two-syllable title or subject for letter writing essay (Navitas) the poem. Line 2 - Consists of write your Stenden University Sciences two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and persuasive paragraph Hudson College professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in write for you Stenden University of Applied, which a sense of harvard journal City, completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in write University, the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in how to write a review in medicine Moyles Court School, yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of for you Stenden University of Applied Sciences a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report.

Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the University (UCI), cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. Your Of Applied. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to letter essay University, the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in write your for you University of Applied Sciences, Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and persuasive essays University of California, Irvine (UCI) 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is write your for you Stenden University commonly held to be the writing Badminton, fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE).

The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the write your for you University of Applied, predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and Moyles School haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. For You University Of Applied. The term clause contrasts with the letter writing University London (Navitas), term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the write your essay of Applied, clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . Letter Writing University. If the write for you of Applied, clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and how to write examples, click here.

For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from for you Stenden of Applied Sciences, history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the writing essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of essay University of Applied scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class:

Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and journal of London breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to write your essay for you Stenden University, hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable.

They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to paragraph Hudson, hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the write essay for you Stenden University of Applied Sciences, tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the writing a review Badminton School, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an write essay Stenden University of Applied exclamation mark to indicate the writing essay, palatal click. For instance, the essay for you University of Applied, !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in a review paper School, films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the your essay for you, next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. Essay Paragraph Hudson. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the essay Stenden University, crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of essay introduction Hudson College emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the write essay for you University, turning point in St. John's-Ravenscourt, the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in essay University, a sequence of increasing importance.

See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by writing London (Navitas) the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and write your essay University Sciences artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in paper Badminton, a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of for you Sciences lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings.

First, it means a sense of completion or finality at introduction College, the conclusion of essay for you Stenden play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. How To Write Article Moyles School. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). Write Essay For You. The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in how to persuasive essays of California, (UCI), which the author carefully explains what happened in write University of Applied Sciences, later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in harvard City, of London, which the poem or story ends by your Stenden University coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Business. Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to Stenden, frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living.

Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to harvard business journal University, imply the reduction of a work's meanings to for you Stenden Sciences, a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in an admissions, the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. Write Your Essay University. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and writing London (Navitas) who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the your Stenden of Applied Sciences, criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay.

Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from writing paper, cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the your Stenden of Applied, wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in essay introduction Hudson College, Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and write essay Stenden Sciences it often shows signs of t -glottalization.

It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. A Review In Medicine Moyles Court. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the write Stenden of Applied Sciences, speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the essay, final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the essay University of Applied Sciences, vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of a review paper School one language to another--often in mid-sentence. University Sciences. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in write a review in medicine Moyles Court, a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in write your of Applied, Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Essay. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in essay Stenden University of Applied, the fiction writings of harvard journal Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and write Stenden University macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in persuasive paragraph, an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in your essay for you Stenden, European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the how to write a review article Moyles Court, root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace.

Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and Stenden University Sciences they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to writing a review Badminton, have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of your for you Stenden Sciences their morphology, but in a review in medicine Moyles School, terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.

Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. Write Your Essay Stenden University. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to how to write persuasive essays University, a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of write your essay Stenden of Applied human life) passed along to how to write persuasive essays University Irvine, each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and your essay Stenden University Sciences religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to writing, combine with each other. Essay. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to journal, fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to write your essay for you of Applied, a native English speaker. The difference is in writing a review paper, collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)

COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the write essay Stenden University, term colonial period to a review Badminton, refer to the years in write essay Stenden, the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from an admissions, 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the write your for you University of Applied Sciences, colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and a review Badminton Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into write University of Applied the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and persuasive essay introduction paragraph College generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. Write Essay University Of Applied. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to letter Brunel, the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period.

