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bigraphy Kenneth Grahame, the third child of Cunningham and Bessie Grahame, born in Edinburgh at 32 Castle Street on 8th March 1859. When Kenneth was barely a year old his father obtained the post of Sheriff of Argyll and writing english School, the family moved from Edinburgh to Argyll. At first they lived in Ardrishaig while a new house was being built for them. The building lasted more than two years and writing Trinity School, the family also lived a few months in english essay, Lochgilphead before moving into their new home in Inveraray. Writing Trinity School! Their enjoyment of writing english School their new home was short lived. Shortly after Kenneth's fifth birthday, March 1864, his brother Roland was born but a few days later his mother went down with scarlet fever and died after a short illness on 4th April 1864. Kenneth himself also went down with the on Westbourne School same illness and struggled with it for several weeks before he recovered. During his illness Granny Inglis, Bessie's mother, came from her home in Berkshire to Inveraray to nurse the child. After Kenneth's recovery it seemed clear that his father, who had succumbed once more to an old drinking problem, would be unable to look after the four children - Helen, Willie, Kenneth and Roland. The children moved to The Mount in The Windsor School, Cookham Dene, the home of Granny Inglis.
Their time at Cookham Dene seems, in spite of the circumstances, to have been some of Kenneth's happiest years. The Mount was a charming old house with an article Paul II Academy attic and a large garden in english School, which the children could play. The majestic Thames river was nearby, fostering in Kenneth a lifelong love for the river and boating. But at Christmas 1865, after living less than two years there, the chimney of the house collapsed and the children moved to Fern Hill Cottage in Cranbourne. Things An Argumentative On Westbourne School! This was a smaller house some miles away from both Cookham Dene and writing english School, the Thames. During their time at Cranbourne their father made an write an essay scholarship International attempt to overcome his drinking problem and arranged that the children would return to live with him in Argyll.
The children spent most of the writing english essay year of 1866 back at their former home in Inveraray. In the end their father relapsed into his old ways and left his children, his job and articles Lucton, Argyll, to move to France. (It would seem that there was no further contact between Cunningham Grahame and his four children for the remaining twenty years of his life. Cunningham Grahame died in Le Harve in 1887 and Kenneth was the only one of his children to english attend the funeral.) The children returned from Argyll to Cranbourne and Kenneth lived there until he started school at an essay for a Berlin Brandenburg School St Edward's in Oxford in1868, at the relatively late age of nine years old. His account in the essay he wrote in later life, Oxford Through a Boy's Eyes , would seem to indicate that he attended St Edwards in the years while it was still in New Inn Hall Street and also attended the new school which opened on the Woodstock Road. His early years at school were a challenge but, by the time he left St Edward's, he achieved numerous academic and sporting accolades - Head Boy, captain of the writing english The Windsor Rugby XV, the Sixth Form Prize, the Divinity Prize and write an essay Academy, the Prize for Latin Prose. Undoubtedly Kenneth had the academic ability to study at one of the Oxford universities, and The Windsor, it was his dream to do so.
But his uncle, John Grahame, refused to finance his studies and Kenneth was obliged to seek a post in the Bank of England instead. He worked in the family business while waiting for the post in writing academic School, the bank to become available. Kenneth lived at Draycott Lodge in essay School, Fulham with another uncle, Robert Grahame, in this period. Interestingly, Kenneth sat an for a International entrance exam for the Bank of England and received full marks in the English essay paper. This result was an unheard-of feat in the bank's history, both before then and writing english essay The Windsor, afterwards. Two years later the post in write Berlin Brandenburg International School, the Bank of England became available and in January 1879 Kenneth took up the duties of clerk at the bank's headquarters in Threadneedle Street in writing english essay The Windsor, London. As Draycott Lodge was quite a distance from the bank Kenneth also moved to lodgings in Bloomsbury Street around the same time. During his early years in London, and even before beginning to work with the persuasive essay titles University Washington Bank of England, Kenneth became acquainted with some leading literary figures and began to writing The Windsor School socialise in literary circles.
His own writings were kept fairly secret at writing John Paul first, with a few essays being published under a penname in St Edward's Chronicle, the school magazine of his former school. Writing English Essay The Windsor School! From 1888 onwards essays began to appear under his own name in literary magazines like St James's Gazette, the National Observer and The Yellow Book. The National Observer, initially named The Scots Observer, had a number of other illustrious contributors including Kipling, Shaw, Stevenson and Yeats. Many of Kenneth's essays were republished as a collection under the ib essay writing Trinity College title Pagan Papers in 1893 - the title representing an writing english The Windsor appreciation of to write an argumentative essay on Westbourne School nature rather than any form of sinister, medieval ritual! Among the writing english essay The Windsor School essays which he wrote several were about a family of orphaned children - Edward, Selina, Harold, Charlotte and an unnamed narrator. These stories about the children and their guardians, referred to as the Olympians, have autobiographical overtones. They appeared in the first edition of Pagan Papers but were excluded from all subsequent editions. Kenneth wrote several further stories about these children and in 1895 a total of eighteen of these short stories were published in The Golden Age . Dream Days , a further collection containing eight, somewhat-longer stories about write for a Brandenburg International, these children, was published in 1898.
The Golden Age and Dream Days , although they have paled into relative insignificance beside The Wind in the Willows and are not widely read today, received huge acclaim when they were first published. Another short story with the title The Headswoman - a humorous satire about an executioner - appeared in essay The Windsor, The Yellow Book in ib essay writing College School, 1894 and was later published as a stand-alone volume in 1898. It seems to writing english School have had an writing journal Lucton unspectacular reception and, in the end, was the only book about adults for adults which Kenneth wrote. In this period Kenneth moved house several times - to 65 Chelsea Gardens around 1886, to 5 Kensington Crescent in 1894 and to 16 Durham Villas in 1899. He also spent many of his holidays in Cornwall in these years, the english essay seaside town of Fowey being one of his favourite resorts there. In 1897 Kenneth met Elspeth Thompson. On 22nd July 1899 they married in Fowey, spending a week in St Ives afterwards for their honeymoon. It was not a very satisfying marriage for either Kenneth or Elspeth. To make matters worse, Alastair, their only child, was born prematurely on 12th May 1900, blind in one eye and with an academic Lucton evident squint in the other. Unfortunately the Grahame's could never quite acknowledge Alastair's physical disabilities and writing essay The Windsor, average intellect.
They, especially Elspeth, lived out a fantasy in which they believed that Alastair was a gifted child. Kenneth was promoted in 1898 to the position of company secretary of the Bank of England, a very significant position indeed, and, at thirty nine, he was one of the article writing John Paul II Academy youngest men to ever hold that position. Although he was a keen sportsman at essay The Windsor school and how to an essay Admiral Farragut, enjoyed walking and boating throughout most of his adult life, he did not have good health. This was probably a legacy from the scarlet fever he suffered just after his mother's death. In latter years at essay the bank Kenneth was absent for lengthy periods owing to illness. In 1903, in a bizarre incident, a stranger entered the bank?s offices in Threadneedle Street, asking to see the persuasive Governor.
In the Governor?s absence Kenneth, in his role as company secretary, met him. Essay School! The two exchanged a few words of introduction and an essay for a Berlin Brandenburg International, then the stranger produced a pistol and fired off a few shots. Fortunately Kenneth was unhurt. Kenneth worked on in the bank for a few years after the gunman incident, But his health problems together with a general disenchantment with the bank prompted him to writing take early retirement in June 1908. To Write An Argumentative! In 1904, when Alastair was about four years old, his father used to tell him bedtime stories.
Some of english these stories were about a Toad, and indeed they were the foundation of the journal latter chapters of The Wind in the Willows . Shortly after the english The Windsor period in how to write, which Kenneth told these bedtime stories he holidayed alone and wrote further tales of Toad, Mole, Ratty and Badger in letters to Alastair. (These letters were preserved by Elspeth and english essay The Windsor School, published in First Whispers of the Wind in the Willows a few years after Kenneth's death.) After Kenneth?s retirement from the bank the Grahames moved from Durham Villas to an old farmhouse in Blewbury near Didcot. Life moved at more relaxed pace and things to write an argumentative on Westbourne School, Kenneth had time to complete The Wind in the Willows . Surprisingly, the first publishers rejected it, and it was not until October 1908, after several rejections and some pro-active campaigning by President Roosevelt in the United States, that the book was finally published by writing english, Methuen and Co. The critics, who were hoping for a third volume in the same style as The Golden Age and School, Dream Days , did not give The Wind in the Willows much praise. English Essay School! The majority gave it a negative review. The public loved it, however, and within a few years it sold in such numbers that many reprints were required. The rest, as the saying goes, is history. President Theodore Roosevelt visited Oxford in 1910 and gave a lecture in the Sheldonian Theatre.
The President of write scholarship School Magdalen College arranged the lecture and, in response to a question on whether there was anyone he?d like to meet, Roosevelt asked to see three or four people including Kenneth Grahame and Rudyard Kipling. Kenneth travelled down to english The Windsor Oxford to attend the scholarship Brandenburg International lecture and writing english essay, spoke with Roosevelt afterwards. The success of The Wind in the Willows was tempered, however, by Kenneth?s domestic problems, especially those concerning Alastair. Although the how to Admiral Farragut Grahames attempted to live out a fantasy surrounding him, as if he were a gifted, intellectual, lovable child, the truth was somewhat different and, when he began to attend school that reality became evident. As his schooling progressed he became more and more of a misfit and the struggle to reach the academic expectations that his mother, in particular, had, became an unbearable burden. After unsuccessful spells at Rugby and Eton, he attended Christ Church at Oxford. The Windsor School! On May 7 th 1920, in academic Lucton, his second year there, he took an evening walk from Christ Church to writing essay The Windsor School a level crossing on the railway line between Oxford and Wolvercote. He was found dead on the tracks the following morning.
The verdict was accidental death, but virtually all the aspects surrounding his death point to suicide. The Grahames were devastated. After the funeral they spent a long time holidaying abroad ? almost all of the following four years. Most of this time was spent in Italy. After The Wind in the Willows and, more so, after Alastair?s death, Kenneth wrote very little ? just an occasional essay or introduction to a book.
In 1924 the Grahames moved to Church Cottage in the village of titles American Pangbourne. Pangbourne is quite close to Oxford and it would seem that Kenneth made frequent trips to Oxford. Strangely, there is little or no record of him visiting London again in writing The Windsor, these years. On July 6 th 1932 Kenneth died at his home in Pangbourne from cerebral haemorrhage and on the following Saturday he was buried in Holywell Cemetery in Oxford in ib essay writing School, the same grave as his son Alastair. His wife Elspeth died in 1946. Kenneth Grahame was a gentleman of great intelligence, wit and literary ability, whose creations, especially the characters of The Wind in the Willows , have brought pleasure to countless millions.
It is hoped that this Kenneth Grahame Society website, launched 75 years after his death, will represent some little tribute to him and to his contribution to literature. A full list of the biographies of Kenneth Grahame can be found in writing english The Windsor School, the Bibliography section. Peter Green?s second edition (now out of print) and Alison Prince?s more recent work can be recommended.
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resume patents This application claims the essay benefit of Provisional Application No. Things To Write An Argumentative Essay On Westbourne! 60/215,709, filed Jul. 03, 2000. FIELD OF INVENTION. This invention relates generally to the field of database management and, specifically, to the management of resumes received by writing The Windsor employers. BACKGROUND OF INVENTION. Employers have long been confronted with the problem of how to manage the receipt of resumes from persons seeking employment with the employer.
This problem becomes even greater as the employer's business starts expanding, causing its need for more employees to writing Lucton School increase. Similarly, as the writing english essay The Windsor School number of employees increases, the employee attrition rate will normally increase, giving rise to the need to hire new employees. II Academy! Recently, several database management companies have developed and are marketing computer based systems that attempt to manage the inflow of resumes in order to english The Windsor School enable the Lucton employer to more efficiently process the resumes and the information contained in the resumes. These resume database managers typically create extensive databases for an employer that are used to organize the resume information or content into various categories, which may be related to employment positions which need to be filled, or may be archived so that the applicant's resume information can be retrieved at some later time when the need arises. Although the resume database managers perform their resume management functions quite well, a significant limitation in their usefulness is that the resumes' content must be manually inputted into the computer based system by a data entry person who enters the information contained within the resume into a resume data entry form. This limitation arises due to the fact that resumes are not organized or formatted in the same manner, and the type and writing english, extent of information included within resumes varies considerably. The data entry limitation has become even more significant now that large volumes of both solicited and unsolicited resumes are received by employers over the Internet every day. At the ib essay Trinity College School present time, there are over a hundred different Internet Job Board sites that job seekers can use to create and post a resume on-line and to send the resume over the Internet to a prospective employer who is identified on the site. Since each Job Board site requires the job applicant to create his/her resume using the Job Board's resume format, a certain amount of resume format consistency has been established on the Internet. However, since each of the Job Boards have created their own proprietary resume format, there is no uniformity as between the numerous Job Board sites. It is the goal of the present invention to overcome the data entry limitations of the resume based data management systems.
SUMMARY OF INVENTION. The present invention comprises a computer based system and method for creating a standardized or normalized resume format, extracting information from the normalized resume, and automatically inputting the information into a resume database management system. Initially, a parcel identifier database is created based upon the different types of Internet Job Board resume formats being used. It has been determined that each Job Board resume format contains a unique piece of information or character sequence referred to in this Specification as a “parcel identifier” which can be used to identify a particular resume as having been created using a specific Job Board. English Essay! Accordingly, the parcel identifier database is created by storing in the memory of the computer system a list of unique parcel identifiers. Further, each parcel identifier in the database is associated with a unique Job Board resume template, also stored in a Job Board database. Things To Write An Argumentative School! In this regard, it has also been determined that each Job Board resume's format can be identified or characterized by certain keywords and certain information associated with a specific keyword. As a result, each unique Job Board template is predetermined or created by writing english School specifying a list of keywords and School, associating one or more resume field names with each keyword. The keyword identifies a specific resume heading or subheading (e.g., “Education”) and one or more possible field names (e.g., “High School,” “College,” and “Degree”) are associated with the writing english The Windsor information or content contained within the heading or subheading. The possible resume field names will correlate to writing Saint Paul II Academy the specific field names that the database management system assigns to the same information. Once the parcel identifier database has been created, the system's computer program is ready to process resumes that are received by an employer from a Job Board.
The program searches each line of the resume to determine if any character sequence within a line matches a parcel identifier in the parcel identifier database. If a match is found, the writing The Windsor program also identifies from the database the specific Job Board resume template which corresponds to the specific resume being processed. At this point, the system's program “normalizes” the resume by mapping it into the resume template such that for each section of resume content following a heading or subheading, one or more fieldnames are associated with the resume content. The final steps of the present invention involve the program's extraction of the an essay for a Brandenburg School correct information from the normalized resume and having the program enter the information into the correct field locations within the information management database. The program accomplishes this task by transferring the information or content associated with a fieldname from the normalized resume to english essay the same field within the information management database. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. FIG.
1 is persuasive essay titles University Washington a diagrammatic illustration of the general system and method of the present invention. FIG. School! 2 is things an argumentative essay School a flow chart of the normalization process for a formatted Job Board resume. FIG. Writing English Essay The Windsor! 3 is a continued flow chart of the normalization process for a formatted Job Board resume. FIG. 4 is a flow chart for an unformatted resume normalization process. FIG. 5 is an illustration of the transfer of resume content to ib essay writing a resume database.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION. FIG. 1 generally describes the computer based system and method of the present invention. Initially, at step 1 , a resume is obtained which contains a plurality of headings and writing english School, subheadings which introduce the resume's content or information which relates to the heading. The resume may be either a formatted Job Board resume or an unformatted resume. An Essay Admiral Farragut Academy! At step 2 , the resume is inputted into a computer system, either by scanning in a paper copy of the resume in order to create a digital copy or by simply obtaining a digital copy over english The Windsor School, an electronic network, such as the Internet.
The system's program also, at this step, retrieves an appropriate resume template. The template contains keywords which correspond to the resume's headings or subheadings, and at least one fieldname which corresponds to things on Westbourne School the content within a heading. In general terms, the essay The Windsor School system's program uses the template in order to map or associate the an essay Admiral Farragut appropriate resume content to the appropriate fieldname. The details of the writing mapping or association process, which are illustrated in FIGS. 2 , 3 and 4 , are referred to American in the present invention as the “normalization” of the resume, which is essay The Windsor School illustrated at step 3 . After normalization has been completed, step 4 illustrates a normalized resume which contains content (shown in the figure as content which is in italics) that has now been associated to unique fieldnames. Finally, step 5 depicts the College transfer of the content from the normalized resume to writing english essay The Windsor an information management database where the content is tutorial Paul II Academy stored in english essay The Windsor predetermined locations within the database. Referring now to writing School FIGS. 2 , 3 and 4 which illustrate the resume normalization process in detail. As shown in essay FIG. Academic School! 2 , input to the system includes data from a parcel identifier database 10 , a linguistic database 15 and a fieldname list database 20 . The parcel identifier database 10 contains a list of writing essay unique character sequences or “parcel identifiers” which are used by the system to identify a specific type of Job Board resume which is to be normalized.
The list of parcel identifiers is further separated into sublists of parcel identifiers which are applicable to a specific language. The linguistic database 15 contains a list of unique character sequences or “linguistic identifiers” which are similarly used by the system to identify the Job Board resume's language. Things An Argumentative Essay School! Finally, the fieldname list database 20 contains a list of unique fieldnames that the program associates with resume content. At step 25 , the computer system loads the parcel identifiers, linguistic identifiers and the fieldname list into the computer's memory. At step 30 , the system's program displays to the operator the list of The Windsor School fieldnames that were stored in memory at step 30 , and how to Admiral Academy, the operator, who is operating the computer display device, keyboard and mouse, uses the keyboard or mouse to writing The Windsor select each resume fieldname from the list which corresponds to the content within a resume that the operator wants to extract and transfer to an information management database. Additionally, the operator may identify the resume's language. At step 45 , the write an essay scholarship Berlin School computer system's program determines whether the resume's language has been predetermined by essay The Windsor the operator. Persuasive Essay American University! If the language is known, program control proceeds to step 60 . Writing The Windsor! If the language is not determined, the system's program at ib essay Trinity step 50 searches the resume to english School determine whether it contains any character sequences that match one or more linguistic identifiers, and the program counts the number of matches which are located for each linguistic identifier. Write An Essay Berlin School! At step 55 , the resume's language is then determined by selecting the language which corresponds to the linguistic identifier which has the largest match count, and program control proceeds to english The Windsor School step 60 . At step 60 , the computer's program searches the resume to determine if it contains a character sequence which matches a parcel identifier in the language previously identified. If at step 65 a parcel identifier match is found, the system's program utilizes the parcel identifier, at step 70 , to identify the resume template, from the template database 75 , which is associated with the resume, and stores the writing academic articles Lucton resume template in memory. For each specific Job Board resume format, the template database 75 contains a template which comprises a list of template keywords and writing essay, template fieldnames.
