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How to write articles for newspapers and magazines Trent University

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How to Write Articles for News Mags, 2 e Arco How to Write Articles for Newspapers & Magazines


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Best Professional Practices for Artists: The Artist Resume. While serving as a juror for a large group exhibition, I had to view a number of professional artist resumes. And Magazines Trent University. Overall, the Rugby School experience was less than pleasant. I was shocked and dismayed by the disorganization I encountered. One resume did not have the artist#8217;s name at the topif they had been selected, there would have been NO WAY to contact them! Several resumes did not include basic contact information.

Others included lengthy descriptions of professional experiences that had nothing to do with an for newspapers and magazines Trent University art career, and still others were difficult to navigate, with pages and pages of small-type font. I actually felt my brain hurting as I hunted for the basic information and experience which mattered. Persuasive Essay. If you are going to be evaluated for a professional opportunity based on your resume, the number one thing you need to do is make your information easily available. Make the font legible. Keep the size large enough to how to for newspapers and magazines read without reading glasses. Use bullets and clearly separated or labelled sections.

Is there enough white space? Too much white space? If you fail to cover these basics, your resume will be useless. The Art Resume vs. The Employment Resume. Art resumes are very different from your job resume. The purpose of an art resume is to help an artist to win awards and grants, to George gain acceptance into a residency program, or to achieve exhibition opportunities. None of this has anything to do with your former employment in how to write for newspapers Trent University non-art-related fields. You will want to leave your employment experience out, for the most part. Philosophy School. Another main issue: length.

Typically, an how to write articles for newspapers and magazines Trent University art resume is two to three pages long. If you are asked for to write an essay College London (UCL) a #8216;Curriculum Vitae,#8217; this document can be many pages in articles for newspapers and magazines length and philosophy essay writing Rugby School, include everything you#8217;ve ever done in art related fields, but a resume really should be no longer than two pages. Your art resume should be edited down to the essentials most recent accomplishments listed chronologically with recent items first, your education, your contact information, and, if applicable, your professional experience. Who is your audience? What is your goal? The more research you can do on whoever is going to be reviewing your resume, the how to write University better for you. How can you make yourself look most appealing to your audience? Often times, less information that has been carefully edited counts as more. Contact information is always first. Include your name, address, phone, email, and website.

I think it is a good idea to print this part larger than the rest for how i easy and quick viewing. Education goes next. Include your most recent degrees first. If you have a degree in something non-art related, you may want to leave it out. Competitive artist residencies can also be listed here as well. I suggest putting #8216;Awards and Honors#8217; next, if you have any. This category is important because it digtinguishes you from how to write and magazines University all the other candidates.

If you have been awarded a grant, put it here. If you received an art award at college graduation, it goes here. Any #8216;Best in strategies Independent College Show#8217; awards, cash prizes, or other distinctions go here. These items are a big deal. Solo Exhibitions go next, listed chronologically. If you have only had one or two, it may make you look inexperienced, so list them in how to for newspapers and magazines Trent a more general exhibition section. How To A Professional The Village School. If you are editing your information, which I highly recommend, then call this section #8216;Select Exhibitions.#8217; Juried Exhibitions can be a separate category.

Base your decision to include a juried section on how to for newspapers Trent your numbers of University, these. Typically, a juried exhibition is seen as being more impressive than a group exhibition, especially if the juror is well-known. Always list the name of the juror in addition to the basic exhibition information: Show Title, Gallery Name, City and State, Exhibition Dates. This type of name-dropping is strategic, especially in an art world that is small and inter-connected. #8216;Group Exhibitions#8217; or #8216;Select Group Exhibitions#8217; (if you are editing) go next. Choose what to how to write for newspapers and magazines Trent include based on what you are applying for. For example, if your resume is part of a packet you are sending to a gallery, you may want to how i University edit out shows done in coffee shops or other #8216;non-gallery#8217; spaces. Gallerists tend to be snobs.

Also, if you have exhibited with a gallery that is how to articles for newspapers Trent, seen as #8216;less desirable#8217; than the write one you are applying to leave it out. If you have showed with someone that your goal gallery has a good relationship with, great highlight it by leaving out #8216;filler.#8217; Your goal in write for newspapers Trent University this section is to display a breadth of experience and a professional appearance. An Expository. You want to seem responsible and easy to how to for newspapers and magazines Trent University work with this makes you a more desirable candidate. The next section should be #8216;Press#8217; or #8216;Select Bibliography.#8217; To be a viable candidate for pretty much anything, you need to have some kind of press. Press on online sources and blogs are absolutely fine. Even a small local newspaper or newsletter is worth mentioning. If a group show you participate in is reviewed, but you are not mentioned, then what? If you need more lines in write a professional essay The Village School your press section, then include it. If you have enough press to look respectable, leave it out. 8. Related Professional Experience. This last section is optional: #8216;Related Professional Experience.#8217; Remember, your artist resume is write articles and magazines Trent University, not a job resume.

Your goal is can write Bournemouth, not getting a job, but rather a show, a grant, or a residency, therefore anything NOT art related should be left out. This section can include professional memberships, volunteering, published writing, and any art-related jobs you have held. Write And Magazines. Don#8217;t worry if it seems like there are gaps here this is not a job resume! I know that many professional resumes include an objective. This takes up unnecessary space and is redundant. If you are applying for something specific, your objective will be obvious. How To A Professional Essay The Village. Leave this section out of an artist resume. You should keep an all-encompassing curriculum vitae on your computer in write and magazines Trent order to cut and paste the how to write a professional essay The Village School info into a new, shorter resume designed for a specific purpose. One other, last suggestion is to look at articles and magazines several examples of persuasive argumentative essay University, resumes by artists you respect. Most artist or gallery websites have easily down-loadable resumes.

Choose a certain aesthetic, appearance, or organizational strategy for yourself based on these examples. Happy applications! Oh, and if you want to read the Professional Practices Post from last month on Artist Statements, click here. Author Cara Ober is how to and magazines Trent, Founding Editor at BmoreArt. Cara Ober is the Founding Editor at BmoreArt. How to Become Your Own Artist-Advocate: Matthew Mann. Biggs and Featherbelle: The Sweet Smell of Success. Black Voices in an essay London Contemporary Art Criticism. Where are all the how to articles for newspapers Trent Black art critics? Inertia: Studio Visit with Rene Trevino.

Guggenheim Fellowship Awarded to Baltimore Artist. Inertia: Studio Visit with Amanda Burnham. This is an expository George College, a pretty good article, except for the typo. That is essential in creating a good resume. How To Articles University. Proofreading. It is funny because I cannot reproduce your typo in this section without autocorrect changing it to distinguished. Also, comma at start of last graph is not needed.

Also. What about essay Chelsea College Public Art? I m seeking for this only.. How To Write Articles For Newspapers And Magazines. The first thing to learn about how to philosophy write a resume cover letter is that the cover letter gives the job seeker a unique opportunity to introduce him or herself before actually meeting in person.Sample CV. I found your article on Sample Resume writing tips insightful and helpful, thanks for sharing this information on resume. Sample Resume. While it is important to how to articles Trent University put your schooling somewhere, if you have been out of school for write essay George Brown a while sometimes your experience is actually relevent. Trent. In this case, education should be located at the bottom. Of course, everyone has their own opinions when it comes to essay Bournemouth resumes, and how to write for newspapers University, what may be right for one employer may not be for the next. This is good advice thank you.

But reading it had me thinking that, given all the an expository essay Brown College protocols, would be nice if the enclosed work spoke for itself right? Shouldn#8217;t this be the over-riding consideration? Great post- thank you so much! All of this is such a mystery to many of write articles, us. @Radar Redux- Good luck to you in creative or nontraditional formatting. In my experience, people find it arrogant and irritating, and choose not to deal with you. There is something to be said for being courteous, respectful and INFORMATIVE when communicating about yourself to potential patrons, funders, galleries or curators.

No one wants to write a professional The Village work with someone who they perceive will be difficult. How To Write Articles For Newspapers And Magazines. If you have had success with this approach, I#8217;d love to hear about it. It seems so trivial, though its not. The idea of how to essay The Village School, editing the information is great. Very useful post. Thanks. This is a very helpful blog post for artists. I will pass it on to all the recent art grads I know. Let me rephrase.

We am not judging anyone who chooses to how to write articles and magazines University conform to any process so as to get grants/jobs, whatever they participate in so as to make a living, get shown, etc. The advice here is all excellent regarding this. That said, we had asked should an philosophy writing artist feel compelled to fill out resumes or artist statements in traditional ways in the first place, if they feel the process does not represent them in the way they wish to be represented. For example some artists we know question why this almost corporate formulaic format exists at write articles and magazines all. They believe it to be archaic. They ask who does it really serve anyone and how i can write essay Bournemouth, how? This questioning at how to write articles for newspapers University least deserves consideration/ examination. And if one has a real deep desire to deconstruct and essay College, recontextualize the #8220;resume/artist statement process/construct#8221; why wait for articles Trent the project part of, say, a grant. Why not jump in from the start in this way it is a real #8220;action#8221;instead of a simulation.

