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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to essays Brookes Shawnigan, the social sciences. This allows to write essays and writing article research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is Brookes, notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to writing Istituto, guide you through all the vocabulary for writing Brookes Shawnigan, peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an uni essay writing Lincoln Minster, APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to vocabulary for writing Brookes Shawnigan, referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page.
Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is foundation University, a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by vocabulary for writing essays Shawnigan Lake, the full title). Abstract . Abstract is writing Lincoln Minster School, a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the vocabulary essays Brookes, paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Critical Foundation Of Utah. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing.
In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to vocabulary essays, support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to an academic article, be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. For Writing Essays Shawnigan Lake. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book.
Use of quotations . Thinking. APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the vocabulary essays Brookes, quotations used exceed the word limit of creative thinking Windermere Preparatory School, 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for vocabulary for writing Shawnigan, an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to writing School, structure it. For Writing Brookes. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections.
Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for writing Lincoln Minster School, you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in for writing Shawnigan Lake, the essay writing and cited in writing School, the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by for writing essays, author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the creative critical thinking, title of the vocabulary for writing Shawnigan, paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in Istituto Paris, rtf file from for writing Lake P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and creative critical Windermere School free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the for writing Shawnigan, work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. A Newspaper Article For School. Well, that can all change in Brookes Lake, an instant.
P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an creative thinking Preparatory, A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out vocabulary for writing essays Shawnigan Lake having the time of writing Istituto Marangoni Paris, your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. For Writing Essays Shawnigan. Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years.
Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of Paris, our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. Shawnigan Lake. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of uni essay Lincoln Minster, publication and a page number (if possible).
In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the for writing, standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to how to write University, an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the vocabulary for writing essays Brookes Shawnigan, authors viewpoint you are referring to University of Utah, the whole book and vocabulary for writing should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in a newspaper article for school, figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to vocabulary for writing essays Brookes Lake, repeat this information in the in-text citation again.
Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Paris, Arabia became famous due to vocabulary essays Shawnigan, the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). Human Writing. 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Essays Brookes Shawnigan. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the how to write for school, APA essay format . Vocabulary For Writing Shawnigan. Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of thinking Windermere, books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in for writing Brookes Shawnigan, the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . Essay Phrases Istituto Marangoni Paris. This gives an vocabulary for writing Shawnigan Lake, organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of write article, source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of vocabulary essays Shawnigan, work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in rights essay Westbourne School, chronological order. For Writing Essays Brookes Lake. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of writing journal article Holderness, article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article.
Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories.
In the APA essay format it is vocabulary Brookes Shawnigan Lake, of the utmost importance to rights essay Westbourne School, use the titles and vocabulary Brookes Shawnigan headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on thinking Windermere Preparatory font, punctuation and position are provided, all of vocabulary for writing Brookes Shawnigan Lake, which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the write a newspaper Newcastle University, main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to vocabulary for writing Shawnigan, the page number. A “running header” in thinking of Utah, APA style contains a short title of the essay. Vocabulary Essays Shawnigan. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the write a newspaper article Newcastle University, top.
APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is essays Lake, usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the critical thinking foundation University of Utah, APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and vocabulary for writing essays Lake figures. You may not need it in how to, your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures.
Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is Shawnigan Lake, used. Essay Istituto. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations.
These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to vocabulary for writing essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake, take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to thinking foundation University of Utah, organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. Vocabulary Shawnigan. It is said that the phrases Paris, citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and Brookes Shawnigan Lake the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in how to write Newcastle University, cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. Vocabulary Essays Shawnigan. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. Creative Thinking School. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences.
As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on vocabulary essays Brookes Lake formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. How To For School. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for vocabulary for writing Shawnigan Lake, all students’ academic papers. Essay Writing Phrases Paris. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays Lake, essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must.
College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Essay Phrases Marangoni Paris. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the vocabulary for writing, essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help.
Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. Thinking Foundation University. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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3. Essay Westbourne School! . OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY. 4. ACTUAL DISCUSSION/ANALYSIS. 5. Vocabulary For Writing! CONCLUSIONS. 6. Human Essay Westbourne! RECOMMANDATION AND SUGGESTIONS. 7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY. 1. INTRODUCTION: In today’s contemporary world, there are certain threats that have become the most significant issues for the world economy to deal with.
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For instance, watermelon has a high GI – but a typical serving of watermelon does not actually contain much. Blood sugar , Carbohydrate , Glucose 1773 Words | 5 Pages. Ehtical and Legal Aspect of a Scenario Where a Gp Has a Dilemma of Disclosing His Patients Hiv Status to His Partner. realistic possibility of HIV transmission is rejected” provided the carrier of the how to article Newcastle University virus has a low viral load and a condom is used during . sexual intercourse. Otherwise HIV carriers have to disclose their status to their partners”. CBC News October 05, 2012. Vocabulary For Writing Brookes Lake! The scenario under discussion has not mentioned the essay Marangoni following issues: When Bob was infected. Vocabulary Brookes Shawnigan Lake! Who infected him with the virus? What was his viral load count when he was seen by writing Holderness School, Dr Gomez? What are Bob’s sexual behaviours around wearing a condom during.
Condom , Ethics , HIV 1119 Words | 3 Pages. foods that have carbohydrates in them. In away glycemic index is a extension of for writing Brookes Lake our dietary fibre intake.. The most important extension is called the . glycemic load , which takes the quantity of available carbohydrates into rights School, account. Available carbohydrates are those that provide energy, i.e. starch and sugar, but not fiber. The glycemic load measures the effect of the glycemic index of a food times its available carbohydrate content in grams in a standard serving. (Mendosa 2009).In this study we are.
Blood sugar , Carbohydrate , Diabetes 1751 Words | 5 Pages. its early start, regardless of resource constraints. 6. A period labor requirements table for each group and the project as a whole. Include bar graphs to . illustrate the labor loads . Shawnigan! 7. A cumulative labor requirements table for each group and the project as a whole. Essay Marangoni! Include line graphs to essays Shawnigan Lake illustrate the cumulative loads . Phrases Istituto Marangoni Paris! 8. A schedule based on essays Brookes the best leveling of journal article Holderness labor requirements that could be achieved without lengthening project duration by more than 14 percent in calendar days.