The template keywords correspond to a resume heading or subheading (e.g., “Name,” “Address,” “Education” and samples Academy, “Experience”) and are used to locate the beginning of writing School specific resume content. The template fieldnames correspond to the resume's content which follows and relates to a heading or subheading (e.g., “Susan B. Anthony” following the keyword “Name”; and how to Academy, “35 Tweed Terrace, Santa Cruz, Calif. English Essay School! 92301” following the keyword “Address”). The template fieldnames are used to writing journal Lucton normalize the resume by identifying the english specific portions of the resume's content which is to writing Trinity be extracted and transferred to an information management database. For each Job Board resume, a corresponding Job Board template associates one or more template fieldnames to each keyword, and each fieldname, as described above, is writing english essay The Windsor associated with specific resume content. The template may be illustrated as follows: Now, turning to FIG.
3 , the system's program performs a repetitive process, illustrated in the figure as a loop between the start of the loop at 80 A and the end of the loop at 80 B. The first time through the loop the academic journal articles Lucton School program searches the resume, at step 85 , for the first template keyword (i.e., “keyword 1(1) ”). Once the template keyword is writing essay found, then at step 95 the program locates the resume's content which follows and relates to the keyword and associates the content to one or more template fieldnames (i.e., fieldname 1(1) fieldname 1(2) . . . Article Writing Tutorial II Academy! fieldname 1(p) ). For example, if there is one template fieldname (i.e., “fieldname 1(1) ”) associated with the first keyword, then the program associates all of the content with the fieldname. If the template contains two or more fieldnames, then the program applies certain rules in order to locate the appropriate content to be associated with each fieldname. Writing English Essay School! One rule is that if the content consists of only two words, then the first word is associated with the first template fieldname and the second word is essay Washington associated with the second template fieldname. Another rule is english essay School that if one or more commas separate character sequences from adjacent character sequences, each separate character sequence is consecutively associated with a consecutive template fieldname. For example, fieldname 1(1) is associated with a first character sequence, fieldname (2) is associated with a second character sequence and fieldname 1(3) is writing Paul associated with a third character sequence. Another rule is that if there are more template fieldnames than character sequences, then the first fieldnames are associated with consecutive character sequences, and the extra fieldnames are left empty.
Finally, if there are more character sequences than there are template fieldnames, then the program deletes the shortest character sequence and determines if the essay The Windsor number of fieldnames then matches the number of character sequences. If the number of character sequences still exceeds the number of template fieldnames, the essay titles American University Washington deletion process continues until a match is made. Once the writing english The Windsor first template keyword (i.e., “keyword 1 ”) and its associated template fieldnames and each fieldname's content has been identified, the data is stored at step 100 in a normalized resume table 105 as follows: Program control then passes to the end of the loop at step 80 B where the program determines if any additional template keywords need to how to an essay samples Farragut Academy be searched. If more keywords exist, the program returns to the start of the loop at 80 A and repeats the process described above until all keywords and each keyword's associated fieldnames and each fieldname's content has been identified and stored in the Normalized Resume Table 105 . At step 110 , the writing english essay system's program selects each template fieldname that matches a fieldname that was identified by the operator at 30 in FIG. 1 , and the program automatically associates the template fieldname's content to the resume fieldname that was selected by the operator as described in FIG. Write Samples Admiral Academy! 1 . Then at step 120 , the essay School content associated with each resume fieldname is transferred to how to write an essay samples a database record which is stored in memory at 125 . The database record is designed to correctly interface with a resume database 135 . Next, at step 130 , the database record containing the appropriate content is output to the resume database 135 . Returning to FIG. 2 , if at step 65 the system's program is not able to locate a parcel identifier within the resume, control passes to the process illustrated in FIG.
4 . At step 150 , a default resume template is created from the Job Board resume templates which are stored in the template database. The system's program identifies a group of keywords from the Job Board resume templates that have the same template fieldnames. For example, the keywords “Name” and “Name and english The Windsor School, Address” would constitute a single keyword group because each keyword within the group has the same template fieldname; similarly, the keywords “Education” and “College Education” would comprise another group. In this manner, the default resume template's keyword contains a group of several possible keywords. The system's program next performs a repetitive process or loop commencing at step 155 A and ending at step 155 B. At step 160 , the things essay School program searches the resume for a character sequence that matches one of the keywords within the first group of keywords. If at step 165 a match is found, the program proceeds to step 170 where it associates the resume's content, which follows and relates to the group of keywords, with one or more fieldnames. The process and The Windsor School, rules which are applied are identical to that described above in connection with FIG. 3 , except that at step 165 the program determines if a keyword is located. Things To Write Essay School! If a keyword is found, the process continues to steps 170 , 175 and to english essay The Windsor School the end of the loop. If a keyword is not found, control passes immediately to the end of the loop.
Similarly, at step 175 , the write for a scholarship Brandenburg International School content which has been identified and english The Windsor School, associated with each fieldname is stored in the normalized resume table 105 . Once all keyword groups have been utilized to locate matching character sequences, program control passes to step 180 A- 180 B where the program attempts to identify content that has not been associated with a fieldname. This process is carried out by determining if: 1) the content contains a sequence of characters or a “field locator” which matches a predetermined character sequence; or 2) the content is located at the top of the resume. The predetermined character sequence may be any sequence of characters that are normally found within a resume. Persuasive American! For example, the words “Street,” “Avenue,” “Boulevard,” “Terrace” or “Lane” and the abbreviations “St.,” “Ave.,” “BI.,” “Terr.,” and writing english essay, “Ln.” are normally set forth in the address portion of a resume. Similarly, five (5) sequential numbers normally would be a zip code.
Accordingly, at step 190 , the Trinity College program searches for english School, a field locator. If at step 195 the field locator is found, then at step 200 , the program associates a default template fieldname to all of the content which appears before the sequence and immediately after the applicant's name in accordance with certain rules. For example, the applicant's name is recognized by ib essay writing locating on one line two words, two words separated by a single letter, three words, or the characters “Mr.,” “Mrs.,” “Ms.,” or the english essay School like. American! And, the program stores all of the content after the sequence until a line break. And, second, if the content appears at the top of the resume page, the program associates a default fieldname with the applicant's name. English Essay! If at 195 no field locator is found, control passes to the end of the loop. At step 205 , the content and its associated default template fieldname is how to write an essay samples Academy stored in the normalized resume table, and control returns to the top of the loop.
The process continues until, at step 195 , no field locator is found and control is returned to writing essay The Windsor School the end of the loop at 180 B. At this point, the program executes steps 110 through 130 set forth in FIG. 3 , where the resume fieldnames that were selected by the operator are matched with the default template fieldname and the resume content is output to the resume database 135 . FIG. 5 presents an example of the ib essay Trinity School present invention from the writing essay The Windsor vantage point of an operator who is using the invention's computer program in order to process resumes received by an employer. An Essay Samples Admiral Academy! Once the resume has been stored in the memory of the employer's computer system, the writing english operator initiates the normalization process by inputting a predetermined command which instructs the things to write School computer to execute the normalization process. Essay The Windsor School! The resume on tutorial Saint Paul II Academy, the left side of the figure is the resume after it has been normalized, with the normalization illustrated by showing the textual content in italics.
The right side of the essay The Windsor figure shows that the content has been automatically transferred to the resume database. While the present invention has been described with reference to how to write an essay samples a few embodiments, the description is english The Windsor illustrative of the writing articles Lucton invention and is not to be construed as limiting the english invention. Articles Lucton! Various modifications may occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope of the The Windsor invention as defined by writing articles Lucton the appended claims.
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The Beginner’s Guide to Writing a Perfect Software Testing Resume (with Free Sample Resume) A commonly asked question, mostly by essay The Windsor, newcomers into IT, is- “Do you have a sample software testing resume that I can use?” Sure, we all learn by seeing. To begin with we need to establish a point of reference, so there is no harm in checking out someone else’s resume. However, relying completely on it and trying to tailor it to suit our needs is not always the best way to create our own resume. How would it be if I took a picture of a perfect looking person and photo shopped my face to it – it just would not be right, would it?
The same rationale applies here. Each of writing academic us come from different educational backgrounds, different professional exposure and are at different proficiency levels – our resume has to be a snap shot of everything that is essay, uniquely us. The piece of paper (or electronic document) is a representation of ourselves when we could not be there in person. Therefore it is College School, of utmost important to let your resume capture the essence of writing english The Windsor School who you are as a professional. Article Writing Tutorial Saint John Paul? In this article I tried to put together a few simple pointers that will help ease this software testing QA resume preparation process , especially for first timers. To start with, these are some of the pre-activities that should go into resume preparation: #1.
Try to make a list of writing The Windsor School all skills, education, work experience, platforms, technologies, projects, etc. #2. For a start, forget about the John II Academy format and template. Sticky notes, piece of paper, notepad on english essay School, your computer – all are perfectly good starting points. #3. The list could look something like this: #4. Essay Titles University? Pick up the writing essay School technical skills section and try to article John, sort them in the order of your proficiency.
I generally, use the english The Windsor rating method on my skills. On a scale of 1-5, 5 being the academic Lucton School expert and 1 being just familiar- try to assign a rating to your list. #5. Take a moment to review your readiness with respect to skill acquisition required to apply the job of your choice. For example: From the above list, it is clear that I am not at the required skill level to writing english essay The Windsor, apply for a QTP position. That is ok. To enhance our strengths we always need to know our weaknesses. This method helps us with that.
There are 2 options at write for a scholarship Berlin Brandenburg International School, this stage: a) If QTP is english, not my area of interest, I just move on and apply for a manual testing job that better suits my skill. b) But if I want to pursue automation testing I could take a few days time, work on journal Lucton School, building the skill. Once I move to anywhere between 3-5 rating level, I may reconsider a QTP career. Once listing, rating and self evaluating is writing english The Windsor School, through, the next step is to think of a template. Every IT resume has the following sections.
Of course, the order in which these sections appear is write for a scholarship Berlin International School, a personal choice. English Essay School? As for me, I find the below order very effective, so stick to it if you think so too. a) The header – basic information about how to reach you – Name, Address, Email ID, Phone number, link to write an essay for a scholarship, your profile on a professional network, certifications etc. b) Objective – Optional section, especially useful to explain your choice of writing english School getting into IT- QA field if you have not been from a computer science background and to write, have a different career prior to now, or if you have been from a certain branch of IT and essay The Windsor School, want to ib essay writing Trinity College, transition to another one. c) Professional summary – a gist of your skills, your strengths, roles performed technologies you know, achievements awards, certifications if any, etc.
Start with the points that are most significant in writing essay The Windsor the list. d) Certifications – Include this section, if you have been certified in any areas. Note: I have come across some new comers who include – “preparing for ISQTB” or something to write an essay for a scholarship Berlin School, that effect in english essay School this section. This is generally not apt. Include only the ones that you have already been certified. For multiple certifications use a table. e) Work experience – list all the organizations you worked for until now. Writing Trinity School? A table works best for this. Order the columns in this table by keeping your most recent experience as the english The Windsor School first row.
f) Technical Skills – List all your skills acquired on-job and off-job according to categories. g) Educational information – Tabular format works best for Washington, this too. Essay School? Start with your highest education as the first row. Provide the P.G/ graduation/10+2/10 standard, year of passing, institution/city you went to next. It is optional to include the score you received. h) Projects – Projects is titles University, a main section in itself. This is where specific information about the kind of work you have performed during the course of your previous employment leading up to now. In case of multiple projects start with your most recent project and move to the next.
For each project include: Client: (optional and wherever relevant) Duration: Start Month/Year – End Month/Year. Description: (A small paragraph about the application that was worked on. Detailed functionality is not necessary) Roles and writing essay The Windsor, Responsibilities: Use bulleted points to describe what your day to day activities on job were. i) References – Provide names and contact information of your previous managers and/or colleagues whose feedback can be sought. Writing Academic Articles School? Alternately, you can choose to provide it on request by saying “References will be provided on request”. Now that we have the information gathered during the pre-resume step and the template, all it takes is to organize the information into a template. Use the template attached for more clarity.
This software testing CV template can be used by experienced as well as beginner level professional. All the sections are given in here. All you need to do is fill in your information. School? The samples for how to define roles and responsibilities, professional summary, project description etc. are provided too. Important Points in Resume Creation Process. To summarize these are the steps in resume creation process: 1. Try not to write an essay samples, create a huge resume. 3-4 pages are optimum for a beginner level professional.
For experienced personnel, try not to run over 5 pages. 2. Do not include personal information like – passport numbers. 3. You could include information regarding your marital status, Date of birth etc, but it is not necessary. 4. MS word or PDF are the standard formats for english, a resume. 5. If you are a newcomer and have no prior employment, you can still include project information. These projects are going to be off-job, self initiated. For example: pick gmail.com or amazon.com and academic Lucton School, test it thoroughly following a testing process that is close to real-time project. Writing English The Windsor? Document your results and include that as your experience. 6. If you are from a non-IT background and want to include that experience, keep it to a minimum. 7. Resumes nowadays are being picked by search engines. So include as many keywords as possible and include them repetitively.
Although, use them with caution. I have come across many resumes that include every skill available in the market. A resume is your entry ticket into a job interview not into a job. Including skills that you are not good will put you in a compromising situation when you can’t explain them in an interview. 8. Do not circulate your resume flippantly. Do not post/circulate your resume just to get a feel of the market or to understand how much pay you might receive.
Do it only when you are ready for an interview. Tutorial Saint John II Academy? You do not want to miss a chance at landing a job due to unpreparedness. Be prepared to attend an interview from the minute your resume is out there. 9. Avoid writing huge paragraphs. Stick to bullet points. 10. Check for spelling and grammatical errors. 11. Once you are complete, save your doc with an appropriate name. Typically, “Name_Role/tile_years of english essay experience.doc- (Name-QA Analyst-8 Years.doc)” is recommended.
Tip: You can also use the Naukri.com resume search option to search their database for things to write an argumentative on Westbourne School, resumes related to software testing skills. Writing English School? Using keyword and other advanced search options you can find the best profiles of professionals with matching skills and experience. You can even search resumes using the ’employer’ and ‘years of experience’ search options. But don’t copy their resume. Article Writing Saint II Academy? Just use it as a reference. You can refer the template we provided in this articles along with other live samples to write a perfect resume for you.
Now, the resume making process does not seem so daunting, does it? Let us know what tips and guidelines you find most useful. Thanks a lot. Writing The Windsor? I am fresher in testing and was looking for write Admiral, a template. :) Thank you for the template. Writing Essay School? it is very useful.
Very nice template. A very helpful post… Thank you. Really very useful….. Thanks a lot. I done one project on EBanking, please send me 1yr experiance Resume. wow thanks vijay and swati this one is perfect…. The idea to how to write, save the resume as “Name_Role/tile_years of writing english The Windsor School experience.doc is really great… thank you.
Thanks for this article. its so helpful for us.. but i have question. what if you are QA in one company but they dont have any testing tools that used and write an essay scholarship Berlin, also manual testing.. just test and test the The Windsor software until done and ok to implement.. i hope you understand my question. Thanks for College, this useful info. @jyothi: This article is to get you started on writing School, creating your own resume in Saint John Paul II Academy your own unique way. Instead of looking for a 1 year old experience resume, why dont you try following the writing english The Windsor School steps here and try to write it. It is easier than you would think. Also, please feel free to get in touch with us in case you run into any issues. @karuvarasan: Glad that you found the write an essay scholarship Brandenburg School naming convention tip useful. Essay? You are one of our most valued readers and we do appreciate your readership.
Thank you. @mica: I do understand you situation. For a manual testing project without usage of tools, you would like to know how to make it more fetching for an argumentative essay on Westbourne School, you. Is that right? Our careers are partly shaped by the opportunities we via projects but mostly by our personal interest. If tools are what you would want to focus on try to create a resume in a way that emphasizes more on skills than experience. The first step would be to learn the tools of your choice. The next would be to incorporate your learning experience into your resume as a skill you have acquired as opposed to writing english essay School, be it being a tool experience. An example: 2 years experience using JIRA- focus is on experience here. An expert at JIRA user operation with familiarity in Agile- This is skill based.
This could have a positive impact on your resume. I hope this helps! Thanks for sharing Vijay. Well, I do not agree about persuasive essay mentioning projects in the CV. Mentioning projects will definitely make the CV very long (I have seen CVs which consist of 12 pages. ). Rather, I would recommend to english essay, mention the skills you gained from the projects and to leave the projects to the interview itself. @Anwar: Sure, when there are lots of writing Trinity College projects and a few considerable number of years of experience, the project information might make the resume bulky. We are trying to writing The Windsor School, give out the article Saint Paul most basic template that is fit for the majority of our readership. Writing? Hence, the generalization. Thanks for letting us know your opinion.
We do appreciate it a lot. thanks @swati for such a good reply of @Mica,query , that how to an essay samples Admiral Farragut Academy, write good Resume if u don,t have knowledge of many tools . Hi,Really thanks to you.Whatever points you suggested to writing, improve the resumeis really impressive and rocking.It will definately help the jobseekers like me to get the job as resume is like mirror of the employee.Thanks again. Thanks for this valuable info! nice article with detailed information. Hi..i seen your tips and writing academic journal articles, sample resume..really good very use full..can u provide me performance testing resume on 3+ just sample please.
Hi! I was badly looking for a project to fill my resume . Thank you so much for your valuable information. Sir, I worked as s software tester for three years from 2006-2009 but after that i have got a break of four years due to english essay School, some restrictions of my visa. now its all ok with the visa and whats the best way to write scholarship, get back to english essay The Windsor, testing career again. Pls help me. @Rob: Glad to hear that your legal status permits you to get back to work. I think, the Berlin Brandenburg School first step is to writing essay The Windsor School, evaluate your readiness. Journal Articles Lucton School? Take a look at QA job postings(for your relevant experience and english, skills) and articles, make an assessment about where you stand.
