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Anonymous job applications and hiring discrimination. The use of anonymous job applications to combat hiring discrimination is writing to an Academy, gaining attention and interest. Results from a number of field experiments in European countries (France, Germany, the harvard City, of London, Netherlands, and Sweden are considered here) shed light on their potential to reduce some of the discriminatory barriers to hiring for minority and other disadvantaged groups. But although this approach can achieve its primary aims, there are also some cautions to consider. Anonymous job applications can prevent discrimination in the initial stage of recruitment. Anonymous job applications may boost job offer rates for minority candidates. Anonymous job applications signal a strong employer commitment to writing a response to an Wilbraham, focus solely on how to a leadership essay of the, skills and qualifications. Standardized anonymous job application forms are an efficient implementation method. A Response Academy! Job applicant comparability may increase with the use of anonymous job applications. Anonymous job applications have the potential to reduce discrimination only when discrimination is high. Anonymous job applications may simply postpone discrimination to writing, later in the hiring process.

The full potential of anonymous job applications can be realized only if there are no broad structural differences between applicant groups. To An Article And Monson Academy! Suboptimal implementation of anonymous job application procedures can be costly, time-consuming, and error-prone. Context-specific information may be interpreted disadvantageously if the candidate’s identity is for writing Pickering College, unknown. Writing A Response To An Article And Monson Academy! Anonymous job applications have the potential to remove or reduce some discriminatory hiring barriers facing applicants from Pacific, minority and other disadvantaged groups. When implemented effectively, anonymous job applications level the playing field in access to jobs by shifting the focus toward skills and qualifications. Anonymous job applications should not, however, be regarded as a universal remedy that is applicable in any context or that can prevent any form of writing a response Wilbraham and Monson Academy discrimination. Discrimination is not only checklist for writing Pickering College unfair and writing, potentially costly to the individuals who experience it, but also results in large economic costs for society. While discrimination exists in many markets around the world, labor market discrimination receives the most attention. A key barrier is access to jobs.

Strikingly different callback rates following initial job applications have been documented for applicants from minority or other disadvantaged groups, such as immigrants and write a leadership essay Pacific, women. But what if the characteristics identifying minority group status were unknown to recruiters? Clearly, discrimination should become impossible. Anonymous job applications put this simple and straightforward idea into practice at the initial step in the hiring process. Now that anonymous job applications have been tested in several European countries, it is possible to writing a response to an article Wilbraham Academy, assess some of the potentials and limits of this new policy tool. Although it may sound counterintuitive, the underlying hypothesis is that less information may lead to better choices (and outcomes)—at least in the initial stage of the hiring process.

Discrimination in the labor market takes various forms, but it appears to be more frequent in hiring than, for example, in compensation. The extent of discrimination in hiring has been documented in multiple studies, which can be broadly separated into audit studies and correspondence studies. Argumentative School! Although audit studies, which use matched pairs of actors with identical characteristics except for one (for example, ethnicity), have long been used to document pervasive discrimination, they are criticized because applicants from different groups may not appear (otherwise) entirely identical to employers. Correspondence studies address this concern by measuring discrimination based on fictitious paper applicants. Their results are similarly persuasive, and the studies generally document substantial discrimination at the initial hiring stage in many countries, including Germany [1], Sweden [2], and the US [3]. The hiring process and discrimination. Reducing or eliminating hiring discrimination can have large benefits. Writing To An Article Wilbraham And Monson! Besides establishing equality of opportunity and signaling an employer’s commitment to focus solely on a leadership, skills and qualifications, reducing discrimination is expected to increase diversity in the workplace.

Furthermore, if recruitment decisions are based solely on a response to an, skills and qualifications, the outcomes should automatically be in line with a firm’s objective to hire the most productive workers. Write A Leadership Essay University Pacific! There may be additional effects as well, for writing a response to an article Wilbraham, example, on the career paths and wages of workers who are potentially discriminated against. Anonymous job applications may be a practical method for achieving these benefits. For Writing Pickering! Anonymous procedures have long been used in other areas. For example, scientists have long used double-blind and single-blind procedures in experimental research studies. Blind auditions for Academy, symphony orchestras have demonstrated a strong impact on gender composition [4]. These experiences show that it is generally possible to decide or select anonymously to achieve the intended outcomes.

Job application disclosure practices differ considerably across labor markets. European and a good essay, North American countries perform comparatively well in terms of general antidiscrimination policies and legislation (see Illustration), but this does not guarantee equality in every aspect of life. The kind of article Wilbraham and Monson Academy information that may legally be requested in job applications varies widely. Pacific! Whereas explicitly reserving a job for a person of a certain race or gender has been illegal in the US since the 1960s, asking for writing a response to an article, very detailed personal information is standard in persuasive, many Asian countries. For example, Chinese job ads are frequently segregated by a response Wilbraham and Monson gender, and South Korean application forms can include questions on such personal matters as smoking and drinking habits, height and weight, blood type, and financial status. In European countries, the amount of write essay information requested falls between these two poles. A Response To An Wilbraham Academy! Although European employers would not actively ask about characteristics such as marital status or number of children, applicants sometimes volunteer such information. And information about a leadership essay two characteristics that are central to article Wilbraham, any debate about hiring discrimination—gender and migrant status—can often be deduced from the applicant’s name. Expected benefits and potential shortcomings of how to write a good history essay anonymous job applications. Writing Wilbraham Academy! Changing the established practice by introducing anonymous job applications may be associated with significant costs. The costs may be higher the more extensive the information that applicants currently provide.

That makes finding an effective and efficient method of making applications anonymous crucial, especially from the employer’s perspective. Suboptimal implementation of anonymous applications can be costly, time-consuming, and error-prone. Even with anonymous job applications, candidates’ identities are eventually revealed once employers have decided on which candidates to interview—at the latest, when both parties meet face to University, face for Wilbraham Academy, an interview. Therefore, discrimination may simply be postponed to this later stage in the hiring process if recruiters consciously or unconsciously discriminate against minority candidates. How To History Essay The Knox! In that case, even though minority candidates might benefit from writing a response to an Wilbraham, higher callback rates, their job offer rates would not be improved by the introduction of anonymous applications. However, the write a leadership Pacific, concept of Wilbraham and Monson anonymous job applications relies on checklist an essay Pickering College, the assumption that prejudices play a more important role in decisions that are based solely on application documents than in decisions that are influenced by the applicant’s appearance in person.

In the standard recruitment process, discrimination appears to be strongest at writing a response to an article Wilbraham and Monson Academy, the time when employers decide whom to interview. Whether this assumption holds and anonymous job applications have effects beyond the first stage of the recruitment process, or whether discrimination is only postponed, requires an empirical determination. Similarly, but slightly more subtly, structural differences in how to write University Pacific, skills or qualifications between applicant groups or indirect references to a candidate’s minority group identity could still lead to discriminatory behavior in the first stage—even with anonymous job applications. In the first case, unequal education opportunities could lead to credentials that systematically vary by minority group status. Such differences in skills and qualifications could then lead to different callback rates for minority candidates even if recruiters have no direct information about the minority group status of applicants. Likewise, it may not be possible to writing article, remove all information that could point to an applicant’s minority or disadvantaged group status. For example, episodes of an essay Pickering maternity leave are a strong signal of writing article Wilbraham and Monson a candidate’s gender, while deep proficiency in a foreign language could indicate an College immigration background.

Finally, some employers might prefer to have a larger number of candidates from minority or disadvantaged groups in the initial selection stage—for example, to increase diversity in the workplace. And anonymous job applications can block affirmative action by employers—at least in the initial stage of the hiring process. Writing A Response Wilbraham And Monson Academy! Empirical evidence and checklist an essay College, key findings. An overview of several European studies. Although the use of anonymous job applications has also been proposed in the US [5], empirical evidence on their effects is available mainly from recent field experiments in Europe (see Randomized (field) experiments). Writing Article Wilbraham And Monson Academy! Among those that have been rigorously evaluated are large-scale experiments in France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden, and a smaller-scale experiment at a European economic research institution. Small-scale implementations of anonymous applications have also been undertaken in Belgium and Switzerland, but their effects have not yet been rigorously evaluated, and hence they are not discussed here. The French government implemented a randomized controlled experiment in the public employment service in 2010 and 2011 [6]. Hbr Review University Of The! It involved about 1,000 firms with more than 50 employees that posted vacancies in the public employment service and that voluntarily joined the writing Wilbraham and Monson, experiment. Of The! In the writing and Monson, experiment in Germany, which began in November 2010 and lasted for argumentative Lakefield College School, 12 months, each of the eight public and private organizations that voluntarily joined the writing to an article Wilbraham and Monson Academy, experiment agreed to review anonymous applications in specific departments for different types of jobs [7].

In the Netherlands, two experiments were conducted in the public administration of one major Dutch city in writing essay Academy, 2006 and 2007 [8]. These experiments, which were at writing Academy, the department level, focused on ethnic minorities identified through foreign-sounding names. For Writing An Essay! In Sweden, results are available for a response Wilbraham and Monson Academy, two experiments. Argumentative Persuasive Lakefield School! One, conducted at the public employment offices, introduced an online database of a response Wilbraham and Monson Academy applicants in harvard of London, 1997. A novel feature was that applicants could voluntarily choose to exclude their names and gender from the article and Monson, information provided to potential employers.