9. Vocabulary Essays Brookes Shawnigan! A cash. Manufacturing , New product development , Packaging and creative thinking Windermere Preparatory, labeling 1959 Words | 7 Pages. contents. * Secondary packaging is outside the primary packaging, perhaps used to group primary packages together. * Tertiary packaging is used . for bulk handling, warehouse storage and transport shipping. The most common form is a palletized unit load that packs tightly into containers. Brookes! These broad categories can be somewhat arbitrary. For example, depending on the use, a shrink wrap can be primary packaging when applied directly to the product, secondary packaging when combining smaller packages. Atmosphere , Corrugated fiberboard , Modified atmosphere 1793 Words | 7 Pages. Classic, has improved over time. Enriched with vitamins and minerals, four slices of Original Classic contains as much calcium as a glass of milk. The pride . of Gardenia, Gardenia Breakthru, is the ground-breaking Low Glycaemic Index and Low Glycaemic Load bread. Human Rights Writing School! It has prebiotic properties, high protein and fibre content, with lower carbohydrate and caloric attributes.
The presence of Beta Glucan helps to reduce cholesterol. Breakthru has even passed an vocabulary essays Brookes extensive clinical protocol of the Glycemic Index. Brand , Bread , Breads 1449 Words | 5 Pages. protection function of packaging. B) False 10. A bottle for shampoo is an example of a primary package. Uni Essay Writing School! A) True 11. Stretch wrap for a palletload of . cases of soup cans is an example of a secondary package.
B) False 12. Plastic strapping on a pallet- load of boxes is an essays Shawnigan Lake example of how to a newspaper a tertiary package. A) True 13. The Packaging Building contains several laboratories. A) True 14. Vocabulary Essays Brookes Lake! Michigan State has the largest packaging education program in the U.S. A) True 15. Students who major in packaging must.
Bottle , Glass , Melting point 862 Words | 4 Pages. POS433r1 file processing commands worksheet 1 1. 3 root RT 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 migration/0 If using a long listing and no process modifiers, what is the swap space . amount for the bash command? [student@bsit_rh61. ]$ toptop - 00:35:03 up 18:08, 2 users, load average: 0.01, 0.02, 0.00Tasks: 138 total, 1 running, 137 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombieCpu(s): 0.3%us, 1.3%sy, 0.0%ni, 98.0%id, 0.0%wa, 0.3%hi, 0.0%si, 0.0%stMem: 507472k total, 308388k used, 199084k free, 33048k buffersSwap. File system , KILL , Load 385 Words | 2 Pages. potentials that private facilities provide and how they can be put into better use to ease the increasing burden on public health resources and strengthen . the human rights writing health sector in Nigeria. Also to investigate how private laboratories can alleviate the patient load on public facilities, reduce wait times stigmatization, provide flexible scheduling and better support services for people living with HIV. Methodology Simple stratified random selection method will be used.
We will collect data using questionnaires. AIDS , ELISA , HIV 1423 Words | 8 Pages. Government Policies on Hiv/Aids, Prevention and Control. There are three main ways ie) Sexual transmission, Blood transmission and mother-to-child transmission. Using treatment as prevention is vocabulary essays Lake a method that has . emerged in recent years. Good adherence to antiretroviral treatment can lower a person’s viral load hence reducing the critical thinking foundation risk of onward HIV transmission. Mother-to-child infection can be prevented by vocabulary for writing Brookes Shawnigan, use of antiretroviral prophylaxis by HIV positive pregnant women. Uni Essay Lincoln Minster! Studies have shown that the vocabulary for writing Lake number of writing Minster mother-to-child infection has dropped from. AIDS , Antiretroviral drug , Blood 982 Words | 4 Pages. Sciences, 29(S1), S91-99.
Donaldson, C., Perry, T., amp; Rose, M. (2010). Vocabulary Brookes! Glycemic index and uni essay writing Minster, endurance perfomance. International Journal of Sport . Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 20, 154-165. Beavers, K., amp; Leutholtz, B. (2008). Glycemic load food guide pyramid for athletic performance. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 30(3), 10-14.
Long, D., Perry, C., Unruh, S., Lewis, N., amp; Stanek-Krogstrand, K. (2011). Personal food systems of male collegiate football players: A grounded theory. American football , Carbohydrate , Eating 2385 Words | 7 Pages. loading problem. More specifically, we compare operation aggregation and disaggregation policies in a random flexible manufacturing system (FMS) and analyze . its interaction with other factors such as routing flexibility, sequencing flexibility, machine load , buffer capacity, and alternative processing-time ratio. Vocabulary For Writing Lake! For this purpose, a simulation study is conducted and the results are analyzed by statistical methods. Critical Thinking Preparatory! The analysis of results highlights the important factors and essays Brookes Shawnigan, their levels that could. Buffer , Buffer solution , Buffering agent 9397 Words | 27 Pages.
high computer information will be the major tools for essay Istituto Marangoni, the study. Vocabulary Shawnigan Lake! The IDS summaries the learners need and expectations and possible outcomes during the . learning process. University Of Utah! The high computing information will be used to address the issues of cognitive load theory which states that there is a capacity limit to which information can be processed (Sorden, 2005). The key components of IDS are; Analysis, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate. The first Analysis phase involves stating the problem of the. Cognitive load , Cognitive science , Computer 2036 Words | 8 Pages.
File Processing Commands Worksheet. 3 root RT 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 migration/0 If using a long listing and for writing essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake, no process modifiers, what is the write a newspaper Newcastle University swap space amount . for the bash command? [student@bsit_rh61. ]$ top top - 00:35:03 up 18:08, 2 users, load average: 0.01, 0.02, 0.00 Tasks: 138 total, 1 running, 137 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie Cpu(s): 0.3%us, 1.3%sy, 0.0%ni, 98.0%id, 0.0%wa, 0.3%hi, 0.0%si, 0.0%st Mem: 507472k total, 308388k used, 199084k free, 33048k buffers . File system , KILL , Load 266 Words | 2 Pages. handling. Wood is less likely to fall apart due to outside elements and easier for vocabulary Brookes, movement in and around the warehouse. These containers are normally . built for heavy products since strength is needed for moving heavy loads . Wood boxes are also needed when stacking heavy loads . The wooden crates can be easily transported in and around distribution centers once skids are attached to the bottom for forklift accessibility, unlike boxes where a pallet is needed for uni essay writing, movement. Modification to wood. Box , Container , Containerization 721 Words | 3 Pages.
new HIV infections By 2015, lower yearly new infections by 25% (56, 300 to 42, 225) Reduce HIV annual transmission rate by 30% Reducing HIV-related . Vocabulary Brookes Shawnigan! health disparities By 2015, increase HIV diagnosed gay and bisexual men with undetectable viral load by 20% References . Alcoholic beverage , Behavior , Blood alcohol content 462 Words | 3 Pages. used specific questionnaire to collect the required information regarding social, demographic profile, information regarding their sexuality, and thinking, clinical . Vocabulary For Writing Essays Brookes! data. The clinical data included, time since diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, ARV used, HIV viral load , and the clinical classification of AIDS. The information was used to verify the human Westbourne School quality of life. The systemic review was used to vocabulary essays Brookes Lake develop technical guidelines for HIV prevention and University of Utah, treatment (Deanna, 2013). A qualitative based method was used to. AIDS , Antiretroviral drug , Cytomegalovirus 2300 Words | 11 Pages. Global Stretch and Shrink Film Market. engineered polythene films used for for writing essays Lake, packaging goods.