The results may be illuminating. I Have To Write University College. how does an artist apply for grant $$ without a resume if it is how to write articles for newspapers and magazines Trent University, part of the requirement? i would save the #8216;challenging the formula#8217; for my grant proposal. i think online exhibits are fine to list as group shows. as you do more exhibits, you will want to edit and choose the how i can write University most competitive ones for your resume. if you see the online ones as being #8216;less#8217; desirable, then leave them out write articles and magazines University down the road. Great advice and thanks. One question: Do you think online shows or competitions count as something for your resume? Even if its decent? This comment has been removed by the author. You can order it direct from us or pick it up next week at area retailers like the i have an essay College London BMA Museum Shop, Ivy Bookstore, Trohv, and Atomic Books. Designed by Wickerham Lomax, our cover artists for Issue 04! The BmoreArt calendar features arts and events and is updated daily. Tag your art and Balti-centric photos #bmoreart! We want to see your art, your exhibits, and your Baltimore. The Internet is write and magazines Trent, Exploding: 10 Must-Read Articles this Week.

ABOUT ME | Call for Book Publication. MECU NEIGHBORHOOD EVENT GRANT APPLICATIONS *DEADLINE EXTENDED* Order the BmoreArt Journal of Art + Ideas directly from us or from College area retailers. Write Articles And Magazines University. BmoreArt is Best Cultural Resource in Baltimore! Bmoreart is a creative and philosophy essay, critical daily online journal. We believe that Baltimore's creative class deserves to be discussed, critiqued, and how to articles and magazines, well-informed.

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E. B. White, The Art of the Essay No. 1. E. B. White and his dog Minnie. If it happens that your parents concern themselves so little with the workings of boys’ minds as to christen you Elwyn Brooks White, no doubt you decide as early as possible to identify yourself as E.B. White. If it also happens that you attend Cornell, whose first president was Andrew D. How To Write Articles For Newspapers Trent? White, then, following a variant of the principle that everybody named Rhodes winds up being nicknamed “Dusty,” you wind up being nicknamed “Andy.” And so it has come about that for fifty of his seventy years Elwyn Brooks White has been known to his readers as E.B.

White and to philosophy essay writing his friends as Andy. Write Articles For Newspapers And Magazines University? Andy White. Persuasive Essay Strategies Chelsea? Andy and Katharine White. The Whites. Write And Magazines Trent? Andy and Katharine have been married for forty years, and in that time they have been separated so rarely that I find it impossible to (UCL) think of one without the other. On the write for newspapers Trent, occasions when they have been obliged to be apart, Andy’s conversation is how i essay so likely to center on Katharine that she becomes all the more present for being absent. The Whites have shared everything, from professional association on the same magazine to preoccupation with a joint ill health that many of their friends have been inclined to regard as imaginary. Years ago, in a Christmas doggerel, Edmund Wilson saluted them for possessing “ mens sana in how to write articles for newspapers University, corpore insano, ” and it was always wonderful to behold the intuitive seesaw adjustments by which one of them got well in an essay University College, time for the other to get sick. What a mountain of good work they have accumulated in that fashion! Certainly they have been the strongest and most productive unhealthy couple that I have ever encountered, but I no longer dare to make fun of their ailments. Now that age is bestowing on them a natural infirmity, they must be sorely tempted to say to the rest of us, “You see?

What did we tell you?” (“Sorely,” by the way, has been a favorite adverb of Andy’s- a word that brims with bodily woe and that yet hints at the heroic: back of Andy, some dying knight out of Malory lifts his gleaming sword against the dusk.) Andy White is small and wiry, with an how to write and magazines University, unexpectedly large nose, speckled eyes, and an air of being just about to turn away, not on how i Bournemouth an errand of any importance but as a means of remaining free to write articles for newspapers and magazines University cut and run without the can write Bournemouth, nuisance of prolonged good-byes. Crossing the threshold of his eighth decade, his person is uncannily boyish-seeming. Though his hair is grey, I learn at this moment that I do not consent to the fact: away from him, I remember it as brown, therefore it is brown to me. Andy can no more lose his youthfulness by the tiresome accident of growing old than he could ever have been Elwyn by the tiresome un-necessary accident of baptism; his youth and his “Andy”-ness are intrinsic and inexpungeable.

Katharine White is a woman so good-looking that nobody has taken it amiss when her husband has described in for newspapers Trent University, print as beautiful, but her beauty has a touch of blue-eyed augustness in it, and her manner is formal. It would never occur to me to go beyond calling her Katharine, and I have not found it surprising when her son, Roger Angell, an editor of The New Yorker , refers to her within the office precincts as “Mrs. White.” (Roger Angell is the write essay The Village School, son of her marriage to how to write articles and magazines Trent University a distinguished New York attorney, Ernest Angell; she and Andy have a son, Joe, who is a naval architect and can write essay University whose boatyard is a thriving enterprise in the Whites’ hometown of Brooklin, Maine.) At the risk of reducing a man’s life to a sort of how to, Merck’s Manual, I may mention that Andy White’s personal physician, Dana Atchley- giving characteristically short shrift to a psychosomatic view of his old friend- has described him as having a Rolls Royce mind in can write essay, a Model T body. With Andy, this would pass for a compliment, because in the tyranny of his modesty he would always choose to be a Ford instead of a Rolls, but it would be closer to the truth to describe him as a Rolls Royce mind in a Rolls Royce body that unaccountably keeps bumping to a stop and humming to itself, not without infinite pleasure to others along the way. What he achieves must cost him a considerable effort and how to articles appears to cost him very little.

His speaking voice, like his writing voice, is clear, resonant, and invincibly debonair. He wanders over the pastures of his Maine farm or, for that matter, along the philosophy Rugby, labyrinthine corridors of The New Yorker offices on articles and magazines West Forty-Third Street with the off-hand grace of a dancer making up a sequence of steps that the eye follows with delight and that defies any but his own notation. Clues to the bold and delicate nature of those steps are to how i can write Bournemouth be discovered in every line he writes, but the write and magazines Trent University, man and his work are so nearly one that, try as we will, we cannot tell the dancer from the dance. So many critics equate the success of a writer with an unhappy childhood. Can you say something of your own childhood in Mount Vernon? As a child, I was frightened but not unhappy. My parents were loving and kind.

We were a large family (six children) and were a small kingdom unto ourselves. Nobody ever came to dinner. My father was formal, conservative, successful, hardworking, and philosophy essay writing worried. My mother was loving, hardworking, and retiring. We lived in how to articles for newspapers and magazines, a large house in essay writing Rugby, a leafy suburb, where there were backyards and stables and grape arbors. How To For Newspapers And Magazines University? I lacked for nothing except confidence. I suffered nothing except the routine terrors of childhood: fear of the dark, fear of the essay University, future, fear of the articles for newspapers and magazines Trent University, return to school after a summer on a lake in Maine, fear of making an appearance on a platform, fear of the lavatory in the school basement where the slate urinals cascaded, fear that I was unknowing about things I should know about. I was, as a child, allergic to pollens and dusts, and Rugby School still am. I was allergic to how to write for newspapers and magazines platforms, and still am. To Write University College (UCL)? It may be, as some critics suggest, that it helps to have an unhappy childhood.

If so, I have no knowledge of it. Perhaps it helps to how to write for newspapers Trent have been scared or allergic to pollensI don’t know. At what age did you know you were going to persuasive argumentative essay University follow a literary profession? Was there a particular incident, or moment? I never knew for sure that I would follow a literary profession. I was twenty-seven or twenty-eight before anything happened that gave me any assurance that I could make a go of how to articles Trent, writing. I had done a great deal of writing, but I lacked confidence in my ability to persuasive Auburn University put it to good use. I went abroad one summer and on for newspapers my return to New York found an accumulation of can write essay University, mail at my apartment. I took the letters, unopened, and went to a Childs restaurant on for newspapers and magazines Trent Fourteenth Street, where I ordered dinner and began opening my mail.

From one envelope, two or three checks dropped out, from The New Yorker . I suppose they totaled a little under a hundred dollars, but it looked like a fortune to me. I can still remember the feeling that “this was it”I was a pro at last. It was a good feeling and how i essay University I enjoyed the meal. What were those first pieces accepted by The New Yorker ? Did you send them in and magazines Trent, with a covering letter, or through an agent? They were short sketcheswhat Ross called “casuals.” One, I think, was a piece called “The Swell Steerage,” about the then new college cabin class on transatlantic ships. I never submitted a manuscript with a covering letter or through an agent.

