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Avoid the Resume Black Hole: How to Get Your Emailed Resume Noticed. Internet Essay MacDuffie School! We often email resumes in response to ib essay writing Auburn, a job posting or send our resume to internet essay School, a networking contact, recruiter, or hiring manager. That can be very effective, or it can be a waste of time and energy, depending on how well it is ib essay Auburn University done and how good a fit the resume is for the opportunity. Often people seem to assume that the internet MacDuffie person receiving the email has only one job posting open or will intuitively understand which job is being applied for. I#8217;ve often seen email messages with subjects like: #8220;Resume attached#8221; #8220;Your job posting#8221; #8220;Applying for your job#8221; #8220;Assistant job#8221; and even plain old #8220;Attached.#8221; Too often those subject links can make the message look like spam or, worse, a malware-laden message, and may be deleted. Certainly they are often ignored because they put the burden on the recipient for essay pdf La Trobe (NAVITAS) figuring out why the message was sent and what it is internet MacDuffie about. Think about your own email usage.

According to The Radicati Group, a technology market research firm, people on average received 75 email messages a day in 2011. Anyone who posts a job online could easily receive100 additional messages a day from people responding to the posting that#8217;s 175 messages. That#8217;s a lot of email to dig through! If someone spent only write introduction Cologne Business School 1 minute on each of those 175 messages, that#8217;s nearly 3 hours spent on internet writing MacDuffie only scanning email. Not going to happen, is it? So, if they aren#8217;t deleted, those messages sit in that inbox or other email folder waiting#8230; Email Is Both the Conduit and the Barrier. Unless someone applies for a job on a job board, most resumes are sent via email, and they end up sitting in someone#8217;s INBOX or in an email folder somewhere on a film their computer. Sometimes they are read immediately. Often, they sit in that inbox or folder, possibly for days or weeks. How does your message with your resume get found and read eventually?

The email software#8217;s search function is frequently the tool used to internet writing School, sift through messages to find the appropriate applicants and resumes. Few of us think about the email search function when we send our resumes (or other email) messages. Writing Essay St. Michaels University! To be effective, our messages must be read. To be read, our messages must first be found and then be determined to be relevant. To be found, our messages must be find-able and clearly on-topic for the job being sought. For Resume Impact, Email Must Be Effective. For the internet essay MacDuffie resume to write a film analysis College, be found, the subject of the internet essay writing MacDuffie email must be effective.

It must clearly communicate to the recipient the reason that the message should be opened. So, the subject line is critical to writing Auburn University, the effectiveness of the internet essay MacDuffie message. #8220;Resume attached#8221; and #8220;Your job opening#8221; don#8217;t make the cut. The person scanning the inbox or using the email search function is looking for specific words in the subject of a message. Or, the email search function may also be used to find specific words in the content of the message. So, keep that in mind when you write your email message. Since the email search function usually allows searching through only message subjects or through the text in the body of the message, cover both of those bases with your email message. Keywords must be included in the subject of the message. Often, searches focus on write a film analysis essay the subject lines of the internet School messages because that is usually the quickest search to perform. To be sure that your message appears in a search through message subjects, think about the keywords that would be relevant for an employer searching through all those email messages to find the writing and Burton ones from essay writing School people applying for a specific job opening? The job title used by the employer in the posting. This is not what you might call it, or what an industry-standard job title would be.

The name to use in ib essay your email is the name this employer has labeled this job. Maybe the internet essay writing MacDuffie School rest of the how to write essay Cologne Business School world calls the job #8220;administrative assistant#8221; but this employer calls it #8220;office admin support#8221; or #8220;admin assist.#8221; The job requisition number or other employer identifier assigned to the job posting. Essay MacDuffie! Often, job postings have some sort of identifier to writing a 5 essay Academy, separate them from writing MacDuffie School other postings the how to analysis College same employer has open, even for small employers. It might be the job title and location, but often it is internet essay writing School a code that is writing a 5 paragraph essay and Burton included in the job description. The location of the job (city and state). Particularly if there is no job requisition number, include the essay writing School city and state, unless the employer has only a single location. The word #8220;resume.#8221; Using the word #8220;resume#8221; highlights that the message is from someone who is interested in applying for essay Cologne a position. Using the word #8220;resume#8221; also includes a very valuable keyword in the subject line. This ensures that the message appears in search results even on a general search for internet writing resumes.

For example, Subj: Resume for Admin Assistant in Dispatch position, # 1570, in San Diego, CA. In this case, the job title of the job posting is #8220;Admin Assistant in Dispatch.#8221; So, those words are exactly the writing pdf La Trobe University (NAVITAS) words used in the email subject. Include those same keywords in the body of the message, too. The same important keywords, described above, that are included in writing School the title of the message need to also be included in writing for an St. Michaels University School the body of the writing MacDuffie message as well. This ensures that they are found if someone is searching through the email message as a whole, not just the subject. In addition, since the email message is a form of how to Cologne School cover letter for your resume, including the details of the job being applied for internet MacDuffie is helpful for the reader and, surprisingly, frequently omitted. Including this information comes under the heading of #8220;being easy to hire#8221; in addition to leveraging the ib essay email search function. Since you have more space in the body of the message, you have room to include more of your resume#8217;s keywords, and, in fact, you can copy and paste your entire resume or the internet essay writing MacDuffie School most relevant portions of it into the message below the writing a 5 essay Burr and Burton #8220;cover letter#8221; introductory text at the top of your message. Bottom Line: Go with the Probabilities. Essay! I think it#8217;s more productive long-term to write your message with the email search function in mind. It also makes your resume stand out in writing pdf La Trobe the crowd of other messages in the email inbox.

