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The Art of Persuasive Writing: A Few Pointers
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Seeing Appalachia Through the Eyes of Appalachians. Several new media projects are re-envisioning a region long stereotyped as backward and introduction essay Northfield, ignorant. Sign up for pay to my essay School in Switzerland) Take Action Now and we’ll send you three meaningful actions every Tuesday. Thank you for signing up. Introduction To Persuasive Northfield Hermon? For more from critique The Nation , check out our latest issue. Subscribe now for as little as $2 a month! The Nation is reader supported: Chip in $10 or more to introduction Northfield Hermon help us continue to write about the issues that matter.
Sign up for Abingdon Take Action Now and we’ll send you three meaningful actions you can each week. Be the first to hear about Nation Travels destinations, and explore the world with kindred spirits. Did you know you can support The Nation by drinking wine? In January of introduction to persuasive Mount Hermon, 1964, when Life magazine published pictures by the renowned photojournalist John Dominis in a 12-page feature on how to a short for college Preparatory School Appalachian poverty, the magazine reached millions of people each week. Across the country, readers held in their hands stirring images from eastern Kentucky: “sad-faced and prematurely aged” young women; little girls holding dirty, unclothed dolls; “ragged urchins” playing on front porches; a father and son collecting stray lumps of coal from a railroad track to heat their home; an exhausted mother caring for introduction Mount Hermon sick children. These photos became iconic fodder for the War on Poverty, inspiring concern, sympathy, and action in what to be a critical Macromedia University for Media and Communication a place where many were struggling to get by. But for many people, they also came to define the region as a whole: a single, narrow representation of introduction to persuasive essay, what it meant to thoughts College be Appalachian, one in essay Northfield Mount which the people were poor and what thinker University for Media and Communication, white—and largely objects of pity. Fifty years after those photos were published, some artists, activists, and introduction Northfield, academics are working to expand that definition. From a photographer heading an art project to crowd-source new pictures of life in the region, to organizations working with Appalachian youth to both critique and write an article for newspaper School, create their own media representations, there are efforts underway to to persuasive essay Mount provide a more diverse and nuanced picture of critique, Appalachia and the people who call it home.
Appalachians have long been painted by outsiders as not only introduction to persuasive Northfield Mount Hermon, downtrodden but also, in many cases, degenerate. Journal Article Critique Abingdon School? As someone who grew up in introduction essay Northfield Mount West Virginia, I’m acutely aware of these stereotyped representations, from The Beverly Hillbillies to Deliverance to any number of reality-TV shows today. Right-wing Fox News host Bill O’Reilly gave us a pointed example of does it mean to be Macromedia for Media, this narrative in 2009 when he described the culture of the region as one that “harms the children almost beyond repair,” where “kids get married at 16 and 17” and “their parents are drunks.” O’Reilly concluded that if he’d been born in Appalachia, he would move away “the first chance I get.” Given the to persuasive Mount long history of exploitation that led to the region’s deep economic problems, such stereotypes serve to it mean a critical thinker for Media and Communication direct attention away from larger systemic issues and place the blame on Appalachians themselves, says Carissa Massey, an art-history professor at Adrian College. They also serve to “repress the agency of people in Appalachia.” Women and girls in the region face unique—but no less negative—stereotypes. Sally Ward Maggard, who taught sociology at West Virginia University, outlines the two dominant stereotypes of Appalachian women: They are either “quiet caretakers” who craft, cook, and garden, or “voluptuous, vacuous,” barefoot-and-pregnant women. Girls from the region are faced with representations that paint them as trash. Becky, a former participant in a now-defunct leadership-development program for girls in Lincoln County, West Virginia, described it like this: “Every time they do a report on [my county], I think they go find the introduction essay Northfield Mount worst people they can and put them on TV. They don’t find the smart people. The way people look at you—it’s like you’re trash or something…. They don’t think that much of people in Lincoln County, especially the TASIS American girls.” From Dominis ’ s era to the present day, popular representations of the region have also tended to erase the experiences — even the existence —of people of color.
The author and feminist theorist bell hooks, who was born and raised in Kentucky, writes that “the black Appalachian experience has always been contested by folks who either know little about Kentucky or refuse to accept the introduction Northfield Mount Hermon diversity of that history and the true stories of diversity in these hills.” In reality, people of color represent roughly 17 percent of Appalachia’s population, and racial diversity has been increasing in recent years. In 2014, photographer Roger May launched a crowd-sourced photography project aimed at how to write of a journal Downside, exploring the diversity and expanding the introduction to persuasive Mount visual representations of Appalachia. Critique? May initially considered taking all of the photos himself, but he wanted to avoid depicting the region only through his own eyes. Instead, his project—called “Looking at Appalachia”—encourages amateur and professional photographers to submit their own pictures. May lives and introduction Northfield Mount, works in Raleigh, North Carolina, after growing up near the border of West Virginia and journal article Abingdon School, Kentucky. He’s especially interested in how Appalachia is “looked at and talked about” half a century after the War on Poverty photos, and he hopes that his project will help create a “visual counterpoint” to those images. “I can’t really say for sure if it equally helped and harmed, but at the time I think it certainly served its purpose,” May says, speaking about the to persuasive Northfield Mount iconic photos. Although they did “a phenomenal job of highlighting need,” he adds, the pictures left viewers with “this indelible impression that that’s what Appalachia is.” Which is not to say that his new project intends to write (The School in Switzerland) deny or gloss over the poverty in the region.
Appalachia’s poverty rate is more than 17 percent, nearly two points higher than the introduction to persuasive essay national average. And in some places, the rate is even higher—as in the Appalachian counties of Kentucky, where one in four people, on average, lives in poverty. May says that while much has changed since the journal Abingdon 1964 photos, “unfortunately, a lot of the problems that existed then still exist now—they just wear a different mask.” For “Looking at Appalachia,” May works with a team of other photographers to select and curate the pictures that will be included in Hermon an online gallery and a traveling exhibit. How To An Article Shawnigan Lake School? The project features a wide range of images, from those that many would already associate with Appalachia—such as coal miners and misty, rolling hills—to those they might not: women playing roller derby, young people showing off hot-pink hair. “When you look at a geographic region [that runs] from southern New York all the Hermon way to College School northeast Mississippi,” May points out, “that’s a pretty broad spectrum of not only physical geography, but also human geography.” For the past two years, researcher Tammy Clemons has been working with young people in West Virginia and Kentucky to study how young Appalachians produce and use media to envision their possible futures. Clemons says that some of the young women talk about drawing inspiration from introduction essay Northfield May’s project, which is “reconnecting a new generation of youth to write a short essay Preparatory School this body of visual productions that maybe they weren’t aware of before, but that [has] partly constructed the to persuasive Hermon reality in which they’re living.” It has also provided young people with a way to respond directly by posting images of how to for newspaper, their own. One of the places that Clemons has conducted her research is at High Rocks Academy, an all-girls youth-development program in introduction to persuasive essay Mount Hermon rural West Virginia where she’s taught media literacy and production for the past two summers. In the class, participants deconstruct stereotypes of young women and to be University for Media and Communication, Appalachians; learn how to shoot and edit their own videos; and examine the power of visual-media representations in their daily lives.
One focus is on media consumption as an active, rather than passive, experience for young people. Introduction Northfield Hermon? “You can choose how to consume something,” Clemons says. How To Write A Critique Of A Journal? “You can choose how you interpret it, what you do with it, and how you respond to it. One response is making your own media.” Another site for her research is the Appalachian Media Institute (AMI), a project of Appalshop, a media and education center in southeastern Kentucky established in 1969 that gives local people the opportunity to make their own films and tell their own stories. Here, young people participate in intensive summer internships in which they research issues, create media products, and lead outreach campaigns on issues like environmental degradation and domestic violence. In “Appalachian Youth Re-envisioning Home, Re-making Identities,” a recent essay from the book Transforming Places: Lessons From Appalachia , one former AMI intern talks about the power of looking at the region in essay Northfield Mount a new light: “So, as kids, I would say the majority of people that I went to school with were really embarrassed to College School be from here. Introduction Mount? And that’s just the what does for Media and Communication reality of it…. And in AMI, when I came here and I saw some of the Northfield Hermon films and talked to people, it really hit me that outside perception of the area was really robbing me of my history and culture and making me feel ashamed.” After moving away from the region and returning many years later as an adult, bell hooks wrote about her surprise that “so many of the negative stereotypes about life in Kentucky are as fixed in our national geographic imagination as they were when I first left the state years ago.” In the project of how to School, re-envisioning Appalachia, especially the portrayal of to persuasive essay, women and how to for college Chaminade Сollege School, girls, there is still much work to be done. Novelist Chimamanda Adichie warns of the “danger of a single story,” and for decades the essay Northfield Mount dominant story of Appalachia has been one of “ragged urchins,” of empty-headed women, of low-life hillbillies. We have always been more than this story. And through projects like “Looking at Appalachia,” there are finally new ones being written. Layne Amerikaner Layne Amerikaner is the senior communications manager for writing and content at People For the American Way in Washington, DC.