I used to put my manuscript in the mail, along with a stamped envelope for essay strategies Chelsea Independent, the rejection. How To Write For Newspapers And Magazines Trent? This was a matter of high principle with me: I believed in the doctrine of immaculate rejection. I never used an philosophy essay writing, agent and did not like the looks of a manuscript after an agent got through prettying it up and write for newspapers Trent putting it between covers with brass clips. (I now have an agent for how to write School, such mysteries as movie rights and foreign translations.) A large part of all early contributions to The New Yorker arrived uninvited and unexpected. They arrived in the mail or under the arm of write Trent University, people who walked in with them. O’Hara’s “Afternoon Delphians” is one example out of hundreds. For a number of years, The New Yorker published an average of fifty new writers a year.

Magazines that refuse unsolicited manuscripts strike me as lazy, incurious, self-assured, and self-important. I’m speaking of magazines of general circulation. There may be some justification for a technical journal to limit its list of contributors to persons who are known to philosophy essay writing be qualified. But if I were a publisher, I wouldn’t want to put out a magazine that failed to examine everything that turned up. But did The New Yorker ever try to publish the emerging writers of the time: Hemingway, Faulkner, Dos Passos, Fitzgerald, Miller, Lawrence, Joyce, Wolfe, et al? The New Yorker had an interest in publishing any writer that could turn in a good piece. It read everything submitted. Hemingway, Faulkner, and the others were well established and well paid when The New Yorker came on the scene. How To Trent? The magazine would have been glad to publish them, but it didn’t have the money to pay them off, and for the most part they didn’t submit.

They were selling to The Saturday Evening Post and other well-heeled publications, and in general were not inclined to contribute to the small, new, impecunious weekly. Strategies? Also, some of write articles for newspapers Trent University, them, I would guess, did not feel sympathetic to The New Yorker ’s frivolity. Essay? Ross had no great urge to publish the big names; he was far more interested in turning up new and yet undiscovered talent, the Helen Hokinsons and the James Thurbers. We did publish some things by Wolfe“Only the Dead Know Brooklyn” was one. I believe we published something by Fitzgerald. Write Articles Trent University? But Ross didn’t waste much time trying to corral “emerged” writers. He was looking for the ones that were found by turning over a stone. What were the can write essay Bournemouth, procedures in turning down a manuscript by a New Yorker regular? Was this done by Ross? The manuscript of a New Yorker regular was turned down in the same manner as was the for newspapers and magazines, manuscript of a New Yorker irregular. It was simply rejected, usually by the subeditor who was handling the author in question.

Ross did not deal directly with writers and artists, except in the case of a few old friends from an persuasive argumentative essay University, earlier day. He wouldn’t even take on how to write and magazines Trent University Woollcottregarded him as too difficult and fussy. School? Ross disliked rejecting pieces, and he disliked firing peoplehe ducked both tasks whenever he could. Did feuds threaten the how to articles for newspapers Trent University, magazine? Feuds did not threaten The New Yorker . The only feud I recall was the running battle between the editorial department and the advertising department. Persuasive Argumentative Essay? This was largely a one-sided affair, with the editorial department lobbing an occasional grenade into the enemy’s lines just on how to and magazines Trent general principles, to help them remember to stay out of sight. Ross was determined not to allow his magazine to philosophy writing Rugby be swayed, in the slightest degree, by how to articles the boys in advertising. As far as I know, he succeeded. When did you first move to persuasive argumentative essay Auburn New York, and what were some of the things you did before joining The New Yorker ? Were you ever a part of the how to articles for newspapers University, Algonquin group? After I got out of college, in 1921, I went to work in persuasive essay strategies, New York but did not live in articles for newspapers Trent University, New York. How To Write A Professional Essay School? I lived at write for newspapers and magazines Trent University home, with my father and mother in write essay George College, Mount Vernon, and commuted to work.

I held three jobs in how to for newspapers and magazines, about seven monthsfirst with the United Press, then with a public relations man named Wheat, then with the American Legion News Service. I disliked them all, and in the spring of 1922 I headed west in a Model T Ford with a college mate, Howard Cushman, to seek my fortune and as a way of getting away from what I disliked. I landed in Seattle six months later, worked there as a reporter on the Times for a year, was fired, shipped to Alaska aboard a freighter, and then returned to New York. It was on i have to write an essay College my return that I became an advertising manFrank Seaman Co., J. Write And Magazines Trent? H. Newmark. How I Can Write Essay Bournemouth University? In the mid-twenties, I moved into write Trent University a two-room apartment at 112 West Thirteenth Street with three other fellows, college mates of mine at i have London Cornell: Burke Dowling Adams, Gustave Stubbs Lobrano, and Mitchell T. Articles And Magazines? Galbreath. The rent was $110 a month. Split four ways it came to $27.50, which I could afford. My friends in those days were the fellows already mentioned. Also, Peter Vischer, Russell Lord, Joel Sayre, Frank Sullivan (he was older and a professional essay The Village School more advanced but I met him and liked him), James Thurber, and others. How To Write Articles And Magazines University? I was never a part of the Algonquin group. After becoming connected with The New Yorker, I lunched once at the Round Table but didn’t care for it and how to write a professional essay was embarrassed in the presence of the how to articles for newspapers and magazines Trent, great.

I never was well acquainted with Benchley or Broun or Dorothy Parker or Woollcott. I did not know Don Marquis or Ring Lardner, both of whom I greatly admired. I was a younger man. Subscribe and save nearly 40%. Already a subscriber? Sign in below. Last / Next Article.

These Anemones, Their Song Is Made Up As They Float Along. John H. Johnson and the Black Magazine. Staff Picks: Fat Ladies, Flowers, and Faraway Lands. Staff Picks: Pranks, Prints, and an expository essay Brown Penises. We reached the car, and write articles for newspapers I held the door open for how i Bournemouth, him, but he didn't climb in right away. He stood there rocking on how to write for newspapers University his crutch, gazing off at the sky and the fields and the fall trees starting to go the color of sherbet#133; The Pound Poem That Wasn't By Pound. A few weeks ago, I wrote here about a poem I found written on the back of an envelope among Ezra Pound’s papers in Italy.

It is a small poem and it runs in full: Hast thou 2 loaves of bread Sell one + with the dole Buy straightaway some hyacint Eudora Welty, The Art of Fiction No. Write Essay George Brown? 47. I met Eudora Welty in her room at the Algonquin Hotel an hour or so after her train had arrived in Penn Station. She had given me the wrong room number, so I first saw her peering out of her door as the elevator opened. A tall, large-boned, gray-haired woman greeted me apologetically.

She was admittedly nervous about being interviewed, particularly on a tape recorder. After describing her train rideshe won’t flyshe braced herself and asked if I wouldn’t begin the questioning. Once the articles, interview got underway, she grew more at ease. As she herself might say, she was “not unforthcoming.” She speaks deliberately with a deep Southern drawl, measuring her words. Essay University? She is extremely private and won’t reveal anything personal about herself. You wrote somewhere that we should still tolerate Jane Austen’s kind of family novel. Is Austen a kindred spirit? Tolerate ? I should just think so! I love and admire all she does, and profoundly, but I don’t read her or anyone else for “kindredness.” The piece you’re referring to was written on assignment for Brief Lives , an anthology Louis Kronenberger was editing. He did offer me either Jane Austen or Chekhov, and Chekhov I do dare to think is more “kindred.” I feel closer to him in spirit, but I couldn’t read Russian, which I felt whoever wrote about him should be able to do.

Chekhov is one of usso close to how to articles for newspapers Trent University today’s world, to my mind, and how i can write Bournemouth very close to the Southwhich Stark Young pointed out a long time ago. Why is Chekhov close to today’s South? He loved the singularity in people, the articles Trent, individuality. He took for granted the sense of family. He had the sense of how to write a professional essay The Village, fate overtaking a way of life, and his Russian humor seems to me kin to the humor of how to articles and magazines, a Southerner. It’s the kind that lies mostly in character. You know, in persuasive essay Chelsea, Uncle Vanya and and magazines Trent The Cherry Orchard , how people are always gathered together and talking and talking, no one’s really listening. Yet there’s a great love and understanding that prevails through it, and a knowledge and University acceptance of each other’s idiosyncrasies, a tolerance of them, and how to for newspapers Trent University also an acute enjoyment of the dramatic.

Like in The Three Sisters , when the fire is going on, how they talk right on through their exhaustion, and Vershinin says, “I feel a strange excitement in the air,” and laughs and sings and talks about the future. That kind of responsiveness to how i essay Bournemouth University the world, to write whatever happens, out of their own deeps of character seems very southern to me. Anyway, I took a temperamental delight in philosophy Rugby, Chekhov, and gradually the connection was borne in upon me. Do you ever return to Virginia Woolf? Yes. She was the one who opened the door. When I read To the Lighthouse , I felt, Heavens, what is this?

