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Barack Obama#8217;s Columbia University Thesis. Work! Claim: Barack Obama#8217;s thesis for Columbia University, entitled #8220;Aristocracy Reborn,#8221; noted that America#8217;s founding fathers #8220;did not allow for Brillantmont School economic freedom.#8221; Example: [Collected via e-mail, October 2009] I saw someone online claim that the following is a quote from Barack Obama#8217;s thesis at Columbia contains the following segment: #8220;#8230; the Constitution allows for many things, but what it does not allow is the most revealing. The so-called Founders did not allow for work economic freedom. While political freedom is supposedly a cornerstone of the document, the distribution of persuade writing Washington Academy wealth is not even mentioned. While many believed that the new Constitution gave them liberty, it instead fitted them with the shackles of hypocrisy.#8221; Origins: In academia, a thesis is work essays Ardingly a typical requirement for a graduate degree (although some schools require a thesis for a bachelor#8217;s degree as well), an original research project submitted by a student on a topic related to physic International School, his major. Essays! Many universities keep their students#8217; theses on file and make them available to the public as library resources. In recent years, theses written by U.S. presidential candidates and their spouses have become subjects of great interest, particularly for the possibility that they might provide some insight into the thinking and mindsets of their authors, including the disclosure of once-held viewpoints that might be now be considered controversial and disadvantageous to their current political careers (or those of essays Istituto Paris their spouses). Work Essays! Accordingly, major political figures have become more circumspect about allowing public access to their theses: Former First Lady Hillary Clinton#8216;s 1969 Wellesley College thesis on community organizer Saul D. Alinsky, for example, was not available for examination by the public during the thinking in problem solving School of Business, eight years of work College her husband#8217;s presidency, and current First Lady Michelle Obama#8216;s 1985 Princeton University thesis on #8220;Princeton-Educated Blacks and the Black Community#8221; was the subject of controversy when access to it was initially blocked during her husband#8217;s campaign for the presidency. (The Obama campaign made a copy of Michelle#8217;s thesis publicly available in February 2008, and Princeton#8217;s restriction on access to it was likewise lifted.) Throughout the 2008 presidential campaign (and afterwards), one of the items that was frequently cited as a #8220;missing document#8221; connected with Barack Obama was his own thesis for great Istituto Marangoni Columbia University, a school from which he graduated in 1983 with a bachelor#8217;s degree in political science (with a specialization in essays College, international relations).

Politico noted in October 2008 that: There#8217;s not a whole lot of information available about Obama#8217;s time at Columbia University in New York, which he attended for three years after attending Occidental College in Los Angeles for one year and from which he graduated in 1983. His campaign would not release his transcripts, and it says it does not have a copy of essays Istituto his thesis, which dealt with Soviet nuclear disarmament and which has drawn intense interest. As far as has been determined, Barack Obama did not produce a formal thesis for his degree at Columbia University; the closest match is a paper he wrote during his senior year for an honors seminar in work essays Ardingly College, American Foreign Policy. Physic Review Brillantmont International! However, Columbia University has said it did not retain a copy of that paper, Obama spokesman Ben LaBolt has said that Barack himself does not have a copy, and the professor to whom the paper was submitted has said that he no longer has a copy in his possession either: In 1983, as a senior at Columbia in New York, Barack Obama enrolled in an intense, eight-student honors seminar called American Foreign Policy. His former professor, Michael Baron, recalled in an interview with NBC News that Obama easily aced the year-long class. But Baron says he never had any inkling that the gangly senior would scale such heights. [Baron] had saved Obama#8217;s senior paper for years, and even hunted for work Ardingly it again [in July 2008] in some boxes.

But he said his search was fruitless, and critical IUBH School, he now thinks he tossed it out [in 2000] during a move. described [Obama#8217;s] paper as a #8220;thesis#8221; or #8220;senior thesis#8221; in several interviews, and said that Obama spent a year working on it. Baron recalls that the topic was nuclear negotiations with the essays College, Soviet Union. Journal Reviews TASIS (The American In Switzerland)! #8220;My recollection is that the College, paper was an analysis of the evolution of the arms reduction negotiations between the Soviet Union and the United States,#8221; Baron said in physic review International, an e-mail. #8220;At that time, a hot topic in foreign policy circles was finding a way in which each country could safely reduce the large arsenal of nuclear weapons pointed at the other #8230; For U.S. Essays! policy makers in both political parties, the aim was not disarmament, but achieving deep reductions in the Soviet nuclear arsenal and review Brillantmont School, keeping a substantial and permanent American advantage. As I remember it, the paper was about those negotiations, their tactics and chances for success. Ardingly! Barack got an thinking in problem of Business A.#8221; Baron said that, even if he could find a copy of the Ardingly College, paper, it would likely disappoint Obama#8217;s critics. #8220;The course was not a polemical course, it was a course in coursework School, decision making and how decisions got made,#8221; he said. #8220;None of the papers in the class were controversial.#8221; So would it provide any political ammunition today? #8220;I don#8217;t think it would at all,#8221; Baron said. #8220;It wasn#8217;t a position paper; it was an analysis of Ardingly decision-making.#8221; In October 2009, a purported excerpt from Barack Obama#8217;s #8220;missing#8221; Columbia thesis began circulating widely on coursework writing the Internet, one which claimed the paper stated that the Constitution drafted by American#8217;s founding fathers #8220;did not allow for economic freedom#8221; and failed to mention #8220;the distribution of wealth#8221; (a play on the common campaign charge that a redistribution of wealth was one of Barack Obama#8217;s political goals). Had someone finally turned up Barack Obama#8217;s elusive senior paper? The Pajamas Media web site reported on 21 October 2009 that writer/reporter Joe Klein had been permitted to read the first ten pages of essays it and had revealed that the paper (supposedly entitled #8220;Aristocracy Reborn#8221;) included the excerpt reproduced above. However, that claim seemed dubious, as a paper on #8220;Aristocracy Reborn,#8221; with musings about the Founding Fathers#8217; supposed lack of interest in coursework service School, #8220;economic freedom#8221; and work essays Ardingly, #8220;the distribution of wealth,#8221; would have been rather unusual content to find in a senior paper on the topic of Soviet nuclear disarmament, written for a seminar on American foreign policy. Great Essays Istituto Marangoni! In fact, the putative excerpt was fictitious, something lifted from a bit of satire published on the Jumping in essays College, Pools blog back on 25 August 2009: Obama was required to physic review, write a #8216;senior seminar#8217; paper in order to graduate from Columbia.

The subject of this paper, which totaled 44 pages, was American government. Entitled Aristocracy Reborn , this paper chronicled the long struggle of the working class against, as Obama put it, #8220;plutocratic thugs with one hand on the money and essays College, the other on the government.#8221; In the paper, in which only the first ten pages were given to the general media, Obama decries the plight of the poor: #8220;I see poverty in every place I walk. Writing Essays Istituto Marangoni Paris! In Los Angeles and New York, the work Ardingly, poor reach to me with bleary eyes and all I can do is sigh.#8221; In part, the future President blames this on the current economic system: #8220;There are many who will defend the article TASIS American, #8216;free market.#8217; But who will defend the work essays Ardingly College, single mother of persuasive argument essay four working three jobs. When a system is allowed to essays Ardingly, be free at the expense of its citizens, then it is tyranny.#8221; However, the President also singled out the American Constitution: #8220;#8230; the Constitution allows for many things, but what it does not allow is the review Brillantmont, most revealing. The so-called Founders did not allow for economic freedom. Work Ardingly! While political freedom is supposedly a cornerstone of the document, the reviews School, distribution of College wealth is not even mentioned. Writing Washington Academy! While many believed that the new Constitution gave them liberty, it instead fitted them with the shackles of hypocrisy.#8221; Pajamas Media issued a notice a few days after its original report acknowledging that the information about Barack Obama#8217;s Columbia thesis was a hoax. Joe Klein also affirmed that he had never seen the paper in question. Essays Ardingly! Last updated: 25 October 2009. Dedman, Bill. #8220;Reading Hillary Rodham#8217;s Hidden Thesis.#8221; MSNBC.com.

9 May 2007. Journal Reviews In Switzerland)! Popkin, Jim. #8220;Obama and the Case of the Ardingly College, Missing #8216;Thesis.'#8221; MSNBC.com. Washington Academy! 24 July 2008. Saul, Michael. Essays Ardingly College! #8220;Limbaugh Falls for writing essays Marangoni Obama Thesis Hoax.#8221; [New York] Daily News.

25 October 2009. Scott, Janny. Work Ardingly! #8220;Obama#8217;s Account of New York Years Often Differs from coursework service Strathallan, What Others Say.#8221; The New York Times. Essays Ardingly College! 30 October 2007. Vogel, Kenneth P. Writing Essays Istituto! #8220;What Are the Candidates Hiding?#8221; Politico.com. 23 October 2008. Ardingly! Got a tip or a rumor?

Contact us here. Published: Sep 28th, 2012. Did Jared Kushner Register to Vote in New York as a Woman? Sep 28th, 2017 The New York City Board of Elections has said that their computer system is to blame for Washington Academy a mix-up over Jared Kushner’s gender in New York’s voter rolls. Snopes Facebook Group.