If you feel its necessary, take some time to brush up your skills(if needed, consider taking an online class). Remember, you might be rustic at The Windsor School, the beginning, but we rarely unlearn what we learned. It might just take a little bit of time to come back to you is write samples, all, so please be patient with yourself. After you feel like you are ready(this might not take a lot of time), make your resume and circulate it. We all do not live in english The Windsor School a perfect world, so pauses in professional life are normal. Do not think of an argumentative it as a set back. English School? Be confident. Wish you the best! Please feel free to reach out to us for any further help.
Thanks a lot was looking for tips to make a resume got what I needed. I am regular reader of software testing help articles. currently i am working in persuasive essay American Washington Telecom Domain with no any knowledge of testing from last 5 years. from last 1 month i gained all knowledge of manual testing with the help of your forum. i have one question related to job change from non IT background to IT domain. what you suggest me in writing my resume to switch job from telecom to essay The Windsor School, IT. Many thanks for an essay scholarship Berlin School, this useful article :) Thanks a lot for this article. It is essay The Windsor School, very useful to all the Trinity School testing engineers.Keep on posting such articles. This article is really useful for preparing effective resume.
Thank you vijay. Thanks for the sample, it helped me a lot and keep up the good work. my problem is explaining a project to a interviewer? can u please email to me how do we explain about a project to english, an interviewer in a sequencial order . can u please email me with a real time project how to explain. i tried to explain it but it always ends up like what we learned from the book. How To Admiral Farragut Academy? i am not bale to explain theproject with real time experience. please do help me. thanks.
i am looking for best testing profile for fresher. please provide me. Thank you for your work! It is a perfect document for resumes. I am loking for Testing 3 yrs experince resume. I am loking for Testing 3 yrs experince resume. plz send me the profilr for experience.
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+30 Best Examples of What Skills to Put on a Resume (Proven Tips) Meet Jane. Jane is the CEO of Jane’s Addictive Sweets. She makes cupcakes. You like cupcakes, and you want to work for her. How does Jane know that you are the writing essay The Windsor School, person she’s been waiting for an essay for a scholarship Berlin International, all her life? A list of skills to put on a resume is as important as icing on a cupcake.
No one wants a cupcake without icing. No one. So, if you want a resume that will give you more interviews, you need to know what skills to put on a resume and how to describe them. This article will show you: Where to put work skills on a resume. What skills to put on The Windsor School a resume to get you MORE interviews. How to Saint John Paul, list work-related skills on a resume. 31 best examples of writing how to put your skills on a CV ( right vs. wrong examples). Write An Essay Brandenburg School. INFOGRAPHIC that shows the most important resume skills. If you have any questions about your resume skills, make sure to ask in a comment - I will be happy to answer. What to Put on a Resume to Make it Stand Out.
Apart from experience and education, you should consider putting your achievements, a resume summary, and writing, key skills on how to an essay Admiral Academy your resume to make it stand out. This article will show you how to writing english essay, put key skills on your resume. Here's an example of the wrong and the right way to put skills on a resume. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder.
It’s fast and academic journal Lucton School, easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume. English Essay. See templates and create your resume here. As you can see, the Lucton School, resume skills section and the resume summary are the writing essay School, most visible sections . That's because skills and qualifications are what employers look for , so these two sections should immediately grab the attention of the hiring manager. What are key skills for your resume? Key skills are work-related skills that you need to do a job.
Most often, you can find key skills in job descriptions. Where do you put skills on a resume? Skills are so very, very important that they should show up all over your resume. Not just in the resume skills section. But, you do need a professional skills section, and it should be in a prominent place on a resume. You can also try putting your skills section in a side column. Also, make sure that a couple of essay your key skills appear in your resume summary (here's how to do that) and cover letter (read more) . Several should show up in writing, your experience section.
Sprinkle a couple through your education section. One of the reasons you will want to do this is American Washington something called Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS). More about writing that later. What Skills to writing academic journal articles Lucton, Put On a Resume - Hard and Soft Skills. First, you need work-related skills. Writing. Not bow hunting skills or nunchuck skills. Real career skills. So, what are the best skills for a resume?
Okay, the first thing you need to know is that there are two different types of how to an essay Admiral skill sets - hard skills and soft skills. Hard skills are not “skills that are hard to writing english The Windsor School, learn.” They are the technical skills and abilities you need to do a specific job. Things To Write An Argumentative Essay On Westbourne School. For example, say you are applying for the position of dump truck driver. So, being able to drive is most likely the top hard skill you need to have to do the job. The Windsor. Typical hard skills to list on a resume include things like computer skills or driving a dump truck. A hard skills list is article writing tutorial Saint John especially important for english essay School, professions such as engineering, IT, and medicine. Here's a list of 10 typical hard skills to write Berlin International School, include on english a resume: Data Analysis Copywriting Foreign Languages Accounting Computer Languages Mathematics Graphic Design Planning / Event Planning SEO / SEM Marketing Bookkeeping.
A common way to describe soft skills is to call them “people skills” or “social skills.” Soft skills are often linked to personal qualities that make up a person’s “emotional intelligence.” They are special skills like communication, relationship building, and creativity. List of 10 soft skills to include on a resume. See examples of how to an essay Farragut, describe them. Writing English. Communication Ability to Work Under Pressure Decision Making Time Management Self-motivation Conflict Resolution Leadership Adaptability Teamwork Creativity. The difficulty of teaching and defining soft skills for a job is the reason why a list of soft skills on a resume are valued. And if you have great soft skills on your resume , you will do better than a candidate who has nothing more than the required technical skills. For example, research by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) shows that the key resume skills employers favor in new college graduate applicants aren’t the technical types of skills for ib essay writing, a resume . So, what skills are the best to put on a resume? The most desirable skills for a resume are leadership and the ability to work on a team, with 77.8% of english essay employers searching for both of writing articles School these key skills among new college graduate hires. Only 67.5% of employers will look for “technical skills.” So, when an employer must choose between two applicants with identical technical skills, the candidate that has proven leadership skills (or other types of soft skills) has a better chance. Sounds like becoming team captain of The Windsor your lacrosse team as soon as possible is a good idea.
First, you need to choose the best skills for your resume. This is the most daunting part of adding a resume skills section. It may seem simple, but take a look at academic journal articles Lucton the following example: I know how to use a computer. It’s a good hard skill. So I add “computer skills” to School, the bullet point list at the end of the resume. That’s great. Got it. But if you want to be more thorough, here are six easy tips to follow in order to make sure you have ALL of the good skills you need. So how do you decide which skills to put on your resume? I'll show you how, but first - always remember to ib essay Trinity College, put your skills front and center . Here's an example of a template from writing english School our resume builder that properly showcases skills on a resume.
1. How to Make Your List of Job Skills Relevant to the Job Offer. What skills are relevant for a resume? Let’s put it this way. If you’re applying for a position as a Marketing Manager, your ability to tie a cherry stem into article writing tutorial Saint John II Academy a knot with your tongue is english essay The Windsor irrelevant. Persuasive Titles American. Proficient with Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software (Salesforce). Tying cherry stems into essay The Windsor knots. If you're changing your career from Sales Associate to Customer Service Representative, most of your Sales skills will become irrelevant. In that case, you'll want to make a list of writing tutorial John abilities from writing essay School your sales job that count as customer service skills on a resume. A good start is to make a master list of writing articles job skills and professionals strengths before matching them to business skills listed in the job description.
Take a moment to think about essay The Windsor all of the awesome things you can do. Make sure most of them are things to put on a resume. If you're stuck, start with a general list of abilities as a warm up and then make a list of skills to add to a resume. Which of these things could be your hard skills? Can you prove them? Which of these could be your soft skills? Again, can you prove them? Are you a good listener? That’s a great soft skill. Titles American University. Can you use Microsoft Word?
That’s a very basic hard skill. Here is a sample of writing essay what a typical resume skills section might look like: Speak and how to Academy, write in fluent Spanish. Proficient in Microsoft Office including Excel and Powerpoint. Working knowledge of WordPress. Able to manage and writing essay The Windsor School, implement Social Media campaigns. Excellent written and verbal communication skills. Excellent editing skills. Able to translate complex text into easily readable material. An Essay For A International. Maybe you have some of writing english essay School these key skills . Maybe your skill set is completely different. To Write An Argumentative Essay On Westbourne. We’ve put together examples for you ( see below ) to help you brainstorm so you don’t leave out writing essay The Windsor, any of your best skills for a resume. Next, match your list to the resume skills listed in the job description.
All of the personal skills and talents you have can fall into one of three categories: Transferable Skills - the definition of persuasive essay titles American Washington transferable skills are key skills that you can take with you from writing english essay The Windsor School one job to another. Examples: Microsoft Excel or Phone Etiquette Job-related Skills - job-related skills are the things an argumentative essay, specific skills you need to english essay The Windsor School, do a certain job. Titles American University Washington. Examples: Scuba Diving or Java Programing Adaptive Skills - adaptive skills are personal attributes or skills you use to survive life. Examples: Persuasion or Confidence. Why is this important? Because there are different ways to english essay The Windsor School, put work-related skills on your resume depending on which category they fall under. Step 1: Go through the job description to find the job-related skills that are required for the position. Step 2: You should have most of write an essay samples Admiral Farragut Academy these key skills. Otherwise, you won’t be able to do the job. For this job, you need to writing english The Windsor, be able to: Conduct webinars.
Attend informal dinner meetings. Speak in front of large groups. Discuss and present software. Step 3: These job-related skills should go in your resume skills section and possibly in your resume objective or summary so an an essay Admiral Farragut, employer will see them right away. Essay The Windsor School. There should be evidence (work experience, education, training) that prove your ability to demonstrate these key skills on a resume . Pro Tip : You can also put these skills in bold , for example, conduct webinars . Using bold for ib essay College, keywords helps the draw the recruiter's eye while they are scanning, and will make you more memorable as well. Step 4: Next, look for english essay, all of the adaptive and transferable skills that the things to write essay on Westbourne, employer wants on top of the regular job-related skills. Step 5: Sprinkle proof that you have these types of skills throughout your resume. Add a few with quantifiable proof to writing english essay The Windsor School, your professional skills list. Adaptive Skills for a Resume.
Transferable Skills for things an argumentative essay, a Resume. Writing School. 2. Research People Who Already Have the Job You Want. Once you’ve mined the titles, job description for examples of professional skills to include on your resume, visit LinkedIn for a little bit of snooping. Why do you want to essay The Windsor School, peep on other professionals? Researching other professionals' strengths will let you know what skills and abilities are already valued in that profession.
Add any duplicates of your skills to your resume skills section. Pro Tip : For future reference, you can also check out the courses, certificates, education, and article writing Saint Paul II Academy, skills sections to unlock new achievements. Now you know how to writing english essay The Windsor School, take your career to the next level with a similar course or training. 3. What Skills to Put on titles American University Washington a Resume for writing School, Extra Value. Now ask yourself: Are any of your transferable skills and qualifications missing? Remember transferable skills are the universal skills that translate across jobs - like being proficient in Excel or Spanish. Good skills like Excel and Spanish are always relevant.
If you missed any, add them even if they were not mentioned in the job description. 4. Add the Universal Skills That All Employers Want. I know I’m getting repetitive: Go back and Brandenburg School, check one more time to make sure you have EVERYTHING. Remember, most of the unique skills that you put on your resume should be job-related skills taken from the job description and your best transferable skills. Adding a couple of your best universally desired skills is a way of sweetening the deal, but don't overdo it or base your entire resume on these examples of skills. Have a look at our resume skills list. Do you have any of them? 5. Numbers and Facts Will Make You Stand Out From the Crowd. Now, you're probably wondering how to put skills on a resume to convince the recruiter you’re the best fit? Use facts and figures.
Forget about superfluous adjectives. It’s as simple as that. Use proof to persuade to draw recruiter’s attention. 6. Writing Essay The Windsor School. Beat the writing articles Lucton School, Bots By Adding Keyword Skills. Today, a lot of resumes are read by robots before they ever fall into english human hands. That’s right. You worked hard on write your resume, but a lot of hiring managers won’t even bother to look at it before having R2-D2 run a scan on it. The software sorts through applicants’ resumes and compares the resume skills you’ve listed to those found in the job description. To pass the inspection, you have to writing english The Windsor, match a certain amount of these keywords. You can visit Jobscan to see how well you've matched your resume to the job post. Around 70-80% of the skills on your resume need to match the job description.
Note, the writing tutorial Saint John Paul, percentage can differ depending on School individual Human Resource departments. But, you can’t just pack your resume full of keyword skills to trick the things School, bots. TheLadders say that Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) are now able to contextualize the content of writing english essay School your resume. What does this mean? The software can read your resume almost like a human. That doesn’t mean that keywords aren’t important. Keyword skills should appear throughout your resume. You just have to write for a scholarship Berlin Brandenburg, make sure that skill sets are added in a way that reflects your full experience learning, using, and essay The Windsor, working with those key skills. Pro Tip: You should label your resume skills section “Skills” so that any ATS program can easily identify it.
Want more tips? Read our complete guide: 42 Amazing Resume Tips That You Can Use In 30 Minutes [Examples] The Technical Skills That Employers Desire the Most. The shift to a technology-based economy has made science, engineering, math, and IT skills some of the persuasive American, most in-demand skills for writing essay School, a resume among employers. So, what are the best technical skills for a resume? LinkedIn made a list of the 25 top hard skills for a resume in 2016 , and it’s all tech skills. The number one skill was “Cloud and Distributed Computing.”
Technical skills are either something you have or you don’t, but they are always something that you can learn. How To Write An Essay Admiral. Most people will only be required to have basic technical skills on their resumes like software skills - e.g., the ability to use Microsoft Office and Excel. Professional skills on writing School a resume are the one thing that will quickly communicate to an employer that you are the for a scholarship Brandenburg, right fit for essay, a job. And after you’ve proven that, the fact that you have listed universally desirable skills on your resume will put you ahead of the how to an essay Admiral Farragut Academy, pack. That’s why it is important to: Carefully craft a good skills section for your resume. Place key skills throughout your resume. And now you know how!
INFOGRAPHIC - Everything You Need To Know About Your Resume's Skill Section. The infographic featured below will show you the most desirable skills to writing english The Windsor, put on a resume and how to showcase them. Like the essay titles University Washington, infographic? Feel free to share it or use it on your site. I'll be happy to write a personalized introduction for your blog. What skills should you put on a resume to get an upper hand? Leave a comment if you have any questions about what skills to put on a resume or how to add them. Natalie is The Windsor a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about persuasive titles American resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.
She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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essays by english essay School marx by Harold Laski. This work has been published at write an essay samples the expense of the Tulloch and Barr Publishing Fund, instituted as a Memorial of Lieut William Tulloch and Capt. Hugh Barr, M.B., R.A. M.C., two members of the writing essay, Fabian Society who lost their lives in the Great War. No name in the history of social ideas occupies a place more remarkable than that of write an essay Farragut Academy Karl Marx. Save Machiavelli and essay Rousseau, no thinker has been the subject of a condemnation so unsparing, and, like Rousseau, it has been his fortune to preside after death over a revolution conceived in his name. His books have received from essay on Westbourne, a chosen band a scrutiny as earnest as ever the Bible or the Digest have obtained. Writing School? Yet the precise grounds of the position he occupies among Socialists is a more complex problem than is usually assumed. His theory of value is no more than a formidable adaptation of a concept already worked out in full by things an argumentative on Westbourne a group of English predecessors. Writing? Men like Harrington and James Madison realized, hardly less clearly than he, the significance of the materialist interpretation of history.
His appreciation of the fact of class antagonism had been anticipated in detail by Saint-Simon. Even his passionate sympathy with the inarticulate aspirations of the worldling class was no more profound than that of Charles Nail and Owen and John Stuart Mill. His position, indeed, cannot be appreciated unless it is seen in its historical perspective. Born between too revolutions, he utilized the method produced by write for a scholarship Berlin Brandenburg the reaction from the excesses of France to the service of its fundamental principles. The disciple of Hegel, he was the first of those who felt his master's influence to apply his dialectic to the analysis of social facts. English Essay The Windsor? Hardly less important was the material of an essay scholarship Brandenburg which he made use. Beginning to write when the writing english The Windsor School, full implications of capitalism were becoming visible, he utilized its own description of its economic consequences as the proof of its moral inadequacy.
The evidence was impressive and complete; and the induction therefrom of a social order at once new and inevitable, suited to a nicety the yearnings of how to an essay Academy his generation. The main result of the Hegelian movement was to lend a new sanction to philosophic conservatism. The impact of the revolutionary wars seems to have turned the mind of its founder towards the writing english essay, justification of established order. In that sense, Hegel is a chief of reactionary romanticism, and his affinity to men like Burke and writing Saint II Academy Savigny is essay obvious. Yet the essence of Hegelianism is, at the same time, the idea of evolution, and, to an age which, as with de Maistre, was chiefly concerned with finding the basis of a permanent social scheme the notion of evolution was a definitely radical one. Titles University Washington? For Hegel insists on the impermanence of institutions. Each age is its predecessor with a difference.
There is writing english essay The Windsor School a change of tone and outlook, a tendency to emphasize the antithesis of what has been characteristic of the earlier period. To the period of religious intensity there succeeds the age of religious indifference; Bossuet begets Voltaire, as Lord Eldon implies the reforming zeal of Henry Brougham. The law of academic Lucton School life is the warring of contradictions, with growth as its consequence. This process, which Hegel called dialectic, is, as it were, a kind of essay The Windsor School rhythm which moves from the concrete hardness of things essay some definite idea to its opposite; from that repulsion it shifts towards a synthesis in which the writing english essay, two first stages interpenetrate each other to form a new concept by their union. This notion is the things essay, ruling method of Marxian thought. Obviously enough, it provides a means whereby the foundations of any given social system may be criticized at their base.
For if we can be certain that any interpretation of a period is necessarily a partial view, we have only to emphasize its antithesis to call forth the possibility of a new standpoint. Hegelianism, for example, might insist on the moral adequacy of the Prussian State. But under its very banner, Young Germany might make protest against its rigorous impermeability to freedom. Where Hegelian doctrine had emphasized birth and position, Young Germany could point to the frustration of talent and the tragedies of the poor. Where it insisted on the value of writing The Windsor School religion, the article writing Saint John II Academy, newer thinkers might question the very foundations of faith. Writing Essay School? The disciples of Hegel, in fact, turned the weapons of write an essay Admiral Academy their master to the service of a cause he had denied.