I was so excited by how to for newspapers Trent the experience I couldn’t sleep or eat. I’ve read it many times since, though more often these days I go back to her diary. Any day you open it to how to write will be tragic, and how to for newspapers University yet all the argumentative essay University, marvelous things she says about her work, about how to articles Trent University working, leave you filled with joy that’s stronger than your misery for her. Remember“I’m not very far along, but I think I have my statues against the sky”?* Isn’t that beautiful? About your own work, are you surprised that Losing Battles was on an expository essay George College the best-seller lista first for you, I believe? It occurred to me right at first it must be a flukethat whoever had that place on the best-seller list had just got up and articles and magazines given me his seatlet the lady sit down, she’s tottering.

Yet any reception would have surprised meor you could just as well say nothing would have surprised me, because I wasn’t thinking of how it would be received when I wrote it. I thought about the opinion of write essay School, a handful of friends I would love to have love that book, but not about the public. Do you write for how to write articles and magazines University, your friends? At the time of how to write The Village, writing, I don’t write for my friends or myself, either; I write for it , for the pleasure of it . I believe if I stopped to how to articles for newspapers and magazines Trent University wonder what So-and-so would think, or what I’d feel like if this were read by a stranger, I would be paralyzed. I care what my friends think, very deeplyand it’s only after they’ve read the finished thing that I really can rest, deep down. But in Rugby School, the writing, I have to just keep going straight through with only the thing in mind and what it dictates. It’s so much an inward thing that reading the proofs later can be a real shock. When I received them for my first bookno, I guess it was for Delta Wedding I thought, I didn’t write this.

It was a page of dialogueI might as well have never seen it before. I wrote to my editor, John Woodburn, and told him something had happened to that page in the typesetting. He was kind, not even surprisedmaybe this happens to all writers. He called me up and how to write articles for newspapers and magazines Trent read me from the manuscriptword for how to School, word what the proofs said. Write Articles For Newspapers And Magazines? Proofs don’t shock me any longer, yet there’s still a strange moment with every book when I move from the philosophy essay writing, position of writer to the position of reader, and I suddenly see my words with the eyes of the how to articles Trent University, cold public. How To? It gives me a terrible sense of exposure, as if I’d gotten sunburned.

Do you make changes in how to for newspapers, galleys? I correct or change words, but I can’t rewrite a scene or make a major change because there’s a sense then of someone looking over argumentative essay Auburn my shoulder. It’s necessary, anyway, to trust that moment when you were sure at last you had done all you could, done your best for that time. When it’s finally in print, you’re deliveredyou don’t ever have to look at write articles for newspapers University it again. It’s too late to argumentative essay Auburn University worry about its failings. How To Articles For Newspapers And Magazines University? I’ll have to write an expository George apply any lessons this book has taught me toward writing the next one. Is Losing Battles a departure from your previous fiction?

I wanted to see if I could do something that was new for how to articles and magazines Trent, me: translating every thought and strategies feeling into action and speech, speech being another form of how to write and magazines, actionto bring the can write Bournemouth University, whole life of how to write University, it off through the essay Auburn University, completed gesture, so to speak. I felt that I’d been writing too much by way of description, of write articles for newspapers and magazines Trent, introspection on the part of my characters. I tried to School see if I could make everything shown, brought forth, without benefit of the author’s telling any more about what was going on inside the characters’ minds and hearts. For me, this makes almost certainly for comedywhich I love to write best of all. Now I see it might be a transition toward writing a play. Did you know what you were going to write before you put it on how to Trent University paper? Yes, it was there in writing Rugby School, my head, but events proliferated as I went along. For instance, I thought all the how to write articles for newspapers and magazines Trent, action in the novel would be contained in one day and to write University College London (UCL) night, but a folder started to how to write articles and magazines Trent fill up with things marked “Next A.M.” I didn’t foresee the stories that grew out write, of the storiesthat was one of the joys of working the novel out. I thought the book would be short, and articles and magazines Trent instead it was three or four times longer than my normal work.

There’s no way of estimating its original length because I had great chunks of i have to write an essay College London, things in how to articles for newspapers and magazines Trent, paper clips, which weren’t numbered until they went to the printer. And I must have thrown away at least as much as I kept in the book. Did you learn anything new about writing dialogue? I believe so. In its beginning, dialogue’s the easiest thing in the world to write when you have a good ear, which I think I have. But as it goes on, it’s the most difficult, because it has so many ways to function.

Sometimes I needed to make a speech do three or four or five things at oncereveal what the character said but also what he thought he said, what he hid, what others were going to think he meant, and what they misunderstood, and so forthall in how to write a professional essay School, his single speech. And the speech would have to keep the essence of this one character, his whole particular outlook in concentrated form. This isn’t to say I succeeded. But I guess it explains why dialogue gives me my greatest pleasure in writing. How To For Newspapers Trent University? I used to an expository essay George laugh out loud sometimes when I wrote itthe way P. G. Wodehouse is said to do. I’d think of some things my characters would say, and even if I couldn’t use it, I would write the scene out just to how to articles University let them loose on somethingmy private show. Sign up for the Paris Review newsletter and keep up with news, parties, readings, and more. Join the writers and staff of The Paris Review at our next event.

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Visual Merchandiser CV Writing Service. If you love making things look good and like being creative, this could be perfect for you. Visual merchandisers (also known as window dressers) use their design skills to for newspapers Trent, help promote the image, products and services of businesses and other organisations. They create eye-catching product displays and store layouts and design to attract customers and encourage them to buy. To become a visual merchandiser or display designer, you would usually either have a background in design or work your way up through the retail industry. You could also gain a higher education qualification in display or merchandising. A visual merchandiser needs to have a high level of attention to detail. They also need to be able to work to deadlines. Rugby School! The ability to work well as part of a team and also alone is how to write articles and magazines Trent University also important. As a visual merchandiser in essay Auburn a large retail company, you would work as part of a display team.

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You would train on the job and work towards formal qualifications. If you want to start as a visual merchandiser or display designer straight away, most employers will want you to have relevant qualifications, such as: Level 2 or Level 3 Diploma in Fashion Retail Level 2 Award, Certificate and Diploma/SVQ in Retail Skills Level 3 Certificate and Diploma/SVQ in articles for newspapers University Retail (Visual Merchandising) Foundation Degrees in display or design Foundation Degrees and degrees in marketing or retailing. You may be able to start in this role through an Apprenticeship scheme. You will need to check which schemes are available in your areas. Write A Professional! To find out more, visit the Apprenticeships website. You will usually develop your skills on the job. Large retail companies often have internal (in-house) training programmes for their display staff. If you don’t already have these, your employer may offer you a chance to write Trent University, work towards the can write essay Level 2 Award, Certificate and Diploma/SVQ in Retail Skills or the Level 3 Certificate and Diploma/SVQ in Retail (Visual Merchandising). To become a visual merchandiser, you will need to have: a good sense of how to write and magazines, design, colour and style creativity and imagination an awareness of current trends in to write an essay College London design, fashion and culture a high level of attention to detail the ability to work to deadlines good communication skills the ability to work well as part of a team and also alone stamina and how to write articles Trent energy for persuasive argumentative essay Auburn more senior roles, technical drawing skills and articles for newspapers and magazines University good IT skills, possibly in to write University College computer-aided design.

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New emerging markets and job opportunities to support the essay Bournemouth University online retailing are needed. The current economic climate is affecting all areas of retail business, but online retailers and value/discount stores are showing signs of growth. Between 2007 and 2017, 214,000 new retail jobs are expected to be created in UK, while a further 1.2 million jobs will need to how to write articles for newspapers and magazines University, be filled as a result of people leaving the sector. Jobs in the industry are divided into areas: Store operations, Human resources/training, Finance and administration, Buying, Merchandising, Customer contact centres, PR and Marketing, Logistics, and i have College London (UCL) Information Technology. Job roles range from : Director of operations, Store manager, Assistant department manager, Sales assistant, Shelf filler, Recruitment officer, Financial analyst, Procurement manager, Merchandiser, Buyer, Contact centre operators, Marketeer, Information analyst, Van driver, Warehouse / distribution manager, Information systems managers. Retail employment and activity are evenly distributed across the write for newspapers University UK, with the largest number of essay, employees is located in:

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[N.B. Data derived from Annual Business Inquiry, 2008, Labour Force Survey (annualised), 2009, and NESS, 2009.] A retail manager is School responsible for the day-to-day management of a store/retail outlet in accordance with overall company policy. The main focus of any retail manager’s job is to improve the commercial performance of the store by increasing its turnover and maximising profitability. The major parts of the how to write Trent job on a day-to-day basis include managing and George Brown College motivating staff, finding new ways to improve sales, and meeting customer demand. Depending on the type of store and its opening times, unsociable hours are usually expected from how to write articles and magazines Trent University weekends to (UCL), late nights and early mornings, managers are often in early to prepare for the day, and for newspapers stay after closing to make sure systems and premises are closed down and secured properly. Some of your duties would depend on what the store sells and whether it is part of to write University College London, a chain, but your typical tasks would include: Managing and motivating a team to increase sales including recruiting, training, day-to-day managing, appraisals, disciplining, dismissing, promotions and team building Responsibility for maintaining the premises and displays Organising stock checking and re-ordering as necessary, through computerised or manual systems Organising sales and promotions Dealing with queries, complaints and how to articles and magazines Trent comments from customers Analysing and interpreting consumer trends Taking responsibility for seeing all security, health and safety and i have to write London legal procedures Analysing sales figures and forecasting future sales volumes to University, maximise profits Ensuring standards for quality, customer service and health and safety are met Regularly ‘walking the sales floor’ talking to colleagues and persuasive essay Independent College customers, and identifying or resolving urgent issues Maintaining awareness of market trends in the retail industry, understanding forthcoming customer initiatives, and monitoring what local competitors are doing Monitoring budgets and controlling expenditure Dealing with takings and banking/security banking couriers Serving customers when required. You might also need to how to articles for newspapers and magazines, serve customers when required. In a full-time job you would normally work around 38 hours a week.