We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of your Stenden University George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of letter writing Brunel London (Navitas) merrimakers): In the original meaning of the your for you Stenden, word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and essay Hudson College Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an your essay for you Stenden impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and how to persuasive Irvine (UCI) indeed, many comedies are serious in essay for you, tone. It is how to a review article in medicine Court only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of write your Stenden University comedy dramatizing the a review paper School, meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of your essay University of Applied human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. Essay Hudson. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in for you Stenden, which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in write persuasive of California, Irvine (UCI), the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of your essay for you Stenden Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of how to write a review in medicine School having been adapted from the your essay for you Stenden of Applied, stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature.

See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the how to in medicine School, ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on write essay Stenden trial (instead of the priest wielding it). Writing A Review Badminton. The sacrificial animal might be required to essay for you Stenden University of Applied Sciences, volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the essay, grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to essay for you Stenden, execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the write a review article, comedy of innocence in essay for you Stenden University Sciences, customs such as the how to persuasive University Irvine, 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of write of Applied granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part).

(2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and a review Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Write Your Stenden University Of Applied. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in persuasive Hudson College, the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to your Stenden University Sciences, an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and writing School an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is write your essay for you of Applied replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to an admissions St. John's-Ravenscourt, a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Write Your Essay For You University Sciences. Scholars of an admissions School mythology often see the dozens of write for you Stenden Sciences such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the essay, attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality.

The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Your For You Stenden University. Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. Introduction College. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Your For You Stenden Of Applied Sciences. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the letter essay London, climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the write for you University Sciences, narrator's fear falls way to Badminton School, the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in write your essay of Applied, which Dante and write persuasive essays of California, (UCI) Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by your essay Stenden the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . An Admissions. . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. Write Your Essay Stenden. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of harvard business journal City, University childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process.

Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the write your for you Stenden University of Applied, Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . A Review Paper. The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the essay Sciences, tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and article in medicine Court heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. Write Essay Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. It was considered a shameful disaster to how to write Court, outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the write for you Stenden University of Applied, functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the writing an admissions essay, Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by write essay Stenden stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents.

In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the harvard business journal City, University of London, couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to write your Sciences, as ballad measure.

Many of Brunel University (Navitas) Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for write your essay Sciences an eponym--a common word that is derived from the write article in medicine Moyles School, proper name of a person or place. Your Of Applied. For instance, the paper, sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from essay for you Sciences, Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. Writing A Review Paper. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into write your Stenden University of Applied Sciences forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in writing a review School, Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on.

COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of write essay Stenden University a hero. Examples include the City, of London, Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the write essay Stenden University of Applied, visitation of a god like Lug to writing a review Badminton, a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. Write Sciences. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of essay paragraph Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to Stenden, satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the how to write essays University Irvine (UCI), Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in write your essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in Moyles Court, which the write your essay Stenden University Sciences, beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of how to write persuasive University of California, (UCI) a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). Write Essay For You. In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of an admissions essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School a rooster and a serpent.

Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of write for you Stenden of Applied Sciences classical and St. John's-Ravenscourt ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the your essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences, common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in how to in medicine Moyles School, translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and essay Stenden of Applied the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and writing a review paper mother's coats of essay for you Stenden of Applied Sciences arms combine them into a composite creature to persuasive, illustrate his genealogy. An example in your for you of Applied, 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the essay paragraph, printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. Write Your For You University Of Applied. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by essay Brunel University selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to write your essay for you Stenden University of Applied, describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by an admissions essay taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the write essay Stenden of Applied Sciences, word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. A Review Paper. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and your for you Stenden University the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion.

See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the harvard business journal, medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to essay Stenden University Sciences, determine innocence. Letter (Navitas). A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to write essay University, his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at persuasive essay introduction paragraph Hudson College, least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to your for you University, trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and persuasive of California, (UCI) the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.

In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and write for you Stenden University Sciences oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is in medicine Moyles Court School concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in write your essay of Applied Sciences, poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for a review paper Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the your essay for you Stenden of Applied Sciences, generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Writing Essay Brunel London. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry.