Strauss and Feuerbach, Bruno Bauer and Heine are essentially a part of the same general tendency of which Marx is the essay The Windsor School, representative in social ideas. They are the heralds of revolt against the reaction. Their difference from Marx consists in their failure to see the political implications of their position. Marx grasped: them from the outset; and the Hegelian dialectic in his hands is an College School, effort at the overthrow of the existing social order. The time, indeed, was singularly fitted for the ideas of which he was the writing english School, protagonist. The shadow of two French Revolutions bestrode Europe like a colossus; and titles American University the very reaction they had provoked was compelled to make grudging concessions to ensure even its temporary survival. The mood of the people was everywhere bitter and discontented; and the criticism of existing institutions secured a widespread and eager welcome. In France, the work of Saint-Simon and Fourier and Enfantin had shown how prolific of writing novelty the writing John, revolution remained; and its influence was hardly less apparent in the new liberalism of Sismondi and the Catholic experiments of Lamennais. England was in the throes of a convulsion not the less profound because it was silent. Bentham had at last come into his own; and, under the stress of his urgent protests English institutions were being transformed into the organs of a middle-class state. The relics of feudalism had at last submitted to writing The Windsor School the assaults of Ricardo and his school; and the newborn industrialism, even if, to an observant eye, it seemed but the ib essay writing Trinity School, grim doctrines of Calvin translated to writing The Windsor School an economic sphere, completely altered the atmosphere of social life.
The revolution, indeed, did not achieve its purpose without suffering As early as 1805, Charles Hall had uttered a remarkable protest against the implications of the new civilization and that half-forgotten school of economists who form a link between the individualism of Bentham and the co-operation of Owen, were riddling its protective armour in the name of social justice. The masses had regarded the Reform Act of 1832 as the prelude to the greatest happiness of the greatest number; and their disappointment expressed itself in the revolutionary activity of the trade unions and the formation of the Chartist movement. Thinkers like William Thompson and J. F. Write Scholarship Brandenburg School? Bray, noble-minded agitators like Francis Place and William Lovett, are every whit as indicative of the new capitalism as the great merchants and the incredible machines of Lancashire and Yorkshire. The Industrial Revolution reaped what it had sown. It ground a whole generation into intolerable despair, and dreams of its destruction were the sole refuge of its victims. Those dreams were the background which made possible the english essay, emergence of Karl Marx. They gave him the foundation of his social philosophy. Karl Marx was born at Treves on an argumentative essay School, May 5th, 1818, of Jewish parents who were descended on both sides from writing english essay School, rabbinic ancestors.
Neither his father, who was a lawyer, nor his mother seems to have had any special ability; and Marx himself was the only one of several children who attained intellectual distinction. When he was six years old, the family was converted to Christianity, not, it appears, from persuasive essay American University Washington, any desire to avoid the english essay The Windsor School, stigma then attached to the Jewish faith, but as a result of that romantic idealizing of essay titles Christianity of which Chateaubriand was the most famous representative. It is not easy to measure exactly what influence this change had upon Marx. If it later opened to him avenues that would otherwise have been closed, he never availed himself of them. To the The Windsor, end of his life he remained something of an anti-Semite; but this does not seem traceable to any emotion of apostasy. Marx's childhood was passed in the normal atmosphere of a patriotic lawyer's life. His father was a zealous Prussian, to whom the persuasive Washington, defeat of Napoleon offered the opportunity, of which his son did not take advantage, of a lyrical hymn to Prussian victory. He went to the grammar school of his native town, where his ability was immediately marked by his teachers. There too, he was. intimate with the Privy Councillor, von Westphalen, whose house was a kind of salon for the intellectual youth of Treves. At least Marx learned there a love of literature and writing essay the dedication of persuasive essay titles his doctor's thesis is testimony to english essay School his grateful regard for his future father-in-law. For even before his departure, in 1835, to Bonn University, he had become secretly engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, whose beauty and strength of things an argumentative mind had awakened in english School, him an affection which did not diminish through life.
Marx remained a year in Bonn, studying jurisprudence; but he seems to tutorial Paul have devoted himself to the more convivial side of the University, and it was not until his removal to Berlin, in 1836, that he threw himself into writing english essay intellectual work.. Berlin was then at the very height of its reputation; and the influence of Hegel was still paramount in its instruction. No sort of learning seems to have come amiss to persuasive titles American University Washington Marx. History and philosophy geography and jurisprudence, literature and Aesthetic, all of them aroused in him the typical enthusiasm of an undergraduate in search of omniscience. Nor--it is a grateful thought--did he fail to write poetry; and if his verses are a fair index to his state of mind, he was full of a restless insatiability for knowledge, and english essay a zealous desire to solve the problems of the universe, from which at least there must have been derived many hours of happy work. He tried his hand at composing philosophic systems. He attempted to compile an outline of jurisprudence.
He went hardly at all into society, and article tutorial Paul II Academy it was not until the winter of 1837 that his experiments resolved themselves into a settled system. He surrendered the neo-idealism of Kant and took refuge in a complete acceptance of Hegelian metaphysic. That this change represented for him a very real mental crisis is evident from the passionate, if turgid, letter to his father of November 10th, 1837. There he summarizes the intense struggle through which he had passed, the writing essay The Windsor School, desire to dive into the deeps of the ocean . . . bringing up chaste pearls into titles University Washington the sunlight. He was ill and troubled. His poems and short stories were burned; he sought escape from the writing essay, seductions of Hegel in discussion at the Graduates' Club, only to find himself the more securely enmeshed therein. It is the typical intellectual history of an ardent mind, conscious of things to write an argumentative School great powers, and eager to secure a foothold from which to survey the universe.
Not unnaturally, it greatly disturbed his father. He, good man, was anxious above all to see Karl at work in a lawyer's office, or, even better, in Government service. English Essay The Windsor? Why did he not do as other students, attend his lectures, meet the right people, and embark upon his future career? He did not understand this mental torment save to see that it involved physical ill-health and a good deal of miscellaneous reading totally unconnected with the law. But Marx's ideals had already passed beyond so pedestrian an existence; and his father seems to have reconciled himself to the new ambitions. Marx determined upon a University post, and for that purpose devoted himself to the study of philosophic jurisprudence. With friends like Bruno Bauer and Friedrich Koppen, he buried himself in study and discussion. Essay American University Washington? A thesis was written on the philosophical systems of writing essay Democritus and writing academic articles Lucton School Epicurus, and in 1841 Marx became a doctor of the writing english essay School, University of Jena. He rejoined Bauer at Bonn and awaited the offer of a lectureship in the University. An Essay Samples Farragut Academy? Had that offer come, the history of European Socialism might have been very different. But the writing School, Prussian educational system did not look with affection upon eager young men whose views did not square with orthodox teaching.
The post did not arrive, and it was shortly enough obvious that it was not likely to arrive. An academic career being thus impossible, Marx set to work to article tutorial John find a living in journalism, and in 1842 an opportunity of an attractive kind presented itself. The first number of the Rheinische Zeitung was published on January 1st, 1842, and Marx was a warm friend of the editor, who had met him at the Graduates' Club in Berlin. Invited to assist, he wrote philosophical articles which not only brought him to the notice of a wider circle, among whom were men like Feuerbach and Moses Hess, but also secured for him the direction of the journal on the retirement of its first editor in the next October. Thereby Marx was compelled to deal, and for the first time, with immediate political issues. He came into contact with French and German Socialism, then in their Utopian stage.
The agrarian problem in the Rhine provinces and the discussion of the tariff, gave him the first stimulus to investigate economic questions. French socialist ideas were already being discussed in the paper, but Marx, as always, determined upon a thorough grasp of the issue, did not as yet pronounce upon their worth. An editor who takes time to make up his mind is writing english School obviously lost; and the directors of the paper decided to make a change in essay University Washington, its management. Marx, who had just married, seems to writing essay The Windsor have resigned without regret, and to have buried himself for article writing tutorial John II Academy the next two years in those economic studies from which he emerged a Socialist. Of the inner history of those years we know practically nothing. Certain alone it is that as early as May, 1843, he detected within society a breach which the old system cannot heal; and essay it was not long before he showed in his letters an intimate knowledge of Fourier, Proudhon and Cabet.
Already he had done with Utopias; the problem was to explain the struggles and yearnings of the time. In the winter of 1843, when he had settled with his wife in Paris, he wrote the introduction to Hegel's Philosophy of Law, which remains, perhaps, his profoundest piece of technical criticism. Already he was thinking in terms of revolution, and insisting that the task of the proletariat was to free itself from the existing social order. Poverty he viewed, thus early, as the artificial product of a bourgeois society; and the denial of the right to private property had become for him the fundamental avenue of release. But we catch glimpses only of this time. All that can be said with certainty is the fact that reflection had made him a Socialist. He had realized, too, the inadequacies of the abstract remoteness of French Socialism.
He had seen that the political state was, at any given time, the titles American University, reflection in structure of the ideas of that epoch. He had realized that the main need was to make plain to the mass of men the implications of the state, and english essay School the end to which their half-conscious struggle should lead them. An Essay For A Scholarship Berlin International? His thought, indeed, was abstract enough, and still fettered within the narrowly walls of the Hegelian dialectic. But at least it was moving forward. Meanwhile, the problem of how to live had still to be solved. He had gone to Paris in October, 1843, to become editor of the Franco-German Year Books . But that periodical lasted only for english essay The Windsor School a single issue, and, for Marx, its chief importance was the appearance therein of an argumentative on Westbourne School a long and frankly, bad article by Friedrich Engels on political economy. The article led to correspondence between them, and in the autumn of 1844, Engels went to Paris to visit Marx. English The Windsor? That visit was the commencement of a friendship which even death did not terminate. Friedrich Engels was the son of a rich manufacturer in the Rhineland. His father owned a cotton mill near Manchester, to which, in persuasive American University, 1842, Engels had been sent to study English business conditions.
He was already an eager critic of social conditions, and how carefully he observed the life about writing essay School him, his Condition of the how to write an essay Farragut, Working Classes in England in 1844, which he published in writing english School, 1845, bears witness. A sympathizer with the Chartist Movement, and a contributor to Owen's New Moral World , he was exactly in the frame of mind to be receptive to Marx's ideas. And his personal qualities admirably fitted him to be the complement of Marx. Thoroughly loyal, without an atom of personal ambition, generous, and self-effacing, practical and how to Farragut energetic, he brought to Marx all the necessary characteristics of a Fidus Achates. His unstinting literary assistance hardly less than his constant financial aid were the materials which determined Marx's future career. It is, indeed, almost impossible to disentangle the labours of the two. Clearly enough, it was to english The Windsor Engels that Marx owed both his knowledge of English blue-books as a source of economic theory, and his introduction to College School the work of the English socialist school. Without Engels, too, it would have been difficult for Marx to english essay undertake the research to which the first volume of the Capital bears witness; and writing Saint the posthumous publication of the two latter volumes was the tribute that Engels paid to the memory of his master. That Marx would have been an important figure without Engels is clear enough; but the writing, aid rendered by the latter made all the difference between the comparative calm of London and the restless wanderings of which hapless exiles like Bakunin were the miserable victims.
The sudden end of the Franco-German Year Books made Marx turn to Trinity more solid production. The Holy Family (1845) is important, not only because it contains the first clear outline of the materialistic conception of history, but also because its attack on Bruno Bauer is evidence that Marx had already broken with the young Hegelians. He had come to place all his faith in the significance of mass-movements. where Bauer believed that the ideas by The Windsor School which mankind is moved cannot hope for more than superficial understanding from the mass and depend for their success upon the efforts of great men. Simultaneously, also, he was answering Ruge's attacks upon the German proletariat with an impassioned defcnce of socialism and revolution. Weitling is held up as proof of proletarian virtue against the mediocrity of the political literature of the German bourgeoisie. And in the polemic against how to write Admiral Academy Ruge it is writing essay School insisted that the time for political revolution, the only revolution of which the German bourgeoisie is capable, had passed; the capacity of ib essay School Geimany is the capacity of its workers, and it is to a social revolution that Marx directs attention. This Paris period is important not only for the advent of Engels.
Mingling with the German workers then living in Paris, Marx naturally met those who were already in sympathy with his own views. From them to Proudhon was a natural step, for Proudhon was already the dominant socialist influence in France. Proudhon was interested in the Hegelian dialectic, and he and Marx spent countless hours in discussing its application to social science. But this fruitful intercourse was interrupted by his expulsion from english The Windsor School, France (January, 1845) at the demand of the Prussian Government. Marx went from Paris to Farragut Brussels, where he remained, but for short intervals, until the outbreak of the revolution of 1848. Engels gave him a selection of his library and Marx devoted himself to the composition of his singularly able and unpleasant criticism of Proudhon.
This was published in 1847, and it may be said to mark his transition to the full vigour of his matured philosophy. Proudhon's reputation as a social philosopher has undergone an interesting reconstruction in our own day. (1) As an economist he has hardly survived the analysis of english The Windsor Marx. A self-taught man, originally a printer, he came into prominence by the publication, in 1840, of his prize essays What is Property ? in which, with much brilliance of style and no small genius for writing Trinity College paradox, he repeated in the economic sphere the substance of those criticisms of social organization which Rousseau had expressed in a prize essay not less famous. But Proudhon's aspirations were not limited by his knowledge. With undoubted ability and with a real gift of social insight, he yet lacked that rigorous training in the method of intellectual inquiry without which the production of a logical system is rarely possible. Writing The Windsor School? Discovering the work of Hegel, he attempted an interpretation of essay University Washington social life in english School, terms of the dialectic. It is, broadly, a mass of ill-arranged jargon with some brilliant asides. But the work was written while in contact with Marx, and the Philosophie de la Misère is the exposition of things an argumentative exactly that type of Utopia-mongering which aroused Marx's anger.
It depended for its success mainly upon the unconscious ease with which it determines the most complex economic problems, and the reckless certitude of its own conclusions. Essay School? It is, indeed, at the same time, a very attractive book. Proudhon realized, not less keenly than Marx, the evils of capitalism, and he was not less anxious to point the way to an economic order of which the motives were freedom and justice. In the Du Principe Fédératif and the Justice dans la Revolution , indeed, he outlined a type of writing Trinity College School federalism of which the suggestiveness is essay immense; and article John it would be legitimate to argue that not the least significant source of the ancestry of Guild Socialism could be traced to his; writings. But the conflict between Marx and Proudhon was an writing english essay School, inevitable one. At bottom, the ideals of Proudhon were those of a peasant socialism, in which the authority of a central state was reduced to journal Lucton a minimum; he was reformist in outlook, despite the vigour of his phrases, and his economic views were always subordinate to certain ethical assumptions. Marx was the typical representative of the new industrialism, and the source of change for him was solely to be traced to School developments in industrial technique.
Authoritarian and materialist in both outlook and temper there was no real contact between Proudhon and himself. Marx, moreover, was a trained scholar, to article writing John whom the luxuriance of Proudhon's speculations was never an adequate substitute for writing english The Windsor School fact. Writing Academic Articles School? He was able without difficulty to writing essay School show that Proudhon understood neither the theory of value nor the process of production. Writing Lucton School? At bottom, as he insists, Proudhon had done little more than urge, first that labour was the source of writing english essay The Windsor School value, and next that riches and poverty co-exist. Proudhon could see that the source of economic injustice lay somewhere within the system of production, but he could not, with any clarity, explain its development. Marx overwhelmed him with ridicule, abuse, and sarcasm, and it must be admitted that from the standpoint of an economist, right is on his side. And Marx's answer, the Poverty of Philosophy , is noteworthy also for its firm grasp of the economic processes of history and for his insistence upon the part that an oppressed class has always played in the development of any system founded upon class antagonism. John Paul II Academy? But the main value of the book consists less in writing The Windsor, any positive doctrine that it announces than in the atmosphere by which it is permeated. It is definitely revolutionary, and it is revolutionary because it is historical.
Its lesson is the argument that social evolution implies economic revolution. That was a new note to strike in the history of European Socialism. The controversy with Proudhon was the natural prelude to the Communist Manifesto . It had been evident to Marx, for several years before 1848, that Europe was on the verge of revolt. England was passing through a period of intense agitation. Socialism was growing in Germany by leaps and bounds; and the lyrical falsifications of Lamartine seemed to academic journal School the Paris workmen infinitely preferable to the mediocre corruption of Guizot and Louis Philippe. Marx, indeed, did not see that the political situation was far too complex to admit of an writing The Windsor, interpretation in uniform terms. Write Scholarship Berlin Brandenburg International School? Democratic nationalism like that of Mazzini, individualist republicanism like that of Ledru-Rollin, such hostility to dynastic oppression as Kossuth embodied, state socialism as typified by Louis Blanc--the forces of upheaval were too various and incompatible to writing english essay The Windsor admit of any continuous co-operation. Bitterly as the worker might resent the consequences of industrialism he had not vet reached the stage where the seizure of political power for economic ends seemed to him the one ideal worthy of attainment.
And he was to an essay Farragut Academy no small degree, still attracted by the kind of unrealistic thinking of which Robert Owen was so prolific, the sense that the difficulties of the time might be evaded by extra-political organization. Marx realized that this attitude was definitely unconstructive. The seizure of the State was to him the starting point of successful effort, and when Frederic William IV summoned the United Assembly in February, 1847, it was not unnatural for him to assume that the hour for writing action was at hand. From the outset of his life in Brussels Marx had mingled with the German socialist residents there. He had come into contact with the League of the Just, an organization of German workers with branches in the chief European towns. This society, founded in tutorial Saint John Paul, 1836, had in 1840 moved its headquarters to London, probably to escape the unwelcome attentions of the political police. The attention of the London group had been drawn to Marx by the members in Paris and writing essay The Windsor School Brussels. Write An Essay For A Brandenburg School? The London branch commissioned inquiries to be made about him, and writing when the first Congress of the League was held in London in the summer of 1847, Engels and academic journal Wilhelm Wolff, the latter, through Engels, a disciple of Marx, were present at its deliberations. English Essay The Windsor? Engels had spent the year in efforts at revolutionary propaganda in Paris and the Rhineland; and it is probably due, in the main, to him that the League of the Just was transformed into the Communist League. The ground was thus prepared for Marx, who appeared at the second Congress, also in London, in December, 1847.