Part-time work is how to write a professional essay widely available. Your hours are likely to how to Trent University, include weekends and possibly evenings, depending on persuasive argumentative Auburn University, the store’s opening times. You would divide your time between the sales area and your office in store. Starting salaries start at for newspapers University around ?20,000 a year With experience, typical earnings can rise to around ?31,000 Some senior store managers earn ?47,000 a year. You may also earn extra bonuses and commission for meeting sales targets.

Figures are intended as a guideline only. Entry requirements vary from company to company. Entrants may possess A levels/Highers or a degree or equivalent qualification. An Expository Brown College! Experience of working with customers, especially in a retail environment, is very important and much more important in many cases than formal qualifications. Entry is articles and magazines Trent also possible through promotion – this is the most common entry method for store managers, entering as a retail sales assistant and through training and development gaining sufficient experience through the career path of sales assistant, supervisor, department manager, deputy store manager, store manager. Apprenticeships and retail management schemes are also popular entry points for individuals with some retail experience who want to fast track their retail management career – individuals undertaking this path normally enter a store manager position after developing experience as a department manager and deputy store manager during their training. Some national retail businesses run graduate trainee management schemes for entrants with a suitable degree. These are usually a combination of how i Bournemouth University, skills training and work placement in one or more of a company’s stores individuals undertaking this path normally enter a store manager position after developing experience as a department manager and deputy store manager during their training. Entry without a degree is possible and many people enter store management through the experience route and undertake in-house company management training to develop them into effective store managers. If you do not currently have any qualifications the Level 3 Award, Certificate and Diploma/SCQF Level 6 Certificate in Retail Knowledge, and how to write articles and magazines University Level 3 Certificate and Diploma/SVQ in essay Chelsea Retail (Management) have all been developed with store management roles in mind. These are modular qualifications which enable you to undertake modules as you are working and building up your experience.

Other useful qualifications include: Foundation Degree in for newspapers University Retailing Degree in Retail Management Degrees (non-retail) for entry onto essay George Brown a graduate training programme. the ability to lead and motivate a team excellent communication and ‘people’ skills a strong commitment to customer service the how to articles and magazines Trent ability to work under pressure and handle challenging situations confidence, drive and enthusiasm decision making ability and persuasive argumentative essay sense of responsibility the ability to understand and analyse sales figures good business sense an understanding of retail laws, security and health and write for newspapers safety. The retail sector employs around 10% of the UK’s workforce. Promotion often requires mobility as promotion in the first few instances usually involves being promoted to manager or a bigger, more important store. After several successful store promotional moves, you can progress into area management and regional management opportunities. Typically within three to five years, you can potentially move on to senior retail management positions.

The flexibility and size of many retail organisations means that after developing hands-on experience as a store manager it is also possible to move into more specialist areas of the business and head office functions, such as customer service, training and operations management, specialist areas, such as buying, marketing or personnel, are increasingly recruited separately, but you can access them from more general retail routes and this is looked upon favourably due to the direct experience developed on the shop-floor, many management programmes now insist on this initially before moving into those specialist head office roles. You may find the to write an essay University London following useful for how to write for newspapers and magazines vacancies and further reading (links open in new window): Retail activity can be expressed as the write George College sale of goods for personal or household use or consumption, traditionally via shops or markets. However, the boundaries have changed somewhat in recent years due to the significant growth in online retailing and the development of write articles and magazines, alternative formats such as farmers’ markets and travel retailing. The UK retail industry covers the following activity: Retail sales in non-specialised stores (such as supermarkets and department stores) Retail sales in specialised stores (such as butchers, greengrocers and fishmongers) Retail sales of pharmaceutical goods (such as chemists and pharmacies) Retail sales of new goods in specialised stores (such as stores selling textiles, clothing, books, electrical household appliances, furniture and lighting) Retail sales of persuasive Auburn, second-hand goods Retail sales not in store (e.g. catalogue and how to write mail order sales, online and via stalls and persuasive essay Chelsea College markets)

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The current economic climate is affecting all areas of retail business, but online retailers and value/discount stores are showing signs of persuasive argumentative essay University, growth. Between 2007 and 2017, 214,000 new retail jobs are expected to be created in UK, while a further 1.2 million jobs will need to be filled as a result of people leaving the how to write Trent sector. Jobs in the industry are divided into areas: Store operations, Human resources/training, Finance and administration, Buying, Merchandising, Customer contact centres, PR and can write essay University Marketing, Logistics, and Information Technology. Job roles range from : Director of operations, Store manager, Assistant department manager, Sales assistant, Shelf filler, Recruitment officer, Financial analyst, Procurement manager, Merchandiser, Buyer, Contact centre operators, Marketeer, Information analyst, Van driver, Warehouse / distribution manager, Information systems managers. Retail employment and articles and magazines University activity are evenly distributed across the UK, with the largest number of employees is philosophy Rugby School located in:

The largest number of employers is located in: London; the South East; and the North West. There are distinct clusters of major centres of retail in London, Birmingham, Cardiff, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, Nottingham, Leicester and how to and magazines Trent University Derby. The highest percentage growth in employment over essay writing, the next five years is expected in how to write the North East, whilst significant declines are forecast in the South East, London and the North West. Retail can play an important role in the regeneration of essay School, towns and cities throughout the UK. It provides a catalyst for change, as retailers seek to enhance their offer to the consumer and modernise the spaces within which they trade.

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44% of the workforce work full?time. The greatest perceived skills shortage is with management skills. Northern Ireland – There are 74,491 people employed in the industry, in around 9,805 retail establishments. How To Articles Trent! 58% of the workforce is female. 54% of the workforce work full?time. The greatest perceived skills shortage is with customer handling, written communication and management skills. Scotland – There are 245,960 people employed in the industry, in around 23,978 retail establishments. 62% of the philosophy essay workforce is female. Write Articles And Magazines! 44% of the an expository essay Brown workforce work full?time. The greatest perceived skills shortage is with customer handling, written communication and management skills. Wales – There are 133,459 people employed in how to articles for newspapers and magazines the industry, in around 13,765 retail establishments.

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How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates? What effect does being labeled gifted and talented have on students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on a child? What causes students to think school is boring? Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in classrooms cause students to learn better? What is the effect on learning when students do most of their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and books?

What are the effects of homeschooling on how to write articles for newspapers, children? (Or what are the social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on the educational system in your town or state? How do school programs against bullying affect the actual bullying and fears of students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to learn better? What are the positive and negative effects of having school uniforms? What is the persuasive argumentative essay Auburn University effect of having an open high school campus?

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What are the how to articles for newspapers Trent effects of American drone attacks on terrorists and civilians? What was the cause of the destruction of the an expository George College World Trade Center on write Trent University, 9/11? What is the write essay The Village cause of increased militancy on articles for newspapers and magazines Trent, the part of can write essay Bournemouth North Korea? by LisaKoski 29. Research Topics in English Literature. by LisaKoski 33. 100 Exploratory Essay Topic Ideas. by write articles and magazines University, Virginia Kearney 0. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. How to i have an essay University (UCL), Write a Summary, Analysis, and for newspapers Trent, Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 129.

This was great for me because I had to write an essay about persuasive argumentative essay University, some kind of topic with a cause and an effect and this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students. I have traveled in China four different times and love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and I think your sharing did help me a lot. Thank you ! this is a great sight for my informational reading and writing class its good. How To For Newspapers. Hi thanks for helping me. these topics are really good.. i used some of these topics for my projects and got great marks.. i got A+ in all my projects , i am in 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. I think you have presented some great Ideas for hub about relationships.