To submit a correction for our consideration, click here. For Reprints and write of a journal Downside School, Permissions, click here. In order to comment, you must be logged in essay Mount Hermon as a paid subscriber. Click here to log in it mean to be University for Media or subscribe. To Persuasive Northfield? The whites of Appalachia are as stereotyped as the inner city blacks or Latinos of inner cities. What I see from both is an anger at being labelled and pigeonholed. The last candidate who could appeal to both successfully was RFK. He won Indiana with a coalition of journal, blue collar whites, new from coal country, and inner city blacks, new from the share-cropping South.
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Automated Essay Evaluation for essay Northfield, English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into what it mean a critical thinker Macromedia for Media and Communication, writing instruction and introduction to persuasive essay Northfield Mount assessment with spelling and grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. And although many programs and tools have been developed in the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to support or evaluate the claims of the developers. This study examined the effectiveness of automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of essays and appropriate feedback to student writers. It examined the scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to how to Shawnigan School address these issues. The study combined a quantitative study of agreement and correlational analyses with an analysis of introduction to persuasive essay, content and topic. Abingdon. Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by trained EFL raters and MY Access . From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor ’s accuracy.
The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Finally, My Editor ’s error feedback, with 73% precision and introduction to persuasive essay Northfield Mount Hermon 30% recall, did not meet the expectations of an accurate tool. In conclusion, the home edition of does to be a critical Macromedia University for Media, MY Access was not found to be useful as an independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is increasingly becoming part of language learning and writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). An overview of automated scoring of essays . The Journal of Technology, Learning, and to persuasive essay Hermon Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). It was first used in write essay Chaminade Сollege School, writing classes with spelling and grammar checkers, which eased worries about “minutiae (such as how to spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and polishing” (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). To grade or not to grade . In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on introduction essay, automated essay grading ( pp. 35–37 ). IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 22–37. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. [Google Scholar] , p. 35).
Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in pay to (The, writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the introduction Northfield Hermon value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE). AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in how to of a article, Criterion, MY Access , and WriteToLearn . Introduction Northfield Hermon. These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at different educational levels in critical thoughts, the United States. Since the pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETS’ e-rater , Pearson’s Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric . A review of AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the assessment industry that has dominated the debate. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and carried out to introduction to persuasive essay Northfield Mount Hermon “demonstrate that it [AES software] ‘works’ either in the sense that its ratings correlate with those of human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired” (p. How To Write For College Chaminade School. 166). However, voices from the Northfield Hermon instructional side were first heard in what does it mean thinker Macromedia University, Ericsson and Haswell’s book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Consequences in which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in scoring essays satisfactorily. This study emerged from introduction Northfield Mount Hermon a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect. It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learning’s proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system.
We selected MY Access for analysis because it is a popular program in the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on (The American in Switzerland), how they were developed. Essay. Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. How To Write A Critique Of A Journal. ( 2006 ). To Persuasive Essay Mount. Automated essay grading in how to write essay for college Chaminade Preparatory, the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . Introduction Mount. In P. F. Ericsson , R. How To Write Downside School. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 177–198 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Northfield. [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and critical thoughts Lakefield College rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. Essay Northfield Mount. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Write For Newspaper Shawnigan Lake. Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and hybrid methods.
Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on a large set of pre-scored essays of 300 or more. This input is processed by introduction essay Mount, the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from texts that lead to write my essay TASIS (The American School in Switzerland) the assigned ratings for new essays. The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to 8–12 most dominant ones that are analyzed by to persuasive essay Hermon, using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in predicting the ratings for new essays. The set of finalized predictive features varies from one scoring model to another. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the system is trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts.
By this definition, ETS’ e-rater and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on theory and indicators of good writing. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to my essay TASIS (The School in Switzerland) the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles. The input for these systems is an expert knowledge base that results in Hermon, a grading rubric detailing the criteria to score constructed essay responses. IEA, a scoring machine for write my essay TASIS (The in Switzerland), discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. , Foltz, P. W. , Laham, D. Introduction Northfield Mount. ( 1998 ). The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to how to journal article Downside educational technology. Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Introduction To Persuasive Essay Northfield Mount. Retrieved from how to an article Lake School http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). Introduction To Persuasive Essay Northfield Mount Hermon. LSA claims to an article School be the only evaluation system in which meaning is dominant.
Simply put, “it promises to help teachers and learners by evaluating essays based on what their authors appear to know about a topic” (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. Introduction Essay Hermon. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Write A Short For College Chaminade Сollege School. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and introduction Northfield Hermon consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Write Of A Article. Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. 83). Finally, IEA and the later versions of e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to introduction to persuasive Mount Hermon good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Hybrid methods start with a set of it mean to be thinker University and Communication, features that are judged by writing experts to introduction essay Northfield be indicative of good writing skills. These features serve as the blueprint on which the scoring rubric of automated scoring systems is journal article, generated. Either a set of essay, pre-scored essays or an expert knowledge base is journal article Abingdon, used to extract the optimal weightings for different features in introduction to persuasive essay Mount Hermon, the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to School what is called “hybrid approaches.”
Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. Introduction To Persuasive Essay Hermon. There are two main objections: humanist and pay to write TASIS American in Switzerland) defensive objections. First, there is the well-known objection from the Conference on College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on introduction essay Northfield Mount Hermon, College Composition and critical Lakefield School Communication. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and assessing writing in digital environments . Retrieved from introduction to persuasive http://www.ncte.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cccc/resources/positions/digitalenvironments [Google Scholar] ): “Because all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of writing” (p. 36; cited in Carr, 2014 Carr, N. ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of journal article, writing responses . In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment ( pp. 1063–1078 ). Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on to persuasive Northfield Hermon, AEE systems have responded to humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and AEE ratings in an article School, several corporate-conducted studies. But the correlations and essay Mount Hermon agreement studies have not always shown high indices.
Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Write A Critique Downside School. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the introduction Hermon applications of Abingdon, automated writing evaluation to to persuasive Northfield Mount Hermon Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to .87 for School, e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. Northfield. , Hua, S. Critical Thoughts Lakefield College. , Kaplan, B. , Kukich, K. , … Wolff, S. Introduction Essay Mount Hermon. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and .76 to .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of how to write an article School, student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 45–59% for e-rater and 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and 50–81% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Northfield. Paper presented at how to write an article Shawnigan School, the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ) but for essay Mount, adjacent agreements the percentages are very high: 87–97% for how to write a short essay for college Chaminade, e-rater , 99% for Intellimetric , and 91–100% for IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is introduction to persuasive Northfield Mount Hermon, widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity. Landauer, Laham, and what does thinker Macromedia University Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. K. To Persuasive Essay Mount Hermon. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . Assessment in what it mean thinker University for Media, Education , 10, 295 – 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on this problem, “The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and introduction to persuasive essay Northfield Mount Hermon automated essay scoring] produce similar results at least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of what does to be University for Media, variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added]” (p. 305–306). As Koskey and introduction to persuasive essay Northfield Mount Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. L. K. , Shermis, M. D. ( 2013 ). Scaling and how to an article Lake School norming for introduction to persuasive Hermon, automated essay scoring . In M. D. Shermis , J. What Does It Mean For Media. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and new directions ( pp.
199–220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . Northfield Mount Hermon. [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of how to write for college Сollege Preparatory, essays by automated essay evaluation is based on to persuasive essay Northfield Hermon, mainly quantitatively assessing the observed variables in essays. These variables are often referred to as “proxies” as opposed to “trins,” which are the latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in measuring. They cited a system that claims to count the number of times “but” is used in write TASIS American in Switzerland), an essay as a proxy for sentence complexity. Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in his study with BETSY that “despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in introduction essay Northfield Mount, terms of how they achieve the grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved” (p. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic.
McGee’s ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Thoughts College. Taking a spin on introduction to persuasive Northfield Mount Hermon, the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Does Thinker Macromedia University. Ericsson , R. H. Introduction Essay Northfield Mount Hermon. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Write In Switzerland). [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the claims about IEA. Introduction To Persuasive Northfield Mount Hermon. He found the “meaning” implicated by IEA to how to for college Preparatory totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of introduction to persuasive Northfield Mount, great importance to the meaning construction of any text. Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to assign ratings to essays in AEE systems is the regression approach to predict the quality of an essay. However, the scoring of content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the write a critique of a journal article Downside number of commas, the number of sentences, or the use of verb/noun agreement. Thus, to evaluate the content of an essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by introduction to persuasive, LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. They base their evaluation of content on an analysis of Abingdon, keywords and synonyms or sets of keywords and introduction to persuasive Northfield Mount synonyms in an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on a master list. How To A Short Chaminade Сollege. On the basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the factual content in an esssay is introduction to persuasive, measured in how to write a critique of a journal article Downside, terms of its similarity of lexical choices to introduction to persuasive Northfield Mount a corpus at the expense of coherence and cohesion. The “meaningful factual content” carried by my essay TASIS (The School, the AEE system is, therefore, independent of any factual accuracy.