These films have special chemical properties, which make them differ in creative Windermere their flexibility and stretch . For Writing Essays Brookes Shawnigan! ability. Stretch films are stretchable, elastic thin polythene films used to wrap around pallet loads . Shrink films are thin films that are wrapped around a single product or commodity and write for school Newcastle University, require the application of heat for vocabulary for writing Brookes Shawnigan Lake, packing. Human Writing Westbourne! These films help to prevent the spoilage of goods from air and moisture, thus enhancing the Shawnigan Lake quality of packaged products. Dow Jones Industrial Average , Packaging , Packaging and critical thinking foundation University, labeling 471 Words | 4 Pages. These Wooden Crates are produced using premium quality woods like Babool, Neem, Kanaj wood and are used extensively for multi stacking multi handling of vocabulary essays Shawnigan . varied commodities. Notable for Windermere School, their high strength, durability, precise dimensions and high- load bearing capacity, these Wooden Crates are tightly clipped at vocabulary for writing essays Lake, the edges for ensuring minimum permeability and safe storage. Uni Essay School! We offer our clients an Brookes Shawnigan ample range of Heat Treated / Fumigated Treated Wooden Pallets.
Our Fumigated Wooden Pallets are manufactured. Box , Heat treatment , Packaging 1757 Words | 10 Pages. home, laboratory tests, and writing Istituto, compliance with medication regimen. For Writing Essays Brookes Shawnigan! 9. What additional laboratory test would you anticipate for C.Q? The progression of HIV . Creative Critical Preparatory School! infection is vocabulary for writing Shawnigan Lake monitored by two important laboratory assessments: CD4+ T-cell counts and HIV viral load . 10.
C.Q asks whether there is any treatment available. How would you respond? Absolutely, with advances in Windermere treatment, HIV is managed as a chronic disease, since people are leaving longer. The major drug classifications for HIV include entry/fusion. AIDS , Antiretroviral drug , HIV 2147 Words | 7 Pages. ? Load Testing for Webservices Prerequisites – SoapUI 4.5.0 –Beta and LoadUI 2.1.1 The following document would test a web service for . response and for writing Lake, any amt of load (request hits) . Save the uni essay writing Minster School WSDL file for Brookes Lake, the Web Service to critical thinking be tested on your local. Vocabulary For Writing Essays Shawnigan! Open SoapUI and create new SoapUI Project. Put a suitable name and browse the wsdl file of the thinking of Utah web Service to be tested.
The newly created web projet looks something like below. Vocabulary Brookes Shawnigan Lake! 1) Testing a Web Service for response Go to Communication Channel. Internet , Load testing , SOAP 404 Words | 2 Pages. kneading machine. The bowl is removed and mixing is done at intervals of essay Paris 40 minutes.
The mixed dough is fermented for two hours, knocked back and vocabulary for writing essays Brookes Shawnigan, rested for . 30 to 40 minutes. The dough is writing Istituto ready for dividing. Vocabulary For Writing Essays Lake! The dividing is done as per the size of the load to be manufactured. The divided dough pieces are panned and kept for final processing. When the dough attains a particular rais-ing, they are backed for 40 minutes at 420°F. Baked dough is human essay writing Westbourne cooled sufficiently. Sliced and then wrapped. Essays Brookes! V. QUALITY. Baker , Baking , Bread 457 Words | 3 Pages. drilling. November 2012 - present The Green Project New Orleans, Louisiana Intake Specialist Inspect, price and Unload inventory from . customer donations, delivery and demolition trucks entering store and dispurse into warehouse and store.
Load inventory unto customer vehicles leaving the store. February 2012 - July 2012 Wis International Columbia, South Carolina Inventory Counter Count Inventory of department and how to article Newcastle, convenient stores across the state of South Carolina. July. Bill of vocabulary for writing essays Brookes Lake lading , Columbia, South Carolina , Commercial item transport and distribution 397 Words | 3 Pages. load rebalancing the distributed file on cloud. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, . Issue 4, April 2013) International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Paper LOAD REBALANCING ALGORITHM FOR DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEM IN CLOUDS Miss. Gayatri B. Pawar1, Mr. Abhijit Shinde2 1 Pune university, B.E. Computer Engineering Final year, Smt. Kashibai navale college of engineering, pune, India.
2 Pune university, B.E. Essay Writing Phrases Marangoni Paris! Computer. Distributed file systems , File system , Load balancing 2580 Words | 8 Pages. LOAD SHEDDING IN PAKISTAN Out Line 1- Load - Shedding of electricity--------------a common . feature in vocabulary Pakistan. A- Both in winter and summer B- Scheduled and unscheduled ii - Factures behind Load - Shedding A- Low generation of electricity B- Shortage of rains and water C- Corruption and ineffleiency in Wapda. D- Fewer Dams E- New Connections iii- Disadvantages A- Untold Misery B- Low production and progress C- Damage to equipments D- Thefs. Energy conservation , Solar energy , Solar power 532 Words | 2 Pages. thickness. Writing An Academic Journal Article Holderness School! The distribution of floor loads on floor beams is vocabulary for writing essays Brookes Shawnigan based on the geometric configuration of the beams forming the grid.
1 3 . Tributary area of columns A1, B2 and C1 shown shaded 2 Girders on critical all four sides Theoretical Tributary Areas 3 Theoretical Tributary Beam Areas 4 Theoretical Tributary Beam Areas 5 Typical Floor Framing System Floor Beam Girder Simplified Floor Beam and Girder Loadings 6 Example Load Distribution Problem The floor. Beam , Construction terminology , Dead and Shawnigan Lake, live loads 640 Words | 6 Pages. season. These price differences can be used to reduce peaks in creative Windermere School demand ( load shifting or peak lopping), reducing the need for additional . power plants and in particular the higher polluting and costly to operate natural gas powered peaker plants. The feedback they provide to consumers has also been shown to cut overall energy consumption. Another type of smart meter uses nonintrusive load monitoring to automatically determine the number and type of appliances in. Electric power , Electricity distribution , Electricity generation 749 Words | 3 Pages.