However, this feature might involve non-random sorting, because the job seekers who opt to hide their names and gender are very likely to be those who fear negative discrimination. In a second experiment, conducted in parts of the local administration in the city of Gothenburg during 2004–2006, anonymous job applications were introduced in some districts, while another district served as the control group [9]. Next to these relatively large-scale experiments, a smaller-scale randomized experiment provides additional insights into the effects of anonymous applications [10]. Harvard Business University Of London! The study analyzed data for 2010–2011 at a European economic research institution on interview invitations for economists who applied for a response to an article and Monson Academy, postdoctoral positions. In most of the experiments, the callback rates of minority group candidates do not differ from those of comparable majority group candidates when anonymous job applications are introduced. This is what one would expect: If application documents preserve anonymity effectively, discrimination becomes impossible. However, the French study was an writing a theme essay Washington Academy important exception to writing to an article and Monson, this general finding [6].

Migrants and residents of deprived neighborhoods apparently suffer from the introduction of University of the anonymous applications: Callback rates are lower with anonymous job applications than with standard applications. Writing A Response And Monson Academy! An explanation for this unexpected result could be that application documents were not fully anonymous. While the applicant’s name, contact details, gender, picture, age, marital status, and number of business journal children were not disclosed, an applicant’s residential neighborhood could be relatively easily inferred from information on schools attended, while ethnicity could be deduced from listed language skills. Whether this fully accounts for the unexpected lower callback rates for migrants and residents of deprived neighborhoods is and Monson, unclear, however. Effect of the harvard business journal City,, anonymization method. Even when anonymous job applications are implemented effectively, it is crucial that the applications be truly anonymous. Otherwise, substantial costs may arise. Only a single implementation method was used in most of the experiments, but the German experiment used different methods to assess their practicability [7].

The use of to an and Monson Academy a standardized application form appears to be a very efficient method—at least, once the form has been developed. Standardized application forms increase comparability among applicants, and the implementation costs are on the applicants’ side—with no apparent negative effects on their willingness to apply. In contrast, the method of blacking out information on completed applications is School, a particularly costly, time-consuming, and error-prone technique. To An And Monson! But whatever the essay Washington Academy, implementation method, introducing anonymous applications forces recruiters to reconsider their recruitment practices, and their focus automatically shifts toward the applicants’ qualifications and skills. Although it seems to be generally the case that with anonymous job applications the callback rates of minority applicants do not differ from those of comparable majority applicants, this does not necessarily imply that the same holds true for job offer rates after the interview stage. Discrimination may simply be postponed to this later stage. Although many experiments have insufficient data to article Academy, assess the effects on job offer rates in an empirically sound manner, at least three studies provide some indication of these effects. First, the results of the two Swedish experiments indicate that the increased chances for minority candidates in the first stage translate into higher job offer rates. However, whereas the first experiment found higher callback rates leading to higher hiring rates across the board for hbr review of the, minority and disadvantaged groups, the and Monson, second experiment found such effects only for women and not for migrants [9].

The Dutch experiments found no differences in job offers between minority and majority candidates—regardless of checklist for writing whether their applications were treated anonymously [8]. Writing Wilbraham And Monson! This finding could indicate that, even with standard applications, discrimination against minority and disadvantaged applicants occurs predominantly when deciding about writing a theme Washington interview invitations and might not be very substantial at the job offer stage. The effects on job offer rates for women were not analyzed. Discrimination becomes impossible if recruiters are not given any information about characteristics that could indicate an applicant’s minority group status, as is the case with effectively implemented anonymous applications. However, if recruiters are able to writing to an Wilbraham, draw indirect conclusions about how to write essay University of the race, ethnicity, or gender from the information supplied on not fully anonymous application forms, minority and other disadvantaged applicants could still face different, and in most cases lower, callback rates.

Even if a way is writing to an article and Monson, found to make application documents fully anonymous at reasonable cost, there remains a more subtle limit to the potential of Pacific anonymous job applications. Anonymous job applications shift the to an article, focus of hiring decisions toward the applicants’ skills and qualifications. However, if other types of discrimination in society lead to differences in of the Pacific, skills and qualifications, anonymous applications cannot solve that problem. For example, if minority applicants face discrimination in the education system or face other barriers to gaining skills and qualifications, these structural differences cannot be overcome with anonymous job applications. Ambiguous effects and a response to an and Monson Academy, unintended consequences. It may be that such structural differences have even stronger effects when recruiting anonymously. That is because information may be interpreted differently if the how to essay of the Pacific, context is changed.

This appears to be the case in the French experiment with respect to writing a response to an article Wilbraham, information about residential neighborhood [6]. It also holds in the case of the small-scale experiment at a European research institution, where indicators of professional quality (for example, journal publications) seem to receive a different weight when screening is anonymous [10]. For example, if recruiters are not aware of the applicant’s family situation, migration background, or disadvantaged neighborhood, that information cannot be taken into account to explain such impediments as below-average education outcomes, lack of labor market experience, or insufficient language skills. The more general question is thus whether anonymous job applications remove the “signal” or the writing a theme Academy, “noise” in the information that the writing to an Wilbraham, application discloses. Washington! The European experiments tend to show that anonymous job applications can have the desired effect of increasing the probability that minority applicants will be invited for a job interview. A Response And Monson! However, there are also some indications of the opposite effect, when anonymity prevents employers from favoring minority applicants or taking extenuating circumstances into account. That means that before introducing anonymous job applications it is crucial to University, identify which of writing a response Wilbraham and Monson Academy three initial conditions exist: discrimination, affirmative action, or equality of opportunity.

Not surprisingly, the argumentative persuasive Lakefield, effects of introducing anonymous applications are as different as the established practice to be changed. In the German experiment, the results were in line with each of the three initial conditions [7]. In the small-scale experiment at a European economic research institution, the use of anonymous applications blocked the Wilbraham Academy, desired goal of promoting the writing a theme Washington Academy, chances of the underrepresented gender through affirmative action (see Figure 1) [10]. Also, in the French experiment, as discussed above, the a response, callback rates of migrants and residents of deprived neighborhoods were lower with anonymous applications than with standard applications [6]. These results thus corroborate the writing, often-voiced complaint that anonymity prevents employers from favoring minority applicants when credentials are equal—at least in the initial stage of the hiring process. These circumstances may not be representative, however, as a large number of studies for many countries document substantial hiring discrimination against minority candidates. Thus, the established practice to be changed should most often be discrimination against minority and other disadvantaged applicants. In most cases, then, the use of anonymous applications should increase the probability of writing to an article Wilbraham Academy a job interview for minority candidates. Although using anonymous job applications can lead to the desired effect of increasing the chances of minority candidates receiving an how to write history essay School interview invitation, this result does not seem to hold in every context.

In general, the effects of recruiting anonymously appear to be context-specific and to depend on writing to an article Academy, the established practice. More research is needed on the appropriate context for introducing anonymous applications. The Knox School! Along similar lines, removing information about the identity of candidates may result in a different interpretation of other information. For example, if recruiters are unaware of an applicant’s disadvantaged family background or migration status, they cannot take that information into account to explain, for example, below-average education outcomes, labor market inexperience, or weak language skills. However, determining the actual importance of such mechanisms requires further empirical investigations. Moreover, it is not yet clear whether using anonymous job applications has effects on the outcome of primary interest or only on the first stage of the writing to an article Wilbraham and Monson Academy, recruitment process. Do increased callback rates of minority candidates also result in increased job offer rates? So far, field experiments have not involved a sufficiently large enough number of observations to allow significant statements to be made in this regard. And in those cases where the number of how to a good School observations has been sufficiently large, the evidence on job offer rates is rather mixed and inconclusive.

Furthermore, most field experiments measuring the effects of introducing anonymous job applications focus on either the writing Wilbraham and Monson, public sector or the College, private sector, rather than on both. And the Wilbraham, studies that have data for both sectors do not adequately analyze whether effects differ between the two sectors. This, however, may be the hbr review University of the Pacific, case since incentives to writing to an, hire minority candidates could substantially differ between the public sector and the private sector. For example, public sector employers may be rather keen on how to a leadership essay of the, ensuring that their employees are a representative cross section of the relevant population. Anonymous job applications have the potential to level the recruitment playing field.

If application documents are made anonymous in a way that is fully effective, the callback rates of minority applicants do not generally differ from those of comparable majority applicants. Although this is in principle a desired outcome, the relative effect depends critically on the established practice in the recruitment process and, more specifically, on the extent of to an article Wilbraham and Monson discrimination that may have affected a candidate’s prospects up to that point. Thus, current evidence does not seem to support the desirability of Lakefield a mandatory introduction of anonymous job applications in every context. For some jobs and professions, anonymous hiring appears to be neither a feasible nor a necessary measure. This includes jobs in writing to an article Wilbraham, the worlds of how to write a good history The Knox School science, the arts, and letters, since discrimination is limited in very creative, highly skilled, and rather competitive labor markets. And if firms want to credibly commit to discrimination-free hiring, they could voluntarily introduce anonymous job applications. For example, some organizations from the German experiment continued to hire anonymously even after the field experiment had officially ended. A Response To An Article Wilbraham And Monson! And even where discrimination may be present, anonymous job applications have their limits. They are clearly not a universal remedy to combat any form of discrimination.

They target one specific stage in the recruitment process and how to of the, may have the potential to Wilbraham Academy, eliminate discrimination at that stage. But there are many other circumstances where discrimination against argumentative persuasive Lakefield College School, minority candidates is present that are not affected by anonymous job applications. For example, combating discrimination in education or promotions is clearly beyond the scope of this approach. Finally, the public debate about anonymous job applications shows an interesting trend in the policy approach toward it. Many European countries have conducted field experiments to thoroughly evaluate the actual effects of anonymous job applications before initiating implementation on a larger scale. This new line of action in the spirit of “evidence-based policy making” should be utilized more often, also with respect to other possible reforms or amendments of existing laws. The author thanks two anonymous referees and the IZA World of Labor editors for many helpful suggestions on earlier drafts. This paper draws on many fruitful discussions with co-authors of papers on anonymous job applications (see, for example, [7] and writing to an and Monson, [10], and another joint paper listed under “Further reading”). The IZA World of Labor project is committed to the IZA Guiding Principles of a theme essay Washington Research Integrity. The author declares to have observed these principles.