Are NFL Players Required to Stand on the Field During the National Anthem? Sep 24th, 2017 Confusing claims about whether the Ardingly College, NFL's rulebook or game operations manual specifically requires players to stand on the sideline during the pre-game playing of the U.S. Physic Review Brillantmont School! national anthem. Work Essays Ardingly College! Did Donald Trump Bankrupt a Golf Course, Leaving Puerto Rico with $33 Million in Debt? Sep 27th, 2017 A viral string of tweets gets some facts right about a failed business venture involving a Trump company, but it also leaves out some important context. Journal Article School! #8216;Nothing, Nothing.#8217; Aid Lags in Hurricane-Torn Puerto Rico. Sep 27th, 2017 Many of the work essays Ardingly College, more than 3.4 million U.S. citizens in Puerto Rico were still without adequate food, water and fuel five days after Hurricane Maria hit. Writing Great Essays! Are Facebook Users Secretly Following You?

Updated Instructions for work Ardingly College blocking Facebook users who are supposedly furtively following you are spurious. Hugh Hefner, #8216;Playboy#8217; Creator and Pop Culture Icon, Dies. Sep 27th, 2017 Hefner, who was 91, died at his home of persuade Washington Academy natural causes. Work Essays! Updated What appears to be a $100 (or $50) coupon giveaway by Lowe's is actually a scam. Thinking Solving IUBH School Of Business! Was a Protester Throwing Explosives Into a Berkeley Crowd Before She Was Punched? Apr 20th, 2017 There's no evidence Louise Rosealma was using a glass bottle she appeared to be holding as an incendiary device. Did a 1950s TV Episode Feature a Character Named Trump Who Offered to Build a Protective Wall? Jan 9th, 2017 An episode of the 1950s western TV series 'Trackdown' featured a character named Walter Trump who claimed he would build a wall in order to protect a town from the end of the world. Did Jeff Sessions Say He#8217;s Amazed a Judge #8216;On an Island in the Pacific#8217; Can Block Executive Orders? Apr 20th, 2017 The Trump administration's Attorney General expressed his amazement on essays College a radio talk show.

Updated Rumor holds that conservative rocker Ted Nugent evaded the Vietnam-era draft by taking drugs and acting crazy during his pre-induction physical.

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Resume UU Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik (ITE) Informasi Elektronik dan/atau Dokumen Elektronik Sebagai Alat Bukti Hukum Yang Sah. § Informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik dan/atau hasil cetaknya merupakan alat bukti hukum yang sah, dan merupakan perluasan dari alat bukti yang sah sesuai dengan Hukum Acara Yang berlaku di Indonesia. College? Dimana informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik ini dinyatakan sah apabila menggunakan sistem elektronik sesuai dengan ketentuan yang diatur dalam UU ini. Writing Essays Marangoni? Namun ketentuan mengenai informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik tersebut tidak berlaku untuk surat yang menurut UU harus dibuat dalam bentuk tertulis, dan surat beserta dokumennya yang menurut UU harus dibuat dalam bentuk akta notaril atau akta yang dibuat oleh Pejabat Pembuat Akta. Work? (Pasal 5) § Dalam hal terdapat ketentuan lain selain yang di atas yang mensyaratkan bahwa suatu informasi harus berbentuk tertulis atau asli, infomasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik dianggap sah sepanjang informasi yang tercantum di dalamnya dapat diakses, ditampilkan, dijamin keutuhannya, dan dapat dipertanggungjawabkan sehingga menerangkan suatu keadaan. Journal Reviews TASIS In Switzerland)? Hal ini didasari oleh oleh konsep bentuk tertulis yang identik dengan informasi dan/atau dokumen yang tertuang di atas kertas semata, padahal pada hakikatnya informasi dan/atau dokumen dapat dituangkan ke dalam media apa saja, termasuk media elektronik. Work Essays Ardingly? Dalam lingkup sistem elektronik, informasi yang asli dengan salinannya tidak relevan lagi untuk dibedakan sebab sistem elektronik pada dasarnya beroperasi dengan cara penggandaan yang mengakibatkan informasi yang asli tidak dapat dibedakan lagi dari salinannya. Journal Article Reviews TASIS (The American School? (Pasal 6) § Setiap orang yang menyatakan hak, memperkuat hak yang telah ada, atau menolak hak orang lain berdasarkan adanya informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik harus memastikan bahwa informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik tersebut berasal dari sistem elektronik yang memenuhi syarat berdasarkan peraturan perundang-undangan.

Hal ini dimaksudkan bahwa suatu informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik dapat digunakan sebagai alasan timbulnya suatu hak. Work Essays Ardingly? (Pasal 7) § Pelaku usaha yang menawarkan produk melalui sistem elektronik harus menyediakan informasi yang lengkap dan benar berkaitan dengan syarat kontrak, produsen, dan produk yang ditawarkan (Pasal 9), dan setiap pelaku usaha yang menyelenggarakan transaksi elektronik dapat disertifikasi oleh lembaga sertifikasi keandalan. Great Istituto Marangoni Paris? Sertifikasi keandalan dimaksudkan sebagai bukti bahwa pelaku usaha yang melakukan perdagangan secara elektronik layak berusaha setelah melalui penilaian dan audit dari badan yang berwenang. Work Ardingly College? Bukti telah dilakukan sertifikasi keandalan ditunjukan dengan adanya logo sertifikasi berupa trust mark pada halaman ( home page ) pelaku usaha tersebut. Persuasive Essay Concord? (pasal 10). Syarat Agar Tanda Tangan Elektronik Memiliki Kekuatan Hukum dan Akibat Hukum yang Sah: (Pasal 11) data pembuatan Tanda Tangan Elektronik terkait hanya kepada Penanda Tangan; data pembuatan Tanda Tangan Elektronik pada saat proses penandatanganan elektronik hanya berada dalam kuasa Penanda Tangan; segala perubahan terhadap Tanda Tangan Elektronik yang terjadi setelah waktu penandatanganan dapat diketahui; segala perubahan terhadap Informasi Elektronik yang terkait dengan Tanda Tangan Elektronik tersebut setelah waktu penandatanganan dapat diketahui; terdapat cara tertentu yang dipakai untuk mengidentifikasi siapa Penandatangannya; dan terdapat cara tertentu untuk menunjukkan bahwa Penanda Tangan telah memberikan persetujuan terhadap Informasi. UU ITE memberikan pengakuan secara tegas bahwa meskipun hanya merupakan suatu kode, tanda tangan elektronik memiliki kedudukan yang sama dengan tanda tangan manual pada umumnya yang memiliki kekuatan hukum dan akibat hukum. Ardingly? Persyaratan sebagaimana tercantum di atas merupakan persyaratan minimum yang harus dipenuhi dalam setiap tanda tangan elektronik. Critical Thinking In Problem School? Ketentuan ini membuka kesempatan seluas-luasnya kepada siapa pun untuk mengembangkan metode, teknik, atau proses pembuatan tanda tangan elektronik. Pengamanan Tanda Tangan Elektronik (Pasal 12) § Setiap orang yang terlibat dalam tanda tangan elektronik berkewajiban memberikan pengamanan atas tanda tangan elektronik yang digunakannya, dimana pengamanan tersebut sekurang-kurangnya meliputi: o Sistem tidak dapat diakses oleh orang lain yang tidak berhak, o Penanda tangan harus menerapkan prinsip kehati-hatian untuk menghindari penggunaan secara tidak sah terhadap data terkait pembuatan tanda tangan elektronik, o Penanda tangan harus tanpa menunda-nunda, menggunakan cara yang dianjurkan oleh penyelenggara tanda tangan elektronik atau pun cara lain yang layak dan sepatutnya harus segera memberitahukan kepada seseorang yang oleh penanda tangan dianggap memercayai tanda tangan elektronik atau kepada pihak pendukung layanan tanda tangan elektronik jika: – Penanda tangan mengetahui bahwa data pembuatan tanda tangan elektronik telah dibobol, – Keadaan yang diketahui oleh penanda tangan dapat menimbulkan risiko yang berarti, kemungkinan akibat bobolnya data pembuatan tanda tangan elektronik.

o Dalam hal sertifikat elektronik digunakan untuk mendukung tanda tangan elektronik, penanda tangan harus memastikan kebenaran dan keutuhan semua informasi yang terkait dengan sertifikat elektronik tersebut. o Setiap orang yang melakukan pelanggaran ketentuan sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (1), bertanggung jawab atas segala kerugiian dan konsekuensi hukum yang timbul. § Dapat dilakukan dalam lingkup publik maupun privat. § Para pihak wajib beritikad baik dalam melakukan interaksi dan/atau pertukaran informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik selama transaksi berlangsung. § Untuk transaksi elektronik internasional, para pihak yang membuat dapat memilih hukum yang berlaku, dan jika para pihak tidak melakukan pilihan hukum dalam transaksi elektronik internasional, maka hukum yang berlaku didasarkan pada asas Hukum Perdata Internasional.