Engels had already conferred with him as to the ground to be taken there; and he had sent Marx the outline of a programme to be offered to the Congress for acceptance. Engel's outline contains the substance of the writing John Paul II Academy, famous manifesto; but it lacks the ringing challenge and firm grasp of its successor. At the Congress, Marx and writing Engels were commissioned to draw up a programme. They were prepared for the effort; and the German edition of the Communist Manifesto appeared a few days before the outbreak of the Paris revolution. It is not easy to over estimate the significance of the Manifesto. It gave direction and a philosophy to what had been before little more than an inchoate protest against injustice. It began the long process of welding together the scattered groups of the disinherited into an organized and influential party. Trinity School? It freed Socialism from its earlier situation of a doctrine cherished by conspirators in defiance of government and gave to it at once a purpose and an historic background.
It almost created a proletarian consciousness by giving, and for the first time, to the workers at once a high sense of writing essay School their historic mission and a realization of the dignity implicit in their task. It destroyed at a stroke both the belief that Socialism could triumph without long preparation, and the hope that any form of economic organization was possible save that which was implicit in the facts of the time. It insisted upon no natural rights. It did not lay down any metaphysic. It was, on the contrary, a careful and critical historic survey of the institutional process regarded as a whole. To insist upon its epoch-mating character is not to regard it as an original or definitive document or to suggest that it is free from inconsistencies. It owes much, clearly, to Considerant's Manifeste de la Democratie which was published four years before. (2) There have been Utopian socialisms in ib essay School, despite of Marx; and we are doubtless not at the end of them. The belief in natural rights revives with every age of discontent, and it would be possible to prove that the idea of natural rights is english School necessarily implicit in the juridical structure of Socialism. Nor is its treatment of the middle class at all adequate. At one point it is subject to a vituperation so scathing and relentless, as to make it seem the nurse of all social evil. At another its great historic achievements are exalted beyond all praise.
Its immediate programme of action is borrowed in almost every particular from those earlier Socialists who are so unsparingly condemned. Nor can Marx's claim that he substituted a critical insight into the facts, progress and general results of the actual social movement for writing Lucton School the systems of his predecessors, be entirely accepted; for, after all, it is not the least merit of Fourier and Saint-Simon that they had described with not less sober accuracy than that of Marx the economic conditions of their time. Even the writing english essay The Windsor School, use of the class-war as the key to history was brilliantly in things an argumentative School, the Genevan Letters of writing essay School Saint-Simon. Yet the ib essay writing Trinity, general superiority of the Manifesto to previous Socialist writing is incontestable. English? It contains, broadly speaking, four definite groups of ideas. Beginning with a history of the growth of the middle class it recounts its victory over feudal privilege, its emergence into the full development of capitalistic enterprise, and its necessary result in a revolutionary proletariat. A second section deals with the philosophic interpretation of this history.
It argues that the doctrine of the class struggle, the necessary and inevitable conflict between the write an essay Farragut Academy, bourgeoisie and essay School the proletariat, with the consequent revolutionary role that is assigned to the latter, are the plain deductions to be drawn. Ways and means are then discussed, the main object of which is to bring within the ambit of an argumentative essay on Westbourne School state control the whole economic life of the people. There then follows a criticism of previous Socialist literature of which it must be said that, forcible and eloquent as it is, much of it is inaccurate and english essay School the whole unfair. No description can do justice to the brilliant vigour of the whole. Every phrase of it is a challenge, and much of it has the same moving passion that distinguishes the exordium of the Social Contract or, in a very different type of polemic, the University, Paroles d'un Croyant of Lamennais. It is the book of men who have viewed the whole process of history from an eminence and discovered therein an inescapable lesson. It is at once an epilogue and a prophecy--an epilogue to the deception from writing english essay, which the workers suffered in the Revolution of 1789 and a prophecy of the land of promise they may still hope to enter. A movement that could produce a challenge so profound came hardly less to fulfil than to destroy. It had hardly appeared before the Revolution broke out in Paris, and samples Admiral Farragut Marx, as a precautionary measure, was banished from Brussels by the Belgian Government. Tyranny has banished you, wrote the French Provisional Government, but a free France opens her gates to you. Marx proceeded to Paris, but remained there only a short time.
Germany was already seething with revolt, and the natural vantage-ground for him was obviously the Rhineland. Gathering about' trim the members of the Communist League Marx went to Cologne where the editorship of the revolutionary paper, the Neue Rheinische Zeitung , was entrusted to him. Brief as was its life, its substance was not merely brilliant but of great significance as an indication of the Marxian tactic. Engels and Wilhelm Wolff were its chief contributors, and Freiligrath and Lassalle sent poems and essays. Mehring has published a selection of the chief articles of Marx in writing School, this paper. Dominantly, they insist upon three ideas: the disarming of the bourgeoisie, the erection of essay titles American University a revolutionary terror to abridge and concentrate the hideous death agonies of society, and the creation of a revolutionary army.
There is no room in Marx's thought, save perhaps as an english essay School, ultimate, for any democratic system. Revolution opposes counter-revolution, and a reign of terror is the path to triumph. Liberty is dismissed as a purely bourgeois ideal, which impedes proletarian advance to its goal. The idea of writing academic articles a general upheaval, Russia linking hands with France, Berlin uniting with Vienna, is emphasized, though it should be added that Marx had no full realization either of the english essay School, difficulties the Revolution would encounter, or the speediness of its destruction. The paper hardly lived for a year, when troubles with the censorship put an end to its existence, Marx left Cologne and returned to Paris, but only to witness the bloody suppression of the days of June. Titles University Washington? Banished by the French Government in July, 1849, to a remote corner of writing The Windsor School Brittany, he decided to move to London. Thither he went with his family, and he remained in England, with one or two brief intervals, for the rest of his life. Marx's London period is, creatively, the most important part of his career; but it was a difficult and tragic struggle for existence, and writing journal articles Lucton his work was accomplished only by heroic effort. For the writing english The Windsor, first ten years, the family was hardly over the verge of starvation, and Marx had even to pawn his clothes for necessary expenses. For was his intellectual environment easy.
The disappointed makers of a revolution are never comfortable neighbours; and his pamphlet, Herr Vogt (1860) is proof that German Communists did not differ from their fellows of France or Russia. ten years (1851-60) Marx acted as European correspondent of the New York Tribune , a post which was the sole source of any continuous income. It was, however, very poorly paid, and if the selection of writing academic School his articles therein published by Eleanor Marx after his death is at all representative, it is clear that the taste of the American reader has changed in remarkable fashion since the 'sixties. For Marx does not abate one iota of his convictions in his correspondence; and essay The Windsor School the manner of interpretation is that of the philosopher rather than the journalist. That income apart, Marx had no consistent means of livelihood during his first ten vears in London. Then came one or two family legacies, and a generous tribute from Wilhelm Wolff; later, Engels was able from his own means to allow Marx some three hundred and fifty pounds a year.
Yet, with all their penury, these were not unhappy years. His wife seems to have had a real genius for deriving contentment from misfortune; judges like Heine and Paul Lafargue paid her the tribute of profound admiration. His children were growing up, and Marx was passionately fond of his children. School? Their nurse, Helene Demuth, was a source of writing english School infinite help and an essay samples Farragut Academy comfort, and there was always the sure knowledge of the inevitable triumph of the revolutionary cause. For Marx did not share in the sense of The Windsor School depression which fell upon Liberals after the write an essay for a scholarship Berlin Brandenburg International, failure of 1848. He shut himself in the British Museum and, sometimes working sixteen hours a day, set himself to the composition of a socialist economics. One or two minor pamphlets were written, as the unsparing denunciation of the coup d'etat of 1851, which he called the Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1852) and the Critique of Political Economy (1859) which is important in part because it is the groundwork of the Capital itself and in part because of the valuable light it throws upon his own conception of his method. But outside his relations with the international, it was to The Windsor the Capital that these years were devoted.
And they were years of unremitting and devoted service. To Write An Argumentative Essay? He was at the Museum as it opened and never left until the attendants turned him out. Essay School? A chosen band of helpers, all fellow-exiles, used to accompany him and aid in write an essay scholarship Brandenburg International School, the researches he conducted; though it should perhaps be added that they were not admitted as assistants until they had shown their agreement with Marx and passed certain craniological tests. The Windsor School? Phrenology was not typical merely of the Utopian period of Socialism. Marx, moreover, never considered the exchange of conviction for comfort; offers of position came to him, as when Buchar sounded him, possibly on Bismarck's behalf; but he never dreamed of how to write desertion. Writing English Essay? There is certainly no more remarkable instance of great sacrifice for intellectual discovery than that of which Marx's life is how to an essay samples a record. Darwin, it is true, devoted twenty years to writing essay School the testing of his hypotheses, but he had ample means at his command. Marx was surrounded by difficulties, of which not the least was the knowledge that his self-imposed task condemned his wife and family to profound suffering. Neither he nor they seemed to have flinched from the academic journal Lucton, consequences, and one may judge not unfairly that their pride in his work was for Marx his happiest achievement. Of Marx's intellectual environment in London, we know all too little.
Men like John Stuart Mill he never met, though he was on friendly terms with the leading trade unionists as Odger and writing english Applegarth. With the latter, however, he had no intimate political relations, and in the contemporary history of English labour, his name has no large place. That, perhaps, was natural enough; for English trade unionism was then a system of compromises with which Marx's revolutionary dogmas had little connection. For the most part his affiliations were with Engels and the German exiles in London, though only the former seems to have enjoyed his full confidence. He had, moreover, a close relation-ship with that mysterious figure, half-fanatic and half-knight-errant, David Urquhart, whose loathing of Russia Marx seems fully to have shared. Both of them saw spies at every street corner, and at one time or another, in things to write essay, each case without a shadow of justification, Marx was able to convince himself that Herwegh and Bakunin were government emissaries.
It is, of course, sufficiently intelligible that an exile who had himself been the object of police attentions should live in an atmosphere of nervous suspicion; but it is a regrettable corollary of writing english School Marx's accusations that both Herwegh and Bakunin belonged to different sections of the Socialist party. Marx never welcomed opposition or rivalry; and he Noms too prone to assume that a doubt of his rightness was a doubt also of his opponent's integrity. Yet it must be counted to an essay Academy his great credit in these years that he is in no small degree responsible for the .svmpathy shown to english essay School the North by the working class during the article tutorial Saint Paul II Academy, American Civil War. It was Marx who advised the writing essay School, union of the writing academic journal School, labour leaders with Cobden and Bright to arouse the enthusiasm of the trade unions; and it was Marx who proposed in the General Council of the International, that a vote of congratulation be sent to Lincoln, on his re-election as President of the United States. Marx played some part also in arousing the trade unions to protest against the brutal suppression by Russia of the writing essay The Windsor, Polish revolt of an essay Berlin School 1863. But, apart from the preparation of Capital , Marx's chief occupation in The Windsor, London was with the early stages of the First International. In 1862 a group of Paris workmen paid a visit to the London Exhibition of that year. A trade union committee received them and a joint international Council was founded.
When the Polish rebellion of 1863 broke out, it was this Council which prepared the essay titles, gigantic protest meetings against Russian barbarity which represented the first intervention, failure though it was, of British labour in foreign politics. It was in connection with this campaign that Odger, a member of the Junta, suggested that the needs of the working class involved the holding of regular international meetings. The idea was taken up with enthusiasm and a great meeting was held in London in September, 1864, to organize the writing, movement. Essay Washington? Marx, who had held rather aloof from the initial stages was present at the meeting, and joined the Founders' Committee that was created. English The Windsor? He perceived at once the writing Trinity College School, significance of the new movement, and though he seems to have had little but contempt for its leaders, he was appointed to draw up the writing essay The Windsor School, inaugural address. The Committee had given him a basis prepared by the French delegates and accepted by it as adequate. Marx, characteristically enough, destroyed the basis, and things produced instead an address of his own detailing the progress of the working class in writing, England during the past thirty years, and insisting that its meaning must be read in terms only of his own theories. It is, in fact, a new edition of the Communist Manifesto , with the journal School, revolutionary period of writing essay School trade unionism as the basis of its deductions instead of universal history.
The special interest of the address, however, lies in Marx's use of the history of the Factory Acts as a proof of the value of working-class agitation. In the bright sunlight of day, he said, the articles Lucton School, bourgeois political economy was here vanquished for the first time by the political economy of the writing School, working class. The Factory Acts were, indeed, revolutionary in the sense that they were a direct admission of the inadequacy of essay titles University laissez-faire; but their passage was hardly due to the type of influence Marx had in mind. At least in other moods he would not have called Lord Shaftesbury a revolutionary Communist. Marx henceforward devoted much energy to the International, and as he hurried it forth from its cradle, so he may be said to have hastened it towards the grave. Its origin began in essay The Windsor, dissension--the struggle between the idealist nationalism of Mazzini and the revolutionary and ib essay Trinity College School class-conscious aggressiveness of Marx. On the writing english The Windsor, latter's victory Mazzini withdrew, though with characteristic selflessness he advised his followers to continue their support. Marx henceforth dominated the organization, though he waged a continuous warfare to maintain his supremacy.
To him, the movement was essentially an effort to propagate the ideas of the Communist Manifesto and thus to prepare the way for the revolution. But to the English members the International was essentially an organ for promoting trade unionism; and when Ogder perceived, in the Commune of 1871 and Marx's defence of it, the real drift of its purpose, he resigned from the organization. The English section always remained aloof from the directorate; for it was that special brand of Radicalism of which William Lovett was perhaps the finest representative that they were really concerned to samples Farragut foster. Nor was the English section the only difficulty. English The Windsor? For the first two years, the writing journal articles School, followers of Proudhon were not able rivals, and they had no sympathy with Marx's idea of a direct and immediate political revolution.
They were, moreover, hostile to Communism; and racial differences played their part. Writing English Essay The Windsor School? Even when the things essay on Westbourne School, Proudhonians had been defeated, Bakunin and his followers remained. They were anarchists and bitterly opposed to the centralized dictatorship of which Marx was the exponent; and there were grave differences between them on the degree to which property was to be confiscated. Bakunin, it must be admitted, was as difficult as Marx himself in colleagueship. He founded a rival organization and did much intriguing against Marx when he was readmitted on its abandonment. By 1872 his influence had so increased that a frontal attack upon him was impossible. Writing Essay School? In the American, Hague Congress of that year, Marx therefore proposed the writing english essay, removal of the headquarters to New York.
The motion was carried; but it was obviously impossible to article writing direct European Socialism from a position three thousand miles away. Writing The Windsor School? By 1875 the International was extinct; and hostile as were the attentions given to it by the Governments of Europe, it rather perished of internal dissension, tile struggle between two powerful and antithetic personalities, than from titles University, external attack. Not, however, before it had rendered one great service. The Second Empire perished in the defeat of Sedan, and the provisional government created by Thiers was not merely hostile to a democratic re-organization, but even looked forward to the building of a new monarchy. The working men of Paris had no sympathy with these ideas; and the Commune was their answer to them. The effort lasted only seven weeks, when it was overthrown amid scenes of unexampled butchery. Marx had been definitely hostile to its inception. Writing Essay The Windsor School? For him tile essential function of the workers was to strengthen their own organizations and to prepare themselves thereby for their coming freedom. But when the Communards perished in their heroic folly, and were pursued, as even more modern history has pursued them, by a campaign of virulent and lying attack, Marx came to their defence in what is, the Communist Manifesto apart, the most brilliant pamphlet he ever wrote. The Civil War in France , published as an official statement of the International, is, of course, a partial and incomplete view of the complicated events it narrates; but nothing that has been written since so admirably depicts the ideas and sentiments by which the Communards were inspired, or more energetically displays the writing College, savage brutality with which they were treated.
The defence was the more generous when Marx's low opinion of the French Socialist movement is remembered, as also his conviction that Sedan was the just price of writing essay Bonapartist imperialism. Yet even in journal Lucton, the hour of a victory he welcomed, Marx addressed the German workers in a manifesto which demanded a fair and honourable place for the vanquished. Meanwhile, the great labour of his life had been partially completed by english School the publication, in 1867, of the first volume of the Capital . It cannot be said to have received the welcome it deserved. Written, of an argumentative essay course, as it was in a German particularly cumbrous and involved in structure, it was necessarily caviare to the multitude. The Saturday Review perceived the writing essay School, value of the material of which it made use; though not even Professor Beesly's persuasiveness could induce George Henry Lewes to insert a long notice from Engels in the Fortnightly . Russian and French translations soon followed; and in Russia, particularly, the book soon made its way to that position of write an essay Academy commanding influence it has never lost. Marx, it must be remembered, was already well-known in Russia. Belinsky had already praised the writing english essay The Windsor, Franco-German Year Books ; Annenkov had published a long critique from an argumentative on Westbourne School, Marx on Proudhon; and his relations with Herzen and Bakunin had made him a notable figure among international Socialists. In Germany the book seems to have made its way but slowly; and the second edition (1873) contains a long protest by Marx against what he deemed an organized conspiracy of silence.
It had, of course, presently to undergo the inevitable attack incidental to all learned German controversy--on the ground that its doctrines had been anticipated; and essay The Windsor School Marx was ludicrously assumed to have stolen his thunder from Rodbertus. Washington? But within five years from its publication Capital had become the pivotal part of German Socialist literature, and his name assumed the The Windsor School, position from which ail other socialists might be surveyed. Marx, was not, however, destined to complete it. How To Write Samples Academy? The long struggle against writing english essay The Windsor School poverty had left its mark upon his frame, and the last twelve years of his life were an incessant fight against pain and disease. Asthma and inflammation of the lungs left him little chance of continuous world, though typically- enough, he devoted his rest to the study of the Russian language that he might speak the more authoritatively, upon its agriculture, and to such recreations as physiology and advanced mathematics. He wrote, too, in 1875, his Criticisms of the Gotha Programme , which contains, perhaps, the clearest statement of his attitude towards the transition to Socialism. Persuasive University Washington? He was able, further, in 1877-8, to writing The Windsor School do something towards preparing the second volume of Capital for the press. But visits to Karlsbad and Algiers did not improve his shattered health; and he did not lift his head again after the death of his wife on tutorial Saint John Paul, December 2nd, 1881. To her, Marx had intended, as Engels has told us, to dedicate the completed structure of his work. Writing The Windsor? He had no strength for the effort. Brandenburg International? On March 14th, 1883, he died peacefully, after a slight hemorrhage of the lungs.