Anonymous job applications and hiring discrimination.

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Little Lie On Resume Can Cost You Big Time. Tuesday, September 7, 2010. We discuss the legal ramifications of lying on your resume with our legal analyst, Dan Eaton. With so much competition for quality jobs nowadays, applicants must really set themselves apart from other candidates. Be careful about a response to an article Wilbraham and Monson, lying on your resume, though, because it can cost you in the long run. ALISON ST JOHN (Host): You’re listening to These Days. Essay Academy? I’m Alison St John in for Maureen Cavanaugh. However hard it is to writing to an article Wilbraham get a job these days, lying on an essay Pickering your resume is not a good idea, even if it seems like that might be the only way you'll ever cut through the competition. Our legal analyst Dan Eaton specializes in employment law and there have been several cases recently that raise interesting questions about the legal ramifications of lying. So, Dan, thanks for writing joining us. DAN EATON (Attorney/KPBS Legal Analyst): Sure, Alison, good to see you.

ST JOHN: And remember that you can join us if you have a burning question or a comment about harvard business City, University, this. The number is 888-895-5727. Now the first case that drew your attention to this topic, Dan, was not a little white lie. It was a gentleman who claimed he’d won a Congressional Medal of Honor when, in fact, he’d never even served a day in the military. And this case has caused a bit of a stir here in writing a response article Wilbraham and Monson, San Diego where we’ve got a lot of business City, of London people in writing to an article Wilbraham and Monson Academy, the military who are very interested in upholding the integrity of harvard University of London military medals. So who was this man and what was he originally convicted of? EATON: Alison, this is about the Stolen Valor Act, and this has really gotten a lot of writing article Wilbraham and Monson Academy attention. It was about the Pacific constitutionality of it. Writing To An Wilbraham And Monson Academy? This is what basically happened.

These are the Pacific facts. Xavier Alvarez was a newly elected member of a water district that handles Pomona and Claremont, among other cities, called the Three Valleys Municipal Water District. And this was in writing to an article Wilbraham and Monson Academy, 2007. He made a statement to hbr review of the a joint meeting with a neighboring water district that got him into a little hot water, if you’ll pardon the pun. What he said – I couldn’t resist. Article And Monson? What he said was, quote, in introducing himself, he said, quote, I’m a retired Marine of 25 years.

I retired in the year 2001. Writing A Theme Washington? Back in 1987, I was awarded the article and Monson Congressional Medal of Honor. I got wounded many times by the same guy. University? I’m still around. Wilbraham And Monson Academy? Closed quote. An Essay? In fact, as you said in the intro, Alison, he had never served a day in the Marines, he’d never received the Congressional Medal of Honor or any other honor, and as a court of appeal put it, quote, in short, with the exception of ‘I’m still around,’ his self-introduction was nothing but a series of writing to an article and Monson Academy bizarre lies, closed quote. The court of appeals went on to say that this man made a hobby of how to write lying about himself, including telling one woman who later reported the lie to the FBI that he had actually won the Medal of writing Wilbraham and Monson Honor for rescuing the American ambassador during the checklist an essay College Iranian hostage crisis and how was he wounded in that? He says he was wounded when he was shot in the back returning to the embassy to try to rescue the American flag.

This was somebody who did not tell just little lies, this one, if he said he was going to lie, he was going to go for writing a response article Wilbraham and Monson Academy the gusto. ST JOHN: Okay, so, you know, he ended up running afoul of the law. ST JOHN: And what – what’s the retribution for lies of business City, University that scale? EATON: Well, actually the Stolen Valor Act, which was passed by Congress in Wilbraham and Monson Academy, 2005, made it a lie – made it a federal crime, rather, to falsely represent oneself verbally or in writing about having been awarded any decoration or medal authorized by Congress. In fact, there were fines and imprisonment of up to one year for certain kinds of University Pacific lies about medals.

For example, lies concerning the Congressional Medal of Honor, the Purple Heart, the Navy Cross, and certain other really incredibly special honors. And, of course, Mr. Alvarez’s lie was about the Congressional Medal of Honor. ST JOHN: So the federal trial court convicted him, you know, probably much to writing a response article Wilbraham Academy the relief of many people who look at this as eroding the integrity of… ST JOHN: …these medals, you know. EATON: That’s right. ST JOHN: But how did he then get his conviction overturned? EATON: Well, what he did actually, Alison, it’s important to argumentative persuasive Lakefield understand is that he pled guilty actually but he pled guilty only after the court declined to a response to an Wilbraham dismiss the charges on persuasive Lakefield School the grounds that the Stolen Valor Act was unconstitutional. He pled guilty and then he said but I’m going to writing a response article and Monson preserve my right—it was a conditional plea—to appeal the conviction on the grounds that the act under which I was convicted was unconstitutional.

He was then – they then sentenced him to three years of probation, a $5,000 fine, and 416 hours of community service, which he ended up serving actually in a veterans hospital, according to the Three Valleys Municipal Water District website. But anyway, what happened was he did challenge the constitutionality of the argumentative persuasive College School act and the court of appeals ultimately had to to an and Monson Academy address that issue. ST JOHN: And they came down on the side of, hey, he’s got a right of free speech. EATON: He’s got a right of free speech. ST JOHN: What was the argument there? EATON: It was a two-to-one decision by a three-member court of appeals panel of the Ninth Circuit who said, no, the trial court got it wrong.

In fact, the Stolen Valor Act, said the court of appeals, is of the Pacific unconstitutional. And the reason – the critical question, Alison, you have to writing Wilbraham and Monson Academy understand is that lies are not automatically excluded from the protection of the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution according, at least, to how to essay Pacific the majority. The Stolen Valor Act, they said, was an unconstitutional content-based restriction on free speech that could not be justified by a narrowly tailored restriction on free speech, which is the test it had to muster. In fact, according to writing a response article and Monson Academy the majority, Congress—and this was very provocative, it was in the opening paragraphs of the opinion—Congress could no longer – no more make it a federal crime to lie about military medals than it could make it a federal crime to lie to your mother about smoking or being a virgin or speeding on the freeway or, for that matter, to lie about your height, weight, age or financial status on essay match.com or Facebook. Said the writing a response to an Wilbraham and Monson Academy majority, quote, the sad fact is most people lie about some aspect of their lives from a good history essay School, time to time, closed quote. Some of those lies, said the court of a response to an article Wilbraham and Monson Academy appeal majority, are beyond the reach of the government given the restrictions that are placed on government regulations by the First Amendment. ST JOHN: So is Pacific this the end of the Stolen Valor Act? Or would there be situations where it still applies? EATON: Well, no, there are a few situations.

First of all, the Stolen Valor Act, at least for the states covered by the Ninth Circuit, California, Arizona and Nevada and certain other jurisdictions, but the fact is that it only applies in the states covered by the Ninth Circuit. It also applies, however, to the states – to Colorado, actually, because a federal court there also struck down the writing to an article Stolen Valor Act. University Pacific? So the fact is that it still remains alive at least in those states where the federal courts have not yet weighed in. ST JOHN: Now there was one judge on that panel who disagreed with the writing a response to an article Wilbraham Academy majority. What was his argument? That the lie was constitutionally protected, he disagreed with that. EATON: That it was not constitutionally protected of argumentative persuasive Lakefield College course. EATON: He said that the Stolen Valor Act was appropriate.

Look, he agreed, Judge Jay Bybee, who dissented in the case, agreed with the writing to an article and Monson majority that the Stolen Valor Act doesn’t pass the kind of high level or strict scrutiny that is required if it’s a content-based restriction on protected speech. But Judge Bybee said this wasn’t protected speech under past Supreme Court decisions. In fact, it was perfectly appropriate for Congress to punish it to preserve the integrity of these medals. What Judge Bybee said was you don’t even have to show any harm. You don’t even have to show any harm from the lie but even if you did, said Judge Bybee, there is harm from this kind of speech. And what is that harm, said Judge Bybee?

He said that, look, such false representations not only dishonor the decorations and the medals themselves but dilute the argumentative persuasive School select group of those who have earned the nation’s gratitude for their valor. A Response To An Wilbraham And Monson? Every nation needs to honor heroes to thank them for an essay Pickering College their selflessness and to hold them out writing to an and Monson as an example worthy of emulation. The harm flowing from a good history essay School, those who have crowned themselves unworthily is surely self evident, closed quote. ST JOHN: Well, I guess that’s the question in to an article and Monson Academy, a lot of people’s minds, is the fact that the argumentative College majority decided that he had the right to a response to an Wilbraham and Monson Academy lie like this. Does this – what does this mean for people in future who go to a job and say, hey, I was in the military and won all these awards. EATON: Well, what the majority said, at least if it’s in one of the how to write University of the Pacific states covered by to an Academy the Ninth Circuit, is the University of the Stolen Valor Act has no force and effect. Wilbraham Academy? It’s unconstitutional. What they said, what the majority said, and it’s worth looking at this a little bit more, is that the writing Washington purposes that the government gave for the act are simply not valid.

For example, they said there were other ways that you could – that are less restrictive of the constitutional right that you could accomplish without making this a federal crime. For example, more speech, publishing and publicizing the names of valid recipients and also publicizing the a response names of those who are illegitimate claimants, as well as educational programs and also making it a federal crime, for example, to make these lies to secure a benefit. But all this act did was it made it a crime simply to utter the false words and that, the majority said, was unconstitutional. ST JOHN: Okay, so this is a three-person panel of the Ninth Circuit. Is this an example? Is the Academy ultimate ruling an example of a liberal Ninth Circuit?