§ Para pihak dapat memilih metode penyelesaian sengketa yang timbul dari transaksi elektronik internasional yang dibuatnya, metode tersebut dapat berupa forum pengadilan, arbitrase, atau lembaga penyelesaian sengketa alternatif lainnya. Work Essays College? Jika para pihak tidak melakukan pilihan forum, maka penetapan yang berwenang menyelesaikan permasalahan tersebut didasarkan pada asas Hukum Perdata Internasional. § Transaksi elektronik terjadi pada saat penawaran transaksi yang dikirim pengirim telah diterima dan disetujui penerima, kecuali ditentukan lain oleh para pihak. Washington? Persetujuan tersebut harus dilakukan dengan pernyataan penerimaan secara elektronik. Work College? (Pasal 20) § Pengirim atau penerima dapat melakukan transaksi elektronik sendiri, melalui pihak yang dikuasakan olehnya, atau melalui agen elektronik. Journal Reviews (The? Cara-cara tersebut mempengaruhi pertanggung jawaban dari transaksi elektronik yang dilakukan, dimana jika dilakukan sendiri maka segala akibat hukum dari transaksi elektronik tersebut menjadi tanggung jawab para pihak yang bertransaksi, namun jika dilakukan melalui pemberi kuasa maka segala akibat hukum menjadi tanggung jawab pemberi kuasa, sedangkan jika dilakukan melalui agen elektronik maka segala akibat hukum dalam pelaksanaan transaksi elektronik menjadi tanggung jawab penyelenggara agen elektronik. Essays Ardingly? (Pasal 21) § Jika kerugian disebabkan karena gagal beroperasinya agen elektronik akibat tindakan pihak ke-tiga secara langsung terhadap sistem elektronik, maka segala akibat hukum menjadi tanggung jawab penyelenggara agen elektronik, namun jika kerugian disebabkan karena gagal beroperasinya agen elektronik akibat kelalaian pihak pengguna jasa layanan, maka segala akibat hukum menjadi tanggung jawab pengguna jasa layanan. Nama Domain, Hak Kekayaan Intelektual, dan Perlindungan Hak Pribadi (Bab VI-Pasal 23- Pasal 26) § Setiap Penyelenggara negara, Orang, Badan usaha, dan/atau Masyarakat berhak memiliki Nama Domain berdasarkan prinsip pendaftar pertama.

Pemilikan dan penggunaan nama domain harus didasarkan pada itikad baik, tidak melanggar prinsip persaingan usaha secara sehat, dan tidak melanggar hak orang lain. Argument College? Yang dimaksud dengan ”melanggar hak orang lain”, misalnya melanggar merek terdaftar, nama badan hukum terdaftar, nama orang terkenal, dan nama sejenisnya yang pada intinya merugikan orang lain. Ardingly College? Nama domain berupa alamat atau jati diri penyelenggara negara, orang, badan usaha, dan/atau masyarakat, yang perolehannya didasarkan pada prinsip pendaftar pertama ( first come first serve ). Persuasive Argument Essay Concord College? Prinsip pendaftar pertama berbeda antara ketentuan dalam nama domain dan dalam bidang hak kekayaan intelektual karena tidak diperlukan pemeriksaan substantif, seperti pemeriksaan dalam pendaftaran. Work Essays? (Pasal 23). § Setiap Penyelenggara negara, Orang, Badan usaha, dan/atau Masyarakat yang dirugikan karena penggunaan nama domain secara tanpa hak oleh orang lain, berhak mengajukan gugatan pembatalan nama domain tersebut. Persuasive Argument Essay? Yang dimaksud dengan ”penggunaan nama domain secara tanpa hak” adalah pendaftaran dan penggunaan nama domain yang semata-mata ditujukan untuk menghalangi atau menghambat orang lain untuk menggunakan nama yang intuitif dengan keberadaan nama dirinya atau nama produknya, atau untuk mendompleng reputasi orang yang sudah terkenal atau ternama, atau untuk menyesatkan konsumen.

§ Pengelola nama domain ialah Pemerintah dan/atau Masyarakat. Work Essays Ardingly? Dan apabila terjadi perselisihan pengelolaan nama domain oleh masyarakat, pemerintah berhak untuk mengambil alih sementara pengelolaan nama domain tersebut. Persuasive Argument Essay Concord College? Dan pengelolaan nama domain yang berada di luar wilayah Indonesia diakui kebenarannya sepanjang tidak bertentangan dengan peraturan perundang-undangan. § Ketentuan lebih lanjut perihal pengelolaan nama domain diatur dengan Peraturan Pemerintah. § Informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik yang disusun menjadi karya intelektual, situs internet, dan karya intelektual yang ada di dalamnya dilindungi sebagai hak kekayaan intelektual. § Penggunaan setiap informasi melalui media elektronik berkaitan dengan data pribadi seseorang harus dilakukan atas persetujuan orang yang bersangkutan, kecuali ditentukan lain oleh peraturan perundang-undangan, dan setiap orang yang haknya dilanggar tersebut dapat mengajukan gugatan atas kerugian yang ditimbulkan.

Perbuatan yang Dilarang dalam Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik. Work College? (Pasal 27-pasal 37) § Secara teknis perbuatan yang dilarang sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat ini dapat dilakukan antara lain dengan: o Melakukan komunikasi, mengirimkan, memancarkan atau sengaja berusaha mewujudkan hal-hal tersebut kepada siapapun yang tidak berhak untuk menerimanya, atau. o Sengaja menghalangi agar informasi dimaksud tidak dapat atau gagal diterima oleh yang berwenang menerimanya di lingkungan pemerintah dan/atau pemerintah daerah. § Setiap orang yang dengan sengaja dan tanpa hak dilarang untuk: o mendistribusikan dan/atau mentransmisikan dan/atau membuat dapat diaksesnya Informasi Elektronik dan/atau Dokumen Elektronik yang memiliki muatan yang melanggar kesusilaan. Washington Academy? Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 6 (enam) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak 1.000.000.000 (satu milyar rupiah). Work Ardingly? Dalam hal tindakan eksploitasi seksual terhadap anak dikenakan pemberatan sepertiga dari pidana pokok.

Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. o mendistribusikan dan/atau mentransmisikan dan/atau membuat dapat diaksesnya Informasi Elektronik dan/atau Dokumen Elektronik yang memiliki muatan perjudian. Thinking In Problem Solving IUBH Of Business & Management? Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 6 (enam) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak 1.000.000.000 (satu milyar rupiah). Ardingly? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. o mendistribusikan dan/atau mentransmisikan dan/atau membuat dapat diaksesnya Informasi Elektronik dan/atau Dokumen Elektronik yang memiliki muatan penghinaan dan/atau pencemaran nama baik. Persuade Washington? Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 6 (enam) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak 1.000.000.000 (satu milyar rupiah). Work Ardingly College? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. o mendistribusikan dan/atau mentransmisikan dan/atau membuat dapat diaksesnya Informasi Elektronik dan/atau Dokumen Elektronik yang memiliki muatan pemerasan dan/atau pengancaman. Great Essays Istituto? Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 6 (enam) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak 1.000.000.000 (satu milyar rupiah). Essays Ardingly? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. o menyebarkan berita bohong dan menyesatkan yang mengakibatkan kerugian konsumen dalam Transaksi Elektronik.

Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 6 (enam) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak 1.000.000.000 (satu milyar rupiah). Great Istituto? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. o menyebarkan informasi yang ditujukan untuk menimbulkan rasa kebencian atau permusuhan individu dan/atau kelompok masyarakat tertentu berdasarkan atas suku, agama, ras, dan antargolongan (SARA). Essays? Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 6 (enam) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak 1.000.000.000 (satu milyar rupiah). Thinking In Problem & Management? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. o hak mengirimkan Informasi Elektronik dan/atau Dokumen Elektronik yang berisi ancaman kekerasan atau menakut ? nakuti yang ditujukan secara pribadi.

Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 12 (enam) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak 2.000.000.000 (dua milyar rupiah). Work Ardingly? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. § Setiap orang yang dengan sengaja dan tanpa hak atau melawan hukum dilarang untuk: o Mengakses komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik milik orang lain dengan cara apa pun. Paris? Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 6 (enam) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak Rp.600.000.000 (enam ratus juta rupiah). Work Ardingly College? Dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau digunakan untuk layanan publik dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah sepertiga. Journal Reviews In Switzerland)? Dan dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau badan strategis termasuk dan tidak terbatas pada lembaga pertahanan, bank sentral, perbankan, keuangan, lembaga internasional, otoritas penerbangan diancam dengan pidana maksimal ancaman pidana pokok masing-masing pasal ditambah dua pertiga. Work Essays? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. o Mengakses komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik dengan cara apa pun dengan tujuan untuk memperoleh informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik. Physic Review Brillantmont School? Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama7 (tujuh) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak Rp.7 00.000.000 (tujuh ratus juta rupiah).

Dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau digunakan untuk layanan publik dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah sepertiga. Work College? Dan dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau badan strategis termasuk dan tidak terbatas pada lembaga pertahanan, bank sentral, perbankan, keuangan, lembaga internasional, otoritas penerbangan diancam dengan pidana maksimal ancaman pidana pokok masing-masing pasal ditambah dua pertiga. TASIS (The In Switzerland)? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. o Mengakses komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik dengan cara apapun dengan melanggar, menerobos, melampaui, atau menjebol sistem pengamanan. Essays Ardingly College? Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 8 (delapan) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak Rp.800.000.000 (delapan ratus juta rupiah). Concord? Dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau digunakan untuk layanan publik dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah sepertiga. Essays Ardingly? Dan dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau badan strategis termasuk dan tidak terbatas pada lembaga pertahanan, bank sentral, perbankan, keuangan, lembaga internasional, otoritas penerbangan diancam dengan pidana maksimal ancaman pidana pokok masing-masing pasal ditambah dua pertiga. Great? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. o Melakukan intersepsi atau penyadapan atas informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik dalam suatu komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik tertentu milik orang lain.

Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 10 (sepuluh) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak Rp.800.000.000 (delapan ratus juta rupiah). Work Essays Ardingly College? Dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau digunakan untuk layanan publik dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah sepertiga. Article Reviews American? Dan dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau badan strategis termasuk dan tidak terbatas pada lembaga pertahanan, bank sentral, perbankan, keuangan, lembaga internasional, otoritas penerbangan diancam dengan pidana maksimal ancaman pidana pokok masing-masing pasal ditambah dua pertiga. Essays Ardingly? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. o Melakukan intersepsi atas transmisi informasi elekronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik yang tidak bersifat publik dari, ke, dan di dalam suatu komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik tertentu milik orang lain, baik yang tidak menyebabkan perubahan apa pun maupun yang menyebabkan adanya perubahan, penghilangan, dan/atau penghentian informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik yang sedang ditransmisikan. Persuade Writing Washington? Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 10 (sepuluh) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak Rp.800.000.000 (delapan ratus juta rupiah). Work Essays Ardingly College? Dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau digunakan untuk layanan publik dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah sepertiga.

Dan dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau badan strategis termasuk dan tidak terbatas pada lembaga pertahanan, bank sentral, perbankan, keuangan, lembaga internasional, otoritas penerbangan diancam dengan pidana maksimal ancaman pidana pokok masing-masing pasal ditambah dua pertiga. Physic? Namun yang menjadi pengecualian pada poin ini dan poin sebelumnya ialah intersepsi yang dilakukan dalam rangka penegakan hukum atas permintaan kepolisian, kejaksaan, dan/atau institusi penegak hukum lainnya yang ditetapkan berdasarkan UU, mengenai intersepsi pengecualian tersebut, tata caranya diatur lebih lanjut dengan Peraturan pemerintah. Essays Ardingly College? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. o Dengan cara apapun mengubah, menambah, mengurangi, melakukan transmisi, merusak, menghilangkan, memindahkan, menyembunyikan suatu informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik orang lain atau milik publik. Physic School? Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 8 (delapan) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak Rp.2.000.000.000 (Dua milyar rupiah).

Dan terhadap perbuatan tersebut yang mengakibatkan terbukanya suatu informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik yang bersifat rahasia menjadi dapat diakses oleh publik dengan keutuhan data yang tidak sebagaimana mestinya. Essays? Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama10 (sepuluh) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak Rp.5.000.000.000 (lima milyar rupiah). Brillantmont International? Dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau digunakan untuk layanan publik dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah sepertiga. Ardingly? Dan dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau badan strategis termasuk dan tidak terbatas pada lembaga pertahanan, bank sentral, perbankan, keuangan, lembaga internasional, otoritas penerbangan diancam dengan pidana maksimal ancaman pidana pokok masing-masing pasal ditambah dua pertiga. Critical Solving IUBH Of Business & Management? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. o Dengan cara apapun memindahkan atau mentransfer informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik kepada sistem elektronik orang lain yang tidak berhak. Work Ardingly College? Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 9 (delapan) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak Rp.3.000.000.000 (tiga milyar rupiah).

Dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau digunakan untuk layanan publik dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah sepertiga. Writing? Dan dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau badan strategis termasuk dan tidak terbatas pada lembaga pertahanan, bank sentral, perbankan, keuangan, lembaga internasional, otoritas penerbangan diancam dengan pidana maksimal ancaman pidana pokok masing-masing pasal ditambah dua pertiga. Essays Ardingly College? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. o Melakukan tindakan apa pun yang berakibat terganggunya sistem elektronik dan/atau mengakibatkan sistem elektronik menjadi tidak bekerja sebagaimana mestinya. Thinking In Problem Solving IUBH Of Business & Management? Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 10 (sepuluh) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak Rp.10.000.000.000 (sepuluh milyar rupiah). Work Ardingly? Dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau digunakan untuk layanan publik dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah sepertiga. Persuade Washington? Dan dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau badan strategis termasuk dan tidak terbatas pada lembaga pertahanan, bank sentral, perbankan, keuangan, lembaga internasional, otoritas penerbangan diancam dengan pidana maksimal ancaman pidana pokok masing-masing pasal ditambah dua pertiga. Ardingly College? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. o Memproduksi, menjual, mengadakan untuk digunakan, mengimpor, mendistribusikan, menyediakan, atau memiliki: – Perangkat keras atau perangkat lunak komputer yang dirancang atau secara khusus dikembangkan untuk memfasilitasi perbuatan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam pasal 27 sampai dengan pasal 33 UU ITE, – Sandi lewat komputer, kode akses, atau hal yang sejenis dengan itu yang ditujukan agar sistem elektronik menjadi dapat dikases dengan tujuan memfasilitasi perbuatan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 27 sampai dengan pasal 33 UU ITE. Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 10 (sepuluh) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak Rp.10.000.000.000 (sepuluh milyar rupiah). (The? Dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau digunakan untuk layanan publik dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah sepertiga.

Dan dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau badan strategis termasuk dan tidak terbatas pada lembaga pertahanan, bank sentral, perbankan, keuangan, lembaga internasional, otoritas penerbangan diancam dengan pidana maksimal ancaman pidana pokok masing-masing pasal ditambah dua pertiga. Work Essays Ardingly College? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. Namun tindakan-tindakan yang dimaksud dalam poin ini tidak diklasifikasikan ke dalam tindak Pidana jika ditujukan untuk melakukan kegiatan penelitian, pengujian sistem elektronik, untuk perlindungan sistem elektronik itu sendiri secara sah dan tidak melawan hukum. o Melakukan manipulasi, penciptaan, perubahan, penghilangan, pengrusakan informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik dengan tujuan agar informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik tersebut dianggap seolah-olah data yang otentik. Coursework School? Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 12 (dua belas) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak Rp.12.000.000.000 (12 milyar rupiah). Work Ardingly? Dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau digunakan untuk layanan publik dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah sepertiga. Physic Review? Dan dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau badan strategis termasuk dan tidak terbatas pada lembaga pertahanan, bank sentral, perbankan, keuangan, lembaga internasional, otoritas penerbangan diancam dengan pidana maksimal ancaman pidana pokok masing-masing pasal ditambah dua pertiga.

Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. o Melakukan perbuatan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam pasal 27 sampai dengan 34 yang mengakibatkan kerugian bagi orang lain. Work? Tindakan ini diancam pidana penjara paling lama 12 (dua belas) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak Rp.12.000.000.000 (12 milyar rupiah). Critical Thinking Solving IUBH School Of Business & Management? Dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau digunakan untuk layanan publik dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah sepertiga. Essays? Dan dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau badan strategis termasuk dan tidak terbatas pada lembaga pertahanan, bank sentral, perbankan, keuangan, lembaga internasional, otoritas penerbangan diancam dengan pidana maksimal ancaman pidana pokok masing-masing pasal ditambah dua pertiga. Argument Concord? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. § Setiap orang dengan sengaja melakukan perbuatan yang dilarang sebagaimana dimaksud dalam pasal 27 sampai dengan 36 UU ITE di luar wilayah Indonesia terhadap sistem elektronik yang berada di wilayah Yurisdiksi Indonesia.

Dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau digunakan untuk layanan publik dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah sepertiga. Ardingly College? Dan dalam hal perbuatan tersebut ditujukan terhadap komputer dan/atau sistem elektronik serta informasi dan/atau dokumen elektronik milik pemerintah dan/atau badan strategis termasuk dan tidak terbatas pada lembaga pertahanan, bank sentral, perbankan, keuangan, lembaga internasional, otoritas penerbangan diancam dengan pidana maksimal ancaman pidana pokok masing-masing pasal ditambah dua pertiga. Writing Great Istituto? Dalam hal tindakan tersebut dilakukan oleh Korporasi, dipidana dengan pidana pokok ditambah dua pertiga. § Yang dimaksud dengan ”intersepsi atau penyadapan” adalah kegiatan untuk mendengarkan, merekam, membelokan, mengubah, menghambat, dan/atau mencatat transmisi informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik yang tidak bersifat publik, baik menggunakan jaringan kabel komunikasi maupun jaringan nirkabel, seperti pancaran elektromagnetis atau radio frekuensi. § Ketentuan mengenai penambahan hukuman pidana bagi pelaku korporasi dimaksudkan untuk menghukum setiap perbuatan melawan hukum dalam UU ITE yang dilakukan oleh korporasi dan/atau oleh pengurus dan/atau staff yang memiliki kapasitas untuk: o Mewakili korporasi, o Mengambil keputusan dalam korporasi, o Melakukan pengawasan dan pengendalian dalam korporasi, o Melakukan kegiatan demi keuntungan korporasi. Penyelesaian Sengketa (Pasal 38 dan 39) § Setiap orang dapat mengajukan gugatan terhadap pihak yang menyelenggarakan sistem elektronik dan/atau menggunakan teknologi informasi yang menimbulkan kerugian. § Masyarakat dapat mengajukan gugatan secara perwakilan terhadap pihak yang menyelenggarakan sistem elektronik dan/atau menggunakan teknologi informasi yang berakibat merugikan masyarakat, sesuai dengan ketentuan perundang-undangan. § Gugatan Perdata dilakukan sesuai dengan ketentuan perundang-undangan. § Selain melalui mekanisme gugatan perdata, para pihak juga dapat menyelesaikan sengketa melalui arbitrase, atau lembaga penyelesaian sengketa alternatif lainnya sesuai dengan ketentuan perundang-undangan.

§ Penyidikan terhadap tindak pidana sebagaimana dimaksud dalam UU ITE, dilakukan berdasarkan ketentuan dalam Hukum Acara Pidana dan ketentuan UU ITE. § Selain penyidik Pejabat Polisi Negara RI, Pejabat Pegawai Neger Sipil tertentu di lingkungan Pemerintah yang lingkup tugas dan tanggung jawabnya di bidang teknologi informasi dan transaksi elektronik diberi wewenang khusus sebagai penyidik sebagaimana dimaksud dalam UU tentang Hukum Acara Pidana untuk melakukan penyidikan tindak pidana di bidang teknologi informasi dan transaksi elektronik. § Penyidikan di bidang teknologi informasi dan transaksi elektronik tersebut dilakukan dengan memperhatikan perlindungan terhadap privasi, kerahasiaan, kelancaran layanan publik. Work Ardingly? Intergritas data, atau keutuhan data sesuai dengan ketentuan perundang-undangan. § Penggeledahan dan/atau penyitaan terhadap sistem elektronik yang terkait dengan dugaan tindak pidana harus dilakukan atas izin ketua Pengadilan Negeri setempat. Journal Reviews (The In Switzerland)? Dan dalam melakukan penggeledahan dan/atau penyitaan tersebut penyidik wajib menjaga terpeliharanya kepentingan pelayanan umum.

§ Dalam hal melakukan penangkapan dan penahanan, penyidik melalui penuntut umum wajib meminta penetapan Ketua Pengadilan Negeri setempat dalam waktu satu kali dua puluh empat jam. § Penyidik PNS berkoordinasi dengan penyidik pejabat Polri memberitahukan dimulainya penyidikan dan menyampaikan hasilnya kepada penuntut umum. Ardingly College? Dalam rangka mengungkap tindak pidana informasi elektronik dan transaksi elektronik, penyidik dapat bekerja sama dengan penyidik negara lain untuk berbagi informasi dan alat bukti. § Alat bukti penyidikan, penuntutan dan pemeriksaan di sidang pengadilan berdasarkan UU ITE ialah sebagai berikut: o Alat bukti sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ketentuan perundang-undangan, o Alat bukti lain berupa informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik. y Informasi Elektronik adalah satu atau sekumpulan data elektronik, termasuk tetapi tidak terbatas pada tulisan, suara, gambar, peta, rancangan, foto, electronic data interchange (EDI), surat elektronik (electronic mail), telegram, teleks, telecopy atau sejenisnya, huruf, tanda, angka, Kode Akses, simbol, atau perforasi yang telah diolah yang memiliki arti atau dapat dipahami oleh orang yang mampu memahaminya.

y Transaksi Elektronik adalah perbuatan hukum yang dilakukan dengan menggunakan Komputer, jaringan Komputer, dan/atau media elektronik lainnya. y Teknologi Informasi adalah suatu teknik untuk mengumpulkan, menyiapkan, menyimpan, memproses, mengumumkan, menganalisis, dan/atau menyebarkan informasi. y Dokumen Elektronik adalah setiap Informasi Elektronik yang dibuat, diteruskan, dikirimkan, diterima, atau disimpan dalam bentuk analog, digital, elektromagnetik, optikal, atau sejenisnya, yang dapat dilihat, ditampilkan, dan/atau didengar melalui Komputer atau Sistem Elektronik, termasuk tetapi tidak terbatas pada tulisan, suara, gambar, peta, rancangan, foto atau sejenisnya, huruf, tanda, angka, Kode Akses, simbol atau perforasi yang memiliki makna atau arti atau dapat dipahami oleh orang yang mampu memahaminya. y Sistem Elektronik adalah serangkaian perangkat dan prosedur elektronik yang berfungsi mempersiapkan, mengumpulkan, mengolah, menganalisis, menyimpan, menampilkan, mengumumkan, mengirimkan, dan/atau menyebarkan Informasi Elektronik. y Penyelenggaraan Sistem Elektronik adalah pemanfaatan Sistem Elektronik oleh penyelenggara negara, Orang, Badan Usaha, dan/atau masyarakat. y Jaringan Sistem Elektronik adalah terhubungnya dua Sistem Elektronik atau lebih, yang bersifat tertutup ataupun terbuka. y Agen Elektronik adalah perangkat dari suatu Sistem Elektronik yang dibuat untuk melakukan suatu tindakan terhadap suatu Informasi Elektronik tertentu secara otomatis yang diselenggarakan oleh Orang. y Sertifikat Elektronik adalah sertifikat yang bersifat elektronik yang memuat Tanda Tangan Elektronik dan identitas yang menunjukkan status subjek hukum para pihak dalam Transaksi Elektronik yang dikeluarkan oleh Penyelenggara Sertifikasi Elektronik. y Penyelenggara Sertifikasi Elektronik adalah badan hukum yang berfungsi sebagai pihak yang layak dipercaya, yang memberikan dan mengaudit Sertifikat Elektronik.

y Lembaga Sertifikasi Keandalan adalah lembaga independen yang dibentuk oleh profesional yang diakui, disahkan, dan diawasi oleh Pemerintah dengan kewenangan mengaudit dan mengeluarkan sertifikat keandalan dalam Transaksi Elektronik. y Tanda Tangan Elektronik adalah tanda tangan yang terdiri atas Informasi Elektronik yang dilekatkan, terasosiasi atau terkait dengan Informasi Elektronik lainnya yang digunakan sebagai alat verifikasi dan autentikasi. y Penanda Tangan adalah subjek hukum yang terasosiasikan atau terkait dengan Tanda Tangan Elektronik. y Komputer adalah alat untuk memproses data elektronik, magnetik, optik, atau sistem yang melaksanakan fungsi logika, aritmatika, dan penyimpanan. y Akses adalah kegiatan melakukan interaksi dengan Sistem Elektronik yang berdiri sendiri atau dalam jaringan. y Kode Akses adalah angka, huruf, simbol, karakter lainnya atau kombinasi di antaranya, yang merupakan kunci untuk dapat mengakses Komputer dan/atau Sistem Elektronik lainnya.

y Kontrak Elektronik adalah perjanjian para pihak yang dibuat melalui Sistem Elektronik. y Pengirim adalah subjek hukum yang mengirimkan Informasi Elektronik dan/atau Dokumen Elektronik. y Penerima adalah subjek hukum yang menerima Informasi Elektronik dan/atau Dokumen Elektronik dari Pengirim. y Nama Domain adalah alamat internet penyelenggara negara, Orang, Badan Usaha, dan/atau masyarakat, yang dapat digunakan dalam berkomunikasi melalui internet, yang berupa kode atau susunan karakter yang bersifat unik untuk menunjukkan lokasi tertentu dalam internet. y Orang adalah orang perseorangan, baik warga negara Indonesia, warga negara asing, maupun badan hukum.

y Badan Usaha adalah perusahaan perseorangan atau perusahaan persekutuan, baik yang berbadan hukum maupun yang tidak berbadan hukum. y Pemerintah adalah Menteri atau pejabat lainnya yang ditunjuk oleh Presiden.

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Free Essays on Karl Marx And Max Weber. Sociology is the study of people within a society. Three important Modernist Thinkers; Karl Marx , Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber are the three important figures in sociology. During the time of the modernist thinkers, they played a role in sociology thinking. This paper will explore the importance on. Marx vs. Weber: a Comparative Analysis.

Karl Marx v. Max Weber : Comparitive Analysis C. Wright Mills places both Weber and Marx in the great tradition of what he calls the sociological imagination a quality that enables us to work essays Ardingly College grasp both history biography and the relationship between the two within society. (Mills, 12) In other words. Compare and Contrast Marx and Weber’s Analyses of the Development of Capitalism. Compare and article reviews School in Switzerland), contrast Marx and Weber’s analyses of the development of capitalism Capitalism is defined as ‘An economic and work Ardingly, political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit.’ It is based on the division between two classes, one of which owns the labour. Karl Marx and Max Weber both have strong sociological perspectives on the concept of class in solving IUBH School of Business capitalist society. Work Essays Ardingly! Each theorist uses their own method to make inferences about the social world, and because of this, they come to very divergent conclusions.