tools. What is vocabulary for writing essays Transformations? Briefly explain the basic transformation types . Uni Essay Writing Minster! Ans : ETL (Extract-Transform- Load ) ETL comes from Data . Vocabulary For Writing Essays Brookes! Warehousing and stands for Lincoln Minster, Extract-Transform- Load . ETL covers a process of how the vocabulary for writing essays Shawnigan data are loaded from the uni essay writing source system to the data warehouse. Vocabulary For Writing Essays Brookes Lake! Currently, the ETL encompasses a cleaning step as a separate step. The sequence is critical thinking foundation of Utah then Extract-Clean-Transform- Load . Let us briefly describe each step of the ETL process. Process Extract The Extract step covers the essays Brookes data extraction. Business intelligence , Data management , Data mart 1833 Words | 13 Pages. management: Date and how to University, time management is amplified because of the finer granularity of data Customized views significantly improve query performance and vocabulary Brookes Shawnigan, . reduce the load on the data warehouse With the extensive number of on-line, real-time users, views also provided an human rights essay writing School extra level of for writing essays Brookes Shawnigan security against access to unauthorized data Data loads come in via many different routes and methods, so generalizable components to critical thinking handle data loading are used to save the effort of starting from Brookes Shawnigan, scratch to develop. Airline , Business intelligence , Customer service 826 Words | 3 Pages.
number of frequent travelers through strengthening and maintaining customer loyalty. Exercise #4 – pg. 44 Question 2: For an airlines company, identify . Uni Essay Lincoln Minster School! three operational applications that would feed into the data warehouse. What would be the data load and refresh cycles for vocabulary for writing Brookes Shawnigan Lake, each? Answer/ A data warehouse is how to write a newspaper article for school University a managed set of data located after and for writing Brookes Shawnigan Lake, outside the operational systems. Commonly referred as enterprise data warehouse (EDW), the database is thinking foundation University useful in data analysis and reporting. It forms. Airline , Business intelligence , Data management 1583 Words | 8 Pages.
This allows Nevron Chart for vocabulary essays Lake, SharePoint users to create complex pivot charts visually and directly in the SharePoint environment. View More y . DataMigrator ETL Software [pic] Extract, Transform and human rights writing Westbourne School, Load your Data with iWay DataMigrator Robust Extract, Transform, and Load (ETL) Technology iWay DataMigrator is a powerful and comprehensive set of Shawnigan fully automated tools designed to dramatically simplify data integration, including the critical thinking foundation creation, maintenance, and expansion of data warehouses. .NET Framework , Business intelligence , Data management 1540 Words | 6 Pages. quickly identifies the most recent values) • Customized views (with indexes, joins, and aggregations) significantly improve query performance and reduce . the essays Shawnigan load on the data warehouse • With the extensive number of on- line, real-time users, views also provided an extra level of security against Minster School, access to unauthorized data • Data loads come in via many different routes and methods (push-pull, subscribe, queues, trickle-batch, etc.), so generalizable components to handle data loading are used. Business intelligence , Data management , Data mining 1377 Words | 5 Pages.
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50 Free Microsoft Word Resume Templates for for writing Brookes Download. Writing Holderness! Microsoft Word resume templates are the most frequently used tool in vocabulary for writing the job hunting. It also happens to be the most pivotal tool of job seekers. Resumes can be drafted using almost any word processor or graphic design or even web design software. Essay Westbourne! But word processors are preferred in almost all scenarios. And Microsoft Word is the clear winner among word processors. Essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake! So everybody seeks for Microsoft Word resume templates. One good thing about word resume templates is write a newspaper article for school Newcastle University, that they can be important in almost all of the vocabulary Shawnigan famous word processors, such as OpenOffice and others. It can be frustrating having to create your resume.
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This is a unique resume template. Vocabulary Brookes! It has that star rating system that enables to describe your expertise level in various kinds of skills in a very effective, yet quick way. This is a classic themed resume design that can ever hardly fail to impress the interviewer. This design shows that you are a serious professional. The good thing about such designs is human essay writing Westbourne, that they put a lot of emphasis on your content and nothing else.
This is quite a congested design that contains loads and loads of data one page. You should only use this template if you have loads to say about you but you wanna keep your resume to one page. Note: in design industry, congested resumes are not popular. Vocabulary Shawnigan Lake! So if you are a designer, I#8217;d suggest you don#8217;t use this template. As the critical thinking foundation University of Utah name suggest, this resume is designed for people with a lot of experience to show. This is a congested resume design, it will not look beautiful if some parts are left empty. This is a beautiful classic themed template. I love this design but I just have one problem, I feel that this template is not that memorable . Otherwise, it is one of vocabulary essays Shawnigan my favorites in this collection. This simple and free Word template is rights Westbourne, included in vocabulary Shawnigan Lake this list not because of its design but because of what the concept and structure of a comprehensive CV should be.
In fact, the chronological resume template is the most traditional resume format. Employers prefer this resume template so try to use it even if it means you have to iron out a few problems such as unemployment in your work history. Word Resume Templates from Microsoft. These are resume templates designed by none other than Microsoft itself. These are resume templates made by writing Microsoft itself. You can download these .dotx files and use them as templates in Microsoft word.
You can open this file like any other routine .doc file in Word. Set of 3 pages for essays Shawnigan a free word resume template for the entry level. This is a resume designed for newcomers. An Academic Journal Article! The entry level guys who are starting their career. Another set of vocabulary for writing essays Lake 3 pages for a free word resume template . This resume is designed for intermediate level professionals, containing three different aspects of uni essay writing School pages. Convey your work experience to a potential employer with this blue line design template which features your work experience in chronological order. For Writing Brookes Shawnigan Lake! Emphasize your education with this formal resume template that includes an artfully designed header and essay Istituto Paris a Quick Parts menu to add a photo to your resume. A modern resume template with an vocabulary essays Shawnigan attractive color scheme and an indented resume body; includes a Quick Parts menu to select a header with or without a photo. A basic resume template with an oversized font and a shadowed border; includes a Quick Parts menu to add a photo to your resume. Writing Journal Holderness! In this resume template your contact information is printed down the right side of the page, inscribed in vocabulary Brookes Lake white text against an orange column. This basic resume template has a serene color scheme and includes a Quick Parts menu to select a header with or without photo.
This resume template is framed by a light gray border and highlights your work experience; includes a Quick Parts menu to foundation University of Utah select a header with or without photo. This resume template has a trio-colored header, is framed with a black border and vocabulary Brookes Lake includes a Quick Parts menu to add a photo to your resume. Microsoft Word Templates#8230; not exactly resumes. Uni Essay Minster School! These are Microsoft Word templates that are handy but they are not exactly resume templates. Accompany your unsolicited resume with this job application letter template which lists your strengths and conveys your desire to work. Employees wishing to recommend a friend or colleague for vocabulary Lake a job with your company can use this form template to submit the candidate#8217;s resume to the Human Resources department or hiring manager. Write A Newspaper Newcastle! Customize the template to match your company#8217;s referral program policies. Use this functional resume format to highlight your career accomplishments when applying for a position within the Shawnigan same company.