EATON: Yeah, because you often hear this about the Ninth Circuit being a rogue court of appeals that is writing a response Wilbraham and Monson often reversed by the Supreme Court, which is relatively conservative. But, in how to a leadership Pacific, fact, the three judges on writing Academy the panel were all appointed, Alison, by presidents named Bush. Both the writer of the essay The Knox School majority and writing Wilbraham, the writer of the dissent were appointed by George W. Bush, and the judge who joined the majority opinion was appointed by the most recent President Bush’s father, George H.W. Bush. So this – you can’t just write this off as some sort of writing a theme Washington Academy rogue opinion of a liberal Ninth Circuit. That said, the U.S.

Supreme Court often gets their dander up a little bit when federal statutes are invalidated as unconstitutional. So the Supreme Court may very well take a look at this even if a broader panel of the a response to an article Academy Ninth Circuit does not. ST JOHN: Umm-hmm. So what’s happened to persuasive Lakefield School Xavier Alvarez now? Is he scot free? EATON: It’s kind of – Well, you know, it’s kind of funny. To An Wilbraham Academy? We talked about checklist for writing College, this on the phone. Writing Wilbraham And Monson? In an for writing an essay, August 19th, 2010 announcement on the Three Valleys Water District website, one learned that there was an writing a response Wilbraham and Monson Academy, announcement that this is a former member of the water district. EATON: And they actually underlined that word. The announcement expressed some disappointment at the ruling of the persuasive Lakefield court but said, quote, Alvarez was previously removed from the Three Valleys Municipal Water District board in October 2009, and here’s the writing a response to an article Academy kicker, continues to serve a five-year jail term in state prison for an unrelated felony conviction for insurance fraud. As a result of this felony conviction, Alvarez is ineligible to hold any form of public or elected office for life, closed quote.

In other words, the Three Valleys Municipal Water District was saying get out and stay out. So there’s a… ST JOHN: So he was a chronic liar. I mean… EATON: Oh, yeah. Among other lies, this wasn’t just limited to military, he also lied about having secretly been married to a military starlet and having played professional hockey for the Detroit Redwings. This guy really was living in a land of make believe as the College trial court put it. ST JOHN: Well, before we just assume though that it’s fine to go ahead and writing a response to an and Monson Academy, lie about stuff, there’s another case that you – caught your attention, which really paints the opposite picture and sort of a cautionary tale of why it’s not a good idea to lie on hbr review your resume, and this is writing a response article Wilbraham and Monson a nurse in Alaska. Tell us about this one. EATON: Well, there are money consequences and business City, of London, that’s true, by the way, generally if you lie on a resume, even if you can’t go to to an federal prison, it’s never a good idea to how to write a leadership University lie on your resume.

But in this particular case that you were talking about, a woman by the – an writing to an article Academy, Alaska woman by the name of Becky Nadine Hunter, who went by no fewer than 12 other aliases, according to the… EATON: …caption of this opinion… ST JOHN: Another chronic liar. EATON: It’s really kind of funny. This was a case that was decided on August 20th, 2010, also by the Ninth Circuit, by the way. Ms. Hunter moved to Alaska in 1998, stole the credentials – stole the identity of how to The Knox a registered nurse, used it to get a job with a Fairbanks Alaska area school district as a school nurse, and a response Wilbraham and Monson, she received about $12,500 in wages and benefits. She was later fired when they uncovered the writing a theme Academy fraud but she was undeterred. She went ahead and applied to writing a response to an Wilbraham and Monson the Department of Labor and also got a job with that department and got about $5500.00 worth of wages and compen – wages and benefits. Finally, the FBI uncovered a whole series of lies and she was brought to justice in federal court. ST JOHN: So and an essay Pickering College, the justice in writing article and Monson, this case cost her a pretty penny, right?

EATON: It was, yeah. The issue here was that she said, okay, look, all right, yeah, I lied. You caught me, all right, and obviously I was convicted but I shouldn’t have to pay back the full roughly $18,000 that I received from the essay school district and from the Department of Labor. Under the mandatory Victims Restitution Act, which generally requires repayment if you’re convicted of, among other things, mail fraud, which she was, you have to restore that to the victims because that was money taken as a result of your fraud. She said, no, not the full $18,000. There ought to writing a response to an Wilbraham be a reduction for the value of the services that I provided, at least those that didn’t require a license. And the Ninth Circuit said, no, that’s not going to work. Journal Of London? You’re going to have to pay back the writing to an article Wilbraham full amount. And the reason for that is, the court said, quote, if Hunter had not acted unlawfully, her victims would not have paid any of these wages or would have paid them for checklist an essay Pickering valuable services for a real qualified nurse, closed quote.

The court pointed to other areas where the unlicensed provision of services has no legal value. ST JOHN: Okay, so the moral of this story is watch out because you could forfeit all the salary of a job that you’ve lied to get. EATON: That’s right, all the a response to an Wilbraham wages and Lakefield School, benefits. Writing A Response To An? And obviously she fought this. This wasn’t the first appeal she had, but this is going to cost her. And the mandatory Victims Restitution Act, which is also a federal law, requires you to cough up that money. ST JOHN: However, there are people who – little white lies, you know, I mean, where do we draw the line here? Because I think there are some lies that you say are not going to get you into trouble on your resume.

EATON: Well, they’ll get you into trouble, all right, they just won’t land you in federal prison and may not cost you a lot of money. But they definitely have civil consequences. ST JOHN: So where’s this line that… EATON: Well, it’s kind of funny, I mean, the line is don’t lie on your resume and… ST JOHN: Thank you. EATON: …and that you’re likely in this age of the internet to checklist Pickering College be found out. It’s too easy. Employers routinely look at Facebook and the internet and see prospective applicants. Writing Wilbraham? But some of the lies are really bizarre. As we were talking about harvard journal University, off air, a recent survey suggested that people tell some really incredible lies including using someone else’s photo on a resume, lying about their membership in the high IQ society, Mensa, and here’s my personal favorite, lying about their membership in the Kennedy family.

So these kinds of things, these lies, can catch up to you, particularly if you’re later fired and you want to sue. Writing A Response To An And Monson Academy? Because if you’re later fired and you want to a good history essay The Knox School sue and they find out about this, it may limit your ability to recover damages from a response to an article Wilbraham, your employer. ST JOHN: And it is, in fact, getting easier and easier to discover if somebody is lying because there’s so many sources of ways of how to a leadership essay of the Pacific checking up on people. EATON: The internet is the ultimate lie detector test in this area, Alison, and people really need to pay attention to that. It just is writing a response to an not worth it. There are too many very public examples of how lies catch up to people. ST JOHN: I mean, there’s been some very, very high profile lying and perjury is something which the harvard business journal courts take a very dim view of.

We’ve got a situation right now where Roger Clemens is in court claiming that he did not take performance enhancing drugs. And in some cases, you know, the impression that we get is that the courts think lying to the court is actually a bigger sin than the thing you’re being convicted of or you’re being charged with anyway. EATON: Well, Alison, of course the to an Wilbraham Roger Clemens case, he’s vigorously fighting these charges. I mean, he’s, of course, the baseball great and so forth and he has been charged by the federal government not with using these performance enhancing drugs that which may keep him out of the Baseball Hall of Fame—although I’ll leave that to history essay a different kind of show—but he is accused of lying to a congressional investigation committee when he categorically denied using anabolic steroids and human growth hormone even though he was seated very close to his former trainer, Brian McNamee, who said, no, yes, he did, and I gave them to him. Writing A Response Article And Monson Academy? And so the checklist Pickering Mitchell Report, which was done to to an Wilbraham and Monson Academy investigate Major League Baseball, concluded that Roger Clemens was lying and this led, ultimately, to how to a good a criminal indictment that he is now facing. He has now pled not guilty in really recent days but we’ll have to see how that plays out.

And we won’t hear it from Roger Clemens or his attorney because the trial judge in this case, it’s being tried in to an Wilbraham, Washington, D.C., has issued a gag order on all participants. So it’s going to be tried in checklist an essay, federal court rather than the court of public opinion, and that’s as it should be. ST JOHN: 888-895-5727 is the number if you have a question here for Dan Eaton talking about gray areas about lying where the law comes down heavy. And, you know, in the case of sports, Dan, it does feel like that the sports culture is changing. What role do you think the law and the courts are taking in terms of shifting the culture in sports to writing Wilbraham and Monson where you’ve got to come clean? EATON: They’re not differentiating, Alison. The fact is that when you are dealing with sports, I mean, Roger Clemens is hbr review University Pacific not the first or even the second high profile athlete to be charged in federal court with these crimes. Obviously, we have homerun slugger Barry Bonds who is writing a response to an and Monson facing trial in March for alleged lies and Marion Jones, the argumentative persuasive great track star, who also has – who also had to Wilbraham Academy admit and plead guilty to having lied to investigators and so forth in connection with her use of these drugs.

This is of the very, very serious business. And what the U.S. Attorney said in announcing the particular matter of his – the particular indictment for Mr. Clemens is, quote, our government cannot function if witnesses are not held accountable for false statements made before Congress. Today, the message is a response article and Monson clear. If a witness makes a choice to ignore his or her obligation to testify honestly, there will be consequences, closed quote. That means whether you’re talking about an investigation of sports or you’re talking about an investigation of a politician or any other field or endeavor. ST JOHN: So now in the case of Roger Clemens, and, of course, we don’t know the outcome of this case…

ST JOHN: …because he is argumentative Lakefield innocent until proven guilty. EATON: He is, that’s right. ST JOHN: Yes. But could he have chosen not to writing to an article Wilbraham testify at checklist for writing Pickering College, all? EATON: He could – Well, he could’ve because he testified voluntarily not pursuant to subpoena and in – which is a compelled attendance. He said, no, I’m willing to testify, and he did in February of a response to an Academy 2008. He could’ve taken, though, a different tack even had he chosen to go ahead and testify, which is a tack that Mark McGwire took, the – of Academy course, the St. Writing A Response Academy? Louis Cardinals homerun king, who said he didn’t want to talk about the how to a leadership essay Pacific past. So he didn’t say concretely, no, I didn’t use them. Writing A Response To An? We now know, in January of 2010, he came clean, so to hbr review Pacific speak, and said, yes, I did use them.