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Max Weber Divorce Rate In The Us. Ashlie Labarriere Professor Darren Barany Sociology 100 14 March 2015 Max Weber was a German Sociologist and Political Economist. Weber believed that human beings act on their own understanding of a situation. For example when you walk in someone else's shoes it allows you to see from their point of view and change your . conflict arises because of essays differences between the groups and classes in society due to writing great Istituto varying interests and work, emerging inequalities. KARL MARX (1818-1883) Marx was a German sociologist who wrote extensively on various subjects; however, his revolutionary activities resulted in him being expelled. study reseach. Karl Marx (1818–1883) Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx (1818–1883) set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization, informed by journal article TASIS (The American School various key movements in the philosophies of history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism[30].

Marx Weber and Durkheim on Religion. 224). It can shape ones thoughts and feelings and gives people a sense of hope and something to work essays Ardingly believe in. International School! All three main sociologist writers Karl Marx , Max Weber and Emile Durkheim offer different perspectives on religion and how important it is to society. Some of the work essays Ardingly College theorists chose to have a positive. Analysis of in problem solving IUBH of Business & Management Marx, Weber, and work Ardingly College, Durkheim's Views. The sociological views of the three founding fathers; Karl Marx , Max Weber , and Emile Durkheim all assert that various aspects of our lifestyle are fully a product of the society in which we live. Each theorist views the impact of society and its manifestation of our identity in a different way. All. that people that are not as socially integrated tend to be more likely to persuasive College commit suicide. And she also helped establish sociology as a discipline.

Karl Marx also influenced society by bringing in the ideas of socialism and equality for work, all. C. Wright Mills influenced sociology by physic International creating the idea of. object of investigation. 2. Kingsley Davis: - “Sociology is a General Science of Society”. 3. Emite Durkheim: - “Science of Social Institution”. 4. Max Weber : - “The study of man and his human environment in their relations so each other”. We find the College following means from above definitions:a) b) c) . Modernization in Respect to Us Society as Well as the Rest of the World.

live without any tight social bonds as opposed to realizing the deeper connection that Tonnies would predict from a retreat from modernization. Max Weber put forth the theory of ‘Rationalization’ where as modernization occurred, society became more rational and less religious. Avoiding the topic of. Project Marx vs. Weber on Social Class The social relations and persuasive, social phenomena of work Ardingly people has been an area of interest to thinkers throughout recent history. Social class refers to a group of people with similar levels of wealth, influence, and status.

Sociologists Karl Marx and Max Weber had different. in an intellectual movement/era known as ‘The Enlightenment’ in the 18th Century. The three founding fathers of sociology are Max Weber , Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim. Karl Marx created a key theory of sociology; Marxism. Marxists focus on society as being based on critical thinking in problem School & Management, class conflict and divided into two groups. of God’s will and his aim was to conserve the idea of the family and traditional morality in a somewhat conservative approach. German sociologist, Karl Marx (1818-1883) emerged in the 19th century with beliefs that went against Comte’s. Work Ardingly College! He observed the writing Washington Academy outcomes of the work essays early industrial revolution period. bricks for other sociologists. Journal Reviews (The American In Switzerland)! These founding fathers are named Max Weber , Karl Marx , and Emile Durkheim.

Each of these sociologists have their own views that all helped to College shape modern sociology. Max Weber was born in 1864. Weber looked at sociology in terms of it being an extensive science of. economic status. For Karl Marx this status was dependent on whether a person owned (capitalist or bourgeoisie) or used (working class or proletariat) the argument means of production. Essays Ardingly College! (Germov J. Poole M. 2007), with the two groups being in conflict with the physic review Brillantmont International School goals of the other ( Marx K. 1847). Max Weber considered a. MAX WEBER : THE RATIONALIZATION OF SOCIETY Weber made many contributions to sociology, perhaps more than any other sociologist. One of the most significant was his understanding about how our social world differs from societies of early times. Work Essays College! His work reflects the philosophical approach of persuade Washington idealismwhich. analysis of class, status and work, power, Karl Marx and Max Weber. Karl Marx and Max Weber are among the famous theorist who formed the pillar of the study of society.

This come about in their contradict theories the conflict and protestant ethic respectively. It is understood that these two people lived in different eras, Marx being exposed to conditions and journal TASIS School in Switzerland), perspectives. The economic philosophy through the theories of Marx , Smith and Weber Economy is the system that determines the structure of any civilized society. Essays Ardingly! It even affects every aspect and every detail of our life like the type of the coursework Strathallan political system and the lifestyle of the society. That is why the economy. ? Comparative Essay Karl Marx and Max Weber Boring title SSCI 501 – Great Ideas: Classics of Social Theory October 1, 2013 German sociologists, Karl Marx and Max Weber , each both had theories about how capitalism evolved in work Ardingly society aswas well as what social inequality.

change. 11. The sociologist who called on his colleagues to be “value-free” in the conduct of their research was a. Karl Marx . Writing Essays Marangoni! b. Emile Durkheim. c. Herbert Spencer. d. Max Weber . 12. Imagine that you are repeating research done by someone else in order to assess the accuracy. You are doing. Marx and Weber's Different Approaches to Class. productive and repressive. Explain Marx and Webbers differing approaches to class. Marx * For Marx , class fundamentally explained two things -the structure of inequality in a society -the process by which that inequality would be over come. Essays Ardingly College! * Marx defined class by journal reviews TASIS (The American in Switzerland) social relationships. resources.

In reference to the institution of religion, Karl Marx famously stated that religion is the essays College sigh of the article TASIS (The School in Switzerland) oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world. It is the opium of the people. Instead of work essays increasing social solidarity, Marx believed, religion is great essays Istituto Marangoni, used to control the working class. of jewish minorities and the struggle between certain races. Ardingly! Many theorists were influenced by the study of these sociologists; Durkheim, Weber , Spencer and Marx all developed or disputed Comte’s ideas. Durkheim and Spencer in particular applied there own theories using Comte‘s ideas of positivism and. Marx vs. Essay Concord! Weber on Social Class The social relations and work, social phenomena of people has been an review Brillantmont International School, area of essays Ardingly College interest to thinkers throughout recent history. Social class refers to a group of persuade Washington people with similar levels of wealth, influence, and status. Sociologists Karl Marx and work Ardingly College, Max Weber had different theories. exploitation, poverty, oppression and persuade, misery of the working class. Work Ardingly! some of the most influential sociologists of this period were: Karl Marx , Max Weber and Emile Durkheim's.

Karl Marx was born in Trier, in writing great Paris the German Rhineland, in 1818. Although his family was Jewish they converted to Christianity so that his. Short Paper on Minimum Wage from work Ardingly 30 Days. on minimum wage for 30 days in the heart of America; Columbus Ohio. In this paper, we will see the minds of Georg Simmel, C. Wright Mills, Karl Marx , and Max Weber , all collide and offer insightful details on three of the writing great Istituto most profound issues found in work the film: the working poor, high cost of writing medical health. The History of Economic Thought(Wiki) capitalist, and laboring classes produced and distributed national output and work Ardingly College, modeled the effects of coursework writing service Strathallan School population and international trade. In London, Karl Marx castigated the capitalist system, which he described as exploitative and alienating. From about 1870, neoclassical economics attempted to work essays Ardingly College erect a. Critically Evaluate the Claim That Taylorist and writing great essays Istituto, Fordist Management Control Methods Increased Organisational Productivity at the Expense of Employee Job Satisfaction. costly as the production scale was so large which again made workers stressed. A number of philosophers including Karl Marx , Max Weber and Emile Durkheim all wrote about these theories.

Marx suggested that this new capitalism management would results in the exploitation of labour, alienation of workers. Karl Marx and Max Weber Intro to Sociology By: Cortni Beardsley Sociology stands on the foundation established by the two of many theorists, Max Weber and Karl Marx . However, it has not endured the same over the past few years. The United States has progressed in Sociological Theory and research. discuss the relevance of culture in the study of sociology. contrast Weber and Karl Marx’s theories of human relations, social organization and social development. Ideally, we shall begin by essays College treating the similarities followed by the differences in Weber and Marx’s theories thereafter a conclusion shall be drawn. To start with, both Marx and Weber agree that.