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EMail Privacy Rights In Business Essay Research. Papparizzi Rights Essay Research Paper Does the for writing essays Lake, 4 . Rights Of Privacy In The Private Sector 16 . Computer Privacy Essay Research Paper Computer Privacy 8 . Technology Vs Privacy Essay Research Paper 5 . Privacy Essay Essay Research Paper Privacy 4 . Privacy Essay Research Paper Privacy is how to for school, something 12 . The Right To Privacy Essay Research Paper 2 . E-Mail Privacy Rights In Business Essay, Research Paper. E-Mail Privacy Rights In Business. E-Mail Privacy Rights in Business. How far we have come in such a small time. When you think that the personal computer was invented in for writing essays Shawnigan, the early 1980’s and by the end of the writing an academic journal, millennium, several households have two PC’s, it is an vocabulary essays Lake, astonishing growth rate. And, when you consider business, I can look around the office and see that a lot of the cubicles contain more than one PC. It is writing phrases Istituto Marangoni, astonishing to vocabulary for writing essays me that such an item has taken control over the information technology arena like personal computers. Consider, however, the items that go along with personal computers: printers; modems; telephone lines for your modem; scanners; the software; online access; and lets not forget, e-mail addresses.
E-mail, or electronic messaging, has taken over the communications world as the preferred method of exchanging information. From the simple, “let’s do lunch” messages, to how to a newspaper University the ability to send a business associate anywhere in the world an e-mail with an attached document that contains 150 megabytes of information, e-mail is quickly replacing the telephone, the U.S. post-office, and vocabulary for writing Lake even overnight delivery services as primary method of exchanging important data. With the ability to create and send this instant information, the technology has far outpaced the education of how to uni essay writing Lincoln Minster School use this phenomena, the affects of this technology on society, and how to prevent this method of communication from growing itself out of existence. Consider the following numbers: ? There were about vocabulary for writing essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake 23 million e-mail users in 1994. ? There will be approximately 74 millions e-mail users in the year 2000. ? Employees sent approximately 263 billion e-mail messages in 1994. ? Employees will send approximately 4 trillion e-mail message in the year 2000. ? A 1993 study by MacWorld magazine found that 22% of employers have engaged in searches of employer computer files, voice mail, electronic mail, or other network communications. ? The number of people subject to electronic surveillance at work has increased from approximately 8 million in 1990 to an academic journal article Holderness more than 20 million in 1996. ? Nearly 60% of vocabulary Lake, companies that monitor e-mail or other employee communications conceal doing so. ? Less than 20% of companies have a written policy on electronic monitoring.
One of the major areas affected by this new technology is corporate America. Not only is it struggling with how to keep pace with the growing need for fast and efficient e-mail, but also the dangers associated with it. Among these dangers is privacy, in particular, what legal rights corporations and employees have in writing journal, keeping their communications private. This paper will introduce the current legislation in this area, the expectation of essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake, privacy an employee should have, any court decisions that provide additional ruling, and what a corporation can do to prevent litigation in uni essay Lincoln School, these matters. II. Employees Expectation of Privacy in e-mail. As an e-mail systems manager, I was under the impression that since the company owns the electronic messaging system, the company could view the contents of any employees e-mail account at any time.
I was only partially right. The explanation of the for writing essays Brookes Lake, current law will describe this in detail, but, the employee does have a certain right to privacy where e-mail is concerned. Arguably, a company’s most valuable asset is it’s data. Of Utah. In the age of technological marvels, it is easier to create more valuable data and, on the other hand, that data is more easily retrievable, especially by persons not authorized to obtain the data. Employees of for writing essays Lake, companies can expect a certain right of privacy granted by how to write a newspaper article University, three main sources: (1) The United States Constitution; (2) Federal Statutes (The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986); and (3) State Statutes (many of which have not addressed the essays Lake, issue). The United States Constitution provides a limited group of employees with privacy safeguards. The safeguards are based on guarantees in the United States Constitution’s Fourth amendment and similar state constitutions. Uni Essay Lincoln Minster School. Courts have upheld that the Fourth Amendment’s protection against “unreasonable search and seizures” applies to for writing essays Brookes Shawnigan workplace invasions of privacy. However, this Constitutional protection is limited to governmental intrusions.
Hence, it does not apply to private employers, unless an employee successfully shows “state action.” In Schowengerdt v. General Dynamics Corporation [823 F.2d 1328, 1332 n.3 (9th Cir. 1987).] Schowengerdt held that the Minster School, employee had a reasonable expectation to for writing Lake privacy in thinking University of Utah, work areas of exclusive use to the employee, such as the essays Shawnigan, employee’s office, unless the employer had previously notified the employee that the employee’s office was subject to a work-related search on a regular basis. The court concluded that despite the employee’s reasonable expectation to privacy in his office that a warrantless search of the office was permissible when it was work-related and reasonable under the critical Windermere, circumstances. As the wording of the 4th amendment suggests. it does not protect against all searches, only unreasonable searches. Vocabulary For Writing Lake. Courts have defined unreasonable searches as those against a person who has an expectation of privacy which must be protected.
This can be shown in United States v. Perkins. [383 F. Supp. 922, 927 (N.D. Ohio 1974)] Employees who lack this reasonable expectation of privacy such as through awareness of publicized monitoring policies, will generally be denied any constitutional protection. The policy, to thinking University be effective, should warn employees that e-mail messages may be audited despite certain system features that give the appearance of privacy, such as personal passwords and the employee’s ability to delete messages. III. Current Law Pertaining to E-mail Communication. The technology revolution of the e-mail address enabled businesses and private individuals to communicate in ways never before imagined. For Writing Essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake. As with anything, the easier it is, the easier it becomes to human essay writing Westbourne do something wrong.
With e-mail, this is very evident. In order to prevent wrongdoing and to protect the e-mail user, Congress enacted the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of for writing essays, 1986 (EPCA). [Pub. L. No. 99-508, 100 Stat. 1848 (1986)(codified at 18 U.S.C. ?? 2510-2521, 2701-2710, 3117, 3121-3126 (1988)).] The ECPA amended Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, [18 U.S.C. ?? 2510-2520 (1994).]. An Academic Article Holderness School. The ECPA was passed in response to Congress’ perception that the privacy protection of the 1968 Act was limited to narrowly defined “wire” and “oral” communications. This bill indicated the realization that advancing technology posed potential threats to citizen’s civil liberties and that changes were needed to update the older wiretapping laws.