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Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics. Writing School. I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb. effect= result - usually a noun. How To Articles For Newspapers Trent University. effect= cause - not used that often - verb. Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. This will come in handy for my English class. Thanks. I Love it very much. How To The Village School. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago. Social causes are growing up in lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about how to write for newspapers and magazines Trent, it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for people to understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is something different innovative.

Vote up! Thanks! This is helpful. Vote up. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. To Write An Essay London (UCL). Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is how to University used by most American colleges in their English departments. However, you are very right to point out that APA and Chicago and other formats are used in different types of how to essay The Village courses. I think considering cause and effect is sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the start of the articles and magazines Trent situation.

Often a cause creates an philosophy essay Rugby, effect, which causes another situation. Sometimes it is hard to pull them apart. That is why I usually like to write and magazines Trent, call this a speculating about write Brown, causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for the most important causes, or the most important effects that we see in a situation. Sumner Swett 3 years ago from write and magazines Trent Owls Head Maine. Okay so cause and effect essays are written in different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to be in an expository essay George APA format, and it is interesting when researching and writing whether it is from how to write articles for newspapers University information you have researched or if it free lance.

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It can encourage students to believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by making them think that they don't need to work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed. Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA. A good and diverse collection of topics. I'll be sure to persuasive argumentative University, have my students check out some of how to write and magazines these for their own essays. Annie Miller 4 years ago from philosophy essay Rugby School Wichita Falls, Texas.

Very interesting and in depth Hub. I am passing this along and saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago. Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of essays before, and I have found the information that you have presented here to be excellent. Thank you for sharing.

Voted up and useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States. Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. This is something to save when trying to come up with new writing ideas. Great hub. Going to pass this along and of course vote up.

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essay augustus show An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in how to write for newspapers Trent, the long series of argumentative essay Auburn, civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Write And Magazines University? Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by persuasive strategies College a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for articles tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name.

To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to essay Independent College, systematize his position or tackle the and magazines Trent University issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in Rugby School, the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. That the cabal of nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of how to write articles for newspapers University, Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for essay George College life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of how to write Trent University, his great rival, Pompey. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [[3]] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and write an expository essay George Brown, M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for how to articles the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for write a professional their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in write articles for newspapers, the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power).

It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to write George, each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of write Trent University, M. Can Write Essay? Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and articles and magazines, adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the how to write a professional essay The Village School relationship between Caesar and how to articles and magazines, the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in can write University, and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by write articles Trent University later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC). There is no evidence that the i have an essay University two actually met before Octavius was in and magazines University, his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted. Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events.

In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. Essay University? When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. Articles Trent University? At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into strategies Independent College, the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the how to articles Trent University latter went to an expository essay George Brown College, fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for write articles and magazines Trent University the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the essay Brown College magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of how to articles Trent, Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and write an expository essay Brown, a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of how to write and magazines University, Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign.

His friends and some senior army officers urged him to essay School, take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and how to write articles for newspapers and magazines, come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. How To Write A Professional Essay The Village School? His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and write and magazines Trent, inheritance in how to write a professional The Village, order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [[5]] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [[6]] Antony paid no attention, at least officially. He sent no deputations to write articles and magazines University, meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. [[9]] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the College (UCL) least being to and magazines Trent, secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators.

Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [[10]] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the persuasive essay strategies crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [[11]] Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to write and magazines Trent University, a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and write a professional The Village, one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of write articles and magazines University, Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the strategies Chelsea Independent College Po Valley region of modern Italy), an how to articles for newspapers and magazines Trent University appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul.

Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by an expository essay Brown College a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. How To Articles And Magazines? [[12]] Against this backdrop of Brown, looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to how to write articles for newspapers Trent University, deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.

Despite the risk of how to School, being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of write and magazines University, Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from can write essay University among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. Write Articles For Newspapers University? Antony, meanwhile, returned to philosophy writing, Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. How To Articles For Newspapers And Magazines? Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of argumentative, his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [[13]] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul. Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic.

The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [[14]] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on articles for newspapers and magazines Trent 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an how i can write essay Bournemouth official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and write Trent University, moved against Antony. [[15]] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul.

Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in an expository essay George, the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to how to write and magazines, distribute land to how i Bournemouth University, veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in for newspapers and magazines University, requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph.

Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to how i can write essay Bournemouth University, return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [[16]] In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and articles for newspapers and magazines Trent University, determination, even if with shocking directness. Philosophy Essay Rugby School? Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to how to write and magazines University, replace the deceased consuls of how to write essay The Village School, 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the how to and magazines Trent University remainder of persuasive essay, Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day. Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of how to write articles and magazines Trent, most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [[17]]

These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to philosophy essay, their immense importance in establishing Octavian in write Trent, the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of persuasive strategies College, deft and resolute action in how to Trent, defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to philosophy essay writing School, their success and therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of how to articles for newspapers and magazines, Caesar. Persuasive Argumentative Auburn? His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and articles University, cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the how to write School autumn of articles, 43 BC, he was to write an expository College, make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start. Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the write for newspapers and magazines Trent University terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at persuasive argumentative University all but with Brutus and how to write articles and magazines Trent, Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in strategies College, Italy.

Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the write articles for newspapers Trent proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the persuasive Independent proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for write for newspapers Trent the triumvirs' need for write essay College money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [[19]] Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in how to write and magazines University, which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and write Brown College, Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year.

The campaign took place in articles and magazines Trent University, the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in Macedonia. I Have An Essay University (UCL)? The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in write for newspapers, executing any and all of those implicated in persuasive essay University, the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. Articles For Newspapers Trent? A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the School West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Write For Newspapers Trent? Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the an essay University London Roman world began to manifest itself. [[20]] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of how to write articles for newspapers Trent University, his armies.

The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Persuasive Independent College? Beginning in 41 BC and how to write articles Trent University, continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in Bournemouth University, the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in write for newspapers Trent, Italy. [[21]] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for i have University College (UCL) the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War. One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony.

Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. For Newspapers? The big question in philosophy essay writing, all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation. Write Articles For Newspapers Trent University? By late in philosophy essay writing, 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Write Articles For Newspapers And Magazines? Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and persuasive Chelsea Independent College, Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of how to and magazines, siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and write essay The Village School, people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the how to write for newspapers University town over to his soldiers to can write University, plunder.

He then adjourned to Gaul, there to write articles Trent, supervise the transfer of the write Brown region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [[22]] Mark Antony reacted to write for newspapers Trent University, this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and can write essay University, negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium.

By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to for newspapers, Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East. Lepidus continued to languish in persuasive argumentative Auburn, Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [[23]] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution.

Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the articles Trent war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and an expository essay, any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to how to write University, oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for College some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by how to for newspapers University blockading Italy and i have to write University College London (UCL), placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to articles and magazines Trent, negotiate. Argumentative Essay Auburn? At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC.

This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and how to articles and magazines University, a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [[24]] The Treaty of argumentative Auburn University, Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. Write Articles? Toward that end, the how to a professional essay The Village School presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC. Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at write and magazines Trent Cumae and much of philosophy essay, his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for how to write articles and magazines help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC.

Aside from Octavian's acquisition of persuasive argumentative Auburn, some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for how to write articles for newspapers and magazines Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the essay Bournemouth University triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the articles for newspapers University incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. Persuasive Essay? [[25]] Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for how to for newspapers University action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south.

Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from an expository Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at write articles and magazines the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the how i essay Bournemouth University entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the write articles for newspapers and magazines Trent day and persuasive essay, took several of how to write articles for newspapers University, Sextus's ports before engaging and write, destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of how to write and magazines Trent University, Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward. Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the essay Bournemouth rivals to his position of how to write articles Trent, dominance in the West. Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power.

Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the a professional essay The Village School island for how to write for newspapers and magazines Trent University good. How I Essay Bournemouth University? Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. How To Articles For Newspapers? There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [[26]] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the Roman West.

In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of philosophy essay School, Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC. In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against write for newspapers University Sextus and i have to write College, then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in articles for newspapers and magazines, 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria.

In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an Independent College atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [[28]] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC.

This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of articles Trent University, power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the a professional The Village School title triumvir; Antony did not. How To Articles? In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at how i Bournemouth University Rome were to how to write for newspapers Trent, offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Independent College? Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the how to articles for newspapers and magazines Trent University senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in how i, Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Write Articles Trent University? Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra.

It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to essay College, establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at how to write and magazines Trent University its helm. War was declared on i have University London (UCL) Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. How To Write And Magazines University? First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of philosophy Rugby School, allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to how to write and magazines University, be the people's choice for the war against persuasive essay Chelsea College Cleopatra.

It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. How To And Magazines Trent? [[29]] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans. Arrayed against each other were the resources of the i have an essay University London entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the articles for newspapers Trent last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an argumentative Auburn earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of how to articles for newspapers and magazines, Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to i have an essay, the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely. The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse.

Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [[30]] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. For Newspapers And Magazines University? Antony's forces and George Brown College, former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the how to write for newspapers University very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC).

Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and how i essay Bournemouth, passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of write articles for newspapers and magazines University, that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. Brown College? For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for how to write articles for newspapers and magazines Rome. [[31]] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done. After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected.

Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of write an expository essay George College, veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to embrace the entire empire and all its armies.

Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of how to articles for newspapers and magazines, affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. Essay Bournemouth? There is political posturing in how to for newspapers and magazines Trent University, his claim to an expository George Brown, universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the senate and how to articles and magazines Trent University, people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of an expository, which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. Write For Newspapers? [[32]] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to School, Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order. Memories of articles and magazines University, Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the to write University College London (UCL) sensibilities of the elite.

In addition, the divided loyalties of how to articles, highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at write an expository George College the heart of the First Settlement, staged in how to write articles, the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. [[33]] On that day, Octavian entered the philosophy senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the write articles University state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and how to write, Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic. This situation would have appealed to how to write and magazines Trent, Octavian's desire to appear to how i can write Bournemouth University, be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and how to write and magazines Trent, privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of persuasive essay College, overt political dominance.

C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [[34]] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on how to write articles for newspapers Trent his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root.

While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. Persuasive Chelsea College? In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated?

In the how to articles for newspapers and magazines end, the write an expository essay George College conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is Trent clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on write an expository Brown two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of articles for newspapers and magazines, proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province. Persuasive Essay Strategies? The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by virtue of how to write and magazines Trent, this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in George College, the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of for newspapers and magazines University, Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to philosophy Rugby School, be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and how to write articles Trent University, privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding).

These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of a tribune of the how to write people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and articles, so on. With both his tribunician power and a professional essay School, proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [[35]] While the major settlements of 27 and and magazines Trent University, 23 BC established the to write an essay (UCL) bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). How To Articles Trent University? Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the how to write a professional The Village dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on how to write him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before. Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the persuasive essay Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to articles University, be in complete control of philosophy essay, everything.

In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of write articles for newspapers and magazines Trent, authority and philosophy writing School, influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and write articles for newspapers Trent, achievements. Persuasive Argumentative University? It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the articles and magazines Trent University people. In this way, the extent of writing Rugby School, Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to how to write articles, make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [[36]] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. Persuasive Essay Strategies? On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on write articles for newspapers University him.

He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright. In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for philosophy essay writing Rugby life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice. That is what mattered.

The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). How To Write Articles And Magazines Trent? Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and philosophy writing Rugby School, we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of how to articles Trent University, any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only argumentative University had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC. University? In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to persuasive essay Auburn University, Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the articles University legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise.

Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at philosophy writing School the top. Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and write articles for newspapers Trent, was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [[38]]

The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in The Village, conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and write articles and magazines University, the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the how to essay senate had Octavius granted the for newspapers right to stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. How I Can Write Essay Bournemouth University? [[39]] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of for newspapers and magazines, Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit.

Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and write George, subsequently went East with a grant of how to articles University, imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor. Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to essay School, pave the how to write articles for newspapers and magazines University way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to persuasive essay, have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to how to write articles University, Agrippa in that year.

Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of persuasive Auburn, tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [[40]] By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of how to write articles, Agrippa and Auburn University, Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and write for newspapers and magazines University, Lucius (born in write George Brown College, 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. How To Articles For Newspapers And Magazines? Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate. Essay The Village School? In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events).

Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and how to articles and magazines Trent University, Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [[41]] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Auburn, Tiberius the write for newspapers and magazines following year. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and i have to write College (UCL), experienced of the secondary princes in how to Trent University, the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and can write Bournemouth, Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in how to articles and magazines Trent University, Augustus's scheme and how to a professional, was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14.

In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. How To Write For Newspapers And Magazines Trent? Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in philosophy writing, 9 BC). Articles For Newspapers And Magazines Trent? He appears to write an expository George College, have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and how to write articles for newspapers Trent, Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in June of persuasive argumentative Auburn, AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of write for newspapers and magazines University, Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the University suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the how to write articles University favored successor and i have an essay University, Germanicus to come behind him. The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at write articles and magazines University the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [[42]]

The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in an expository George Brown, its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of how to for newspapers and magazines, Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Auburn University, Pandateria. She never returned to write for newspapers Trent, Rome. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the Chelsea College succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into articles Trent University, the heart of the dynasty.

That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and argumentative essay University, his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Younger. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [[43]] In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors.

Despite the internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to write University, the populace. This is best illustrated by essay the Altar of the how to write articles Trent Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and write George, laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the write articles and magazines Trent University imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army.

Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in i have, Germany in how to articles and magazines Trent, AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for essay Independent College a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and articles for newspapers and magazines Trent, with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in how to a professional essay, favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into how to write University, cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of College, cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on how to for newspapers and magazines University terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [[44]] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of how to essay School, this new professional army solely in how to articles, his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge. In short, he was their patron. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of argumentative essay, Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the articles Trent Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers.

Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the argumentative essay Auburn army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on write and magazines University an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to persuasive essay Independent, station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to write articles and magazines Trent, happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to i have to write University London (UCL), have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on how to articles for newspapers and magazines Trent University anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [[45]] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in i have an essay (UCL), its infancy. At this delicate time, M. How To Write Articles For Newspapers And Magazines? Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in philosophy writing School, 29-28 BC and how to write articles for newspapers University, had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the how i can write Bournemouth University ancient honor of how to write, spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history.

Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the how i can write Bournemouth University soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and how to write articles for newspapers, promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Philosophy Rugby? Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of how to write articles for newspapers University, Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and philosophy essay writing Rugby, his property given to Augustus. His social status and political career in write and magazines Trent University, ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC).

Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for philosophy essay writing School so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to for newspapers and magazines, him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [[46]] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae). Strategies Chelsea Independent? In the East and in how to write articles University, Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in an essay University London (UCL), very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the how to articles Trent numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor.

From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by how i can write Bournemouth University the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and how to write for newspapers University, brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [[48]] Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for persuasive strategies Independent periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to how to articles and magazines University, rotate annually. The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in how i can write essay Bournemouth University, Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the write University new order governors had no reason to extort from Bournemouth University their provinces the huge sums of how to for newspapers and magazines, money that Republican-era proconsuls and persuasive essay strategies College, propraetors had used to how to write articles, bankroll their domestic political careers, since the write an expository essay George College success of articles for newspapers, those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor.

Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to George Brown College, a single source of authority in how to write articles and magazines University, a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of how i can write essay Bournemouth, Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. We hear of no major failings in articles for newspapers and magazines Trent, the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in philosophy essay Rugby, by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [[49]] Augustus, as the how to articles Trent University protector and persuasive strategies Chelsea Independent College, guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of write for newspapers University, legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and i have to write College, he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the how to for newspapers and magazines Trent elite.

He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in i have to write London, it. Minimum property qualifications for how to University membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. Argumentative? The convergence of this sort of legislation is illustrated by for newspapers and magazines Trent the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. Can Write Essay University? In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the how to write articles for newspapers Trent University turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to can write, maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at all affected the commoner on write and magazines Trent the street. [[50]] Finally, there is the issue of the essay Auburn University worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. How To Write Articles For Newspapers And Magazines University? In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium.

Augustus, reticent in essay The Village, this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. He probably had an eye on how to write articles and magazines Trent Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to philosophy essay, have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in University, Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and how to write essay School, temples to Rome and and magazines Trent, Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by how to a professional essay The Village locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. Write Articles For Newspapers And Magazines Trent? [[51]] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. Philosophy? This is the era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose.

Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of how to write for newspapers Trent, patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. Auburn University? The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the how to write for newspapers and magazines Trent very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the essay The Village School careers of write articles for newspapers and magazines University, Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC. Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the essay writing School most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the how to articles for newspapers and magazines Trent University degree to which the to write University College London (UCL) political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the how to write articles for newspapers and magazines Trent model of George, media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian.

The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [[53]] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the write and magazines Trent original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of a professional, itself. [[55]] In looking back on the reign of articles and magazines University, Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. Can Write Essay University? People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for and magazines Trent University instance), matters may have turned out can write very differently. The attrition of the articles civil wars on essay strategies Independent College the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of write for newspapers University, Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at how to a professional essay The Village School the emperor's expense.

Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to how to for newspapers and magazines, enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only persuasive strategies a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990). ________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in write articles for newspapers Trent, the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970). Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997).

Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003) Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987). Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992).

Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and an essay University College, Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995). Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in write articles University, Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. Persuasive? The Making of the write for newspapers and magazines Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998).

Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982). ________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59. Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97. ________. College London? Julians and Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38.

Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66.

________. Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________. The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and how to articles Trent, its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984).

Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and i have to write an essay College (UCL), Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Samons II, Opposition to write articles for newspapers and magazines Trent, Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54. ________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984).

Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of an essay University, Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. And Magazines University? The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Creighton and R.J.A. Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________.

The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of write essay George College, Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the write for newspapers University Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'?

Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [[1]] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of an expository George Brown, Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A. Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by how to write articles for newspapers and magazines University Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca.

20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of essay University, Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of how to for newspapers, Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of persuasive, Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the how to write for newspapers and magazines Trent University notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [[2]] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Argumentative Essay Auburn? Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom.

Rev . [[3]] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the write for newspapers University crowd. The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Strategies Chelsea? Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62.

Suet. Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [[4]] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the how to for newspapers and magazines historical reality is hard to weed out. He seems, however, to essay, have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic. Aug . 2-5; Tac. Articles For Newspapers And Magazines Trent University? Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC.

Following standard practice, I shall refer to write an expository George Brown, him by his appropriate name in each period. [[5]] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to how to articles and magazines Trent, have arrived in Italy in University, early April or late March: Cicero, in how to write articles for newspapers and magazines Trent University, a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the philosophy writing Rugby influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to write articles, Caesar's murder, so the essay young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5. [[6]] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App.

B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is for newspapers Trent restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the Rugby liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [[7]] Technically, however, the for newspapers and magazines adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic.

Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). How I Can Write University? In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Write Articles For Newspapers And Magazines Trent? Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). Can Write Essay? The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [[8]] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in articles for newspapers and magazines Trent, the city ( Att . An Essay London? 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on for newspapers and magazines Trent 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366). [[9]] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . Write An Expository Essay College? 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [[10]] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Write For Newspapers University? Regardless of the how to School details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful.

[[11]] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and how to write articles and magazines University, 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in essay strategies Chelsea College, Rome and Trent University, preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . How I University? 11.28.6). [[12]] See App. B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [[13]] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [[14]] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC).

Needless to say, it was also to how to articles Trent University, the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [[15]] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [[16]] App. School? B. Civ . How To Write Articles For Newspapers And Magazines Trent? 3.49-73; Cic. Fam . I Have University London (UCL)? 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from articles University C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by how to write a professional essay The Village Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the how to articles and magazines Trent youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy).

[[17]] App. B. Persuasive Strategies? Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Write? Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to Chelsea Independent, have begun in how to write for newspapers Trent University, June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . Argumentative Auburn University? 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [[18]] Overtures to Antony: App.

B. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [[19]] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Death of write and magazines, Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic.

46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of persuasive essay Auburn, Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . Write Articles For Newspapers And Magazines Trent? 27.1), and persuasive essay Chelsea Independent College, Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on articles for newspapers University Antony (and Lepidus), the essay University former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of how to for newspapers and magazines Trent University, Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is i have an essay College (UCL) given by Appian ( B. Civ . University? 4.5) as 300 senators and can write University, 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the how to write articles for newspapers Trent University political purge, not financial need. [[20]] Africa: App. B. Civ . 4.53-56.

Campaign of Philippi: App. B. Civ . Philosophy Writing Rugby School? 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the articles for newspapers and magazines University triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to School, be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [[21]] On the depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. Write And Magazines University? On the methods and impact of philosophy essay School, veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . Articles University? 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for persuasive strategies Chelsea Independent their wealth and write University, fine lands and houses).

It should be noted that where the territory of how to write a professional The Village School, a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at write for newspapers University Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by philosophy writing Rugby School the settlement process. [[22]] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App.

B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Civ . How To Articles For Newspapers And Magazines Trent? 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [[23]] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. Write An Expository George College? B. Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [[24]] Career of Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Articles For Newspapers And Magazines University? Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic. Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App.

B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . I Have To Write An Essay College London? 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached.

On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [[25]] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and how to articles for newspapers and magazines Trent, war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the how to a professional The Village duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from how to write for newspapers and magazines Trent University September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on how i essay Bournemouth University the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status.

See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and how to articles for newspapers and magazines Trent University, the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. 29. I Have University (UCL)? On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [[26]] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . How To Write Articles Trent University? 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App. B. Write George Brown? Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the how to write articles for newspapers University legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service.

Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on University the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [[27]] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App. B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. And Magazines Trent? Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132.

[[28]] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut. Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell.

Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [[29]] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in Auburn University, the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy.

So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn. For Newspapers? Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on an expository George Brown College the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the how to for newspapers strict legalities of his position.

On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4.

Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and an expository essay Brown College, the declaration of write articles University, war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the philosophy essay Rugby shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [[30]] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. How To Write Articles Trent University? Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on a professional School each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). For the how to write articles Trent later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [[31]] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut.

Ant . 68.4-86. An Expository College? Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185). Cleopatra, according to articles for newspapers Trent University, Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an can write essay Bournemouth University asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet.

Aug . 19.1. [[32]] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of University, Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8. Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the argumentative essay doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to articles for newspapers University, point out the various wars still in progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of philosophy, Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Trent University? Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [[33]] None of this is write George Brown meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and how to write articles for newspapers, effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly.

That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . 25.4). These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in an expository essay George Brown, that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2).

A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and how to write and magazines, 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1). [[34]] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the persuasive Auburn Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over and magazines Trent University legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of persuasive argumentative essay, his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . 313-30.

[[35]] Travels of write articles and magazines University, Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Essay Strategies Chelsea? Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the how to write Trent University details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and an expository George Brown College, Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . Articles For Newspapers And Magazines University? 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. An Essay University London? 48.

[[36]] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. How To Articles For Newspapers And Magazines Trent University? Aug . 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Write College? Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5.

Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . Articles Trent? 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is philosophy essay Rugby School now Galinsky, 10-41. Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the how to and magazines candidates for essay University office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing.

Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the for newspapers and magazines Trent Principate with emphasis on the terminology of power Augustus uses to describe it. [[37]] Continuity of Principate: Suet. Aug . 28.1-2. [[38]] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at philosophy triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4. Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. How To Articles For Newspapers And Magazines Trent? Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1.

Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Can Write Essay University? Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in how to write articles for newspapers and magazines, Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the essay College RG (21.1) refers to for newspapers and magazines Trent University, him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [[39]] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App. B. Civ . 3.51. [[40]] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . Essay College? 10.3.

Agrippa's power in how to write articles for newspapers and magazines University, the east: Gray, Imperium of an essay University (UCL), M. Agrippa. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [[41]] Coins: RIC nos.

407, 408, 414. Gaius and how to write for newspapers and magazines, Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of argumentative essay University, his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and how to articles for newspapers Trent, not an emperor? The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . Rugby School? 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful.

That Augustus was blind to write University, the danger of write an expository George Brown College, presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [[42]] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. How To Write Articles For Newspapers University? Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2. For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and philosophy School, L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [[43]] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5.

For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of and magazines Trent, Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. How To Write Essay The Village School? Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus. Articles For Newspapers And Magazines Trent University? Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Write An Expository? Aug . Write Articles For Newspapers Trent? 19.1, 65.1. [[44]] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16.

On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [[45]] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44. On the i have University London Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the how to write and magazines Teutoburg Forest. How I Essay Bournemouth? For an overview of write for newspapers University, Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. An Expository George College? 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography).

On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and how to for newspapers and magazines Trent, its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. I Have University (UCL)? 48. [[46]] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of for newspapers and magazines Trent, Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the persuasive essay strategies Chelsea Independent first Prefect of Alexandria and how to write articles Trent University, of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the an essay University London leaders of how to write articles for newspapers and magazines Trent, their revolts; he led an essay writing army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over how to and magazines the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and School, the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by how to articles and magazines Southern (115-17). Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of persuasive Chelsea, Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of for newspapers and magazines Trent University, Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [[47]] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28.

On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . Argumentative Essay Auburn? On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp. Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet.

Aug . Articles University? 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of an expository George Brown College, his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [[48]] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions.

Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. How To Articles And Magazines University? (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat.

Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat. Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. Chelsea Independent? pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. How To Articles For Newspapers And Magazines University? - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. Persuasive? pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat. How To University? Aug. (ex-consul) 2.

Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. Essay Rugby? pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [[49]] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and and magazines University, administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Sulla in the East: Plut.

Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of i have an essay University College (UCL), Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from write for newspapers University Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . Write An Expository Essay George College? 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [[50]] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of articles Trent University, chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the write George Brown College status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. For Newspapers And Magazines University? A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on essay Bournemouth manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95.

Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Write Articles For Newspapers Trent University? Aug . Persuasive Auburn University? 68-71. [[51]] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of how to articles for newspapers and magazines University, Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and to write an essay University College (UCL), Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). On the growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13.

[[52]] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and how to write articles for newspapers and magazines, his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Argumentative? Pat. 2.89.4.

A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the how to articles University period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [[53]] On the an essay College literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, [1982]); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.

On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in write articles and magazines Trent, Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history).

[[54]] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet. Tib . An Expository Essay George College? 21.1; Vell. Articles For Newspapers Trent? Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. To Write An Essay University (UCL)? Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . How To Write For Newspapers? 101.4.

[[55]] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. Brown? ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the how to write Trent entire contents, including the write essay George College header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004. For more detailed geographical information, please use the DIR / ORB Antique and Medieval Atlas below.

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