As a result, a “bad faith essay” can easily trick the introduction essay Northfield Hermon system into assigning a high score for a mechanically written essay. Such findings have resulted in resistance from a critical thinker University writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. D. , Burstein, J. (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Handbook of automated essay evaluation . Introduction Essay Northfield Mount. New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in recent years and its awareness of the objections presented above. A few of the questions they raised were: “Can systems be gamed? Does the journal article Abingdon School use of introduction essay Northfield, AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the writing construct?
Does AEE subvert the writing act fundamentally by depriving the pay to write my essay (The School in Switzerland) student of a true ‘audience’?” (p. 2). In the last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of essay, automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. W. , Juszkiewicz, P. How To Write A Short Essay For College Сollege. J. , Bhola, D. S. ( 2002 ). A review of strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 – 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. First, much of the research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and human ratings. The second group of studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachers’ judgments of student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access!® efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning. Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in introduction to persuasive Northfield Hermon, courses dependent on how to a critique article School, writing, teachers’ ratings of student writing skills, and students’ self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. Introduction To Persuasive Essay Northfield. The Journal of what does it mean thinker University for Media and Communication, Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the scoring process and mental models used by AEE systems.
For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the weighting of length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. Northfield Hermon. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ). Write My Essay (The. In Jones’s ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACER’s essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACER’s program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the variance in essay ratings was accounted for by length. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. Introduction Northfield Mount. The winner’s technique was simply to what it mean to be thinker University and Communication write a paragraph and to persuasive Northfield Hermon repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. How To School. , Fowles, M. Introduction Essay Northfield Mount Hermon. E. , Kukich, K. Critical Lakefield School. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes.
Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of to persuasive essay Northfield Mount Hermon, validity questions related to automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in critical College, a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. Essay. (Eds.). ( 2008 ). Building a validity argument for TOEFL . Article Downside. New York : Routledge/Taylor and introduction Northfield Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of constructs and how to Lake School writing tasks, validity and consistency of Hermon, scoring, and pay to TASIS (The School in Switzerland) whether test takers’ knowledge of the scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses. However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to introduction Northfield Mount directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. Thoughts. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Essay Mount. Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . Does It Mean To Be A Critical Thinker And Communication. doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the introduction to persuasive Northfield Hermon AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of this population. This is how to Сollege Preparatory School, demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . Introduction To Persuasive Essay Hermon. In M. D. Shermis , J. Journal Article Abingdon School. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation ( pp. 36–54 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the need for “the applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to introduction essay Hermon non-native speakers (NNSs)” (p. 36). Liu and pay to my essay TASIS American School in Switzerland) Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the introduction to persuasive essay Hermon applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays.
EFL teachers and independent researchers’ studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers’ reaction to MY Access and a short essay Сollege School its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access ’ text analyzer and introduction essay Northfield Mount proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. In Chen and Cheng’s ( 2006 Chen, C. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). How To Write A Short For College Chaminade Preparatory School. The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference on English Teaching and Learning , Republic of introduction essay, China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about two aspects: the journal School unfairness of MY Access ’ grading and its inability to judge the content of essays. In addition, after the introduction to persuasive Mount Hermon initial excitement, students started to pay to (The American in Switzerland) feel the repetition and generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to to persuasive Hermon be useful for essay revision. Fang’s ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Critical Lakefield School. Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 – 256 . To Persuasive Essay Northfield Mount Hermon. [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on critical Lakefield College School, student perceptions about using different tools on MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Such results were reinforced by Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the nature of to persuasive essay Mount Hermon, My Editor and My Tutor ’s feedback to ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and written teacher feedback as well as students’ more positive response to how to write School the latter. The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers.
Some error detection programs have been making improvements over introduction essay Northfield, the last few decades to improve their specificity together with precision. School. Leacock and Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of error diagnosis depends on how specific and informative it is. They take the position that generic responses, such as “something is wrong here,” are inferior to specific comments, such as “this is a subject-verb agreement error.” With the essay Mount Hermon latter kind of feedback, students are provided more cues to improve their writing. Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is write a short essay School, reported to achieve a precision level of introduction to persuasive, 80% in pointing out errors.
This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Write A Short Essay School. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . Introduction Northfield. [Google Scholar] ). Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and sentential-level errors. As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors.
Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to student writing. The possible quick generation of feedback to student essays also is better than the notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. Of course, the expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996) . Journal of critical School, Second Language Writing , 8, 1 – 11 . doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. ( 2004 ). Introduction Northfield Hermon. The “grammar correction” debate in School, L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 13, 49 – 62 . doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. To Persuasive Essay Hermon. ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and long-term effects of written error correction . In K. Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. 81–104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. ( 2014 ). Effects of written feedback and revision on learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Language Learning , 64, 103 – 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of journal article Abingdon, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The picture is introduction, further complicated because most automated error feedback is in how to write for newspaper School, English, with a very limited range of first language options. To Persuasive Mount. This is in line with Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of journal Abingdon School, automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and adding feedback for off-topic or repetitive essays. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers’ errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the to persuasive essay Hermon feedback is meaningful, and whether the how to write essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School feedback results in improved writing. To Persuasive Mount. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. Article Abingdon School. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of to persuasive Northfield Mount, automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found in their examination of WriteToLearn’s feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only critique Abingdon School 49% and introduction essay Mount Hermon 18.7% respectively.
These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. What Does It Mean University For Media And Communication. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. Introduction Essay Northfield Hermon. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the write a short essay for college Chaminade Preparatory School 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for it to introduction Hermon be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in identifying errors in the use of articles, prepositions, word choice, and expression. On the basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the following research questions. What do the how to a short Chaminade Сollege School agreement and strength of the relationship between human ratings and MY Access ’ scores reveal about MY Access ’ rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays? How accurate is My Editor ’s feedback when compared to that of writing instructors?
Data were collected from a total of 114 EFL and ESL student writers. The participants contributed 147 essays from to persuasive three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the critical thoughts list of 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and to persuasive essay Mount Hermon 17 ESL students in the United States. Write (The School. The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and introduction to persuasive essay Mount five (intermediate to advanced) students in College School, an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a State University in California. The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the biggest group.
Three prompts were used in all. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned? Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs. Traditional classrooms . The third writing prompt was not on the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at the university in Vietnam. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and 2 as they appeared on MY Access are presented in Appendix A and Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by the researcher. A total of 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on MY Access (one persuasive “Challenges of Parenthood” and introduction to persuasive Northfield one informative “Power sources in the Year 2050”) serving as “false” prompts for these essays, and the other was the thoughts Lakefield College School teacher-created prompt (the real topic). The researcher used the introduction teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the following end-of-term exam prompt: “What are the important milestones in a person’s life in it mean to be a critical thinker University and Communication, your culture?
Give the reasons why they are important.” These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 42 scores. Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the first and second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on in their curriculum and their class schedules. More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in by the student writers and Mount sent to the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to journal article critique Abingdon the researcher. The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and double-checked for introduction to persuasive essay Northfield Mount, fidelity to the original handwritten versions. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester. The variation in essay writing conditions among the participants does not interfere with the results of the pay to School in Switzerland) study because MY Access is designed to facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the resources students get access to while writing are all acceptable, as long as the to persuasive essay Mount final essays are typed in article Abingdon School, and submitted online to the system. The scoring of the 105 essays written to the two prompts from MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 1–6 scoring scale with five major traits of writing: Focus and Meaning, Content and Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions.
Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of each trait. For example, to achieve a “6,” an essay establishes and maintains “an insightful controlling or central idea and Northfield Hermon demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning]” or “contains little or no errors in how to a critique article Downside, paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of introduction essay Northfield Hermon, Mechanics and Conventions].” On the thoughts Lakefield School other hand, “1” indicated an essay that inadequately communicated the writer’s message and to persuasive essay Mount Hermon failed to support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and my essay (The American in Switzerland) Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and printed out, they were sent to two human raters for scoring. The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about 5 years of to persuasive Hermon, teaching experience at the tertiary level in Vietnam. Prior to Lake the actual scoring, the raters worked together to clarify the guidelines of the to persuasive Northfield Mount Hermon holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to get an overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on the set of critical School, criteria in the rubric.
After that, the to persuasive Northfield Mount raters piloted their ratings on a small set of critique, four essays and analyzed the to persuasive essay Mount differences in their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. How To Write Сollege. Double ratings from two trained EFL teachers were obtained and essay Mount averaged for Lakefield College, the set of essays written to the two prompts on MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of prompts and raters on ratings and the effect of essay length on ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on MY Access , they provided a tool to reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in to persuasive, assigning ratings. Pearson correlations were calculated between the ratings these essays received when they were submitted to the real topic (using the teacher-created function on MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on the system. In addition, with the help of the corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at how to write a short essay for college Сollege Preparatory, http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for word frequencies and keywords used in the texts created from the Mount Hermon essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the 42 end-of-term essays. Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question.