The amendment expanded the scope of Title III to include the vocabulary for writing essays Brookes Shawnigan, interception of “electronic communication” and unauthorized access of stored electronic communications. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(1), (4), (12), (17) (1994).] E-mail was not specifically mentioned in the ECPA’s definition of critical foundation of Utah, “electronic communication”, but, was originally intended to be included. Essays Brookes Shawnigan. “Electronic communication” is defined as in the ECPA as the “transfer of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of how to write for school Newcastle University, any nature transmitted in whole or in part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photoelectronic or photooptical system that affects interstate or foreign commerce. Vocabulary Essays Brookes Lake. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(12)(1994). While this does not directly mention e-mail, the history of legislative statutes indicates the term includes electronic mail, digitized transmissions, and video conferences. [S. Rep. No. Creative Thinking School. 99-541, at 14 (1986)]. The ECPA also outlaws the interception of electronic communications. [18 U.S.C. Vocabulary Essays Shawnigan Lake. ?? 2511(1)(a), 2520 (1994).] The ECPA amended the Federal Wiretap Act’s definition of “intercept” as “the aural or other aquisition of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(4) (1994).] The key to this is including “or other” in the definition, since electronic communications cannot be acquired aurally. Even though electronic communications are now included within the human essay Westbourne, ECPA’s interception clause, the range of protection afforded by the prohibition against interception has been narrowly interpreted by vocabulary for writing Lake, one of the few courts to address the issue.
An example of this lies in how to write University, the decision of the 5th Circuit Court in the case of vocabulary Lake, Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. United States Secret Service, [36 F.3d 457 (5th Cir. 1994).] In this case, the essay Istituto Marangoni, court decided whether or not the for writing, Secret Service’s seizure of a computer that was used to operate an electronic bulletin board system, constituted an “intercept” of the stored but unread e-mail contained on the system. Thinking Foundation. Even though the court decided that e-mail can be intercepted, the court decided that the Secret Service’s seizure of the unread e-mail did not constitute an interception. The main reason for this was a distinction between e-mail in “transfer” and e-mail in electronic storage. The use of the word “transfer” in the definition of “electronic communication,” and vocabulary essays Shawnigan its omission in critical thinking, that definition of the phrase “any electronic storage of such communication” says that Congress did not intend for “intercept” to apply to “electronic communications” when those communications are in “electronic storage.” This means that there is only a very narrow window of time during which an e-mail interception may occur. This would be the time between the time an e-mail message is sent and the time it is saved to any location designated as storage.
So, for all intents-and-purposes, interception of e-mail within the prohibition of the ECPA is Shawnigan Lake, virtually impossible. The next condition of the ECPA which concerns most employers is its protection against human rights writing Westbourne School, the unauthorized access of electronic communications is vocabulary for writing essays Brookes, electronic storage. Writing Journal Article Holderness School. [18 U.S.C. For Writing. ? 2701 (1994).] E-mail in electronic storage includes e-mail which has been temporarily stored following transmission, as well as e-mail which has been stored for backup protection. A Newspaper Article For School University. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(17) (1994).] This definition would include most e-mail as existing in electronic storage. So, any protection of employee privacy found in the ECPA will be based upon the unauthorized access provision. The ECPA has built-in exemptions that will protect most employers and protect them against suit. These exemptions are: prior consent, business use, and system provider.
1. Prior Consent. The best protection against liability under the Shawnigan Lake, ECPA is uni essay writing Lincoln School, when prior consent has been given for any interception or access of e-mail in vocabulary for writing essays Brookes Shawnigan, electronic storage. Interception of electronic communication is expressly allowed by the ECPA when “one of the parties to the communication has given prior consent.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2511(2)(d) (1994).] Also, access to stored electronic communication is allowed without liability when authorization has been given “by a user of that service with respect to creative thinking Windermere Preparatory a communication of or intended for that user.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2701(c)(2) (1994).] An easy case to understand here is vocabulary Lake, American Computer Trust Leasing v. Jack Farrell Implement Co. [763 F. Supp. 1473, 1495 (D. Minn. 1991)]. Critical University. Summary judgement was granted in this case stating that when the party consented to the access of its computer system, it “cannot now claim that such access was unauthorized.” The key to prior consent is setting policies for corporate e-mail use and notifying employees that they will be monitored. This policy should be corporate-wide and employees that use the system will be judged as giving implied consent upon reviewing the policies and vocabulary for writing Shawnigan Lake agreeing to thinking School the fact that they have read and reviewed the policies. Employers should also be aware that a provision in an e-mail policy which only suggests that monitoring will be done, such as one which reads, “ABC, Inc. reserves the right to monitor all e-mail communication,” may not operate to essays Brookes Lake create implied consent. 2. Business Use Exemption.
Employers may use the business use exemption for interceptions made within the ordinary course of business. The business use exemption is more commonly applied in telephone monitoring cases where improper use of a business telephone is in question. Therefore, the provision upon which it is based is unlikely to critical thinking apply in the e-mail arena. The definition of “intercept” in the ECPA excludes interceptions captured by “telephone or telegraph instrument, equipment, or facility, or any component thereof, (i) furnished to the subscriber or user by essays Shawnigan Lake, a provider of an academic journal, wire or electronic communication services…being used by the subscriber or user in the ordinary course of business.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(5)(a)(i) (1994).] Based on this definition, it indicates that telephone or telegraph equipment is necessary for the exclusion to apply. Vocabulary. It is even doubtful that the courts will consider a modem to thinking foundation of Utah be telephone equipment.
There is another clause within the ECPA that allows employers to for writing Brookes Shawnigan apply the business use exemption. Section 2511(2)(a)(i) states: It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an operator of a switchboard, or an officer, employee, or agent of a provider of wire of electronic communication service, whose facilities are used in the transmission of writing Lincoln Minster School, a wire of electronic communication, to intercept, disclose, or use that communication in the normal course of employment while engaged in any activity which is a necessary incident to the rendition of for writing essays Lake, his service or to the protection of the rights or property of the provider of that service. Critical School. [18 U.S.C. For Writing Lake. ? 2511(2)(a)(i) (1994).] For this exemption to apply, the employer would have to be classified as a system provider or an uni essay Lincoln Minster, agent of a system provider. Several commentators on the subject have speculated that employers do qualify as system providers. The term provider would likely include public email networks, such as Prodigy and vocabulary for writing essays Brookes Lake Compuserve, and the term agent may or may not be defined to include employers who subscribe to or use their e-mail service. Companies with their own e-mail systems on their own networks could also fall under this exception as electronic communication service providers. Assuming that an employer does qualify as a system provider, any interception would still need to be made within the ordinary course of business. [18 U.S.C. ? 2511(2)(a)(i) (1994).] Previous case law in telephone call monitoring provides some “stare decisis” for monitoring of employee e-mail in the ordinary course of business. In both Watkins v. L.M. Berry #038; Co. [704 F.2d 577 (11th Cir. 1983).] and Briggs v. Writing An Academic Journal Article Holderness School. American Filter Co. [630 F.2d 414 (5th Cir.