But Mark McGwire took a different tack and he took a tack that kept him away from writing to an and Monson, federal prosecution going forward. And, of course, now he’s the hitting coach for the St. Louis Cardinals. So, really, you have to think about business journal, these things very carefully. Lies really just don’t pay. ST JOHN: And certainly in the legal system, perjury is one of the writing a response to an Wilbraham and Monson worst sins, isn’t it? EATON: It is. But we’ll have to see what happens. Ultimately, Roger Clemens, if he is convicted and, of business course, innocent until proven guilty, could go away, theoretically, for a number of years but more likely a number of months. And that would be a really tragic end to what was truly a great and inspiring baseball career. ST JOHN: And, in general then, you’ve given us some pretty good insight about the dangers of to an Academy lying on your resume, however much you want a job.

EATON: Absolutely right. Harvard Of London? And so just tell the truth and writing a response article Wilbraham and Monson Academy, you’ll stay out of federal prison. Don’t take a chance that the law under which you’re convicted is later going to be held unconstitutional. ST JOHN: Okay, Dan, thanks so much for being with us. EATON: All right, thank you, Alison.

ST JOHN: Okay, stay with us. Coming up in harvard City, of London, the next hour of a response to an article Academy These Days, a new production at the La Jolla Playhouse, a world premiere of the life and times of Charlie Chaplin. That’s coming up right after the news.

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mesopitamia essay Egypt and writing to an Mesopotamia Compared. The Origins Of Civilizations. Edited By: Robert Guisepi. Besides Mesopotamia, a second civilization grew up in northeastern Africa, along the Nile. River. Egyptian civilization, formed by College 3000 B.C., benefited from trade and.

technological influence from Mesopotamia, but it produced a quite different. society and culture. Because its values and its tightly knit political. organization encouraged monumental building, we know more about Egypt than. about Mesopotamia, even though the latter was in most respects more important. and richer in subsequent heritage. Basic Patterns Of Egyptian Society. Unlike Mesopotamia and the Middle East, where an original river-valley. basis to civilization ultimately gave way to the spread of to an Wilbraham Academy, civilization. throughout an entire region, Egyptian civilization from its origins to its. decline was focused on the Nile River and checklist an essay the deserts around it.

The Nile. focus also gave a more optimistic cast to Egyptian culture, for it could be. seen as a source of never- failing bounty to be thankfully received, rather. than a menacing cause of floods. Egyptian civilization may at a response to an Wilbraham and Monson the outset have. received some inspiration from Sumer, but a distinctive pattern soon developed.

in both religion and politics. Farming had been developed along the Nile by about 5000 B.C., but some. time before 3200 B.C. Writing A Theme Essay! economic development accelerated, in writing to an Wilbraham, part because of. growing trade wi,h other regions including Mesopotamia. Harvard Business University! This economic. acceleration provided the basis for the formation of writing a response to an Wilbraham Academy, regional kingdoms. Unlike. Sumer, Egypt moved fairly directly from checklist an essay College, precivilization to large government. units, without passing through a city-state phase, though the first pharaoh, Narmer, had to conquer a number of article Wilbraham, petty local kings around 3100 B.C.

Indeed. Egypt always had fewer problems with political unity than Mesopotamia did, in. part because of the unifying influence of the course of the Nile River. How To A Leadership Essay Of The! By the. same token, however, Egyptian politics tended to be more authoritarian as well. as centralized, for city-states in the Mesopotamian style, though often ruled. by kings, also provided the opportunity for writing to an councils and business City, other participatory. By 3100 B.C.

Narmer, king of southern Egypt, conquered the northern. regional kingdom and created a unified state 600 miles long. This state was to. last 3000 years. Despite some important disruptions, this was an amazing. record of stability even though the greatest vitality of the civilization was. exhausted by a response to an article about 1000 B.C.

During the 2000-year span in which Egypt. displayed its greatest vigor, the society went through three major periods of. monarchy (the Old, the Intermediate, and the New Kingdoms), each divided from. its successor by a century or two of confusion. In all its phases, Egyptian civilization was characterized by the. strength of the pharaoh. The pharaoh was held to how to a good essay School, be descended from gods, with. the power to assure prosperity and control the rituals that assured the flow. of the Nile and the fertility derived from a response, irrigation. Soon, the pharaoh was. regarded as a god.

Much Egyptian art was devoted to demonstrating the writing a theme Washington Academy, power. and sanctity of the king. From the king's authority also flowed an article Academy, extensive. bureaucracy, recruited from the landed nobles but specially trained in hbr review University, writing. and law.

Governors were appointed for key regions and were responsible for. supervising irrigation and arranging for the great public works that became a. hallmark of a response to an Wilbraham, Egyptian culture. Most Egyptians were peasant farmers, closely. regulated and heavily taxed. Labor requisition by the states allowed.

construction of the great pyramids and other huge public buildings. These. monuments were triumphs of human coordination, for the Egyptians were not. particularly advanced technologically. They even lacked pulleys or other.

devices to hoist the huge slabs of University, stone that formed the pyramids. Given the importance of royal rule and the belief that pharaohs were. gods, it is not surprising that each of the writing to an article Wilbraham and Monson, main periods of Egyptian history. was marked by some striking kings. For Writing An Essay! Early in each dynastic period leading. pharaohs conquered new territories, sometimes pressing up the Nile River into. present-day Sudan, once even moving up the Mediterranean coast of the Middle. East. One pharaoh, Akhenaton, late in article, Egyptian history, tried to use his power.

to install a new, one-god religion, replacing the Egyptian pantheon. Many. pharaohs commemorated their greatness by building huge pyramids to house. themselves and how to history essay their retinues after death, commanding work crews of writing to an article Wilbraham and Monson, up to. 100,000 men to haul and lift the stone. The first great pyramid was built. around 2600 B.C.; the journal University of London, largest pyramid followed about a century later, taking. 20 years to complete and writing article Wilbraham and Monson Academy containing 2 million blocks of stone, each weighing 5. Some scholars have seen even larger links between Egypt's stable, centralized politics and its fascination with an orderly death, including. massive funeral monuments and preservation through mummification.

Death. rituals suggested a concern with extending organization to a theme essay Academy, the afterlife, based on a belief that, through politics, death as well as life could be. carefully controlled. Article Wilbraham And Monson Academy! A similar connection between strong political structures. and careful funeral arrangements developed in Chinese civilization, though. with quite different specific religious beliefs.

Despite some initial inspiration, Egyptian culture separated itself from. Mesopotamia in a number of hbr review University of the, ways beyond politics and monument building. The. Egyptians did not take to the Sumerian cuneiform alphabet and writing a response Academy developed a. hieroglyphic alphabet instead.

Hieroglyphics, though more pictorial than. Sumerian cuneiform, were based on simplified pictures of how to write a good essay, objects abstracted to. represent concepts or sounds. As in Mesopotamia the writing system was. complex, and its use was, for the most part, monopolized by the powerful. priestly caste. Egyptians ultimately developed a new material to write on, papyrus, which was cheaper to manufacture and a response article Wilbraham and Monson use than clay tablets or animal.

skins and allowed the how to a good essay, proliferation of elaborate record keeping. On the other. hand, Egypt did not generate an epic literary tradition. Egyptian science focused on a response article Wilbraham and Monson Academy, mathematics and how to write a good essay School astronomy, but its. achievements were far less advanced than those of Mesopotamia. The Egyptians.

were, however, the first people to establish the a response to an article Academy, length of the a theme essay Washington, solar year, which they divided into 12 months each with three weeks of ten days. The week. was the Wilbraham, only division of time not based on any natural cycles. The achievement. of this calendar suggests Egyptian concern about predicting the flooding of. the Nile and hbr review of the their abilities in a response to an Wilbraham and Monson, astronomical observation.

The Egyptians also. made important advances in for writing an essay College, medicine, including knowledge of the workings of a. variety of writing to an article Wilbraham and Monson, medicinal drugs and some contraceptive devices. Elements of. Egyptian medical knowledge were gained by the Greeks, and so passed into later.

Middle Eastern and European civilizations. The pillar of business City, University, Egyptian culture was not science, however, but religion, which was firmly established as the basis of a whole world view. Article Wilbraham And Monson Academy! The religion. promoted the worship of many gods. It mixed magical ceremonies and journal University of London beliefs. with worship, in a fashion common to early religions almost everywhere. A more. distinctive focus involved the writing to an article Wilbraham, concern with death and preparation for life in. another world, where in business journal, contrast to the Mesopotamians the Egyptians held that.

a happy, changeless well-being could be achieved. The care shown in preparing. tombs and mummifying bodies, along with elaborate funeral rituals particularly. for the rulers and bureaucrats, was designed to assure a satisfactory. afterlife, though Egyptians also believed that favorable judgment by a key. god, Osiris, was essential as well. Other Egyptian deities included a creation. goddess, similar to other Middle Eastern religious figures later adapted into. Christian worship of the Virgin Mary; and writing a response article and Monson a host of gods represented by.

partial animal figures. Lakefield College! Egyptian art focused heavily on writing a response Wilbraham and Monson Academy, the gods, though. earthly, human scenes were portrayed as well in a characteristic, stylized. form that lasted without great change for many centuries. Stability was a hallmark of Egyptian culture.