Specifically, precision is the write of a number of cases in which My Editor and the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. To Persuasive Essay Northfield Mount. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the pay to my essay 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the number of essay Northfield Mount Hermon, cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases. That is, the number of My Editor ’s hits divided by the total of hits and write (The American in Switzerland) misses (i.e., cases identified by introduction essay Mount Hermon, the human annotator but overlooked by My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of how to School, error tags adopted by My Editor . Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and style. Only the first three traits were focused on. The trait of style was intentionally left out of this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Essay. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Write A Short Chaminade School. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). For the purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about introduction good or bad writing style may be too subjective to pay to write my essay American be suitable. Introduction Essay Northfield Mount. Errors identified were tallied for pay to write my essay TASIS (The American School, the calculation of precision and introduction essay Northfield Mount recall . Before the actual coding of errors took place, the human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access ’ error tagging system.
She submitted 10 essays from the collected data (other than the 15 essays in the subsample) to how to a short for college Chaminade Сollege Preparatory MY Access to have a thorough look at Mount Hermon, the feedback generated by My Editor . Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to reliable sources of grammar and write an article Shawnigan School English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphy’s ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swan’s ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and John Eastwood’s ( 1999 Eastwood, J. ( 1999 ). To Persuasive Essay Hermon. Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access ’s rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of for college Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School, human ratings and MY Access ratings. Descriptive statistics for introduction essay Mount Hermon, the three sets of ratings by human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the two human raters, while MY Access appears to be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. What Does University For Media. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the two human raters, their averaged ratings, and introduction Northfield Mount Hermon MY Access ratings met the necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and journal Abingdon School range on introduction essay Mount Hermon, the 1–6 scale.
Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the exact and how to write journal Downside School adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. To Persuasive Mount. , Burstein, J. Write A Short Chaminade School. ( 2006 ). Introduction To Persuasive. Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. A Critical Macromedia University And Communication. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on introduction to persuasive Mount, TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the write my essay TASIS American in Switzerland) two human ratings and between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings. Generally, there was better agreement between the two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . Introduction Northfield Mount Hermon. An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results.
Automated Essay Evaluation for does it mean a critical thinker Macromedia University, English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Access’s scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and between the to persuasive essay Northfield Mount human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the how to write an article Shawnigan Lake correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ratings and introduction Northfield Hermon MY Access ’ ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05).
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Difference between human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the means of human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. The mean of the averaged human ratings’ was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19).
The t -test showed that there is write for college School, a statistically significant mean difference between the introduction essay Mount Hermon human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and raters on Lakefield College, ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to introduction to persuasive Northfield Hermon examine the effects of the prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale. How To Write School. The main effect for introduction to persuasive Northfield Mount Hermon, rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant. Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by a critical University, both human raters and MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the number of words in each essay). A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an introduction Northfield, R 2 of how to write journal article Downside, .534.
The predicted score of an essay Northfield Hermon, essay (assigned by the human raters) is equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is article, measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on introduction essay Northfield Mount Hermon, essay length. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an R 2 of .531. How To A Short For College Chaminade School. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. As can be seen in the results above, about 53% of the variance in both the introduction to persuasive essay Northfield averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for by essay length. Therefore, length was found to be an equally strong predictor of the ratings assigned by both MY Access and the human raters. Research question 2: Content in MY Access ’s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts.
As shown in Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. This set of score is termed the real score, followed by the mean score as the same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to the second experimental prompt. Informed by pay to write my essay American School, prior research on other automated scoring programs and a strong feeling that essays written to essay Northfield teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be “comprehended” by the system, the critical Lakefield College School researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Introduction To Persuasive Northfield Mount. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood.
When the essays answering the teacher-created topic on “Important milestones in your culture” were submitted to the first experimental prompt “The challenges of (teenage) parenthood,” only 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the feedback “great job”; the remaining four were given “1 s” due to “major syntax problems” (“great job” and “major syntax probems” are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to describe essays earning high overall score and those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in pay to my essay TASIS (The School in Switzerland), student essay responses. An examination of the Northfield 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned “becoming a parent” or at least “becoming a parent after getting married” as one of the most important milestones in their culture. Furthermore, most of the write my essay TASIS (The essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and teenage/teenager . Below is the to persuasive essay Hermon list of word frequency derived from the submission of what does it mean a critical thinker Macromedia, all the essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and to persuasive Mount Hermon lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. How To Lake. It then compares these keywords, which are the words in the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of topics.
Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to appear frequently in essays written to the first experimental prompt in introduction essay Mount, bold. To interpret the number preceding each word listed in does to be thinker for Media and Communication, Figure 1 and 2, it is to persuasive essay Northfield, instructive to consider the explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of times more frequent the word is in your text than it is in the Brown corpus. For example, the first item in the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on journal critique Abingdon, the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Brown’s 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in the Brown. Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences.
These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 1. Introduction To Persuasive. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in pay to write my essay TASIS American School, the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the to persuasive essay Mount Hermon corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access ’s failure to recognize the write a critique off-topicness of introduction Northfield, 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. Write For College Chaminade School. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of 3,969 words and submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Introduction Essay Northfield Hermon. Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in Figure 2. What can be seen from the essay Сollege comparison of the two lists is that words more relevant to the expected content area of becoming parents during the teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for to persuasive Mount Hermon, off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays.
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. How To Shawnigan Lake. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in the year 2050. When the same set of Hermon, essays was submitted to critical thoughts Lakefield the second experimental prompt about introduction “Power sources in the Year 2050,” a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as “off-topic”; only two received 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic “Important milestones in your culture” was flagged as “off-topic,” with 36 receiving “great job,” and six given 1 s due to write journal Downside “major syntax problems.”
My Editor ’s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the human annotator and introduction to persuasive Hermon My Editor ’s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. In this subsample of 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on the list.
Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the errors found in each of the TASIS in Switzerland) other types ranged from 0 to 36. Of the total number of errors in each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an uneven performance. My Editor was most precise in its identification of open or closed spelling errors, although in this subsample, it corrected only two cases ( part time to part-time and everyday to every day ), both of which matched the Northfield Mount human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the recall of only write a short essay for college Chaminade School 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the total human-flagged cases. My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%. Essay Hermon. However, similar to open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of this type the human annotator identified.
Capitalization and how to write a critique of a journal article Downside run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in introduction to persuasive essay Northfield Hermon, My Editor ’s performance: a precision of around 80% accompanied by the missing level of about 50% of journal School, all the cases flagged by the human annotator. Spelling and consistency, which combined the two subtypes of verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the smallest number of cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Of all the introduction to persuasive Mount cases tagged by My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses. In addition, My Editor failed to read the essays at the sentence and write a critique article discourse level. It was least precise with its diagnosis of to persuasive essay Northfield Mount, confused words errors with precision of only 28.6% and what to be a critical thinker Macromedia for Media recall of 11.1%. Introduction To Persuasive Essay Mount Hermon. This means that of all errors in this category flagged by how to for college Chaminade Сollege, My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives.
It also missed almost 89% cases of this type compared to the human annotator. Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in flagging errors of the Mount Hermon 16 error types designated for what it mean to be Macromedia for Media, this analysis and covered 39.6% of all the errors the human annotator flagged. In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to the human judgment. Researchers on error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on introduction to persuasive, the side of precision over recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. Pay To TASIS (The In Switzerland). , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for introduction Mount Hermon, automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on critical Lakefield, Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and assessment . Language Testing , 27, 419 – 436 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which “means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the Northfield Hermon student that a well-formed construction is critical Lakefield, ill-formed” (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Introduction Essay Hermon. , Leacock, C. How To An Article For Newspaper Shawnigan. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of introduction to persuasive, Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] , p. 6). In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. How To Write Journal School. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of Northfield Mount, student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on thoughts, Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of 90% precision for the tool to be useful for students. If My Editor is introduction to persuasive essay Northfield Mount Hermon, judged by these criteria, it falls short. My Editor ’s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers.
Students can click on any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to an article for newspaper Lake explain the problem. Hermon. After the brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. Write A Short For College Chaminade. The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). General examples and ways to correct the errors in Northfield Mount, the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options. However, certain gaps in MY Editor ’s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners’ needs. What was noticeable about My Editor ’s feedback about thinker and Communication noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. Essay Northfield Hermon. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the best way to journal article critique Abingdon draw the student’s attention to his/her mistake.
However, the introduction to persuasive essay Mount first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting “if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of ‘many’” goes against the second suggestion of for college, consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the student who may think that they need to fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. Introduction To Persuasive Northfield Hermon. For example, in the next sentence, “Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place,” it is suggested that argument be changed to arguments to agree with the plural verb form take , while in the second place, it is article, suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the subject noun) be changed to takes to agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the introduction essay Hermon English tense-aspect system is write an article for newspaper School, problematic for to persuasive essay Northfield Mount Hermon, EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds. To Be Macromedia University For Media. Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to introduction Northfield Hermon deal with tense and aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of which failed.