1980).], the courts decided that if the employer had difficulty controlling personal use of business equipment, then a personal call could be intercepted in the ordinary course of business to determine its nature, but not its contents. Vocabulary Essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake. The employer should be cautious with the business use exception, as the definition of “within the ordinary course of business” is still undefined. 3. System Providers. Where employers provide their own company e-mail system there are two additional thoughts to support the non-relevance of the an academic journal article, ECPA to essays Shawnigan Lake them. The first theory is only available for employers with a system whose messages remain entirely intrastate, and thinking Preparatory School is based on the ECPA’s applicability being limited to interstate communications. Under this theory, an intracompany e-mail system, whose messages do not cross state lines and which is not connected to an interstate network, fails to fall under the definition of “electronic communications service,” [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(15) (1994).] and falls outside the protection of the ECPA. The definition of electronic communications under the law only pertains to such communication that affects interstate or foreign commerce.
However, the action could fall under the vocabulary essays Brookes Shawnigan, Interstate Commerce Clause if it is determined that the activity affects interstate commerce. In Perez v. United States [402 U.S. 146, 152 (1971)] the court stated “that a class of phrases Marangoni Paris, activities can be properly regulated by for writing essays Shawnigan, Congress without proof that the uni essay Lincoln Minster School, particular intrastate activity against vocabulary essays Shawnigan, which a sanction was laid had an effect on commerce.” Also, in Wickard v. An Academic Journal School. Filburn [317 U.S. 111, 125 (1942)], the observation was made that “local activity may be reached by vocabulary Brookes, Congress if it exerts a “substantial economic effect on creative Windermere Preparatory School interstate commerce, irrespective of whether such effect is indirect.” Because the Interstate Commerce Clause could pre-empt this theory, the theory appears to have no basis and would be a shaky defense in a court of vocabulary Brookes, law. The second theory for exclusion rests upon an academic article School, the ECPA’s clear exemption of vocabulary for writing Brookes, system providers from its prohibition against access and disclosure of stored electronic communications. [18 U.S.C. ? 2701(c)(1) (1994)] The exception states “Subsection (a) of University, this section does not apply with respect to conduct authorized (1) by the person or entity providing a wire or electronic communications service.” Although speculation provides that employers should qualify as system providers, there is little legislative history that provides clarity on whether or not Congress intended to vocabulary for writing Brookes Shawnigan Lake exempt private companies who provided their own e-mail system as system providers from the ECPA.
Senate Reports on the ECPA acknowledged the existence of internal e-mail, but did not address the law’s affect on those systems. In addition, testimony during the Senate hearings reflected an overriding concern for a company’s rather than an uni essay School, individual’s privacy. Some testimony during the Senate hearings even argued that the proposed legislation should cover all electronic communications. Brookes. Philip Walker, Vice-Chair of the Electronic Mail Association (EMA), stated that, “electronic mail users deserve privacy regardless of what type of entity runs their system.” [S. Rep. No. 99-541 (1986) Hearing on S. 1667 Before the Subcommittee on Patents, Copyrights and Trademarks of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 99th Congress 42 (1986)(statement of Senator Patrick Leahy (D-Vermont)).] This uncertainty of creative critical Windermere School, Congress has left the door open has left the door open for vocabulary essays Shawnigan Lake courts to create a narrow definition of system providers, which could only include public, commercial providers such as America On-line, Prodigy, and Compuserve. Employers should again not depend on human essay School the system provider exception, but rather use the business-use or consent exceptions.
IV. Case Discussion. In examining case law concerning e-mail privacy, there are a few standard benchmark cases. Most of for writing Shawnigan Lake, these cases come from California and it is uni essay writing Minster School, no coincidence that this law should develop in what is for writing essays, considered a technological center of the United States. In California, which has some of the strongest laws protecting individual privacy rights, the courts have been unwilling to enforce promises made by creative thinking Preparatory School, employers to employees that their e-mail messages would be kept confidential. In fact, the California Supreme Court refused to review the essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake, case of Alana Shoars v. Epson America Incorporated. Uni Essay Writing Lincoln. In that case Ms. Shoars, who was the e-mail administrator, told Epson’s employees that their e-mail was confidential. A supervisor subsequently set up a gateway that allowed him to essays Shawnigan monitor all the employees’ e-mail.
When Ms. Shoars learned of this practice she immediately complained to her supervisors, and then was fired for “gross insubordination”. The judges in Ms. Shoars case concluded that California privacy laws did not encompass the workplace or e-mail and basically left it in the hands of the writing article School, legislature. The same result was found in Flanagan v. Epson. [Sup. Ct. Cal., Jan.
4, 1991] In this case, an employee brought a class action lawsuit alleging that Epson invaded the employee’s privacy by circumventing their passwords and reading their e-mail messages while advertising a feeling which led the employees to believe their messages were private. The final case interpreting California’s Constitutional right to privacy was Bourke v. Vocabulary For Writing Essays Brookes Lake. Nissan Motor Company. [California Superior Court, Los Angeles County (1991)] In determining whether the right to privacy has been violated, the court said you must first determine whether the individual had a personal and objectively reasonable expectation of critical thinking, privacy. Nissan argued that there was no reasonable expectation because the vocabulary for writing Brookes Shawnigan, employees had signed a Computer User Registration Form, which stated, “it is company policy that employees and contractors restrict their use of of Utah, company-owned computer hardware and software to company business. Bourke and Hall countered that they had a privacy expectation because they were given passwords to access the computer system and were told to safeguard these passwords. For Writing Essays. The court realized that a subjective expectation of privacy existed, however this was not objectively reasonable. As a result, since there was no reasonable expectation of creative Preparatory School, privacy, there was no violation of the right to privacy.
The federal courts seem to have taken the vocabulary essays Lake, same position. In Smyth v. Uni Essay Writing Minster. Pillsbury Corporation, [914 F. Supp. 97 (E.D. Pa. For Writing Essays Brookes Shawnigan. 1996).] a federal court in Pennsylvania ruled this year that Pillsbury Corporation was entitled to fire a manager who had sent e-mail critical of writing an academic journal, a supervisor, even though the company had explicitly promised it would not monitor e-mail messages. The court reasoned that an employer may not be prevented from firing an employee based upon a promise, even when reliance is vocabulary Lake, demonstrated. The court also quickly dismissed plaintiff’s claims of a tortious invasion of privacy under common and write a newspaper article for school University statutory law. On the other hand, cases involving intrusion are found to not be an invasion of privacy when a legitimate business reason exists for an intrusion.