Given the duration of. Egyptian civilization, there were surprisingly few basic changes in styles and. beliefs. Egyptian emphasis on stability was reflected in their view of a. changeless afterlife, suggesting a conscious attempt to harvard business journal City, of London, argue that persistence. was a virtue. Change did, however, occur in some key areas. Egypt was long.

fairly isolated, which helped preserve continuity. A Response To An! The invasions of Egypt by. Palestine toward the hbr review of the Pacific, end of the Old Kingdom period (about 2200 B.C.) were. distinct exceptions to Egypt's usual self-containment. They were followed by. attacks from the Middle East by tribes of Asian origin, which brought a period.

of division and chaos, including rival royal dynasties. But the unified. monarchy was reestablished during the Middle Kingdom period, during which. Egyptian settlements spread southward into what is now the Sudan, setting. origins for the later African kingdom of Kush. Then followed another period of a response to an article Wilbraham and Monson Academy, social unrest and invasion, ending in journal City, University of London, the. final great kingdom period, the New Kingdom, around 1570 B.C. During this. period trade and writing a response and Monson other contacts with the Middle East and the eastern. Mediterranean, including the persuasive College School, island of Crete, gained ground.

These contacts. spread certain Egyptian influences, notably in monumental architecture, to. other areas. It was during the New Kingdom that Egyptians first installed. formal slavery, subjecting people such as the Jews. It was also in this period. that the pharaoh Akhenaton tried to a response article and Monson Academy, impose a new monotheistic religion, reflecting some foreign influence, but his effort was renounced by his. successor Tutankhamen, who restored the old capital city and built a lavish.

tomb to celebrate the return to the traditional gods. After about 1150 B.C., new waves of invasion and internal conspiracies and disorganization, including. strikes and social protest, brought fairly steady decline. It was around this.

period that one people, the Hebrews, followed their leader Moses out of Egypt. and into the deserts of Palestine. Egypt And Mesopotamia Compared. The development of two great early civilizations in the Middle East and. North Africa encourages a first effort at persuasive School comparative analysis. To An Article Wilbraham And Monson! Because of. different geography, different degrees of exposure to writing Washington Academy, outside invasion and. influence, and different prior beliefs, Egypt and writing a response to an article and Monson Academy Mesopotamia were in contrast.

to one another in many ways. Egypt emphasized strong central authority, while. Mesopotamian politics shifted more frequently over a substructure of history The Knox, regional. city-states. Mesopotamian art focused on less monumental structures, while. embracing a pronounced literary element that Egyptian art lacked. These cultural differences can be explained partly by geography:

Mesopotamians lacked access to the great stones that Egyptians could import. for their monuments. The differences also owed something to different. politics, for Egyptian ability to organize masses of laborers followed from. its centralized government structures and strong bureaucracy. The differences. owed something, finally, to to an and Monson Academy, different beliefs, for a theme essay the Mesopotamians lacked. the Egyptian concern for preparations for the afterlife, which so motivated. the great tombs and pyramids that have made Egypt and some of the pharaohs. live on in human memory.

Both societies traded extensively, but there was a difference in economic. tone. Mesopotamia was more productive of technological improvements, because. their environment was more difficult to writing to an article Wilbraham and Monson Academy, manage than the Nile valley. Trade.

contacts were more extensive, and the Mesopotamians gave attention to argumentative persuasive College, a. merchant class and commercial law. Social differences were less obvious because it is difficult to writing a response and Monson, obtain. information on daily life for early civilizations. It is probable, though, that the harvard business journal City, of London, status of women was greater in writing a response to an article Wilbraham Academy, Egypt than in Mesopotamia (where. women's position seems to checklist an essay Pickering College, have deteriorated after Sumer). A Response Academy! Egyptians paid great. respect to women at least in the upper classes, in part because marriage. alliances were vital to the preservation and stability of the monarchy. Also,

Egyptian religion included more pronounced deference to write history essay School, goddesses as sources. Comparisons in politics, culture, economics, and society suggest. civilizations that varied substantially because of to an article Wilbraham Academy, largely separate origins. and environments. The distinction in overall tone was striking, with Egypt. being more stable and cheerful than Mesopotamia not only in beliefs about gods. and the afterlife but in the colorful and lively pictures the Egyptians.

emphasized in their decorative art. Also striking was the distinction in. internal history, with Egyptian civilization far less marked by disruption. than its Mesopotamian counterpart. Comparison must also note important similarities, some of them. characteristic of early civilizations.

Both Egypt and Mesopotamia emphasized. social stratification, with a noble, landowning class on top and masses of. peasants and slaves at Lakefield College School the bottom. A powerful priestly group also figured in. the elite. While specific achievements in writing Wilbraham and Monson, science differed, there was a common. emphasis on astronomy and related mathematics, which produced durable findings. about units of time and measurement. Both Mesopotamia and Egypt changed only.

slowly by the standards of more modern societies. Checklist For Writing Pickering College! Details of change have not. been preserved, but it is true that having developed successful political and. economic systems there was a strong tendency toward conservation. Change, when. it came, was usually brought by outside forces - natural disasters or. invasions. Both civilizations demonstrated extraordinary durability in writing to an article Wilbraham, the. basics.

Egyptian civilization and a fundamental Mesopotamian culture lasted. far longer than the civilizations that came later, in part because of relative. isolation within each respective region and because of the deliberate effort. to maintain what had been achieved, rather than experiment widely. Both civilizations, finally, left an how to a good history School, important heritage in writing to an article and Monson, their region.

and adjacent territories. A number of smaller civilization centers were. launched under the impetus of Mesopotamia and Egypt, and some would produce.

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1. What does the chevy volt case tell you about the nature of how to School, strategic decision making at large complex organization like GM? The Chevy Volt case tells me the nature of the strategic decision making at a large complex organization like GM can be difficult and challenging due to having to convince other. price will lead to more sales, or do you think the availability of other electric cars at writing lower prices than the harvard of London, Volt will diminish the effect of the law. une was a great month for the Chevy Volt — 2698 units of the popular plug-in hybrid sold during June, a 53.3% increase over June 2012. With no more than. What does the writing to an article Wilbraham, Chevy Volt case tell you about the nature of strategic decision making at a large complex organization like General Motors?

Strategic decision making is often met with cognitive biases that are formed around prior victories or defeats. Lakefield College School? 2. A Response Article Wilbraham Academy? What trends in Lakefield School, the external environment favored the. subcompacts sold in writing article Wilbraham, California was a Prius” (Lambeau, 2013). The Prius was considered evolutionary a decade ago. Those customers searching for University the environment saving properties of a hybrid are leaving the nest for cheaper and newer vehicles that Ford is providing while those Prius owners whom originally.

e n t s 1 Part 1: Industry Factors 5 1.1 Introduction 5 1.1.1 Objectives of the report 5 1.1.2 Brief Company Overview 5 1.2 Macro Environment of Oto Melara 7 1.2.1 Political Factors 7 1.2.2 Economic Factors 7 1.2.3 Technological Factors 9 1.2.4 Social Factors 10 1. Planning for the Chevy Volt Case General Motors is writing article and Monson, a company in deep trouble. As car sales in North America collapsed in 2008, GM, which had already lost money in 2007, plunged deeply into the red. With losses estimated at $14 billion, the checklist for writing an essay, company was forced to go cap in hand to the government to. SLIDE NOTES Slide 1 – Macro Environment – The macro environment deals with companies outside environment yet still effects how it serves its customers.

Concerning factors like culture, demographics, economic, natural, political, and technological. Slide 2 - Micro Environment – This means what is involved. The New 2012 Chevrolet Volt .New 2012 Chevrolet Volt Over two hundred engineers and fifty designers are working on a response to an Wilbraham Academy, a dream vision to come true. In 2012, a car like no other vehicle ever made will be revealed to the world. The General Motors Company wanted to make a car that not only sported a newer. adjoining room which contained a fake generator that was only powered by a 45- volt battery and writing a theme Academy, not connected to the mains.

The generator has 30 switches in writing a response Wilbraham and Monson Academy, 15 volt increments; each was labelled with a voltage ranging from 15 up to writing essay Washington Academy, 450 volts . Article Wilbraham And Monson Academy? The participant was asked to shock the learner if and when, they answered. Monitoring Micro and Macro Environment. Business EC1008 “Portfolio” Content Introduction 3 Task A 4 1. How to checklist an essay, monitor Macro and Mirco environment to help in decision making process 4 2. Macro environment 5 3. Micro environment 6 Task B 7 What Does Market Penetration Mean? 8 Task C 9 Conclusion. within the writing a response, macro and micro environments of the write a leadership essay University Pacific, schedule airline in the tourism industry. The report will also focus on the trends and issues, which affect the to an Wilbraham and Monson, scheduled airlines. The report will have five sectors within in which are background to of the, the sector, macro environment , micro environment , trends. MARKETING PLAN FOR CHEVY VOLT Posted on October 4, 2012 by admin under Uncategorized The objective of to an article, this project is to develop a marketing plan for the new “ Chevy Volt .” The purpose of this Market Planning exercise is to build a student’s exposure, familiarity and aptitude of the entire marketing. aggressively in emerging markets; • Continue development and implementation of GM’s advanced propulsion strategy; • Improve business results The Chevrolet Volt has been named the hbr review University, most influential product in the General Motors repositioning strategy by top executives because of its direct correlation to all. cars are placed on car carriers, and the miles the carriers can travel. Regulations also cover the emissions of the vehicle and the effects on the environment from the foundries and paint shops.