His old nurse, Helene, and Engels were present at his death; and three days later he was laid to rest in the cemetery at Highgate. Essay? Engels and Wilhelm Liebknecht spoke at his graveside; and the former devoted the remaining twelve years of his life to completing the writing Trinity, unfinished edifice of his master. Marx would have wished no other wreath upon his tomb. Marx's personality is no easy one to english dissect. There is no trace of the rebel in his inheritance; and his early education would have fitted him for any career rather than the one he chose. Brandenburg International School? If he became the english The Windsor School, head and centre of the destructive forces of Europe, that was the inevitable outcome of the reactionary regime into which he was born; and write for a scholarship International School he would doubtless have countered that description by insisting that destruction is the School, parent of writing creativeness. English Essay? His work dealt with the historic foundations of the permanent source of revolution, and Berlin the only weapon, as we realized, for flesh that has mortified is the knife. The view that makes of him the compeer of essay Darwin, the discoverer of the universal law of economic evolution, has not a little truth in it; but it is less true than that which places him alongside of Rousseau and Carlisle, as one of the great prophets of the Brandenburg International, human race. For it is essentially by the qualities of the prophet that he is distinguished. He was unmoved by oracles other than his own. Writing The Windsor? Impatient of difference; as with Proudhon and Bakunin, contemptuous, as his correspondence with Engels shows, of ib essay writing School all who did not think exactly in his fashion, he never learned the essential art of colleagueship.
He was too prone to regard a hostile view as proof of moral crime. He had not a little of that zest for priority he was so unwilling to english The Windsor recognize in Lucton, the discoveries of others. He was rarely generous in his recognition of intellectual stimulus. With Marx, to enter a movement was to dominate it; and writing he was incapable of write scholarship Berlin Brandenburg International talking the second place. Hatred, wrote Mazzini of writing english essay The Windsor him, outweighs love in ib essay writing Trinity School, his heart, which is not right even if the hatred may in itself have foundation. There is a penetrating truth in that criticism. Marx's absorption in the wrongs of the disinherited undoubtedly blinded him to tile universality of essay The Windsor School human nature. He had brooded so long over write an essay samples Farragut the method of their redress, that he became incapable of weighing the english School, value of alternative channels. Article Writing Tutorial Saint John? He never realized how partial and incomplete were the views upon which he based his conclusions; and vast and patient as were the researches he undertook, he was not always exact in writing essay, his measurement of evidence. He is, in fact, a noble, but not an article tutorial Saint Paul, attractive figure.
That there was a Marx eminently lovable in himself, the testimony of friends makes certain; but it was not the writing essay The Windsor School, Marx of article public life. There is something unhealthy; in the venom with which he assails early friends like Bruno Bauer, or not less ardent seekers after light like Proudhon. His accusations against Proudhon even when the temptation to destroy is remembered were singularly ungenerous. Learned, courageous, capable of profound sympathy with the writing, mass of men, he was never able to grasp the secret of dealing with individuals. Much, is to be pardoned to an exile who never enjoyed comfort, and had often risked his personal safety but Mazzini was able to emerge from an essay scholarship Berlin Brandenburg, trials not less difficult with a sweetness unembittered. Nor could Marx accustom himself to the necessary compromises of political life. One is tempted to feel that Marx confined his introspection to other men, and never attempted that sober examination of self which is often the beginning of political wisdom. That effort, after all, is fundamental. The unstated assumptions of a thinker's personality are the writing School, more urgent because they do not appear in write samples Farragut Academy, the printed word.
Every great philosophic interpretation is at bottom a spiritual autobiography, and Marx never realized how greatly his work is a palimpsest within which one can read the history of his personal experience. It is writing english The Windsor School significant for his books that his early radicalism should have proved a barrier to his university career. It is academic Lucton School significant also that he should have known the pains and penalties of exile. Writing English Essay? Nor is things to write it irrelevant that, after thirty years in London, he was still, at the end, a German stranger testing facts and constructing theories in terms quite alien from the circumstances around him. The impalpable penumbra of his thought never impressed him, even while it remained the subconscious touchstone by which he judged the thought and english essay acts of other men. Thus, while he wrote with superb profundity about the material environment of men's lives, he rarely penetrated into the inner substance of those lives. With such tracts of experience--religion for example--as were alien from his own knowledge he could neither sympathize, nor understand. He wrote a philosophy which expresses in writing School, the mass the aspirations of men; but it is not a philosophy, like that of Rousseau which, with all its defects, springs directly from their deepest emotions. In a sense, that is to say, the seeming logic of his attitude is deceptive, for it in part rests upon a failure to test his own assumptions, and in part upon an abstract vied of human nature with which the totality of facts is in direct contradiction.
Marx's doctrines may be divided into five different parts which, though they are brought into connection in his writings, have in reality no necessary dependence upon each other. Writing English The Windsor School? Their central economic position is a theory of value, by an essay for a Berlin Brandenburg International which he endeavoured to explain the methods by which the workers are exploited under capitalism; and The Windsor as a corollary, a view of the increasing concentration of capital from which he derived important consequences in his prophecy of the persuasive essay titles American University Washington, future. Historically it is an attempt to explain the growth of movements and institutions entirely in economic terms. Predominantly, Marx insists, the antagonism of classes is the motive-power which underlies the historic process; and writing english essay School it is to the impulses which are at work in the satisfaction of economic demand that all changes are to be traced. Writing College School? Philosophically, this view results in a purely materialistic view of human nature--a view, be it noted, which has obvious and writing essay The Windsor important connections with the general attitude of the things to write an argumentative School, Benthamite school. Politically, the doctrines of Marx resolve themselves into a defcnce of revolution as the method by which the workers are to attain to power, and dictatorship as the method by which they so consolidate it as ultimately to secure a condition of general freedom. Upon Marx's theory of value it is not necessary to spend much time. It has not stood the test of criticism; it is writing essay School out of harmony with the facts, and it is far from self-consistent. It represents essentially a narrow interpretation of tutorial John II Academy some loose sentences of Ricardo.
The latter had argued, with certain qualifications, that the value of any commodity is to be measured by the quantity of labour which goes to writing english its production. Marx, however, ignored the qualifications, and the proof he offered of the thesis is essentially different from that of article tutorial Saint John Paul II Academy Ricardo. Exchange value, he argued, is not the singular quality of the commodity in which it inheres. Exchange value is the quality which it possesses alike with all other qualities for which it can be exchanged. Since human labour is the only quality which all commodities possess in common, human labour must be the measure of exchange value. And, be it noted, by human labour is meant undifferentiated human labour, it is a quantitative and not a qualitative equation. It is a measure simply of effort in time and not of effort in writing essay School, result or quality of result.
Labour is paid differently simply in relation to the different amount of labour congealed in any given commodity produced. Write An Essay Samples Farragut? That which will suffice to produce the necessaries of life for the labourer is therefore the price of labour power. engages, as it clearly follows, are the value of the workers necessaries of life. But the worker produces in a day more than suffices for his necessaries of life. If we assume that by writing english School working six hours each day the academic journal Lucton School, worker can produce his necessaries, while his working day is eight hours long, then the value of what he produces is as eight hours is to six, is, that is to writing The Windsor say, one-third greater. Marx termed this extra-production surplus-value, and he assumed that the capitalist, taking his surplus as his profit, robbed the worker of it. Article Saint John? For by buying labour-power at its market price! the writing english School, capitalist at tutorial once grows rich and exploits his workers. And in any capitalistic society, especially where there is writing english free competition, this is bound to write for a scholarship Berlin International be the case; from which it of course follows that only by the abolition of capitalism can we stop the exploitation of labour. It is unnecessary to dwell at any length upon the fallacies implicit in this analysis. As a matter of logic, Marx had no right to assume that the quality of english labour is, other differences being subtracted, the common basis of measurement.
Nor did he mention that in addition to how to write an essay samples Farragut labour, all commodities to writing english essay have value must have this at least in common, that they satisfy some need. Utility, in an essay Admiral Academy, other words, is a necessary factor in value; it would be impossible to writing essay The Windsor School produce aeroplanes except upon the assumption that some people wanted to an argumentative on Westbourne School fly in them. Nor can undifferentiated human labour be taken as a measure of value. It is an economic platitude that differences in wages are not merely due to differences in the effort in time of production. It costs no less to produce a bad carpenter than a good one, but the quality of a good carpenter's world has a value quite apart from cost as effort; it has the writing english essay, type of value which the economists call a quasi-rent, and this quasi-rent appears in writing journal Lucton School, the value-in-exchange of the product. Nor is english this all. Wherever there is a type of production the phenomena of tutorial Saint Paul II Academy which result in rent, the writing english School, measurement of value is not the mean cost of production but the American, marginal cost of production. Marx failed to note this limitation, with the re tilt that he cannot under stand the nature of rent and was led into obvious contradictions. (3) And he fails also to take any account of the fluctuating character of demand. He seems to The Windsor School have regarded demand as purely static, and falls, as a consequence, into all the difficulties which Bohm-Bawerk and to write essay on Westbourne the Austrian school have emphasized. To say, moreover, with Marx that the cost of a labourer is the writing School, socially necessary cost, the lowest cost, that is, at which he can be produced, is how to an essay Admiral Farragut immediately to bring within purview tests of his hypothesis which he entirely failed to writing essay School apply.
For if wages represent the cost of ib essay Trinity School necessaries, the existence of a proletariat whose wages are above the bare cost of necessaries clearly invalidates the whole process. hand, in fact, the question of writing english essay School a wages level is an historical problem in an essay for a Berlin, which logical considerations do not play the whole part. Social conscience, for example, as with the Trade Boards, may insist upon a rate of wages historically above the socially necessary cost, and trade unions may by the combined strength they represent, lead to the same result. If a state, even though it be a capitalistic state, chose to adopt a policy of a minimum basis of civilized life, in which a wage-standard was fixed, the iron law of wages, which Marx deduced from his theory of value, would immediately be obsolete. It must not be forgotten, moreover, that in the Marxian analysis whatever does not appear as wages, is always regarded as unearned profit. Of rent and interest this is, perhaps, no unfair account, but it is outside the evidence of facts to argue that the task of directing business, the work of the entrepreneur, is The Windsor not to count as labour and does not create value. Even when a suspicion of this impossibility dawned upon Marx, he dismissed the earnings of direction simply as cunning, (4) and argued that all profits contain an element of surplus value which differs from interest, wages and payment to the entrepreneur. But if profits are not a payment for academic articles work then it should surely follow that the capitalist must take it also; otherwise he is gifted with a quality of moderation with which Marx does not normally endow him. In such a general background, the Marxian theory of value seems clearly untenable not less on theoretic grounds than from an analysis of the facts of business. et it is equally undeniable that Marx's view has obtained the assent of a whole class of english The Windsor society to its truth; and it is, therefore, worth while for a moment to things to write an argumentative essay School inquire exactly what magic it possesses from which its strengthening hold is derived. That, it may be suggested, is simple enough.
Fr the technical economist, the difference between profits and rent Noms fundamental. Men like Ricardo and Nassau Senior saw a natural distinction in writing The Windsor, source of origin which manufacturers like Bright embodied in the legitimate earnings of a hardworking mill-owner, whatever his wealth, and persuasive essay American University the illegitimate because unearned income of a land-owning duke. They saw it the more clearly when, as in the period of Marx's own maturity, they were struggling to free his business from the environment of a hostile squirearchy. Writing School? But to the labourer, as Marx clearly saw, such a distinction Noms for practical purposes irrelevant. The world was divided for write for a scholarship Brandenburg International School him into those who lived by wages and those who did not. Those who lived by wages were poor, those who did not live by wages were rich. Assume, as Marx assumed, that the surplus theory of value is true, and the riches of those who do not live by wages are due to the poverty of those who do.
The worker was able to see that he was poor; he saw also that he produced more than he could consume, and writing english essay that his surplus production was divided among a relatively small class of rich, and often idle, men. A theory such as Marx's inevitably appealed to him as the natural explanation of persuasive American Washington his oppressed condition. He clung to it, not by virtue of any logical estimation of its theoretic adequacy, but because it summarized the most poignant experience he knew. The Marxian law of wages, moreover, will, from its very nature, win new adherents at every period of commercial depression. At any moment when there is writing essay a decline in the effective demand for commodities, or when the strength of trade union resistance is at a low ebb, the impact of capitalism upon the wage-earner will closely resemble what Marx insisted is its normal relation; for few business men have imagination enough to realize that there are other ways to the rehabilitation of markets than the reduction of price by means of lower wages. Inevitably, therefore, the worker will move from the acceptance of surplus value to the philosophy which Marx constructed as its natural environment. The law of the concentration of write capital stands upon firmer ground. The greater the degree of essay The Windsor School complexity involved in the productive process, argues Marx, the fewer will be the number of persons controlling its instruments. Everything contributes to the intensification of this process.
New means of communication are established, the problems of which are beyond the solution of the small capitalist. Important mechanical inventions are beyond his financial means. Territorial consolidation destroys the local market in which he was once a privileged person. The process, indeed, is neither immediate nor direct. It took the bourgeoisie three centuries to expropriate the artisan and create the proletariat.
But once the process had begun, the development was inexorable. Over production created a new army of reserve workers. The substitution of pasture for things essay School arable farming concentrated a large rural population in the towns. The economies of The Windsor large scale production forced hitherto independent producers into the ranks of the wage-earners. The capitalistic system moves from a national to an international character; its market becomes the world. Its nature involves increasing centralization, until the control of the forces of production reaches a point where its further development in private hands is impossible.
For alongside the things to write an argumentative essay on Westbourne School, development of accumulation is the increase of the proletariat. The workers cannot any longer endure the misery that is writing involved in the capitalist regime. They have learned discipline from the training that is necessitated by the mechanism of the process of which they are the victims. The knell of capitalist private property then sounds. The expropriators are expropriated. Write An Essay For A Berlin Brandenburg International School? To the great capitalist there succeeds them state, which is captured by the workers for their own purpose. Writing Essay The Windsor School? The result of capitalism is, in fact, its own destruction. It produces, in Hegelian fashion, its own antithesis.
The very condition of its growth is that it should involve the laws which imply its inevitable ruin. We need not accept the conclusion of the argument to to write an argumentative essay on Westbourne School insist on the important truth that it contains. The wastage of competition in large scale enterprise is a commonplace of modern business, and the trust or cartel is the characteristic symptom of industrial development. There are, indeed, certain important limitations to the simplicity of the Marxian view. The growth of joint stock enterprise distributes over writing english The Windsor School a wider circle the number of those interested in writing academic journal articles, the receipt of profits, even while it limits those who actually control the english, industrial process itself; while there are many minor industries, of which photography and the repair of motor-cars are examples, in which the tendency is to the increase of things an argumentative on Westbourne small firms rather than to the development of great ones.
But parallel with this evolution has gone a very striking centralization of credit which concentrates in continuously fewer hands the finances of the community. Agriculture, indeed, despite the large-scale farming of Western America, and the development of agrarian co-operation, remains persistently individualist in english essay, temper. (5) Yet, on the balance of inquiry it is impossible to deny the emergence of an increasingly collectivist spirit. And its reaction upon industry is the more important because it leads, without question to the demand by the workers of certain nominal standards from the state which are increasingly insisted upon as the condition of article Saint Paul II Academy business enterprise. Nor is writing english essay School that all. It becomes obvious that certain industries are, from their very nature, too vital in persuasive American University Washington, their results to be left to the chaotic possibilities of private effort. If the writing essay, expropriators are not actually expropriated, there comes, as with mines and railways, a demand for some form of nationalization, and just as the investigations of the 'thirties and 'forties produced the Factory Acts, so it is legitimate to argue that the results of inquiries like the Coal Commission of 1919, and the Dockers' Inquiry of 1920, are likely to put a term to the continuance of private enterprise.
Capitalism, in fact, prepares monopolies which immediately affect the writing journal Lucton, community towards some form of state administration. So regarded, of course, this view does not involve the theory of revolution which Marx regarded as the writing english The Windsor, inevitable corollary of capitalistic concentration. How To An Essay Farragut? It need not, indeed, involve a transition towards a socialistic state at writing essay School all. All that would seem to be implied would be the removal of industries essential to the welfare of the community from the danger of exploitation by private interests. The logic of a necessary conflict resultant upon the concentration of capital is derived by Marx from other sources. It is the corollary of his interpretation of history. That, broadly speaking, may be summarized by saying that all the phenomena of history are the article John Paul II Academy, result of economic motives. To them are traceable legal and social institutions not less than the religion and philosophy of each age. The system of production is the ultimate factor, in short, by which the mass of writing essay School human relationships is determined.
Protestantism, Engels wrote, is essentially a bourgeois religion; so too, in a feudal period vie should expect the legislation to reflect not general ideas of academic right, but those ideas of right which are compatible with the maintenance of feudalism. But ideas change, and in Marx's view, the source of change is to, be discovered in essay, the transformation of one economic system into essay titles another. A new external world produces new internal ideas. Let women enter industry in the mass and, as Mr. Bertrand Russell has pointed out, ideas which not even the logic of Plato and Stuart Mill could make obvious, become accepted without question. Two hundred years ago, it was unthinkable that a peer should go into the city; to-day, finance has enmeshed political life within its fold, so that no company prospectus is complete until the peerage is essay School represented there.
No one can doubt the very large measure of College School truth in writing The Windsor School, this outlook. No one can write the history of English Puritanism, of the struggle for toleration, or of the American Revolution, without making the defence of an economic incentive fundamental to their explanation. But it is equally clear that the insistence upon an economic background as the whole exclamation is radically false. No economic motive can explain the suicidal nationalism of the persuasive essay American Washington, Balkans. The war of 1914 may have been largely due to conflicting commercial imperialisms; but there was also a competition of national ideas which was at no point economic. Historically. too, the english, part played by religion in the determination of social outlook was, until at least the peace of Westphalia, as important as that played by University material conditions. Luther represents something more than a protest against the financial exactions of Rome. Essay The Windsor? The impulses of men, in fact, are never referable to any single source., The love of power, herd-instinct, rivalry, the desire of display, all these are hardly less vital than the acquisitiveness which explains the strength of material environment. Engels, indeed, seems to have realized the narrowness of the orthodox view, for in the later years of his life he insisted that the dominant part ascribed by Marx to write for a Berlin Brandenburg School the economic motive was due mainly to its neglect by writing essay School his opponents, and ib essay writing Trinity there was not always time, place and opportunity to do justice to the other considerations.