In Vernars v. Young [539 F.2d 966 (3d Cir. 1976).] an employee’s e-mail was opened and read by a fellow employee. For Writing Essays. A cause of a newspaper University, action for invasion of privacy was found in this case. This was because there was no legitimate business reason for the intrusion. V. Preventive Policy Measures. The ECPA signals that the most favorable method for vocabulary for writing essays Brookes Shawnigan employers to protect against liability is to gain prior consent from employees before monitoring or accessing their business e-mail accounts. What this does is writing an academic article Holderness, provides a reasonable expectation of privacy (or lack thereof) for employees regarding e-mail. The following issues should be considered when creating policies concerning e-mail practices: ? Consult a lawyer or other employment specialist with expertise in employment and privacy issues in your state. ? Prepare a written policy.
? Include a clear description of the vocabulary essays, permissible uses of e-mail. ? Receive verification that the employees have reviewed and agree to the policies. ? Update the policies to change with technology. ? Emphasize and Marangoni Paris impermissible content for e-mails. ? Clearly state that the e-mail administrators may unintentionally view e-mail during troubleshooting practices. ? Inform employees and independent contractors of any intent to vocabulary Shawnigan Lake monitor e-mails. ? State the critical of Utah, consequences of misuse of the essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake, e-mail system. ? Show flexibility by allowing limited personal use of the e-mail system but clearly define acceptable personal uses. ? Be clear if different standards apply to different classifications of human rights essay School, employees/managers. ? Remind employees of any confidential nature of your projects that should not be disclosed in e-mails. ? Clearly describe the vocabulary essays Shawnigan, times that the monitoring of e-mail will take place.
? Create policies regarding the retention time of critical Windermere School, e-mails and backups of e-mail systems. ? Do not bury the policy in pages and pages of policies in a company handbook. ? Distribute and re-distribute the policy from time-to-time so employees remember it. ? Be consistent and vocabulary Brookes Shawnigan Lake non-discriminatory in your enforcement of the policies. Most companies are flexible and writing an academic Holderness School allow for employee’s limited personal use of the e-mail system. They simply trust their employees to use good judgement and get their jobs done. Others either have written policies in place or are planning them. Whether or not you decide to have a policy for your company, let the employees and vocabulary for writing essays Brookes independent contractors know if you do or do not have a policy. Clear communication is the critical, best way to avoid disputes.
It also provides for a more positive working environment. VI. Vocabulary For Writing Brookes. Future Privacy Legislation. Several attempts have been made to make the current laws regarding privacy in e-mail more clear and more in line with the technological advances of the late 20th century. In 1993, a bill was introduced by Senator Paul Simon (D-Ill.) to restrict employer monitoring of e-mail. The bill never came up for a vote. The Privacy for Consumers and Workers Act has not been voted on either. This legislation was introduced by Representative Pat Williams (D-Mont.). The PCWA addresses from two perspectives the issue of employer monitoring of employees: electronic monitoring and telephone call accounting. Foundation. In addressing the issue of electronic monitoring, PCWA can be analyzed in vocabulary essays Brookes, five parts: permitted monitoring, notice of monitoring, prohibited monitoring, data obtained from monitoring, and penalties.
Thought has been given to allow technological organizations, such as the Electronic Messaging Association, to govern the use of e-mail and the privacy that users can expect. The organization has already adopted rules for the use of e-mail as well as assisted in creating the “ten commandments for e-mail.” Those commandments (there are actually only human writing School 7) are: ? Don’t use anonymous remailers. ? Don’t look at for writing essays other’s messages. ? Don’t misrepresent or lie. ? Follow EMA guidelines.
? Consider presentation of uni essay Lincoln, a message. In today’s technologically advanced world, new ideas and inventions are around us on a daily basis. A lot of these advances create opportunities for play or even danger. Vocabulary Essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake. To prevent this action in the workplace, employers are using technology to monitor and keep track of employees and their actions. The level of surveillance being practiced by employers is unprecedented.
On both sides, employer and employee, their must be efforts made to prevent over-abuse by either side. Thinking Windermere Preparatory School. There are both ethical and social responsibilities that need to be shared to keep the technology from overwhelming us. I hope that I have shown that the current law in Brookes Shawnigan Lake, this area is inadequate and critical School needs to vocabulary for writing Brookes be reviewed. The current law in this area, the thinking University of Utah, Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, does not satisfactorily address the many problems in vocabulary for writing Brookes, connection with abuse of e-mail systems by uni essay Lincoln, employees or abuse of privacy issues by employers. The Federal Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit has commented that the for writing Brookes Shawnigan Lake, ECPA is simply not clear and is too broad to be effective. One of the creative critical thinking Windermere Preparatory School, main reasons for this is for writing essays Shawnigan, that the ECPA is simply an amended version of the 1968 federal wiretap law which was originally adopted to deal with telephone eavesdropping. Those laws do not significantly address the changes in technology that provide the wonder of e-mail.
With the current legislation being ambiguous, and writing journal article Holderness School no new legislation yet passed, the next best solution is encouraging employers to implement a clear e-mail policy. All employees should receive a copy and be required to sign a form which acknowledges the fact they have read the details of the company’s policy. This should not be considered a permanent solution to the problem of e-mail privacy. It is only a temporary solution that will keep employees and employers on the same page regarding the Brookes, expectation of corporate behavior as far as e-mail is involved. ACLU. (September, 1996). SURVEILLANCE INCORPORATED: American Workers Forfeit Privacy for a Paycheck. [On-Line]. Available: http://aclu.org/library/wrrpt96.html. AFTAB.
Monitoring Employees’ Electronic Communications: Big Brother or Responsible Business? [On-Line]. Available: http://aftab.com/privacy.htm. Angell, D. and Heslop, B. (1994). The Elements of E-Mail Style. Addison Wesley, Reading , MA. Bacard, A. E-Mail Privacy FAQ. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.andrebacard.com/ema. Casser, K. (1996). Employers, Employees, E-mail and The Internet. Phrases Istituto Paris. [On-Line].
Available: http://cla.org/RuhBook/chp6.htm. Cavanaugh, M. Workplace Privacy in an Era of New Technologies. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.ema.org/html/pubs/mmv2n3/workpriv.htm. Electronic Communications Privacy Act (1986). [On-Line]. Available: http://www.tscm.com/ecpa.htm#s2511. Entwisle, S.M. E-mail and Privacy in the Workplace. For Writing Essays Shawnigan. [On-Line] Available: http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/ Freibrun, E. (1994). E-mail Privacy in human rights essay Westbourne School, the Workplace – To What Extent?. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.cl.ais.net/lawmsf/articl9.htm. Gan, M. (1996).
Employee Rights #038; Email. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.newsguild.org/d6t.htm. Lee, L. Watch Your E-Mail! Employee E-Mail Monitoring and Privacy Law in the Age of the “Electronic Sweatshop. Morris, F. For Writing Shawnigan Lake. E-Mail Communications: The Next Employment Law Nightmare. HR Advisor (July-August 1995). Oppedahl, C. (July 3, 1995).
Security, Privacy, Discovery Issues Stem From E-Mail Communications. [On-Line].