UNIVERSITY AND QUEEN MARY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON FOUNDATION DEGREE IN PUBLIC SERVICE MANAGEMENT COVER SHEET | MODULE TITLE Social Theory /Task 1 Marx and Engels | SEMESTER 1 DATE 20/12/2012MODULE TUTOR Trevor Rawnsley | STUDENT FIRST. With the Influence of Karl Marx and Martin Heidegger, What Is Technology? meaning of technology in a philosophical sense. It will specifically utilise the work from two of the most influential theorists within modern thought; Karl Marx (1817-1887) and Marin Heidegger (1887-1978). Philosophy as a whole is interested in the pursuit of meaning and wisdom within knowledge with the.

of social stratification and its inequities (Zeitlin 1968; Strasser 1976). By the journal TASIS (The mid-1800s, the classic sociological theorists such as Marx , Durkheim, and Weber began more systematic analyses of system of social stratification using concepts that remain with us to this day. From the root word . on how economies position themselves in the middle area of the continuum. Furthermore this assignment will analyze this middle area according to essays Ardingly Karl Marx ’ findings and views. To begin with I will shortly summarize the idea of a centralized planned economy and the idea of the other extreme, the free. For Weber the critical thinking solving School key characteristic of modern capitalism is that it is rational, it is based on the competitive dynamic of market forces, the costs and benefits of such factors of production as wages and labour, on the likely returns of a given amount of work essays Ardingly investment and, in particular, on the pursuit of. |Key Players |Media Supplements | | |Theory: General statements about how | Max Weber , George Herbert Mead: early | | | |some parts of the world fit together |symbolic interactionists. divide societies and classes, benefiting some people at the expense of others. This tour was a great way for coursework, me to better understand where Karl Marx and Max Weber were coming from in their conflict approaches. Being able to broaden my knowledge of the many different sociological aspects of Indianapolis. ?Class Inequalities – Marx Weber Most societies throughout the world have developed a notion of essays Ardingly College social class.

It refers to hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups within society. How these social classes have been determined has been a common topic among social scientists throughout. Marx and Weber's Theories of Class Structure in School Modern Society. Karl Marx has given us the most influential overview of how industrialization has affected the modern social formations. According to his industrialization gave us two new classes, which had evolved from the old feudal society.

The bourgeoisie and the proletariat (Bradley, 2006: 134-135). Work Essays Ardingly! The bourgeoisie. ? Marx vs. Durkheim: Religion An essay by Erin Olson plus commentary by Antonino Palumbo Religion and religious institutions play a powerful role in influencing a society and persuade Washington Academy, the lives of its members. The sociological traditions of Marx and Durkheim view religion totally differently, yet they both. his book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Max Weber sheds light on the Protestant reformation and how he believes religion and rational thought became a critical factor in the shaping of modern society and capitalism. Weber argues that capitalism developed historically as a result of. Social dominance b. Social mobility c. Cultural universals d. Symbolic interaction 3. While Karl Marx viewed social class as the influential factor for other inequalities in a capitalist society, Max Weber also included status and _______ as affecting one’s position in the stratification hierarchy. . Analyse the consumption of the pink pound, using both an historical approach (1900 to present day) and applying the ideas of Marx , Weber and Bourdieu to illuminate your arguments The pink pound is a term used to describe the work Ardingly College purchasing power of the physic School LGBT community in work Ardingly College Britain. “The spending power of. Compare and argument College, Contrast the Marxist and Weberian Theories of Social Class.

Why Do You Think Marx Emphasises Relations of Production in the Formation of Classes Whilst Weber Suggests the work College Market and Consumption Are the writing Istituto Important Factors? Compare and contrast the Marxist and work College, Weberian theories of social class. Why do you think Marx emphasises relations of production in the formation of classes whilst Weber suggests the market and consumption are the important factors? All human societies have been class based in in problem solving IUBH of Business & Management some way, shape or form. Comparing the Ideologies of Ardingly Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber. Comparing the Ideologies of Karl Marx , Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber Karl Marx , Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber were three historical sociologists. Their views have become world renown and have shaped many ways of interpreting the persuade social structure of many modern societies. This essay will take a glimpse.

Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx was one of nine children born to Heinrich and Henrietta Marx . His father was a productive lawyer who respected Kant and Voltaire, and was an avid activist for Prussian reform. Although both parents were Jewish with rabbinical ancestry, Karl’s father converted to essays Ardingly Christianity. ambitious movements also developed from this insight into human culture, initially Romanticism and Historicism, and eventually both the Communism of Karl Marx , and the modern forms of nationalism inspired by the French Revolution, including, in one extreme, the German Nazi movement (Orwin and critical in problem School, Tarcov 1997. Karl Marx and Max Weber Andy Moss Introduction Karl Marx and Max Weber are two important names when thinking of work Ardingly sociological theory. Both men had strong views about our society.

Weber’s approach to studying social life will be looked at. Then, Weber’s study of critical thinking IUBH School & Management rationalization will be the main point. Modern Philosophy 1974, [19] Karl Marx Both Comte and Karl Marx (1818–1883) set out to develop scientifically justified systems in work Ardingly the wake of European industrialisation andsecularisation, informed by various key movements in the philosophies of American history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism but. capitalism shaped society. Ardingly College! He argued that capitalism is an critical thinking in problem solving IUBH School of Business, economic system based on the pursuit of profi t and the sanctity of private property. Marx used a class analysis to explain capitalism, describing capitalism as a system of relationships among different classes, including capitalists (also. In the College view of essay Concord Karl Marx , human beings are intrinsically, necessarily and by definition social beings who - beyond being gregarious creatures - cannot survive and meet their needs other than through social co-operation and association. Their social characteristics are therefore to a large extent an. Max Weber : A Short Biography Introduction Being a man with great aspirations, Max Weber’s life was filled with complexities and complications. Therefore, it is work essays, worthy of review one’s time to explore the reasons of his success, a revolutionary thinker of the 19th century whose theories still remained as the.

Marx , Engels and the Bourgeoisie A look at how in the Manifesto of the Communist Party, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels both praise and damn the bourgeoisie. 2,391 words (approx. 9.6 pages) | 8 sources | MLA | 2008 | Published on: 2011/03/20 Paper Summary: This paper attempts to exemplify the. Compare and contrast different sociological perspectives on religion. (33 Marks). Althusser see religion as an ideological apparatus that reproduces and maintains legitimate class inequality. In addition, Marx describes religion as the opium of the Ardingly College people.

Marx rejects the persuasive College idea, proposed by parsons, that religion provides answers to life’s questions, instead he sees it as a drug to.

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Essay/Term paper: Diphtheria (corynebacterium diphtheriae) Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on Science Reports: Diphtheria (Corynebacterium Diphtheriae) , you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. Essays Ardingly. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade. Corynebacteria are Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria. related to the Actinomycetes. They do not form spores or branch as do the. actinomycetes, but they have the characteristic of forming irregular shaped, club-shaped or V-shaped arrangements in normal growth. Critical In Problem IUBH School. They undergo snapping.

movements just after cell division which brings them into characteristic. arrangements resembling Chinese letters. animal and plant pathogens, as well as saprophytes. Some corynebacteria are part. of the normal flora of humans, finding a suitable niche in virtually every. anatomic site. The best known and most widely studied species is Corynebacterium. diphtheriae, the causal agent of the disease diphtheria. The etiology, mode of transmission, pathogenic mechanism and molecular basis of.

exotoxin structure, function, and action have been clearly established. Consequently, highly effective methods of work treatment and reviews American, prevention of Ardingly College diphtheria. have been developed. medical microbiology, immunology and molecular biology. Many contributions to. these fields, as well as to our understanding of in problem of Business & Management host-bacterial interactions, have been made studying diphtheria and the diphtheria toxin. century B.C. Essays. There are also references to the disease in ancient Syria and TASIS School in Switzerland), Egypt. In the 17th century, murderous epidemics of diphtheria swept Europe; in work College, Spain.

El garatillo (the strangler), in Italy and Sicily, the gullet disease. epidemic proportions in 1735. Often, whole families died of the disease in a few. was cultivated by Loeffler in 1884, who applied Koch's postulates and argument essay College, properly. identified Corynebacterium diphtheriae as the agent of the work College disease. thereby provided the first description of a bacterial exotoxin. culture fluid of C. diphtheriae which, when injected into suitable lab animals,

caused the systemic manifestation of diphtheria. with a heat-attenuated form of the reviews TASIS (The American School toxin and work essays Ardingly, demonstrated that the sera of. immunized animals contained an antitoxin capable of protecting other susceptible. animals against the disease. This modified toxin was suitable for immunizing. animals to obtain antitoxin but was found to cause severe local reactions in. humans and persuade writing Washington, could not be used as a vaccine. neutralized by antitoxin (forming a Toxin-Anti-Toxin complex, TAT) remained. immunogenic and eliminated local reactions seen in the modified toxin. For some.

years, beginning about 1910, TAT was used for active immunization against. diphtheria. TAT had two undesirable characteristics as a vaccine. First, the. toxin used was highly toxic, and the quantity injected could result in work essays Ardingly, a fatal.

toxemia unless the toxin was fully neutralized by antitoxin. Writing Essays Istituto Paris. Second, the. antitoxin mixture was horse serum, the components of which tended to be. allergenic and to work College sensitize individuals to the serum. immunity to diphtheria in humans. Diphtheria toxin will cause an inflammatory. reaction when very small amounts are injected intracutaneously. The Schick Test. involves injecting a very small dose of the toxin under the reviews TASIS School skin of the forearm. and evaluating the injection site after 48 hours. A positive test (inflammatory.

reaction) indicates susceptibility (nonimmunity). A negative test (no reaction) indicates immunity (antibody neutralizes toxin). but antigenic, equivalent (toxoid) by using formaldehyde. Ardingly College. He provided humanity. with one of the safest and surest vaccines of all time-the diphtheria toxoid. strains of C. diphtheriae are lysogenic, (i.e., are infected by a temperate B.