But with Marx the The Windsor, economic motive is not only final, it is final in a particular way. The only durable source of faction, said Madison, is property, and, for Marx, the emergence of private property in history is the beginning of the class struggle. Immediately society can be divided into those who do, and those who do not, possess private property, a power is released which explains the changes of history. For the write an essay Academy, class which possesses property moulds the english The Windsor School, civilization of that society in the service of its own interests. It controls the government, it makes the laws, it builds the social institutions of the commonwealth in an essay samples Farragut, accordance with its own desires. Slave and free man, master and servant, these have been the eternal antitheses of history. With the advent of capitalism the struggle is at once simplified, and made more intense. Thenceforward, the final stage of the class-war, the essay, struggle between bourgeoisie and how to write an essay samples Admiral Academy proletariat, emerges. And just as each social order of the past has secreted within its womb the germ of its successor, as for example, feudalism produced capitalism, so does the latter contain within itself the germ of its communist successor. Capitalism, said Marx, produces its own gravedigger.
The conflict, in his view, was an inevitable and a bitter one, and it was bound to result in the victory of the proletariat. The bourgeoisie, he wrote in the Communist Manifesto , is incapable of continuing in power because it is incapable of securing a bare subsistence to writing The Windsor School its slaves; and the result is a growing sense of revolt in the worker who ultimately, by a revolutionary act, assumes the reins of power. In a large sense, it is obvious that the substance of American Washington this interpretation is writing english School accurate. The fact of the class struggle, as Marx himself pointed out, is a commonplace of historians and economists; and it may be added that to writing Lucton deny its importance is to make history unintelligible. Where diary parted company with his predecessors Noms in the deductions he drew from his perception of its significance.
For whereas with men like Madison and Guizot, the fact of writing essay The Windsor School conflict produced a sense of horror at its implications, and a search for a technique that its dangers might be obviated, with Marx the conflict was fundamental and both its method and ultimate outcome were to him alike obvious. Whereas with Madison there is an ever present uncertainty whether a just victory may not suffer betrayal, or a wrong object be pursued, with Marx the process is predetermined and, save for a brief period in 1870, no hesitation seems to have crossed his mind. The method by writing which the proletariat was to secure power lies at the very root of Marx's doctrine; and it has been in our own day, perhaps, the main source of his influence. English Essay The Windsor? The method was revolution, and a dictatorship of iron rigour would consolidate the new system until the period of transition had been effectively bridged. Marx did not blind himself to American University what all this implied. The history of capitalism was the essay The Windsor, history of a relentless defence of each phase of the rights of property. They were maintained by article writing tutorial John Paul methods at each point unconnected with ethical demands. If the conflict was extreme as in the days of June, 1848, or with the writing The Windsor School, Commune of Paris, the last ounce of misery was wrung from its opponents, that capitalism might be secure. A period of comparative quiescence may produce the Brandenburg International, concession of social reform, but this is merely deception. Writing Essay School? Once a really vital point is Trinity College touched by the workers' demands, they are met by armed resistance.
That means, of course, that only by conscious violent intervention can communism be realized. The proletariat must seize a propitious moment for the revolution; but until it comes, they must do all in their power to disturb the existing regime. Even if minor successes have beer achieved by the aid of the liberal-minded bourgeoisie from the first hour of victory, the workers must level their distrust against their former allies. English Essay School? They must create a working-class organization of their own workers' committees, local workers' councils, to oppose proletarian institutions and writing College their influence to those of the middle-class state. The Communists must arm the proletariat and do all they can to cut down the army of the writing english essay, State as the chief weapon of defence possessed by the bourgeoisie. How To Write Samples Admiral Farragut Academy? Where the workers are in the militia, they must form within it a secret organization to obtain its control. They must form their own independent, if hidden, military force and acquire arms by every method. Influential democrats to whose word the working class seems to respond, must be discredited. The old social order, in fact, must be attacked at every point.
Communists have two functions only, to prepare for the revolution, and to consolidate it successfully when it has been prepared. They must think of english The Windsor themselves not as realizing an an essay for a Berlin Brandenburg International School, ideal, but only as setting free the elements of a new society concealed within the womb of the old. The period of consolidation, moreover, must be a period of iron dictatorship. Marx had no illusions about the possibility of a democratic governance in such an writing english essay, hour. The ideals of writing articles School freedom were impossible to The Windsor School maintain until the ground so conquered had been made secure. Revolution provokes counter-revolution; and a victorious proletariat must be on its guard against reaction. Revolution, in fact, demands of the how to write an essay samples Farragut Academy, revolutionary class that it secure its purpose by essay School every method at academic journal articles School its disposal. It has neither time nor opportunity for compassion or remorse. The Windsor School? Its business is to terrorize its opponents into acquiescence.
It must disarm antagonism by execution, imprisonment, forced labour, control of the to write on Westbourne School, press. For as it cannot allow any effort at the violent overthrow of what it has established, so must it stamp out such criticism as might be the prelude to further attack. Revolution is war, and war is founded upon terror. The methods of capitalism must be used for the extinction of capitalism. English Essay? For as capitalism has made of life itself the cheapest of commodities, there need be no repining at its sacrifice, and the result, in any case, is worth the cost, since it destroys the possibility of future sale. It would have been a wanton betrayal of trust, said Marx of the Paris Commune, to observe the traditional forms of liberalism. The end, in essay titles University Washington, fact, is too great to writing essay The Windsor be nice about the means employed. Nor can we expect that a peaceful revolution is possible. While Marx had certain doubts of England, on the whole he was certain that a violent struggle was inevitable.
The workers might capture Parliament at the polls; but political power of for a scholarship Berlin School that kind is in any case a shadow, and were it used for an assault upon property, it would inevitably provoke an armed resistance. Marx indeed, went further and was openly contemptuous of english The Windsor democracy. It was a bourgeois invention unrelated to the real, and University Washington used only to essay deceive the people. Again and again the proletariat is betrayed; and throughout Marx's writings there is the assumption that reliance must be placed upon a class-conscious minority. For in ib essay Trinity, his view there is no place in history for the majority principle; the record of States is the clash between determined minorities, contending for the seat of power. To introduce considerations of consent, to wait on in the belief that the obvious rightness of communist doctrine will ultimately persuade men to its acceptance, is entirely to ignore reality.
The mass of men will always acquiesce in, or be indifferent to, whatever solutions are afforded. Communists must proceed upon the assumption that nothing matters save the enforcement of their will. Upon the end this revolution is to serve, the forms its purpose will adopt, Marx has written but little. Obviously, with justice on his side; for speculation in distant historical futures is the english, worst form of gambling It was with the destruction of capitalism and the period of transition therefrom that he was mainly concerned. A new productive system was bound to involve new institutions which no man could foresee. Tutorial Saint John? That the Communist maxim, From each according to his powers, to each according to his wants, would become operative was, of course obvious to him; that performance would be measured in terms of writing essay The Windsor School labour-time (a possibly inconsistent hypothesis) he took for granted. But he was always emphatic that the future must settle itself. How To Samples Farragut Academy? He insisted that the essay The Windsor, measure of distribution would be necessarily unequal in the period of Lucton transition. English School? You may, as he saw, destroy by catastrophe, but creation is not an immediate and spontaneous process. So that he nowhere set limits to essay titles Washington the duration of this intermediate period. It was necessary to wait until the habits engendered bv a new productive system created a psychology in which the dogma of equality superseded the bourgeois hypothesis of individual rights.
The main thing was the destruction of a regime in which classdistinction made possible the writing essay The Windsor, servitude of the many. It was possible to have confidence in an order in which the whole force of social effort was deliberately placed at the disposal of the to write, common welfare. A generation which has seen this doctrine supported by machine-guns and bayonets is unlikely to belittle its importance. Nor can it be denied that not a little of writing essay The Windsor School social evolution has taken the course Marx predicted. Anyone who reads the history of the persuasive essay titles American Washington, industrial struggle in Colorado or West Virginia will find it difficult to discover a limit of unreason which capitalism is not willing consistently to overpass. The treatment of writing The Windsor School communists in Hungary and article writing tutorial Saint II Academy Finland has exactly the characteristics he foretold. English The Windsor School? An isolated community like the miners of South Wales becomes, naturally communist in the background of incompetence and ill-treatment from their employers.
And representative government, at least in its classical form, seems unlikely to samples Admiral justify the high hopes of its Benthamite exponents. Every country in the world that has experimented with universal suffrage has experienced a sense of disillusion. It is even commonplace to argue that reason has little place in political struggle, and to writing School pin faith to an irrational impulse which seeks no more than the ib essay writing College, satisfaction of individual desire. Writing English The Windsor? If there has been an improvement in the general standard of writing academic School civilization, an increasing unwillingness, for example, to inflict unnecessary pain, there are no signs of the mitigation of the class-conflict. English Essay The Windsor School? On the contrary, the events of the last decade point directly to its exacerbation; and we have obviously entered upon a period in American Washington, which the rights of property are challenged at their foundation. Certainly it is unquestionable that the purchase-price of capitalist survival is the offer of concessions which a generation ago would have seemed not less unnecessary than unthinkable. Yet the approximation of the general atmosphere to the condition Marx had in writing english essay The Windsor School, view hardly justifies the principles upon which he placed his reliance. To begin with, the preparation for revolution is a qualitatively different problem from what it was in an essay for a scholarship, the days of the writing The Windsor School, Paris barricades. It is possible in a mood of defeat for a civilian population to destroy a regime which the army and navy no longer uphold, and, as was demonstrated long ago by Cromwell, a military force which is dissatisfied with its civilian superiors can without difficulty become their master. But for a party of men in the position of communists in the modern State, the situation is very different. Unless they are the majority and, consequently, the government, the hostility of the writing academic journal Lucton School, army and navy is certain.
Nor can they obtain, on any large scale, the necessary equipment for insurrection. They would have to obtain control of the national arsenals; and that would mean the dispersion of forces in any case small by hypothesis. Writing Essay The Windsor School? They would have to meet in the people at article writing Paul large at least a mood of acquiescence. The Windsor School? They would have to guarantee a supply of food, which, in any but a dominantly agricultural society, would be practically impossible if international credit was seriously impaired by the revolution. Even if we regard a general strike as tantamount, in the conditions of modern industry, to a revolution the difficulties are overwhelming. A general strike might well succeed as a protest against to write an argumentative war, for its penumbra might, in essay, the future, arouse emotions of determination that would be irresistible. But upon any less dramatic issue, it seems tolerably certain that once again, the Brandenburg International, army and navy must be in the control of the strikers if success is to be assured. For a modern army can supply all services connected with transportation; it can secure the distribution of food, and the problem of fuel is becoming less and less a matter of mining coal. The Marxian view of writing english The Windsor School a secretly armed minority assuming power at a single stroke is unthinkable in academic articles School, the modern state.
It would have to writing essay The Windsor School imply either the existence of a government so weak that it had practically ceased to be a government at all, or, what perhaps, an equivalent, a population actively sympathetic to the revolutionary minority. The resources of to write an argumentative essay on Westbourne publicity in writing english, modern civilization make impossible the private preparation of the gigantic effort assumed by how to Farragut Academy the Marxian hypothesis. But this is only the beginning of the difficulty. Marx assumed throughout his analysis a system of compact states the life of which was mainly determined by economic considerations, and each relatively independent of its neighbours. Each of these assumptions is only partially true of the modern world.
A State like England, which is wholly dependent on foreign trade, could not undergo a successful revolution except upon the assumption that her neighbours viewed its results with benevolence. Such an attitude on the part, for instance, of America is very unlikely, and the rupture of Anglo-American Trade would be fatal to writing The Windsor any revolution in this country. Writing Academic Articles Lucton? For is that all. It is quite clear that the division a revolution would imply must, in The Windsor, its workings, be very partially determined by economic considerations. In a country like America, for example, there would be at least three other factors of vital importance. An American communist revolution would have to an essay cope with problems of distance which would probably render it abortive at a very early stage. It would not, as in France, be a matter of the immense impact of the capital on the life of the nation; Washington is relatively insignificant in the perspective of America. To control the whole continent would involve controlling the most complicated railway system in the world. And even if that difficulty could be surmounted, a complex of nationalist differences would have to be assuaged.
German, French, English, Irish, Polish, these have their special characteristics which the American capitalist has been able to exploit to their common disadvantage; it is difficult to see how an appeal to a communist minority of each would result in the transcendence of these differences. Even then, the School, religious problem remains; and titles University Washington the hold of the churches upon the mind, particularly, of the Latin peoples would not be easy to english loosen. Things To Write An Argumentative Essay School? For Marx, insisting only upon the economic motive, it is easy to ignore these difficulties, but it is far too narrow an outlook not to realize at the outset that appeal can be made to other incentives every whit as strong. And even if it were argued that Marx could in our own time assume that the day of The Windsor such prejudice as nationality and religion engender is School passing (which is essay The Windsor School doubtful), and that the barriers built by economic difference are now alone important, his conclusions would not follow. Trinity? For in a period of universal suffrage, it ought then to be possible to capture the seat of power at writing english The Windsor the polls, and throw upon the capitalist the onus of revolting against a socialist democracy. There are, however, other approaches to the problem which Marx did not adequately consider.
There is, in the first place, the general result upon writing academic articles Lucton School society of the practice of violence, particularly when the destructive nature of modern warfare is borne in writing essay The Windsor, mind; and, in the second, there is the special psychological result upon the agents of the opposing forces in such a regime. Marx did not consider these possibilities, in part because he judged that, in any case, the conflict was inevitable, and also because he was convinced that whatever sacrifices had to titles University Washington be made would be ultimately justified by the result. Such an attitude is, of writing english School course, simply an American University Washington, instance of his general failure to weigh sufficiently the substance of a political psychology. Essay The Windsor School? In part, also, it is the corollary of a determinism which the how to write an essay Admiral Academy, facts in english essay The Windsor, issue at no point justify. For it is obvious that if revolution, with its attendant violence, is write an essay Berlin International justified for any cause in which you happen to writing english essay The Windsor School believe profoundly, no modern state can hope for either security and order. The war has shown clearly that the impulses of savagery which are checked by peace are, when loosed, utterly destructive of the foundations of a decent existence. If life became an organized and continuous jacquerie, civilization could quite easily be reduced to the state where, as in Mr. Wells's imaginary but far from impossible picture, some aged survivor may tell of an organized Europe as a legend which his grandchildren cannot hope to understand. Writing Academic Journal School? Violence, on the grand scale, in fact, so far from writing essay, proving an avenue to communism, would be the one kind of existence in write an essay for a scholarship Berlin School, which the impulses demanded by a communist state had no hope of emergence. For the condition of communism is the restraint of exactly those appetites which violence releases; and Marx has nowhere indicated how this difficulty could be met. Even beyond this issue, a further point must be raised.
Marx has assumed the seizure of power, and a period of rigorous control until the people are prepared for communism. But he has not shown what approximate length that period is to be, nor what certainty we have that those who act as controllers of the dictatorship will be willing to surrender their power at the proper time. It is a commonplace of history that power is poisonous to those who exercise it; there is no reason to english essay The Windsor School assume that the University, Marxian dictator will in this respect be different from writing School, other men. And, ex hypothesi, it will be more difficult to defeat his malevolence since his regime will have excluded the possibility of opposition. Writing Tutorial Saint Paul? No group of writing essay School men who exercise the powers of a despot can ever retain the habit of democratic responsibility. That is obvious, for instance, in the case of men like Sir Henry Maine and Fitzjames Stephen, who, having learned in India the article tutorial John Paul, habit of autocratic government, become impatient on their return to England of the slow process of persuasion which democracy implies. To sit continuously in the seat of office is inevitably to become separated from the mind and wants of those over whom you govern. For the governing class acquires an interest of its own, a desire for permanence, a wish, perhaps, to retain the dignity and importance which belong to their function; and they will make an effort to secure them.
That, after all, is only to insist that every system of government' breeds a system of habits; and to argue as a corollary, therefrom that the Marxian dictatorship would breed habits fatal to writing School the emergence of the write for a scholarship International School, regime Marx had ultimately in essay The Windsor, view. The special vice of write scholarship International School every historic system of government has been its inevitable tendency to identify its own private good with the public welfare. To suggest that communists might do the same is no more than to postulate their humanity. School? And it may be added that if they surrendered power at a reasonable time, the grounds for ib essay writing College School so doing, being obviously in their nature non-economic, would thereby vitiate the writing The Windsor School, truth of the materialistic interpretation of history. All this, it is worth noting, is to omit from consideration the ethical problems that are involved.
It is obvious, for example, that it involves the persuasive essay titles University, complete erosion of the whole historic process. But the erosion of responsibility in the governing class is the destruction of personality in their subjects. In such a regime notions of liberty and equality are out of place. Yet it is obvious that the two main defects of capitalism are its failure to produce liberty and equality for the mass of humble men and women. Marx, that is to The Windsor say, contemplated a condition which reproduces exactly the chief vices of capitalism without offering any solid proof of their ultimate extinction. For, after all, the chief effort that is worth making is towards a civilization in which what Mr.
Graham Wallas has termed, the capacity of continuous initiative, is essay titles American University implied in the fact of citizenship. It is clear enough that the possibility upon which the writing essay The Windsor, existence of that capacity turns is a wide distribution of power. A man whose thought and acts are at the disposal of other men is deprived of his personality, and that deprivation is implied in the rigorous centralization to which Marx looked forward. Unquestionably, he was right in his insistence that the distribution of economic power in a capitalist state makes the enjoyment of such personality impossible to most; but it does not seem any more likely to academic journal articles emerge in writing english School, the successor to it that he contemplated. We may go further and article tutorial Saint John argue that it is impossible in any state where the main purpose of, and motive to, effort, is the The Windsor, increase of material wealth.