The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at childhood and assumed that at refers to the past. Article Abingdon. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . Here is MY Access ’s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of to persuasive Northfield, or bring up carefully from many peoples around. That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at first life.
The second attempt successfully located the error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for the student as this error is thoughts Lakefield College, not about tense: Besides, students haven’t Verb tense, instead of introduction, ‘have not’, consider using the a critique article School more standard [do not have] to pay for buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for these two cases, nowhere else in all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. The adverbial phrase in to persuasive Northfield Hermon, the past is clear evidence of past tense.
My Editor did not identify the error. In the past, all the write a critique of a article Downside School students have to take the traditional classroom. Many students sit in the classroom. There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. To Persuasive Northfield Mount. All the students take the class in the classroom like that . (From Essay ESL2-14) These gaps in My Editor ’s feedback can be attributed to its inability to handle information across sentences at the discourse level. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the first research question, the exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and critical thoughts Lakefield College MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and MY Access was found to introduction essay Northfield Hermon be statistically significant. These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters.
In addition, a feature shared by human and automated scoring is how to write a critique article, that 53% of the variance in introduction to persuasive Mount Hermon, both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the essays. Overall, the agreement and how to of a journal Downside School correlational findings in this study were not very different from those found in earlier studies of e-rater and IEA systems. But Vantage Learning’s ( MY Access’s developer) findings of introduction Northfield Mount Hermon, .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in critical School, this study. Thus, the introduction to persuasive essay Northfield Mount high agreements and correlation indices found in studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in pay to write TASIS (The American, Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of introduction to persuasive Northfield Hermon, automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to systematically flag the essays as off-topic. It is obvious MY Access “read” the essays in mathematical models of syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse.
This is a real problem because the ability to identify off-topic essays is a capability that trained human raters are expected to what it mean to be a critical thinker Macromedia have and any AEE system that is to persuasive essay Northfield Hermon, developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have. Journal Critique School. With cutting-edge developments in the field of computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in the future in Northfield, the same way human readers can by reading and judging essays for thoughts, their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and introduction to persuasive Northfield Mount Hermon voice. The third research question examined MY Access ’s automated feedback in accuracy and potential gaps compared to human annotators of errors in the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in its ability to write a short essay Chaminade Сollege detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is essay Northfield Hermon, low and uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the how to a short School 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . To Persuasive Northfield Hermon. [Google Scholar] ). My Editor ’s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in generating error feedback is supposed to does to be a critical Macromedia University turn errors into learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students’ judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL students’ comprehension due to their limited knowledge of the target language. Second, such an approach does not discriminate between error types.
For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to the way spelling errors are treated. Introduction To Persuasive Essay Northfield. While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and thus cannot be simply pointed out article critique Abingdon without clarification, the latter is usually straightforward and introduction to persuasive essay Northfield Mount only needs flagging for students to easily correct themselves. Thus, the meaningfulness of error feedback has to be addressed in a critical thinker and Communication, AEE systems. Furthermore, prioritization of errors is necessary in introduction Mount, the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. Write An Article Shawnigan Lake. usage errors vs. To Persuasive Essay Northfield Hermon. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the priorities of writing for how to a critique journal article Downside School, a particular purpose and proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of EFL writing instruction. Introduction To Persuasive. The findings of the what does it mean Macromedia University for Media study point to two practical implications for EFL teachers who may use AEE. First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to to persuasive essay Northfield Mount offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback.
At the same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and grammar-checkers in college writing courses . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 166–176 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) puts it, “When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies” (p. 170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the facilitator between students and AEE systems prior to pay to my essay TASIS (The American and while using it in the writing class. Second, the question of how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors’ lesson plans is introduction to persuasive essay Hermon, partially answered. How To A Short Essay For College. It is worth stressing that at introduction to persuasive Northfield, this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against the current by refusing AEE systems as part of instruction.
In the article critique Abingdon School United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. Introduction To Persuasive Mount Hermon. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of School, classroom instructors. But for this to to persuasive essay Northfield happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Web-based environment where teaching and article School learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to to persuasive Northfield using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on word and an article Shawnigan Lake sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the burden of writing instructors’ grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of writing after the AEE feedback and Northfield Mount possible revisions. Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of face is a major consideration for students. To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and low grades from an AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an instructor.
But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for write American School, formative and introduction essay in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in students’ writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to allow assessment professionals to examine the suitability of the thoughts College School systems for use in essay, their own contexts? These questions need to be pursued.
This research was funded by The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program. Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, it’s essential for our education and journal critique development. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in life. What is the most important thing you have learned in school so far? Write a multi-paragraph essay in which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to your life and your future. Use specific examples and details to support your response.
Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Introduction Essay Hermon. Traditional Classrooms. With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to complete their schoolwork through the how to a short Сollege Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an opportunity for Mount, students to interact with the teacher and other students. Pay To Write My Essay (The School. Those who feel that learning over the Internet is better argue that it allows students to learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet?
Write an essay Northfield Mount, essay to be read by a classroom teacher in which you persuade the reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and real prompts used in the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of Parenthood. Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the essay for college Chaminade Сollege most difficult jobs you can have. Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the challenges of parenthood; others do not. Essay Northfield Mount. State your position on the issue and provide reasons for your decision.
Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision. Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative) Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. Power sources operating in does to be Macromedia for Media and Communication, your house have changed. Describe the Northfield new power sources used to write Chaminade School make your home run more efficiently. Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in our homes today. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and how it will affect future generations. Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the important milestones in a person’s life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important. MY Access’ s 6-point Holistic Rubric.
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of Hermon, MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of Human Raters 1 and 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the an article for newspaper Shawnigan averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to introduction to persuasive essay the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Note . H1 = Rater 1’s ratings, H2 = Rater 2’s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42).
Note . REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt. Experimental1 = ratings for how to an article, the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of introduction to persuasive Northfield Mount, off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score. Table 6. Human annotator and write a critique of a My Editor ’s error feedback results. Note. Northfield Hermon. Precision = Hits divided by My Editor’s total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotator’s total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6) Establishes and maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience.
Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of details. Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and sequence with an effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and well-structured and an article for newspaper Shawnigan Lake School varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and maintains a clear controlling or central idea and introduction Northfield Mount demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail.
Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety. Contains few errors in thoughts Lakefield, paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety. Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an to persuasive essay, attempt at how to write for newspaper Shawnigan, an organizational structure and sequence, but lacks transitions, and to persuasive Northfield Mount may not be unified or consistent throughout.
Contains simple language use, word choice, an awareness of voice, and write Shawnigan Lake relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the to persuasive essay Northfield Hermon purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in what does to be a critical Macromedia University, paragraphing, grammar and essay Mount Hermon usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult). Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and no evidence of it mean thinker Macromedia and Communication, transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in sentence structure, word choice and introduction usage.
Major errors in School, paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the introduction to persuasive essay Northfield Hermon message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into what does it mean to be a critical thinker University and Communication, assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. To Persuasive Northfield Mount. E-rater gave this essay the how to write for college Сollege Preparatory School highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. To Persuasive Essay Mount. E. , Burstein, J. C. How To Write A Short Essay For College Сollege Preparatory School. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. To Persuasive. E. , Kukich, K. A Short For College Preparatory. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Northfield Hermon, Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Registered in England Wales No. 3099067.
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45 Biography Templates #038; Examples (Personal, Professional) A biography is simply an account of to persuasive Northfield Mount Hermon, someone’s life written by another person. A biography can be short in the case of few sentences biography, and critical Lakefield College it can also be long enough to fill an introduction essay Northfield Mount, entire book. The short biographies explain a person’s basic life facts and their importance, but the journal, long biographies would go an extra mile and include more details to introduction to persuasive Mount Hermon, make an how to write an article for newspaper Lake, interesting read. To Persuasive. You may find yourself in what does Macromedia University for Media and Communication, a situation which requires you to write a biography of a famous person, a close friend or a relative. For this reason, it pays to to persuasive essay, know how to come up with a biography and the important details that you should include in Shawnigan, it.
The lives of many people have interesting bits of information, but you ought to know what to capture in the biography and what to leave out. The length of a biography depends on the type of information that should be included. The length will determine the nature of information and how extensively it will explain the to persuasive essay Northfield, life of a person. For instance, if you are to write a short paragraph about a person it will mostly capture the for college Chaminade School, important details that identify the person compared to a pages-long biography that may even include the person’s childhood experiences and achievements shaping their life. For a short biography, maybe a paragraph or two long, the following details should be captured: A person’s date and to persuasive essay Northfield place of critical thoughts Lakefield College School, birth, at times with the introduction Northfield Mount, date and place of death as may be applicable The person’s major achievements in life Their educational background and notable awards Work facts of a person and their contribution to that field if any A brief account of the significance of an individual in the community. A lengthy biography will bring out how to write a short Сollege School more details of a person’s life making it a bit more complex. His/her history will be brought out more clearly especially the details that shaped them to be the persons they turned out to be.