phage), while non lysogenized strains are avirulent. Subsequently, it was shown. that the gene for toxin production is located on the DNA of the B phage. on the mechanism of a action of the diphtheria toxin. Persuade Writing Academy. They studied the effects. of the toxin in HeLa cell cultures and in cell-free systems, and concluded that. the toxin inhibited protein synthesis by blocking the transfer of amino acids.

from tRNA to the growing polypeptide chain on the ribosome. They found that this. action of the toxin could be neutralized by prior treatment with diphtheria. toxin has become a classic model of a bacterial exotoxin. local and systemic pathology. Work College. A local lesion develops in the upper respiratory. tract and involves necrotic injury to epithelial cells. Essay College. As a result of College this. injury, blood plasma leaks into the area and review Brillantmont School, a fibrin network forms which is.

interlaced with with rapidly-growing C. diphtheriae cells. This membranous. network covers over the site of the work Ardingly College local lesion and is referred to as the. surface epithelial cells at the site of the local lesion. At this site they.

produce the toxin that is absorbed and disseminated through lymph channels and. blood to coursework writing Strathallan the susceptible tissues of the body. Degenerative changes in these. tissues, which include heart, muscle, peripheral nerves, adrenals, kidneys, liver and spleen, result in the systemic pathology of the disease. of children, and most individuals who survive infancy and childhood have. acquired immunity to diphtheria.

In earlier times, when nonimmune populations. (i.e., Native Americans) were exposed to the disease, people of all ages were. infected and killed. and subsequent bacterial proliferation. Nothing is known about the adherence. mechanisms of College this pathogen. 2.Toxigenesis: bacterial production of the diphtheria toxin. The virulence of. C. diphtheriae cannot be attributed to toxigenicity alone, since a distinct. invasive phase apparently precedes toxigenesis. However, it cannot be ruled out.

that the diphtheria toxin plays a (essential?) role in the colonization process. due to its short-range effects at the colonization site. and mitis. They are listed here by falling order of the severity of the disease. that they produce in humans. All strains produce the writing essays Marangoni identical toxin and are.

capable of work Ardingly colonizing the throat. The differences in virulence between the three. strains can be explained by their differing abilities to produce the toxin in. rate and quantity, and by essay Concord College, their differing growth rates. intermedius strain has a generation time of about 100 minutes; and the mitis. stain has a generation time of about 180 minutes. The faster growing strains. typically produce a larger colony on most growth media. In the essays College throat (in vivo), a faster growth rate may allow the critical thinking in problem solving IUBH School & Management organism to deplete the essays local iron supply.

more rapidly in the invaded tissues, thereby allowing earlier or greater. production of the diphtheria toxin. Also, if the kinetics of toxin production. follow the kinetics of bacterial growth, the faster growing variety would. achieve an effective level of persuade toxin before the College slow growing varieties. to produce the diphtheria toxin: (1) low extracellular concentrations of critical in problem solving IUBH School of Business iron.

and (2) the presence of a lysogenic prophage in the bacterial chromosome. The. gene for toxin production occurs on the chromosome of the prophage, but a. bacterial repressor protein controls the expression of this gene. The repressor.

is activated by iron, and it is in Ardingly College, this way that iron influences toxin. production. High yields of toxin are synthesized only by lysogenic bacteria. under conditions of critical thinking in problem School iron deficiency. yield of the work essays College toxin is the article reviews TASIS School in Switzerland) concentration of inorganic iron (Fe++ or Fe+++) present in the culture medium.

Toxin is synthesized in high yield only after the. exogenous supply of iron has become exhausted (This has practical importance for. the industrial production of toxin to make toxoid. Under the appropriate. conditions of iron starvation, C. diphtheriae will synthesize diphtheria toxin. as 5% of its total protein!). Presumably, this phenomenon takes place in vivo as.

well. The bacterium may not produce maximal amounts of essays Ardingly College toxin until the iron. supply in tissues of the upper respiratory tract has become depleted. Physic Brillantmont School. It is the. regulation of toxin production in the bacterium that is partially controlled by. iron. The tox gene is regulated by a mechanism of negative control wherein a. repressor molecule, product of the DtxR gene, is activated by essays, iron. The active. repressor binds to Istituto Marangoni the tox gene operator and prevents transcription. When iron.

is removed from the repressor (under growth conditions of iron limitation), derepression occurs, the repressor is inactivated and transcription of the tox. genes can occur. Iron is referred to as a corepressor since it is required for. repression of the work Ardingly College toxin gene. are lysogenized by a specific Beta-phage produce diphtheria toxin.

A phage lytic. cycle is not necessary for toxin production or release. The phage contains the. structural gene for the toxin molecule, since lysogeny by critical thinking IUBH School & Management, various mutated Beta. phages leads to production of nontoxic but antigenically-related material. (called CRM for work Ardingly College, cross-reacting material).

CRMs have shorter chain length than. the diphtheria toxin molecule but cross react with diphtheria antitoxins due to. their antigenic similarities to the toxin. The properties of great CRMs established. beyond a doubt that the tox genes resided on the phage chromosome rather than. the bacterial chromosome. of toxin production is under bacterial control since the DtxR (regulatory) gene.

is on bacterial chromosome and toxin production depends upon bacterial iron. natural history of the bacterium. Work Essays. Of what value should it be to an organism to. synthesize up to 5% of writing Paris its total protein as a toxin that specifically inhibits. protein synthesis in eukaryotes (and archaebacteria)? Possibly the toxin assists. colonization of the throat (or skin) by killing epithelial cells or neutrophils. There is no evidence to suggest a key role of the toxin in the life cycle of essays the. organism. Writing. Since mass immunization against diphtheria has been practiced, the.

disease has virtually disappeared, and C. diphtheriae is no longer a component. of the normal flora of the human throat and pharynx. It may be that the toxin. played a key role in work essays, the colonization of the throat in nonimmune individuals and, as a consequence of exhaustive immunization, toxigenic strains have become.

single polypeptide chain containing an A (active) domain and a B (binding) domain. Proteolytic nicking of the secreted form of the toxin separates the physic School A. chain from the work essays College B chain. susceptible cells and enters by receptor-mediated endocytosis.

Acidification of. the endosome vesicle results in unfolding of the protein and insertion of a. segment into the endosomal membrane. Apparently as a result of activity on the. endosome membrane, the A subunit is cleaved and released from the B subunit as. it inserts and persuasive argument essay College, passes through the membrane. Once in work essays Ardingly College, the cytoplasm, the A. fragment regains its conformation and its enzymatic activity.

Fragment A. catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD to the eukaryotic Elongation. Factor 2 which inhibits the critical thinking solving function of the latter in protein synthesis. Ultimately, inactivation of all of the host cell EF-2 molecules causes death of. the cell. Attachment of the ADP ribosyyl group occurs at an unusual derivative. of histadine called diphthamide.

Nicotinamide ATox-ADP-Ribose EF-2. trypsin in the presence of thiol. The enzymatic activity of work Ardingly College fragment A is masked. in the intact toxin. Fragment B is required to bind the native toxin to its.

cognate receptor and to permit the escape of fragment A from the endosome. The C. terminal end of Fragment B contains the peptide region that attaches to the HB- EGF receptor on the sensitive cell membrane, and the N-terminal end is solving of Business & Management, a. strongly hydrophobic region which will insert into a membrane lipid bilayer. precursor is a protein on the surface of many types of cells. Work Ardingly. The occurrence and. distribution of the essays Istituto HB-EGF receptor on cells determines the susceptibility of an. animal species, and essays Ardingly College, certain cells of an animal species, to the diphtheria toxin.

Normally, the HB-EGF precursor releases a peptide hormone that influences. normal cell growth and differentiation. One hypothesis is that the HB-EGF. receptor itself is the protease that nicks the A fragment and reduces the. disulfide bridge between it and the B fragment when the A fragment makes its way. through the endosomal membrane into the cytoplasm. (antitoxin).

Passive immunity in utero is acquired transplacentally and can last. at most 1 or 2 years after birth. In areas where diphtheria is endemic and critical thinking IUBH School of Business, mass. immunization is not practiced, most young children are highly susceptible to. infection. Probably active immunity can be produced by a mild or inapparent.

infection in infants who retain some maternal immunity, and in adults infected. with strains of low virulence (inapparent infections). organisms in essays Ardingly College, the throat or nose for weeks or even months. In the article TASIS in Switzerland) past, it was. mainly through such healthy carriers that the disease was spread, and toxigenic.

bacteria were maintained in the population. Before mass immunization of children, carrier rates of C. diphtheriae of 5% or higher were observed. immunization at an early age is universally advocated. Toxoid is given in 2 or 3. doses (1 month apart) for primary immunization at an age of 3 - 4 months. A.

booster injection should be given about a year later, and it is advisable to. administer several booster injections during childhood. Usually, infants in the. United States are immunized with a trivalent vaccine containing diphtheria. toxoid, pertussis vaccine, and tetanus toxoid (DPT or DTP vaccine).