However, production in other countries is not always strictly regulated. Issues or Opportunities The future. a? Environmental Analysis a? Remote Environment a? Industry Environment a? Competitive Analysis a? Competitor's Analysis a? Operating Environment a? Political Charitable Contributions . 1) What does the Chevy Volt case tell you about the nature of strategic decision making at a large complex organization like General Motors? The Chevy Volt case tells us that the nature of a response to an and Monson, strategic decision making for a large complex organization like GM must think, develop, and of the, create a powerful strategy. Question Did GM make the right choice when they selected the Volt as opposed to putting all of their efforts into a Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle? Why? Answer Looking at the GM’s growth in recent years, they didn’t do well as far as profit is concern and writing a response article and Monson Academy, also in writing Washington, introducing any new car. In business. General Motors Company Description. com/general-motors/--ID__10640--/free-co-profile.xhtml 1. Describe all the RELEVANT key trends and to an article Academy, factors that make up the Lakefield, forces of the micro- environment for the industry/company/product: ¦ Organisation '' ¦ Suppliers '' The suppliers are an important part of firm global system. Article Wilbraham And Monson Academy? The.

Manufacturer Model Model Year Daimler-Chrysler Dodge Ram 2005 Daimler-Chrysler Mercedes S-class 2006 Ford Escape 2005 General Motors Chevy Equinox 2006 General Motors Chevy Silverado 2005 General Motors GMC-Sierra 2005 General Motors Saturn-VUE 2005 Lexus RX Hybrid SUV 2005 Toyota Highlander 2005 . of Business Environment -B.E. may be defined as the hbr review University of the Pacific, set of external factorssuch as economic, socio cultural, Govt. legal, demographic, which are uncontrollable in nature affect the business decisions of a firm or company. 1) Micro Environment 2) Macro Environment Micro Environment - 1) Supplier. 2015 Chevy Equinox Fuel Cell Launch Plan 100k Year 1 125k Year 2 RELEASED IN NY AND CALIFORNIA 250k Year 3 Fuel Cell Produces 93 kW of power Startup time is writing a response and Monson Academy, 2-3 seconds in all but coldest weather/ no problems in the heat Powertrain has 60% fewer parts, 90% fewer. been using for a leadership essay University years. They use a stereotype of a certain group, gender, race, or class to market to that group of people. The first ad, an ad for a Chevy Tahoe, is advertised to the average middle class person. To An? The ad has a guy dressed in writing a theme essay Academy, khakis, a t-shirt, and a leather jacket. He looks like a normal. sedan, extended range electric vehicle which will be known as the writing a response to an article Wilbraham Academy, Volt , a promotional image can be seen on the report title page. Our goal is to achieve 100% customer satisfaction so our focus will be on product quality; The Chevy Volt , an advanced technology with standard equipment features. We will.

banks remain high while public investments are non-productive and pose a drag on growth. The real estate sector has also stagnated and how to essay University of the, the overall macro picture is one of consistent gloom, despite efforts to writing a response to an article and Monson, stabilise the a good history The Knox, economy last year moderately succeeding in containing inflation and narrowing the. ?Wall Street Journal – Strategy and Gm’s Volt. ?WALL STREET JOURNAL – STRATEGY AND GM’S VOLT In an article in writing article Wilbraham Academy, the Wednesday, September 15, 2008 Wall Street Journal entitled “GM Looks for BUZZ with its electric VOLT ,” John D. Stoll explains that General Motors Corp.’s Chevrolet Volt is a battery-powered compact car scheduled to hit the market by. Explain the Dimensions of the Business Environment and checklist an essay Pickering College, Their Relevance to Hrm. dimensions of the business environment and writing a response Wilbraham and Monson Academy, their relevance to HRM Business environment can be best understood as the how to a leadership essay of the, combination of internal and external factors that influence a company’s operation situation. The business environment consists of the operational environment or immediate, for most firms.

Strategic Management Essentials (International edition) entire Chevy Volt project was about strategies. The GM members were having a lot of pressure because of the situation of the to an article Wilbraham Academy, company; any decision made would have influenced in a positive or negative way to how to history, the company. The case demonstrates the importance of a response Wilbraham and Monson Academy, having a good research of the macro environment. unemployment rates, national income and GDP of a nation.(wilkipedia,2007)So to checklist an essay College, put this in in the simplest terms,micro means a smaller study of economics and writing a response article Wilbraham and Monson Academy, macro means a larger study of University of the, econmomics. An influence of a microeconomic phenomenon determines a firm’s current or potential location, markets that affect. ?Case Discussion Question : Chevy Volt 1. What does the Chevy Volt case tell you about the nature of strategic decision making at a large complex organization like GM? In a large complex organization like GM, it is writing to an and Monson, common for management to have the disagreement in write a good The Knox, the direction of company future, delaying. Assessing the External Environment of Pwc Office in Cairo. Assessing the Marketing Environment of: The Company’s Microenvironment Macro environment Microenvironment: Employees: As a service organization, employees represent the writing to an Wilbraham and Monson Academy, most and almost the only considerable asset of PwC. Hence marketing department works closely with HR under the supervision.

BE ABLE TO ANALYSE HOW AN ORGANISATION IS AFFECTED BY THE MACRO-ENVIROMENT. BE ABLE TO ANALYSE HOW AN ORGANISATION IS AFFECTED BY THE MACRO -ENVIROMENT 1.1 I work in a small aspiring in writing Washington Academy, Bracknell, Berkshire. The practice itself has been established since 1980s, comprising of two surgeries. A Response Wilbraham And Monson Academy? Currently we have 1 dentist, 2 hygienists and how to write a leadership of the Pacific, 3 support staff whilst we attend to 1200. DC 20018 Jm0807a@american.edu (202)5261644 OBJECTIVE To obtain a position in finance or any other business related field that will provide an environment to writing article Wilbraham, develop new skills, refine current skills, and foster growth. Business Journal? EDUCATION American University, Washington, DC BS in Business Administration.

? Business Environment 1.1 Identify the purposes of different types of Wilbraham and Monson Academy, organisations. Define Anglo American in terms of organisational purpose. A business can be owned by an individual or many, there are different types of a leadership essay University, ownership and a response to an Academy, their objectives. Most organisations big or little will aim. into these automobiles. For Writing An Essay Pickering College? Some of the greatest advancements to date is the production of alternate fuels is the electric cars such as Tesla and a response to an article and Monson Academy, the Chevy volt . These two are some of the business journal City, University, most successful electric care manufactures and a response and Monson Academy, Tesla being the most advanced.

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Essay on Policy-Making in India | Government | Public Administration. Here is an essay on writing to an article ‘Policy-Making in India’ for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Policy-Making in India’ especially written for school and college students. Essay # 1. Introduction to hbr review Policy-Making: One of the a response article Wilbraham and Monson, essential functions of checklist for writing an essay College, government is policy-formation. In the writing to an article, words of Dr.Appleby, the essence of public administration is policy making. Without policy, government and administration are rudderless.

Policy is prior to every action. A Good Essay School? It is pre-requisite to all management. It is the policy which sets the task for a response article and Monson, administration. It provides the argumentative College, framework within which all actions for the accomplishment of an objective are to be activated.Policy is in fact planning for action; it is getting reading for setting the sails to reach the desired destination. Ever since Wilson wrote his essay on “The Study of Administration” published in 1887, politics-administration dichotomy school of thought tended to regard policy as outside the scope of administration. In the words of Wilson: “The field of administration is a field of business. It is removed from the hurry and strife of politics.” Wilson was followed by Good now and as late as 1926, L.D. White drew a distinction between administration and politics.

It is now being increasingly realized that politics-administration dichotomy cannot work and that administration cannot be completely divorced from writing Wilbraham, policy-making. Luther Gulick was one of the first advocates of this view. “Administrators are continually laying down rules for the future, and administrators are continually determining what the law is, what it means in terms of action, what the rights of parties are with respect both to transactions in process and of the, transactions in prospect…….. Administrators also participate in another way in the making of policy for the future; they formulate recommendations for legislation, and this is a part of the function of policy-making.” Public officials are associated with policy-formation in three important ways: First, they have to supply facts, data, and criticism as to the workability of a response and Monson Academy, policy to the ministers or to the legislature if the initiative for policy-making comes from of the Pacific, them. The members of the legislature or the ministers are amateurs who have risen to positions because of the popular will and not because of administrative talent and as such, they have to give due weight to the suggestions of the officials. Second, in many cases the initiative for policy or legislation emanates from the administration.

This is because of the fact that it is the administration which is in constant touch with the general public and is in a better position to understand the a response to an article Wilbraham Academy, difficulties that arise in the execution of writing Washington Academy, legislation. It has, therefore, to make suggestions and formulate proposals for Academy, removing those difficulties and in the process, it may have to, if need be, ask for amendments in the existing law or even for hbr review of the, more laws. In such cases policy proposals emanate from the administration and legislature only puts its seal of approval on them. Third, on account of writing article and Monson Academy, lack of hbr review of the Pacific, time and knowledge, the legislature passes skeleton Acts and leaves the details to the administration. It is Wilbraham and Monson Academy, here that administration is most supreme in policy-making. In order to execute these Acts, the essay, administration frames rules, regulations and bye-laws which is writing to an Wilbraham Academy, a major contribution to policy-making. It may, therefore, he said that there are two main types of policy-political policy and administrative policy. Political policy is the policy made by the government. University Of The? It is the general policy set out by the Parliament and political executive in pursuance of the promises made at the time of election by the party in power. Writing To An Wilbraham? Administrative policy is the form in which the minister, administrator or Board carries the will of the government into effect.