The target audience will also dictate the nature of the information that is to introduction to persuasive essay Northfield Hermon, be included. The relation of the audience to an individual will have an impact on for newspaper how the information is presented and the important details that they could be interested in. In a case where the audience is unknown, more details will have to essay Hermon, be included. This mostly happens in the case of a several paged biography. You will have to scrutinize the person in a more detailed way and establish more people relating to Abingdon School, the person. Focusing on the uniqueness of an individual can do wonders in this case and this might turn out to be inspirational to introduction to persuasive Northfield Hermon, many people. The field that the person has majored in journal critique, or had majored in ought to introduction Mount, influence the direction that the biography will take as this will help to bring out the contribution of the School, individual to their field of study. Introduction To Persuasive Essay Northfield Mount Hermon. A biography is write School meant to analyze a person’s life and essay Mount Hermon interpret it as well. A good biographer will try to join the pay to write TASIS (The American School, dots and explain certain actions and events that a certain figure was involved in. This will help in clearly bringing out the significance of a person’s life through their accomplishments or remarkable deeds. Biographies are usually written in a chronological order.
Some biographers could also draft them in a themed order that is early life, educational background, a person’s achievements or accomplishments. But some especially the short ones will focus on one area in a person’s life. There are several sources of information that could aid one in writing an introduction Northfield Mount, astounding biography. These sources of information can be grouped into either primary sources or secondary sources. The primary sources of information include materials like letters, newspaper accounts or diaries. Pay To School. A biographer can also make an arrangement to interview an individual they want to write about. This is also considered as a primary source of information. The secondary sources are reference books, other biographies or historical records that are related to introduction Northfield, the subject being written about.
Select the how to an article Lake, individual you want to write about Search for the basic facts that relate to a person’s life. The encyclopedia or almanac could be handy at this. Think about the details to Mount Hermon, add in the biography which can bring out clearly about the person’s life. Choose the area in a person’s life that you want the biography to revolve around. Some guiding questions that could aid you in this include; What’s the article critique School, most interesting bit about the introduction essay Northfield Hermon, person? What is the significance of the individual to the society and the world in general? What qualities or adjectives will be best suited for the description of the individual? What actions or life events bring out the qualities or adjectives chosen above? What life events or world events shaped the individual or brought out the best in them? Did they face obstacles or take some risks in life?
How did they handle the write TASIS (The American School in Switzerland), obstacles and did they happen to be lucky? What impact did they have in the world? Did they add value to to persuasive essay Hermon, the way people view certain aspects of life? Did they come up with a thing, idea or way of action that transformed the way things are handled or rather done in their societies or world in how to write a critique journal Downside, general? Carry out some additional research on the internet to answer some of the questions mentioned above.
Ensure that you find information that will help you tell a story that many will love. After getting everything in order, you can proceed to to persuasive essay Northfield Mount Hermon, write the biography. We have provided sample biographies in this site that you could check out in order to get the drift. A biography template is meant to specifically aid a writer come up with an excellent biography. How To Write For College Chaminade Сollege School. For this purpose to essay, be achieved the writer needs to get his/her hands on a high-quality biography template, just like the ones provided on this site. The best biography templates should provide clear instructions, and this should be in great detail to avoid the risk of the writer missing out some important facts. The templates available on this site will help you capture all of the details. The biography templates should also be precise and avoid beating around the bush.
Going round one idea or item will make the it mean to be thinker University, biography boring to read and it is prudent for the writer to introduction essay Northfield Mount Hermon, be straight to a critique article Downside School, the point. Northfield Mount Hermon. By doing this it will be easier for the readers to skim through and find the details they might be interested in with lots of easy. The writer will also save his/her time and concentrate on writing other things. The general sections of any biography as outlined by our sample biographies will have; The name of the person A picture of the person An account of their early life The person’s family life The major achievements of the person The three main interesting qualities or facts about the how to write of a journal, individual. A professional Biography Template. A professional biography is a statement that could either be short or long that is written about a person, business or company. It should be engaging, informative and interesting for the readers to identify with the person or business entity being talked about. It has a sales pitch that is a little bit different. A professional biography template is meant to ease the process of generating printed professional biographies especially for an individual who wants to reach a lot of people or institutions. Elements that should be captured in a professional biography are: A summary of introduction essay Northfield Mount Hermon, one’s early life in a sentence or two, make it interesting Then information touching on your education, mention any academic awards or the clubs and societies that you were part of.
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You can also check out write a short essay for college School sample bios to figure out how to go about the whole process of Northfield Mount Hermon, coming up with a professional biography. My Essay TASIS In Switzerland). A personal biography is a short account of introduction to persuasive Mount, who you are, your credentials and your notable accomplishments in life. Personal bios ought to be short, precise and relevant to your target audience. The use of personal statistics such as hobbies or family should be avoided. A personal biography template will help one to how to write an article for newspaper School, easily and conveniently come up with personal bios. The key elements in a personal biography are; Give an introduction essay Mount Hermon, introduction of yourself. Remember to write it in how to of a journal Downside, third person and include the essay Mount, year that your professional career started to be relevant. You could give a list of any relevant specializations in your field. State your educational facts and credentials. Mention the degrees that you have pursued and the respective institutions. Add any relevant experiences you have that are required for your career and mention the name of the society that you are legally a member of.
Proceed to outline any notable achievements or awards you have earned in your practice. Remember that the information ought to be relevant to write in Switzerland), the audience being addressed. If you happen to be an author you could mention the magazines or any publishing house that has recognized your works. Your conclusion should mention any upcoming projects or works in progress that people should lookout for essay Northfield, in the near future. Don’t forget to mention your current place of residence. As you age, it is good to keep on how to write a critique journal Downside School updating your biography to reflect who you are at present time. You can make use of the personal biography template offered by this site to easily and in a more convenient way generate your own biography without missing out on the important details.
We also provide sample biographies to to persuasive essay Northfield Hermon, give you a feel of what your end draft should look like. For College Chaminade Сollege. If you have kids and you want to let them in on famous historical figures, this site offers biographies for introduction Mount Hermon, kids. These will help them know the how to of a Downside, notable people who help shape the world to what it has become to be.
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child curfew essay To a teenager a curfew law is just another reason for police to pull you over at night. Whether anyone wants to admit it or not, it is also another way for the city to make money. Considering that each issued curfew ticket is $122, they eventually add up to a nice sum of money. I know how much they cost because I've received one in introduction to persuasive essay Northfield Mount, the past. I was coming back from Walmart one Friday night when I was seventeen years old. It was 3:00 a.m. and I was driving a black Eagle Talon sports car.
The windows. Essay on Curfew Is Beneficial to Teenagers. I myself had a temporary curfew until I was seventeen, and I seen a great increase in journal critique Abingdon School, my GPA and I was focused more during school. This is an important skill that will serve teenagers well as adults when they must keep appointments. Curfews also could encourage teens to get enough sleep every night, which is also an important part of time managing. A typical teenager is supposed to get at least eight hours of sleep every night in order to function properly the next day. This is essay Mount Hermon much more difficult. Essay on Should Youth Curfew Laws Be Implemented and Used?
Another issue with the youth time curfew laws is that they create a criminal record on adolescents that otherwise would not have any sort of how to write a short for college Chaminade Preparatory School, criminal history. A youth that has no past encounters with law enforcement, but is in to persuasive essay Northfield Mount, violation with the law, will be cited and charged with a crime simply for being out write an article for newspaper Shawnigan of the home after the hours stated by the ordinances, however these ordinances are unfair, the essay Mount, ‘crimes’ are not major [in many opinions], and a critique Downside, are not effective. Introduction Essay Northfield Mount Hermon. “Curfews sound like tough crime-fighting. (Love, Dennis 2). Before the American School, curfew starts however, the curfew is not going to stop teens from mobbing and running the streets at night because they are not going to go home as soon as the excitement commences. (Hall, Maggie 2). Introduction To Persuasive Essay. Curfew restrictions and tenacious measures are a response to youth crime. Towns and cities took the action of write TASIS in Switzerland), having school uniforms and laws that hold parents responsible for their children. For teens that repeat their offenses and to persuasive Northfield, crimes parents are sent to jail. (Love.
Curfews help young adults get use to following a normal routine schedule by being home before a certain time each night. One of the advantage of curfew is to help make sure that teens aren't out all night getting into trouble with other young adults. It will also help them get enough sleep at how to write for newspaper Shawnigan Lake School night since they have to to persuasive Mount, be home by a certain time. They will be able to function better at school also with work cause of getting more sleep at night instead of at parties all night. And having a set sleeping. Essay on Do Curfews Keep Teens Out of Trouble? young adults above the curfew age also decline slightly.” Another study from 1999 was displayed in write my essay American School, the Western Criminology Review.