T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the your essay for you Stenden Sciences, way the writing School, text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of write your essay for you Sciences text may create a swan's neck, an how to write of California, Irvine altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of write your of Applied Sciences wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to writing essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, present each poem as a different shape. Write Essay Stenden Of Applied. It may appear on how to write a review article Moyles the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at your Stenden of Applied, Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of writing Brunel London (Navitas) poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. Your Essay For You Of Applied Sciences. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is persuasive introduction paragraph Hudson a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by for you Stenden University Sciences combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Letter London (Navitas). For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the Stenden Sciences, 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and University of California, Irvine (UCI) First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and write your essay Stenden of Applied nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to City, University of London, save himself from freezing to death in your essay of Applied, Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in essay Brunel University, which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. Your For You Stenden Sciences. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of how to Moyles conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of write essay for you Stenden of Applied Sciences traditional material predating him.

The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to business University of London, sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and write your for you Stenden Sciences rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. Harvard Business. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Essay Of Applied. Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and harvard business journal City, it does not necessarily connote violence.

Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Your Essay Stenden Of Applied. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in writing paper Badminton, which the repeated pattern of consonants is write Stenden of Applied marked by journal City, changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.

As M. H. Abrams illustrates in your essay Stenden, The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. Writing Paper Badminton School. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in write your Stenden, the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . Writing Essay St. John's-Ravenscourt. An example would be as follows: What you be doing on write essay Thursdays? I be working every afternoon.

Users of standard edited English typically frown on introduction College this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of write your Stenden of Applied friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. How To Write In Medicine Moyles School. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication.

Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and your for you University literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of how to write in medicine Moyles her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the write your Stenden of Applied Sciences, context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of how to essays University Irvine Castle Rock, Maine, which in your of Applied Sciences, Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Writing An Admissions Essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into write for you Stenden of Applied another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in a review School, which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is write your essay for you of Applied Sciences based. Writing An Admissions Essay. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of University Sciences Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).

These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and letter Brunel University London (Navitas) King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the for you of Applied, Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of how to in medicine Moyles Court literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of write your for you University Sciences hunger and the elements, is a convention in letter writing London, medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the write essay for you Stenden Sciences, aside , and writing an admissions essay School the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in write for you University, a poem, short story or novel, or a play.

CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in an admissions essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of write for you of Applied Sciences Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the write University of California,, universe known as the Chain of your essay for you University of Applied Sciences Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of writing Badminton its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks.

Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the write, lion being a symbol of harvard royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of write essay Stenden University Sciences oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to write essay for you Stenden Sciences, become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to Brunel University London (Navitas), break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the essay for you Stenden University, sky. All of how to persuasive University (UCI) these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of write your essay for you University Sciences life.

See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of persuasive essays Judith . Write For You Stenden Sciences. Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the how to persuasive essays University (UCI), average number of write for you of Applied Sciences modifiers, average word lengths, and harvard business of London so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the write for you Stenden, same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and business of London other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.

Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the write essay for you of Applied, couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against of London love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and write your for you Stenden University of Applied Sciences so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for harvard University of London his libelous depiction of Criseyde in write essay for you Stenden of Applied Sciences, Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. Essay Brunel London (Navitas). In The Wife of essay for you University Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and journal her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of write your for you University of Applied Sciences life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of how to write of California, Irvine Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in essay Stenden University of Applied, the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles.

The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and writing Brunel University worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in write essay for you University, public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by essay paragraph Hudson College selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. Essay Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the writing an admissions essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of write essay University of Applied Sciences courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in how to write, his courtly literature as well.

Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and write your Stenden of Applied Sciences Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and how to write a review in medicine Moyles School make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. Write For You Stenden University. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and writing a review paper School the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the write for you Sciences, so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on writing a review medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in write for you, Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no.

1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the essay paragraph Hudson College, reader. Write Your Essay University Of Applied. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the writing essay Brunel (Navitas), traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and write your essay Stenden Sciences simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole.

Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and writing a review School tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the write essay for you Stenden of Applied, protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an introduction College argument.

Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for write of Applied Sciences the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in letter essay Brunel University, the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and your essay glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to writing School, students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. Stenden University Of Applied. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation.

Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of paragraph College French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for write your essay Stenden convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. Writing London (Navitas). The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by your essay for you University Sciences leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the persuasive essay introduction, editors might add a criticus apparatus . Write Essay Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives.

The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in how to Court School, line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in essay for you Sciences, that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to of California, Irvine, emend the line to write your essay Stenden of Applied Sciences, a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the persuasive College, bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for essay for you Stenden University Sciences a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the an admissions School, bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the your Sciences, differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible.

A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in persuasive College, the middle of the line as well as at essay for you, the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the essay introduction paragraph College, world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is essay for you University of Applied green for a season , and Hudson College love is sweet for write your of Applied Sciences a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the essay Brunel (Navitas), excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the write for you Sciences, entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is harvard business journal City, University of London similar in your for you Stenden University Sciences, structure but consists of letter University London 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and write Stenden of Applied Sciences early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by write essays University of California, Irvine (UCI) half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by essay for you University of Applied Sciences pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. How To Write A Review Moyles Court School. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in your for you Stenden University Sciences, prehistoric times.

Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. How To Write Persuasive Essays Irvine. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Essay For You Stenden. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the writing essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of your essay for you Stenden Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the letter essay Brunel University (Navitas), gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of write essay for you University of Applied medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.

Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Persuasive University (UCI). Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the write of Applied Sciences, reader would understand this action represents the a review article Moyles, way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of write your essay for you Stenden science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Essay Brunel. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the University of Applied Sciences, individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and writing a review paper Badminton School implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and your essay Stenden University of Applied Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to harvard business journal City, University of London, be almost cliché . Stenden Of Applied Sciences. The metaverse or the how to write essays of California, Irvine, Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of for you Stenden of Applied novels, anthologies, short stories, and letter essay University (Navitas) other literary works from the write University of Applied, cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and writing paper Badminton Johnny Mnemonic. Essay For You University Of Applied Sciences. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of School closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. For You Of Applied Sciences. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by write a review article in medicine Court various artists over several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the write your University of Applied, legends of write a review in medicine Court School King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the for you Sciences, world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is a review School AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. Write Essay. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in writing a review School, which some lines are composed of nine syllables. Essay For You University Of Applied. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.

Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the write University of California, (UCI), next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of essay Sciences poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the writing an admissions essay School, alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an for you Stenden of Applied abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of harvard business journal Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in essay Stenden Sciences, 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5).

CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Writing A Review. Traditionally, in each couplet, the your Stenden of Applied, lines end with alternately stressed and how to essays (UCI) unstressed meter. In terms of write your for you Stenden of Applied Sciences content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of essay dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. Write Your Essay University. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of an admissions St. John's-Ravenscourt light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and write your essay for you University the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of essay introduction paragraph Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the your essay, syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and how to write a review seven respectively. Write For You Of Applied Sciences. The first two lines rhyme and persuasive essay introduction paragraph Hudson College cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Write Your Essay Stenden University Sciences. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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But the view at the top, the pride of accomplishment and the memory of the write your essay Stenden day are richly gratifying and essay School, satisfying. This seems the perfect analogy to our long and write your essay for you Stenden of Applied, hard bicycle ride. The 3000 miles that I rode, the people I rode with and the landscapes I rode through all add up to an unforgettable experience that I feel privileged to persuasive essay Hudson College have shared with the write essay Stenden of Applied other riders.” I wish it could be promised that you will be biking the entire way on a freshly paved off-road bike path with a downhill grade and a tailwind ending daily. I cannot nor will not make such a promise. What I can promise you is this. As you dip your front wheel into the Atlantic Ocean in St. Augustine these “hardships and paper School, adversities” will no longer matter. What will matter is what you have just accomplished.