No society can realize itself in any full sense of the word until the mainspring of its existence is a capacity to value things of the mind as more precious than material commodities. That involves a sociology in which the economic motive which Marx emphasized is appraised at a low level. Obviously, to achieve the condition in which that appraisal is possible, involves an educational system far different, both in scope and purpose, from what we now have. It involves a complete transformation of values, in which things like the wider appreciation of art, the study of titles American University science and essay The Windsor philosophy. the release, in short, of the creative energies of men from their present bondage, are regarded as the main and immediate effort of political organization. Yet, if historic experience is to count for anything-- and Marx's philosophy is nothing if not the an essay Berlin School, interpretation of historical experience--it is exactly this transformation of writing english essay School values which cannot take place in the development Marx had in view. The barbarian invasions of Rome did not produce a great art and a great culture, they produced the dark ages. The Thirty Years' War impeded constructive effort in Germany until the write scholarship Berlin Brandenburg School, threshold of the nineteenth century.
Nor has our own experience been different. The idealism of 1914 has perished before the greater strength of the purely destructive forces released in the struggle. What we have realized is how tenuous and fragile are the bonds of civilization, how little likely they are to be reinforced by any effort save that of peace. In such a background, the conflict that Marx envisaged looms before us as the harbinger of precisely those evils from which we are seeking release. It emphasizes in english essay School, men the impulses against which civilization is a protest.
That wrong can be wiped out with wrong, that we are to regard ourselves as the write an essay scholarship School, victims of blind and impersonal forces against which it is useless to strive, that the possessive impulses of men cannot be transcended by english The Windsor creative effort--these and things like these are a gospel of impossible despair. In that aspect, surely, the older socialists were right who made the basis of ib essay Trinity College School their creed a doctrine of right and fraternity and justice. For right and fraternity and writing essay justice imply love as their foundation; they do not spring, even at the last vain striving from a doctrine founded upon hate. The real power and influence of Marx lie in a direction essentially different from an essay for a Brandenburg International School, what is generally assumed. He was the first thinker to expose in all its hollowness the moral inadequacy of a commercial civilization.: He showed that in any society where the main effort is the attainment of wealth, the qualities that are basically noble cannot acquire their full vigour. He did, in fact, for the economic relationships of peoples what Grotius did for their international relationships. He founded both a science and an ideal. For he made finally impossible any economic system which makes the english essay School, volume of trade the test of national well-being; and he put in the forefront of social discussion the ultimate question of the condition of the people. And he performed the write an essay scholarship School, incalculable service to writing english The Windsor School his generation of bringing to it a message of hope in an epoch where men seemed to John Paul II Academy themselves to have become the hapless victims of writing The Windsor School a misery from which there was no release. In every country of the world where men have set themselves to the task of social improvement, Marx has been always the an essay for a Berlin Brandenburg International School, source of inspiration and english essay The Windsor prophecy.
His weaknesses, of course, are obvious and important. He diagnoses a disease admirably, says Mr. Wells, in an excellent phrase, and then suggests rather an titles American, incantation than a remedy. Yet the diagnosis is an essential part of the cure. No one can read unmoved the picture he drew of the results of the Industrial Revolution. Massive in its outline, convincing in its detail, it was an indictment such as neither Carlyle nor Ruskin had power or strength to draw. It is relatively unimportant that his explanations of the phenomena he depicted have not stood the english, test of criticism. Write Berlin Brandenburg? What is vital in the whole was his perception that a society dominated by writing essay business men and organized for the prosperity of business men had become intolerable. Hardly less splendid was his insistence that no social order is adequate in write an essay samples Admiral, which the collective energies of english essay The Windsor men are not devoted to things an argumentative essay on Westbourne their common life. It does not matter that such perception had been given to others, that such insistence was not new. No thinker of the nineteenth century drove home the lesson with force so irresistible or with urgency so profound.
Even his advocacy of catastrophic revolution has this much of truth in it, that a point is reached in the development of any social system where men will refuse to accept any longer a burden they find too great to bear; and, in that moment, if they cannot mitigate, they will become determined to destroy. The condition, in fact, upon which a state may hope to endure is its capacity for making freedom in each generation more widespread and more intense. Where Marx was wrong was in writing english essay The Windsor School, his belief that the catastrophe was, in itself, worthy of attainment and in his emphasis upon its ultimate benefit. An Argumentative? But where he was, also, irresistibly right was in his prophecy that the civilization of his epoch was built upon writing The Windsor School sand. And even the faults of his prophecy may be pardoned to an agitator in exile to whom the cause of the oppressed was dearer than his own welfare. At bottom, the main passion by which he was moved was the passion for justice. He may have hated too strongly, he was jealous, and he was proud. But the essay titles American University, mainspring of his life was the The Windsor, desire to take from the shoulders of the people the burden by which it was oppressed.
He realized that what, in all varieties of time and place, has caused the downfall of a governing class, has never been some accidental or superficial event. The real cause of revolution is the write for a Berlin Brandenburg International, unworthiness of those who controlled the destinies of a people. Indifference to suffering, selfishness, lack of moral elevation, it was for those defects that he indicted the class from which he sprang. He transformed the fears of the essay, workers into hopes, he translated their effort from interest in political mechanisms to interest in social foundations. He did not trust in the working of laws, he sought always for the spirit that lay behind the order of which they were the School, expression. He was often wrong, he was rarely generous, he was always bitter; yet when the roll of those to whom the emancipation of the writing essay The Windsor School, people is due comes to an essay samples Academy be called, few will have a more honourable, and none a more eminent place. 1. See A. Berthod, Proudhon et la Propriété ; C. Bougle, La Sociologic de Proudhon; G. Pirou, Proudhon et Syndicalisme Révolutionnaire ; les Amis de Proudhon, Proudhon et Ses Temps . 2. But Considerant, though his picture of the economic situation is like that of Marx, rejects revolutionary communism.
3. See Das Kapital , vol. English? III, pp. 80-1, and 102, for an example of two quite different theories of rent within a dozen pages. 4. Writing Articles? Vol. III (German edition) Part 1, p. 343 ff. 5. Cf.
Herman Levy, Large and small holdings (1911).
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essay federalist 10 The drafting of the Constitution -- even by so distinguished a gathering as those who participated in the Philadelphia convention -- did not ensure its adoption. Writing English Essay? In each state there were groups and interests opposing as well as supporting ratification. And as they had done in the years leading up to the Revolution, Americans took to their newspapers to express their views and to writing academic journal School argue the writing essay The Windsor, merits and faults of the tutorial John, proposed new scheme of government. Those who supported the Constitution took the name Federalists, although it would have been more accurate to have called them Nationalists, since their main argument centered on the need for a strong national government. Writing? Their opponents, known as the Anti-Federalists, were in John, fact, the more truly federalist of the two, since they argued for a government based on a confederation of states.
Because the Federalists won, history did not treat their opponents kindly, and until recently the Anti-Federalists were treated, in the words of one famous essay, as men of little faith. More recently, historians have re-examined the Anti-Federalist arguments, and discovered that they raised significant issues, such as the lack of a Bill of writing essay The Windsor School Rights and questions of limiting power so as to avoid tyranny. In fact, it was the Anti-Federalist arguments against the Constitution, as much as the write an essay Admiral Farragut, advantages that the Federalists saw in the new scheme, that led the latter group to mount their own campaign to influence the people in favor of ratification. The best known arguments in the debate appeared in a series of eighty-five newspaper essays published in New York and written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay under the pseudonym of Publius. These essays are considered the writing english essay, most authoritative interpretation of the Constitution ever written, and even today are cited by scholars and jurists in their efforts to understand the meaning of the document. The most famous of the essays was The Federalist No.10, written by James Madison, in which he set forth the classic analysis of the republic. Opponents had argued that the United States was too large, and had too many groups, or factions, to be ruled democratically by a single government.
Madison acknowledged that there were in fact many groups in the country, and he lamented that they often seemed to writing tutorial Saint be at each other's throats. Under classic constitutional theory, majoritarian rule should govern, and at the expense of minority rights. Madison argued that the republican remedy embodied in the Constitution allowed the School, various factions sufficient room to express their views and to attempt to influence the government. Instead of the majority putting down minorities, the different interests would negotiate their differences, thus arriving at a solution in which the majority would rule but with due care and regard given to Lucton School minorities. The very number of factions would preclude any one from writing english The Windsor School, exercising tyrannical control over the rest. And the medium in which this give and take would occur would be politics, the art of how to write an essay samples Admiral Farragut Academy governing. For further reading: Gordon S. Writing English? Wood, The Creation of the American Republic, 1776-1787 (1969); George Wills, Explaining America: The Federalist (1981); S. Article Writing Saint Paul? Rufus Davis, The Federal Principle: A Journey through Time in Quest of Meaning (1978); Charles R. Kesler, ed., Saving the english The Windsor, Republic: The Federalist Papers and article II Academy, the American Founding (1987); Herbert J. Storing, What the Anti-Federalists Were For (1981); and the classic Douglas Adair, The Tenth Federalist Revisited, William Mary Quarterly 8 (1951): 48. Among the numerous advantages promised by a well constructed Union, nonedeserves to be more accurately developed than its tendency to break and essay, control the violence of faction. The friend of popular governments, never finds himself so much alarmed for their character and fate, as when he contemplates their propensity to this dangerous vice.
He will not fail therefore to set a due value on any plan which, without violating the principles to which he is attached, provides a proper cure for it. The instability, injustice and confusion introduced into the public councils, have in truth been the mortal diseases under which popular governments have everywhere perished; as they continue to be the favorite and fruitful topics from which the adversaries to liberty derive their most specious declamations. The valuable improvements made by the American Constitutions on the popular models, both ancient and persuasive American University, modern, cannot certainly be too much admired; but it would be an unwarrantable partiality, to writing english contend that they have as effectually obviated the danger on this side as was wished and expected. Complaints are every where heard from our most considerate and virtuous citizens, usually the friends of public and private faith, and of public and personal liberty; that our governments are too unstable; that the public good is disregarded in the conflicts of rival parties; and that measures are too often decided, not according to the rules of justice, and the rights of the minor party; but by the superior force of an interested and over-bearing majority. Essay University? However anxiously we may wish that these complaints had no foundation, the evidence of known facts will not permit us to deny that they are in some degree true. . . . These must be chiefly, if not wholly, effects of the unsteadiness and injustice, with which a factious spirit has tainted our public administrations. By a faction I understand a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community. There are two methods of curing the mischiefs of faction: the one, by removing its causes; the other, by controlling its effects.
There are again two methods of removing the causes of writing essay School faction: the one by persuasive American Washington destroying the liberty which is essential to its existence; the other, by giving to every citizen the same opinions, the same passions, and the same interests. It could never be more truly said than of the first remedy, that it is worse than the disease. Liberty is to faction, what air is to writing english essay The Windsor School fire, an ailment without which it instantly expires. Article Saint John Paul? But it could not be a less folly to abolish liberty, which is essential to political life, because it nourishes faction, than it would be to wish the annihilation of air, which is essential to animal life, because it imparts to fire its destructive agency. The second expedient is as impracticable, as the first would be unwise.
As long as the reason of man continues fallible, and he is at liberty to exercise it, different opinions will be formed. As long as the writing english essay School, connection subsists between his reason and his self-love, his opinions and his passions will have a reciprocal influence on each other; and write an essay for a scholarship International, the former will be objects to which the english School, latter will attach themselves. The diversity in write for a Brandenburg, the faculties of writing english essay School men from which the rights of property originate, is not less an insuperable obstacle to a uniformity of interests. The protection of these faculties is the first object of Government. From the protection of different and unequal faculties of acquiring property, the possession of different degrees and kinds of persuasive essay titles University property immediately results: and writing The Windsor School, from the influence of these on the sentiments and views of the respective proprietors, ensues a division of the society into different interests and writing academic journal Lucton School, parties. English Essay The Windsor? . . . The inference to which we are brought is, that the titles University Washington, causes of faction cannot removed; and that relief is only to english essay be sought in the means of controlling its effects. If a faction consists of less than a majority, relief is supplied by the republican principle, which enables the American, majority to defeat its sinister views by regular vote: It may clog the writing english essay The Windsor, administration, it may convulse the society; but it will be unable to execute and mask its violence under the forms of the Constitution. Titles? When a majority is included in a faction, the form of popular government on the other hand enables it to sacrifice to its ruling passion or interest, both the public good and the rights of School other citizens.
To secure the public good, and private rights, against the danger of such a faction, and at the same time to preserve the spirit and the form of popular government, is then the great object to which our enquiries are directed: Let me add that it is the great desideratum, by which alone this form of government can rescued from the opprobrium under which it has so long labored, and ib essay writing Trinity, be recommended to the esteem and adoption of mankind. By what means is this object attainable? Evidently by english School one of two only. Either the existence of the article writing Saint John II Academy, same passion or interest in english The Windsor, a majority at ib essay School the same time, must be prevented; or the english The Windsor School, majority, having such co-existent passion or interest, must be rendered, by their number and local situation, unable to concert and carry into effect schemes of oppression. If the impulse and the opportunity be suffered to article writing tutorial Paul coincide, we well know that neither moral nor religious motives can be relied on as an writing english School, adequate control. They are not found to be such on the injustice and violence of individuals, and lose their efficacy in proportion to the number combined together; that is, in proportion as their efficacy becomes needful.
From this view of the subject, it may be concluded, that a pure Democracy, by which I mean, a Society, consisting of a small number of citizens, who assemble and administer the Government in person, can admit of writing Trinity College no cure for the mischiefs of writing faction. A common passion or interest will, in to write School, almost every case, be felt by a majority of the whole; a communication and concert results from the form of Government itself; and there is nothing to check the inducements to sacrifice the weaker party, or an obnoxious individual. Hence it is, that such Democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; have ever been found incompatible with personal security, or the rights of property; and have in general been as short in their lives, as they have been violent in their deaths. Theoretic politicians, who have patronized this species of Government, have erroneously supposed, that by reducing mankind to a perfect equality in their political rights, they would, at the same time, be perfectly equalized and The Windsor, assimilated in their possessions, their opinions, and article writing Saint II Academy, their passions. A Republic, by essay The Windsor School which I mean a Government in which the scheme of representation takes place, opens a different prospect, and promises the how to write an essay Admiral Academy, cure for which we are seeking.
Let us examine the english School, points in which it varies from pure Democracy, and we shall comprehend both the nature of the cure, and the efficacy which it must derive from the Union. The two great points of difference between a Democracy and write an essay for a Brandenburg International, a Republic are, first, the delegation of the Government, in the latter, to a small number of citizens elected by the rest: secondly, the greater number of citizens, and greater sphere of country, over which the latter may be extended. The effect of the first difference is, on the one hand to refine and the public views, by passing them through the medium of a chosen body of citizens, whose wisdom may best discern the true interest of their country, and whose patriotism and love of justice, will be least likely to sacrifice it to temporary or partial considerations. Under such a regulation, it may well happen that the public voice pronounced by the representatives of the people, will be more consonant to the public good, than if pronounced by the people themselves convened for english School, the purpose. On the other hand, the effect may be inverted. Men of factious tempers, of local prejudices, or of sinister designs, may by intrigue, by corruption or by write Farragut Academy other means, first obtain the suffrages, and writing The Windsor, then betray the interests of the people. The question resulting is, whether small or extensive Republics are most favorable to the election of proper guardians of the writing academic articles School, public weal; and english The Windsor School, it is clearly decided in favor of the latter by two obvious considerations. In the first place it is to be remarked that however small the Republic may be, the write an essay Brandenburg International School, Representatives must be raised to The Windsor a certain number, in order to guard against the cabals of a few; and that however large it may be, they must be limited to a certain number, in order to guard against the confusion of a multitude. Hence the number of ib essay writing School Representatives in the two cases, not being in proportion to that of the Constituents, and The Windsor, being proportionally greatest in ib essay Trinity College School, the small Republic, it follows, that if the proportion of fit characters, be not less, in the large than in the small Republic, the former will present a greater option, and consequently a greater probability of a fit choice. In the next place, as each Representative will be chosen by a greater number of citizens in the large than in english essay The Windsor School, the small Republic, it will be more difficult for unworthy candidates to practise with success the how to an essay Admiral Farragut, vicious arts, by which elections are too often carried; and the suffrages of the people being more free, will be more likely to center on men who possess the most attractive merit, and the most diffusive and established characters.
It must be confessed, that in this, as in most other cases, there is a mean, on both sides of which inconveniencies will be found to lie. By enlarging too much the essay, number of electors, you render the representative too little acquainted with all their local circumstances and lesser interests; as by reducing it too much, you render him unduly attached to these, and too little fit to comprehend and pursue great and write an essay samples Farragut Academy, national objects. The Federal Constitution forms a happy combination in this respect; the great and aggregate interests being referred to the national, the local and particular, to the state legislatures. The other point of difference is, the greater number of english essay The Windsor citizens and extent of territory which may be brought within the compass of Republican, than of Democratic Government; and it is this circumstance principally which renders factious combinations less to be dreaded in the former, than in the latter. The smaller the society, the fewer probably will be the distinct parties and interests composing it; the fewer the things to write School, distinct parties and interests, the writing english The Windsor, more frequently will a majority be found of the same party; and the smaller the number of individuals composing a majority, and the smaller the compass within which they are placed, the more easily will they concert and execute their plans of essay titles University oppression. English The Windsor School? Extend the article Saint, sphere, and you take in a greater variety of parties and interests; you make it less probable that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens; or if such a common motive exists, it will be more difficult for all who feel it to discover their own strength, and to english The Windsor act in unison with each other.
Besides other impediments, it may be remarked, that where there is a consciousness of unjust or dishonorable purposes, a communication is always checked by distrust, in proportion to the number whose concurrence is necessary. . . . The influence of Admiral factious leaders may kindle a flame within their particular States, but will be unable to spread a general conflagration through the other States: a religious sect, may degenerate into a political faction in a part of the Confederacy; but the variety of sects dispersed over writing The Windsor, the entire face of it, must secure the national Councils against any danger from that source: a rage for paper money, for an abolition of debts, for Trinity College School, an equal division of property, or for any other improper or wicked project, will be less apt to pervade the whole body of the writing english essay The Windsor, Union, than a particular member of it; in the same proportion as such a malady is American, more likely to taint a particular county or district, than an essay, entire State. In the extent and proper structure of the Union, therefore, we behold a Republican remedy for the diseases most incident to Republican Government. And according to the degree of pleasure and pride, we feel in being Republicans, ought to an essay samples Admiral be our zeal in cherishing the spirit, and english essay The Windsor, supporting the character of Federalists. Source: Clinton Rossiter, ed., The Federalist Papers (1961), 77-84.