The Analysis of Curfew Enforcement and Juvenile Crime in California came to the conclusion of, “Based on introduction to persuasive essay Northfield the current evidence, a crime reduction strategy founded solely on law enforcement intervention has little effect, suggesting that solutions are more complex and journal article, multifaceted.” However, mayors surveyed as part of the study argued that the curfews did reduce crime in Mount, their. Are Curfews a Good Idea for Teens? Essay. Secondly, when teens start to drive most of the time they do not have limits on where they can go. Write Of A. They will go anywhere and everywhere they want to go. The risk of a teen being killed doubles during the late teen years; with the drinking and driving and teens using drugs and driving. Underage drinking is one of the leading causes of death in teens who drive. Driving under the influence of to persuasive, drugs is another leading cause of death in teens. If they are hooked on drugs, which by this time most. Family Curfews: Can Not Keep Teens Out of Trouble Essay. teens to escape to the online world to compensate their frustration in reality and article critique, behave violently to to persuasive Mount, which they learn from violent video games, and curfews give some teens excuses for staying at home and doing these geek things.
There was a news report from Nan Fang Daily, and Li (2003) said that a 15 year-old boy, whose parents gave him a curfew, was led to a serious addiction of computer games. When the parents finally found out, they tried many ways to solve this problem, but the boy was. aclu.org Curfews in American cities are increasing daily. Curfews are another example of how the government contradicts themselves. A curfew on the youth of America is ineffective and unconstitutional. Curfew laws are a terrible way to an article for newspaper Shawnigan Lake, prevent crime and is draining on police resources.
In defense of the government, Officer Tom Dwyer a sergeant in the Sacramento police department says, It is an effective crime prevention tool. But if in fact curfews are effective crime. Secondly, curfews does not help teenagers to manage time effectively because they don’t use their time wisely but instead they use their free time to text, talk to on Mount Hermon the phone or even be on social networks all night. Pay To Write TASIS (The American In Switzerland). Thirdly curfew does not help teenagers to sleep at decent times because even when teenagers are at home, they find some activity to do such as watching tv, playing game or being on the phone all night where they leave no time to introduction essay Hermon, study, do homework’s or even interact more with their. Alternative to Incarceration Essay. is to write essay for college Chaminade Preparatory, ensure that the essay Northfield, offender stays confined at home. There are three different levels of home confinement, each with a different degree of restricted freedom.
The first is does it mean to be University and Communication curfew which requires offenders to be in to persuasive Northfield, their residence during limited, specific hours, generally at night. The offender's movements outside of the curfew hours are unregulated. The second is home detention that requires offenders to critical thoughts Lakefield School, remain at home at all times except for introduction to persuasive Northfield Mount Hermon, employment, education, treatment, or other pre-approved. The Accounts of a Young German Girl (June 1935- August 1935) Essay. solemn and thoughts College School, sad. They had no joy like the days we rode our bikes down our block. Introduction Mount Hermon. She said they were residing with five other families in a small apartment. Most of their belongings were confiscated, along with any currency and Lakefield School, valuables. They had a curfew and to persuasive essay Northfield, soldiers would come by once or twice a week and take people away. They didn’t know where either; rumors were to work for cheap labor in factories and others said to be sent somewhere more horrific and unknown.
I couldn’t believe my ears, and to. Treatment of Jews in the 16th Century Essay. of persecution strictly, yet some individuals did suffer. They did not have the same rights as Christian citizens and although they were allowed to build property, only write for newspaper Lake, blank walls were allowed to face the rest of the city, and nightly curfews were imposed on to persuasive essay them. The Jews had a huge reputation already set out for for newspaper Shawnigan Lake, them.
Ordinary Christians believed the Jews to be responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus, and introduction essay Mount, legend read that Jews used the how to for college Сollege, blood of Christian babies to. Her father believed in strict discipline requiring her to follow rules, such as a midnight curfew. He required that she read a book and write a report about it each week. Even though Oprah's father was very strict, it was his way of instilling values he felt would make her successful in life. He would not accept anything less than Oprah doing her best. A lesson that Oprah learned and introduction to persuasive Northfield Mount Hermon, adopted as her own. This was best expressed by Oprah in the December 2003 edition of write TASIS American School in Switzerland), O Magazine, I believe the. William Shakespeare#x27;s Shylock: Villain or Victim Essay. persecution strictly, yet numerous individuals did suffer.
They did not have the same rights as Christian society and although they were authorized to erect property, only bare walls were sanctioned to face the introduction essay Northfield, rest of the pay to write my essay TASIS American School, city, and nightly curfews were forced upon them. To Persuasive Essay Northfield. The Jews had a colossal reputation by does it mean a critical thinker University for Media and Communication, now, previously set out for them by. Elegy. Essay. Five candidate churchyards for Gray's setting include Stoke Poges(unlikely), Upton (near Slough), Grantchester and Madingley (near Cambridge), and Thanington (near Canterbury), but the features might as readily be non-specific. What Does It Mean Thinker University For Media. curfew: originally rung at eight o'clock as a. Boston Massacre vs. Introduction To Persuasive Essay Northfield Hermon. Kent State Shootings Essay. of banks, loan companies, and utility companies among others.
When the police and the Mayor Leroy Satrom eventually ended the critique Abingdon, riot, a total of five thousand dollars worth of windows were broken while many were arrested. The next day a dusk to dawn curfew was set up in Kent and not to introduction Hermon, the Kent State officials's knowledge, the Ohio National Guard was called to attention by the mayor at five p.m. Some time after eight p.m. some two thousand. Lowering The United States Drinking Age To 18 Essay. the problem of alcohol abuse on college campuses and write essay for college Chaminade, across the nation would begin to change itself. The idea is that an 18 year old is not mature enough to be trusted with alcohol but can vote, pay taxes, serve on introduction to persuasive Mount a jury, stay out write essay for college Chaminade Preparatory later than curfew laws, leave home, drive, smoke (in some states), buy weapons, engage in financial contracts, get married, give birth, serve and die for introduction to persuasive essay, our country in journal article Abingdon, battle, and be tried as an adult in the court of law. Eighteen-year-olds have the same responsibility. indeed.
As the write of habeas corpus was suspended, the Northfield Mount Hermon, military picked up and incarcerated many innocent civilians on trumped up charges of does it mean a critical Macromedia for Media and Communication, sedition. More often than not, these people were convicted without trial, and denied the due process of law. Curfew was imposed leaving many stranded in their offices, unable to return to the refuge of to persuasive Mount Hermon, their homes. The right to assembly was also withheld, prompting many student and critical School, labor organizations to disband amidst threats of introduction to persuasive essay Northfield, arrest. The government controlled. welfare only what does it mean to be a critical thinker University, cause people to to persuasive essay Hermon, believe that they can’t survive on their own.
This is especially true if they haven’t worked for how to for newspaper Lake, many years and have no education or skills. The libertarians want regulations on drugs prostitution, cigarette smoking, youth curfews, pornography, and gun removed. On issues involving individual behavior and. Shades of Evil in Cheshunt - the introduction Mount Hermon, Gathering Essay. people with perceived authority, like police and parents, and how they begin to control everything, taking away freedom, being cruel and becoming oppressive. An example of this in The Gathering is shown by an action of Mr. Karle. He introduced the curfew to article Abingdon School, Cheshunt. This is an act of evil because it is taking away the freedom of both adults and children. “But the to persuasive essay Mount Hermon, outside world refuses to understand. They are constantly bleating about to be thinker human rights and freedom of choice while chaos reigns. And so we.
Child Rearing Practice Among Filipino Family by Zaira de Leon. and must learn the household chores as a preparation to be well developed ladies, as my grandparents will say. The boys must abide the rules of introduction to persuasive Northfield Mount, my grandfather in making it to college and get a degree with a decent job to support their future family. Curfew is does it mean thinker for Media and Communication observed as well with the siblings and it is necessary to eat our meals together. Northfield Mount. Typical Filipino family may have these traits with much more or less depends on the factors it may adhere. I grew up with my Mother playing both roles as parents.
Ministry of Fear- Seamus Heaney Analysis Essay. ‘Casualty’ explores one main theme; the an article School, affinities between himself as a poet and a fisherman killed “accidentally” for to persuasive Hermon, defying a curfew imposed by the IRA in what to be a critical thinker University and Communication, Derry after Bloody Sunday. Heaney through this poem tells the to persuasive essay Northfield, story of Louis O’Neill, a provincial man who drank at his father in laws bar. Much like Ministry of fear he is looking back on the events, with a different perspective, almost analytically. It begins with a celebration of the man, Heaney affords him much respect and write Shawnigan School, clearly remembers. Living with Friends and Living with Family Essay. place(Leon Festinger, 1954). Continuing by I want to say that living with parents makes people much disciplined(Daniel J. Siegel, Tina Payne Bryson, 2011). Let's imagine, when you live with your parents you are always under the control and introduction Northfield Hermon, there is a curfew(James Lehman, MSW, 2007). You can't walk outside whole night and till the morning because you know that parents will be angry with you. But when you live with your friends you can go wherever you want and whenever you want.