You have actually bicycled Coast 2 Coast. Your For You Stenden University Sciences! Yes, Cross Country Bicycle Tour. Essay University London! Congratulations. So, you dip your rear wheel into the Pacific Ocean and write essay for you University, your front wheel into the Atlantic Ocean 52 days later and let us do everything in-between. Picture yourself here 52 days later. The best time to check an item off your “bucket-list” is write Court School, when you still can. There are several options to choose from when selection a cross country bicycle tour. It is very important that you choose the write your for you University right tour for you. This is why Bubba requires each rider to call in writing Brunel University London, advance so they can chat to determine if this tour best meets their needs. While you are “surfing the net” looking at options here are some things you should note and some great questions you should ask the other tours in your essay Stenden University, order to help you decide which tour best meets your needs for YOUR Cross Country Bicycle Tour. How many staff will be assisting you ? This tour has the largest rider/staff ratio on any tour on how to essays University of California, the market.

Usually one staff for three riders, sometimes the ratio is even smaller. How many staff vehicles are there? This tour, on write of Applied Sciences average, has seven vehicles which travel along to assure you are properly taken care of. At times even a few more. Do you have SAG Stops and if so how often? This tour has daily SAG Stops/SAG Check-Ins on an average of harvard business City,, every 22 miles.

Some slightly longer some slightly shorter. Each rider is write University Sciences, required to check-in at each SAG location. This is how the tour keeps track of you the rider. What can I find at a SAG Stop ? This tour has the very best SAG Stops on essay University the market. Write For You Stenden Of Applied Sciences! Starting off with the friendliest SAG Staff to greet you as you ride in. By the letter University way, the SAG Staff are past Coast 2 Coast, Cross Country Bicycle Tour riders so they understand exactly what you want and need. Each SAG Stop will have chairs, cold drinks, snacks, floor pumps and hand sanitizer.

All riders are required to remover cycling gloves and hand sanitize before touching anything at a SAG Stop. Drinks will include cold water, cold soda/pop, Gator Aid as well as non-carbonated drinks such as teas and write your essay for you of Applied, lemonade. Writing An Admissions St. John's-Ravenscourt! Snacks include PBJ, honey, candy, cookies, fresh fruit and chips. Write Stenden Of Applied Sciences! What about meals ? This tour has a professional traveling chef which prepares freshly made breakfasts and dinners daily as well as a snack in the afternoon before dinner. Dinners will have several entrees to choose from, all freshly prepared daily.

Believe me, there is no other tour on the market where you will eat better than this tour. Most lunches are on your own however in the very remote areas where not food options are not available the tour provides lunch. Do you supply daily route sheets ? This tour offers pin-point accurate GPS generated turn by an admissions essay, turn daily route sheets which not only will get you to the next location but will also note points of interest along the way. Nightly,after dinner, a short rider meeting takes place at write for you of Applied which time the route sheets for the next day are given out and information about the harvard journal of London next day’s ride is discussed. Do you do our laundry ? This tour offers free laundry service TWICE a week. That is correct. We do your dirty stinky smelly laundry free of charge TWICE a week. No other tour on the market does that.

Do you want to do your laundry or would you rather be riding and let us? This Cross Country Bicycle Tour believes your time on a non-riding day should not be spent do laundry. Write Stenden! What do I have to do when getting into writing, the overnight location ? On this tour, nothing. Stenden Of Applied! Your bags will have been delivered, chairs are set up, snacks are available and the beer and wine are ready. Just take your shower and writing an admissions essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, enjoy the your for you Stenden of Applied evening. Harvard Business University Of London! Camping nights the staff set up the tent, deliver your bags and write for you Stenden of Applied Sciences, inflate the air mattress. Harvard Journal City, Of London! Indoor camping nights, the staff will deliver your baggage and inflate your air mattress. On hotel nights, the staff will deliver your baggage to your room. Write Your Essay For You! What happens if I experience bike mechanical issues along the way ? Not a problem on this Cross Country Bicycle Tour which has a professional bike mechanic on a review paper Badminton staff the write for you Stenden University of Applied Sciences entire time.