In the words of Dr. M.P. Sharma “…administrative policy is largely concerned with the Pickering, determination and establishment of appropriate machinery and procedure for the implementation of writing a response and Monson Academy, legislative policies, setting the time-table or work programme of activities for guidance of its own staff through rules, regulations or orders, and taking precedent-making decisions on spe­cific novel issues which may arise in the course of day-to-day administration.” Policy, from whatever source-legislature or administration-it may emanate, must be based on factual data and accurate information. to the legislature, it is the administration which supplies the necessary information but wherefrom the administration obtains that information? Broadly speaking, there are four ways through which administration collects the necessary information: Every department is a centre to which flow periodic reports, re­turns, statements, accounts and various other materials from various field establishments. These reports and other material are recorded by how to write history The Knox School, the department for future use whenever the need arises.

Some departments employ special agencies for the collection of data in certain special fields. Several Ministries in India have made special arrangements and established special ma­chinery for the collection of to an article Wilbraham, statistics and write history The Knox School, data helpful for policy-making. The Central Statistical Organisation, the National Sample Survey, the Bureau of Public Enterprises, Directorate of In­dustrial Statistics and various other organisations are working for the collection of information and statistics. The data so collected is properly processed, organized and a response to an and Monson Academy, interpreted to reveal certain facts essential for policy-making. To supplement the internal data which may be insufficient, the administration takes to collecting information from external sources. Harvard Journal City, Of London? It establishes contacts with private bodies, unions, associations, chambers, etc., in order to get a true picture of facts. Inter­nal information is likely to writing a response Wilbraham and Monson Academy be biased and hence inaccurate and unreliable because it travels through the official channels and the agency reporting it may not like to reveal all that is fact. In our country, the government does consult and how to write a leadership of the Pacific, tries to know the essence of public opinion through various labour unions, chambers of commerce, and other professional associations. Be­fore the Five Year Plan is actually approved, the writing article and Monson, draft outline is writing Academy, thrown open for discussion to various bodies all over the country. The suggestions received are duly considered and Wilbraham and Monson, incorpo­rated, where approved, in working out the final Plan. 3. Special Investigations:

Special investigations may be conducted by the appointment of Commissions and Committees of enquiry for finding facts in respect of a particular matter of field. Such investigations are very useful for policy-making as they provide the maximum thought in a particular field. Examples of such Commissions/Committees are numerous both in our country and abroad. The Royal Commissions appointed from time to time in England, the Hoover Com­mission, in U.S.A., the Central Pay Commissions, the Universities Radhakrishnan Commission, the Local Finance Enquiry Commission, the Secondary Education Commission, the Press Com­mission, the Taxation Commission, the Monopolies Commission, the checklist an essay, Administrative Reforms Commission, etc., in India are the Wilbraham Academy, examples of special investigating bodies. These Commissions have specific terms of reference; they examine witnesses, both official and non-official and obtain facts and views which they convey to the government in the form of recommendations. These recommendations serve as the basis for policy-making and City, University, effecting reforms. Research and studies may be organized by the Government and non-official agencies to discover certain facts and views. Administrative research may be con­ducted by to an Wilbraham and Monson, such bodies like Division of Administrative Management in Pacific, the Bureau of Budget in U.S.A., O M in the British Treasury and in various other departments. Organization and Methods Division in the Cabinet Secretariat with its cells in other departments in India. Simi­larly, non-official bodies like Brookings Institution, the Public Administration Clearing House in U.S.A., the British Institute of Public Administration and the Indian Institute of Public Ad­ministration also conduct researches and provide facts for policy formulations set up for the purpose. The Geological, Botanical, Zoological Surveys of article Wilbraham Academy, India, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, various laboratories devoted to research in building techniques, drugs, food, technology, electro-chemicals, metallurgy, mining, salt, etc., the Atomic Energy Commission, the history essay The Knox School, Oil and Natural Gas Commission, etc., are some of the a response article Wilbraham, examples of institutions engaged in research.

Every modern government, anxious as it is to make improvements, has to depend on these research bodies for the mine of hbr review of the Pacific, information and facts they supply. A Response To An Article Academy? Every new policy must take cognizance of the argumentative Lakefield College, new research and material provided by these bodies. Essay # 3. Academy? External Influences on Policy Making: Policies are not made in a ‘vacuum’, that is to say that policy-makers must take cogni­zance of various factors in formulating policies. They cannot act arbitrarily, more so in a demo­cratic country.

First, every policy must be in consonance with the checklist an essay Pickering College, provisions of the Constitution as interpreted by the law courts and a response article Wilbraham Academy, the laws made by the legislature. Second, every policy must take into account the prevailing customs, traditions and conventions of the people. That is to say that a policy must not be against established ways of life of the people unless it is extremely desirable to frame one for banning a social evil. Third, a policy must consider the international law and the world opinion for no country can live an isolated life. International law is constantly becoming important and every member living in a theme Washington Academy, the family of nations must play the game ac­cording to rules. Fourth, if a policy of a department affects the article, policy of some other department or organization, the department framing the policy must have prior consultations with the de­partment affected. Such a clearance is for writing an essay College, very important for the homogeneity of administration.

Finally, a policy must be framed after due consultation with the persons or groups of persons, their unions and associations and writing a response article Wilbraham, other interests likely to be affected by policy for how to write a leadership essay of the, this helps the policy-maker to analyze the difficulties likely to writing to an article and Monson Academy be faced in the execution of the policy. Thus policies have to take into consideration several factors. In the words of Seckler- Hudson “Policies are arrived at, then, in University of the Pacific, all sorts of ways, conditioned by all sorts of matters.” The various organizations that participate indirectly or directly in policy-formulation are the legislature, the a response Academy, executive, the judiciary through interpretations and judge-made-laws, top admin­istrators, political parties, pressure groups, people, etc. Policy-making is a continuous process. There must be periodical review of the usefulness of business journal University of London, a policy. A policy is article Wilbraham and Monson Academy, useful only under certain circumstances.

These circumstances change with time and a policy once very useful may become obsolete. The policy may be changed accordingly or a new policy must be developed. Nehruvian socialism is now being liberalized under the a theme essay Washington, changed economic scenario of the coun­try. Although policy may seem to be a decision of a particular body or department, in practice, however, the process is widespread all through the organization and the particular body an­nouncing it is the last link “of a long chain of previous history of the matter.” It is, therefore, a collective activity, a cooperative endeavour and an effort in Wilbraham Academy, which many people participate. Gladden’ distinguishes four different levels in policy-making: (a) Political or general policy framed by the Parliament; (b) Executive policy framed by the Cabinet, (c) Administrative policy, that is, the form in which the administrator works out the will of the government, and. (d) Technical policy, that is, the day-to-day policy adopted by the officials in carrying out the ad­ministrative policy.

The process of policy formulation consists of the following steps: (i) Understanding and analyzing of the present environment, both external and internal; (ii) Identification of policy alternatives to achieve the goals in the anticipated environ­ment; (iii) Examination of the alternatives; (iv) Elaboration of the consequences of various alternatives; (v) Effect of alternatives and consequences on preferred values and norms; (vi) Selection of policies. Herein, it may also be mentioned that some American writers like David Easton, Lasswall and Drox have pleaded for the evolution of ‘policy science as a separate discipline which will accelerate the development of policy knowledge and contribute to better policy-making.

This idea, however, it still in infancy stage. Essay # 4. Organs that Participate in an essay Pickering, Policy-Making: Policy-making is a collective activity in which many organs participate. In our country, some of the important organs are: Constitution is the supreme law of the land and writing a response Academy, every policy that is harvard University, framed must be in consonance with constitutional framework. Being a very comprehensive docu­ment, it clearly lays down how the machinery of the government shall work, what shall be its objectives and what shall be its limitations. The Preamble to the Constitution declares the objec­tives while Directive Principles lay down the principles according to which the machinery of the writing a response to an article and Monson Academy, state shall frame policies. Legislative assemblies enact laws to give effect to the policies laid down in the Constitution.

Legislation is the declared will of the sovereign state and an expression of the popular opinion of the people. The role of essay, legislature is primarily that of writing a response to an Wilbraham, vetoing and con­trolling policies because it itself rarely takes the initiative in sponsoring legislation. It influences and moulds policies through general discussions, adjournment motions, interpellations and reso­lutions, etc. The cabinet is the chief source of policies in our country. It is the most important body and its meetings make every one await its decisions. It is the overall directing and controlling body headed by the Prime Minister.

All important policies are approved by it. It works through several subject-matter sub-committees which report to it on specific matters. Although it is a staff agency and hence an advisory organ to the Government of India, it exercises important influence over the formulation of policies relat­ing to the entire field of administration. 5. National Development Council: National Development Council, consisting of the Prime Minister, a few Central Min­isters and Chief Ministers of harvard business journal University, all States, is also the supreme policy-making organ. It is said to writing a response article Academy have acquired a role of ‘supra-cabinet’. Public Services, though mainly concerned with the execution of poli­cies, participate in policy making in so far as they advise and supply the necessary data to the Ministers for policy-making, give legislative form to the policies and lay down administrative rules and regulations for harvard, giving effect to the approved policies. Through its power of judicial review and to an article Wilbraham, advisory power, the Supreme Court exercises influence on public policies. Professional Associations, like the Bar Association, All India Medical Council, and Teachers’ Association also play a prominent role in formulation of policy in India. Through election manifestoes the political parties display their re­spective policies and make an effort to win the elections for implementing these policies.

Besides the above organs, there are several other bodies which influence policy-making. Mention may be made of the Advisory bodies such as Standing Labour Committee, Indian Labour Conference, Import and Export Advisory Committee, Central Advisory Board of Educa­tion, University Grants Commission, Pressure groups such as trade unions and chambers of commerce. All these bodies advise, suggest and sometimes protest and demand correctives in regard to a particular policy. Under the impact of information technology, mass media is playing an important role in building pressure on policy-making. Upload Your Knowledge on Political science:

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