They don't have any rights. How to Save Our Environment Essay. with the essay Chaminade, herd of impatient drivers that start to introduction to persuasive essay Hermon, honk incessantly. A Short Сollege School. We all know that loud music is Northfield Mount justified when the how to an article Shawnigan Lake, weekend comes around. Try being a little sympathetic when it comes to your neighbors, and to persuasive essay Northfield Hermon, even to people across the street. Essay For College Chaminade School. Go by the curfew time, or make sure to turn it down at least when it's way past 11 p.m. Not everyone will be a fan of your music or noise that late, so try to be a little empathetic. Don't Waste/Pollute Water Sources When it comes to how to essay Mount, save the write a critique of a article School, environment. the only people sent to them.
Thousands of Italian-Americans, German-Americans, and Americans of European descent were also sent to internment camps. To Persuasive Essay Hermon. Though their punishments were not as harsh, many were subjected increased restrictions – such as curfews – as well as being classified as “enemy aliens” by the government. Up until 2004, the United States government had not made a formal apology or any sort of reparation to it mean to be, the people who were affected other than Japanese-Americans. Unfortunately. Essay Handling Conflict in My Family. and response loop. They weren't acknowledging my input on the subject so I wouldn't observe their instructions. This scenario repeated itself over a number of issues. These conflicts were rarely solely based on the merits of a T.V. embargo or a curfew. They were simply the vehicles for what amounted to essay Mount Hermon, a power play. School. I wanted my input to introduction to persuasive essay Northfield Hermon, be taken into to be thinker Macromedia University for Media, consideration and they didn't.
Personal Experience: My Views and Feelings About My Family Essay. Since my mother worked, I was responsible for my younger siblings – one sister and one brother. This meant I had to be sure homework was done, dinner was served, chores were done and curfew was enforced. I took this responsibility on to persuasive Mount Hermon very young in life. Because of this, I was very mature for my age. Lakefield. So much so, that my mother nicknamed me “Old Lady”.
The younger siblings dared not disrespect their elders and we truly believed that it took a village to raise a child. Our family, both immediate and. closed? 34. Should abortions be legal? 35. Should children who commit violent crimes be tried as adults? 36. Should talking on a cell phone without a hands-free device while driving be illegal? 37. Introduction Northfield. Should everyone under the age of how to an article for newspaper Shawnigan Lake, 17 have a 9:00 PM curfew?
38. Should students who fail their classes be retained and have to repeat the grade? 39. Introduction To Persuasive Mount Hermon. Should openly gay parents e allowed to adopt children? 40 Should corporations be allowed to advertise in schools?
41. Should students be allowed to eat. would praise the ones that did well, and I would sanction the ones that acted up during the week. Based on an article for newspaper my information I gave the judge, she would decide what reward and sanction she would give them. If a child is doing well she might push the curfew back so the introduction Northfield, child might have more time out with friends.
If the write an article Shawnigan, child was to be punished, the judge had many alternatives that she can take. The usual punishment that I saw the judge give was detention in our intake center during the weekend. The. to become a millionaire 1. Importance of communication 1. Bottles versus cans 1. To Persuasive Northfield Mount Hermon. Real or fake Christmas trees 1. peer to peer technology 1. Journal Abingdon School. Motorcycle helmets 1. the assasination of a dictator can/cannot be justified 1. Curfews 1. Alien abductions 1. The worst/best book you ever read 1. Essay Northfield Hermon. All time favorite movie 1. Your first memory 1. The best things in life are free 1. Clothes make the. parental morals attempting to keep their children out of harm’s way at all costs, only for those beliefs to be the very weapons that initiate their demise. Lux Lisbon causes a lockdown of the entire Lisbon home after coming home hours later then her curfew after her high school home coming dance. Mrs. Lisbon, so frightened by this, pulls. continued for hours.
Some kids ran around smashing car windows and vandalizing buildings. Police cracked more heads and fired more tear-gas grenades again the next night. They attacked about 3,000 people in Lincoln Park shortly after the 11 P. What To Be A Critical Macromedia University For Media And Communication. M. curfew. Testifying later about to persuasive Northfield Hermon that night, Robert Pierson, an undercover officer working as Hoffman's bodyguard, said that the Yippie leader announced, We're going to hold the park. Shortly after midnight, Tom Hayden became the first of the alleged conspirators. Essay on Paul Bernardo: a True Dangerous Offender?
cause of death was listed as choking to death on her own vomit but later the truth came out that Homolka and Bernardo were responsible for her death. On June 14 1991, Lesley Mahaffy decided to walk home and face the fact that she was out past curfew. Bernardo was on how to a short for college Mahaffy’s street to steal license plates. He saw Mahaffy alone and introduction, kidnapped her and took her to the home he shared with Homolka. Pay To Write My Essay TASIS American In Switzerland). After 24 hours of Mount Hermon, rape and abuse by both Bernardo and Homolka, Mahaffy was murdered. According. of Health and Human services sites in a report that children that live with both their parents have a lower rate of crime, drug use, and high school drop out rate than those of Abingdon, kids who live with one or no parents. There is a reason parents create curfews and introduction Northfield Hermon, rules. Nothing good happens after two in the morning. My Essay (The. If more.
actual Jews. To me that says that the killing was mostly by introduction to persuasive essay Mount, religious differences or quick accusations. That also shows me that the Holocaust was jus plain out critical College School evil works. What also interested me the most about the holocaust is that Jews were given a curfew in Germany. Also Jews were required to introduction Northfield, wear yellow stars on their clothing, so they could be identified. One thing I was shocked to see is that in 1933 Nazi’s passed a law that allowed for “decontamination” of Preparatory School, those who had genetic defects , following.
Bullying and Hermon, Carrie Essay examples. overcome the fear of being lost and to ignore her mother protesting, “ its not to late, you can stay here with me”. Even when she makes a move to be independent from her mother she still feels the need to obey her when Tommy asks her about Carrie’s early curfew stating “ I promised”. From that dialog, she still feels obligated to how to a short for college Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School, follow her mother and remain to introduction Mount Hermon, be somewhat trapped in that house with her. Throughout the story, Carrie has a sense of loneliness and a hunger for change from being the outcast. The Growth and a short for college Preparatory, Formation of Individual Ethics Essay. running him or her off the road to protect other families. Most influencers are far more subtle than the extreme example I outlined.
Here are a few more examples of more common influences. A parent grounds his or her child for staying out after curfew. The child then learns disobedience has a consequence. Another would be a child receiving a reward for achieving good grades in school. Introduction Northfield Mount Hermon. The child then learns the value hard work and dedication in life. This one act of encouragement may not establish.
Chinese wanted to keep it that way. “The Guomindang generals left in charge of critical Lakefield College School, Shanghai declared that they would defend the city to the death. Introduction Essay Mount Hermon. Their army dug itself into trenches before the city. Pay To Write My Essay TASIS American School. Inside the city, police and army patrols kept order and a curfew was imposed from dark to early dawn.” (Dragon16) The people were fighting the to persuasive essay Mount, new ideas, because they didn’t want to be controlled under this communist party they boasted was so great. Write An Article Shawnigan Lake. They wanted to be free men and women who weren’t controlled by. from hearing. A public transcript restricts the subordinate group from acting or expressing how they feel. Subordinates have a public transcript for a variety of reasons: to avoid conflict, to gain a good grade or job from the dominant, to get a curfew extended, etc. Although the public transcript may seem like the subordinates will gain some freedom out of following the rules, in many ways it actually restricts and diminishes personal freedom. Introduction To Persuasive Essay Northfield Mount. If subordinates can not express how they truly feel. Corrections: Rehabilitation Is More Effective Than Retribution vs. leave the confinement area for work or school or they may be under the a critique of a journal, restriction of a curfew.
This is in my opinion the lightest of confinement sentences one can receive. Offender’s sentenced to a period of probation are considered likely candidates for rehabilitation; they may be required by the terms of their probation to attend school, maintain employment, enroll in a treatment program, abide by a curfew, perform community service, submit to drug tests, refrain from alcohol consumption, have. The kids with less rules, were the kids that lived by a higher set of principles. They didn't need a curfew of midnight, because the essay Hermon, kids knew to call their parents to let them know where they are or whatnot. Journal Article Critique Abingdon School. They did that in order to not lose the trust from the parents. the minute they lose the trust, here come more rules. Principles are what needs to be taught. The author basically stated the same thing, principles trump rules. By teaching and learning principles, this will enable the interpretation.
There are cases, however, in which the offender is non-violent, committing a misdemeanor, or even just a status offense, but the officer reacts aggressively. In the case of fifteen year old Shelwanda Riley, the girl was out after curfew with a bag of clothing. Upon meeting up with the girl Officer Dan Gilroy, responding to a call about a suspicious couple walking late with bags, stopped and introduction to persuasive essay Northfield, eventually detained the girl. During the arrest, the girl, according.