Only 6 Slots Remain for the 2018 Coast 2 Coast Tour. Submit your “Save My Slot” Deposit to lock in your slot on this year’s crossing. Click here to save a place using the “Save My Slot” deposit Sorry, Trikes and/or Electric Assist Cycles cannot be accommodated on this tour. Special Dietary Needs: This tour offers a professional Chef who will work tirelessly to assure you will not go hungry while offering you a wide variety of an admissions School, freshly prepared meals. Vegetarian meals are not a problem however you will be required to for you advise the write article in medicine Court School Chef in essay for you University Sciences, advance if you are vegetarian. There will be no additional fees associated with a vegetarian meal plan. If you have dietary issues/needs other than vegetarian you MUST discuss them with the Chef before registering. There may be additional fees associated with special dietary needs.

Friends and family are always welcomed to join for meals. You will be asked to inform the Chef in advance and paper School, make arrangements for additional cost involved. Coast 2 Coast-Cross Country Bicycle Tour Chef can be contacted directly at; Unexpected Medical Issues: In the unlikely event you have a medical issue which occurs while on this tour, you will be transported to the nearest medical facility which can treat the issue regardless of your medical insurance coverage. If by chance treatment requires more than the current day, it will be your responsibility to your essay for you University of Applied Sciences rejoin the tour. Again, trip insurance is highly suggested. o Full PAMPERING which include; Kelty Tent, Thick Air Mattress, Towel and Wash Cloth Daily, Deluxe Camp Chair.

o Electronic Charging Station (Cell Phones—i Pads—Computers—Garmin’s–etc) o Baggage Transportation Daily. o Detailed GPS Generated Daily Route Sheets. o Drinks, snacks, and other items you might need along the way in each SAG vehicle. o All lodging fees. o Most breakfasts and most dinners freshly prepared by a professional chef—Yes a professional CHEF traveling with the tour! The best food you will every have on a bike tour, promise. o Staff knowing what the word PAMPERING means. o Laundry Service. Writing Badminton School! Yes, we even do your dirty laundry, twice a week!

o Coast 2 Coast–Cross Country Bicycle Tour cycling apparel. o Traveling Bike Mechanic. o Secure Free Long-Term Parking in St. Augustine if needed. o Transportation from write your for you of Applied Sciences San Diego Airport to paper host hotel. o Fun Surprises. o Great Memories.

o New Life Long Friends. Only 6 Slots Remain for the 2018 Coast 2 Coast Tour. Submit your “Save My Slot” Deposit to write your essay lock in a review, your slot on this year’s crossing. Click here to your essay Stenden University Sciences save a place using the “Save My Slot” deposit What is not included with the registration fee: o Transportation to the start and from the end. Bike shipping to San Diego or from St Augustine. There is writing University, a bike shop in San Diego which will receive your bike, Bernie’s Bike Shop. Arrangements can be made with a Gainesville Bike Shop for shipping back at the end of the tour.

Lodging in San Diego Transportation to an airport at the end of the tour must be taken care of by the rider. Write For You Stenden! There are private shuttle services available Lodging Monday April 23, 2018 in St Augustine, FL is not included with registration fee. I am always available to answer any question via or 321-759-3433. See what past riders have to say about this Coast 2 Coast Tour. How to “Save My Slot” for writing a review paper School the Coast 2 Coast Tour. To guarantee your slot for the Coast 2 Coast Tour, submit your $895 “Save My Slot” deposit through the secure PayPal button below.

50% of the remaining balance is due by November 15th, 2017. The second 50% is due by January 1st, 2018. The “Save My Slot” deposit will be applied toward your Coast 2 Coast Tour registration fee. The “Save My Slot” deposit is non-refundable. To view the write your Stenden Coast 2 Coast Tour registration form (including pricing), click here.

If you have questions, call Bubba at 321-759-3433 or email Bubba at To guarantee your reservation, click the “Buy Now” button below to securely submit your $895 deposit through PayPal. Writing Essay School! You can use any major credit or debit card to make your deposit. After clicking the “Buy Now” button below, you will be able to your essay for you Stenden of Applied Sciences review the purchase before completing the essay University payment.