And, following these recommendations will make it clear to the recipient why the message was sent. Particularly today, a clear and coherent subject and email message stand out essay MacDuffie from the crowd of relatively-clueless appearing responses to job postings. © Copyright, 2012, Susan P. Joyce. All rights reserved. Online job search expert Susan P. Joyce has been observing the online job search world and teaching online job search skills since 1995. Susan is a two-time layoff “graduate” who has worked in human resources at Harvard University and in a compensation consulting firm. In 2011, NETability purchased WorkCoachCafe.com, which Susan has been editor and writing Auburn publisher of WorkCoach since then. Internet MacDuffie! Susan also edits and publishes Job-Hunt.org. Follow Susan on Twitter at @jobhuntorg and on essay writing pdf La Trobe (NAVITAS) Google+.

Fantastic article. All too often I see very poorly submitted resumes. 1. Job applications with no resume. 2. Unprofessional email addresses. 3. Resumes saved as numbers, random words, and unrelated titles. 4. Emails with no text.

5. Emails with no subject line. Internet Essay Writing MacDuffie! 6. Subject lines that never address the job in question. For An St. Michaels University School! It is hard to get a response if you were not among the best responses. You run the School risk of your email being neglected all together. Put time into your emails, it is the first step to getting that interview. Thank you, Christopher! I#8217;ve been on a 5 paragraph essay your side of the process, too, and it can be amazing to see what people submit. I think often panic replaces common sense as they try to apply to writing MacDuffie, as many jobs as possible, as quickly as possible.

Unfortunately, it#8217;s not a #8220;numbers game#8221; where if you submit X number of writing an introduction essay School resumes, you#8217;ll eventually land a job. Not how it works. MacDuffie School! People stand out by offering quality a careful, thoughtful response. Taking the writing for an essay St. Michaels University time to School, do a quality job even in something as apparently minor (but SO important) as sending a resumes is a genuine differentiator these days. And, leveraging the email software search capability is a good long-term strategy for job seekers.

Great advice Christopher. Unfortunatley I have sumbitted hundreds of applications and articles on critical thinking Queen's College followed all of your rules, and I was qualified for all of essay them. Articles Queen's College! NONE have called. Now what? Eat my revolver? If you can figure out how to make it happen#8230;meet with a resume writer or career coach and get a second opinion on your resume. For low cost or free events, check out this list of job search clubs#8230;a 15 minute correction could improve your returns on applications. Hang in there and good luck! I always include my name (Admissions Coordinator Nikki Lastname). Is this appropriate?

Chris, your insight would be appreciated. Thanks. Essay School! If you are applying for a job, there#8217;s no need to have your current title in the follow-up email. That#8217;s my take#8230; Good luck and all the best, I always put #8220;Title of position applying for#8221; #8212; Evie LastName Application so I stand out more. #128578; Hope this helps! NO I may have stated it wrong. I put the a 5 essay Burr and Burton Academy title of the position and my name in the subject line.

I also add the job number if it#8217;s on the posting. I don#8217;t think that it hurts to writing MacDuffie, have your name in articles thinking the subject line, in case they are searching for you specifically. However, I think that more often they are searching on the job title, the job requisition number, the location, and/or the MacDuffie word #8220;resume.#8221; Hopefully, your email address includes a version of how to write introduction Cologne School your name, too, which is where they will be most likely to look for it. I applied for internet essay writing MacDuffie School a position on on critical thinking Queen's College August 1stI am waiting to follow up. My question is, would be okay to internet essay School, actually go into the office and introduce myself and hand the University HR director my follow up letter? The office is literally 5 minutes up the street from where I currently work. Essay MacDuffie School! Does that show initiative and do you think I will stick out amongst the other candidates? Yes it does show inititative however, you may want to make sure the hiring manager is there before you just waltz in to hand in your follow up letter.

If you want to speak directly with that person, call ahead of time just to writing paragraph Burr and Burton, make she s/he is there. It may even be a nice gesture to call and say, #8220;My name is _______ and I applied for essay MacDuffie School _________ position. I was going to mail my follow up letter but I currently work at _________ and essay (NAVITAS) I am right up the street from your building so I thought I#8217;d drop by and introduce my self and hand you my follow up letter.#8221; See#8230; simple! Good luck! I hope it all works out for you! #128578; Thanks Evie#8230; I#8217;ll do just that! I received the following email some time back regarding a future secretarial position: #8220;I spoke with Ron and internet MacDuffie School we are both in agreement that as soon as a secretarial position opens I will contact you.#8221; Thank you for your continued interest and I will be in contact with you as soon as a position opens up. The open position is contingent upon a long term employee retiring.

Last talks were sometime in essay writing Trobe September, which I know could change. However, I want to keep in touch with this company but don#8217;t want to essay MacDuffie, be considered a pest. My thought, since it has been a couple of months, was to send a note along with a JIST card. My problem is I am struggling with an opening sentence. I used to work for this company years back and know Ron from that time. Jason is the HR person who I met briefly when I stopped by to say hello to Ron. Jason is the person I plan to send the note to. Can you give me some examples of how to start for a position that I remain interested in introduction essay Business School when it becomes available? Thank you. Internet Writing School! It sounds like you#8217;ve already done quite a lot of networking and articles on critical thinking Queen's College have strong relationships with the essay writing company.

I recommend that you follow up in early September #8212; ideally, the Tuesday after Labor Day if you are in the U.S. If you have a strong relationship with Ron, contact him instead of articles College Jason to remind him of your continued interest#8230;trust Ron first to essay MacDuffie, follow-up as he says he will. (Don#8217;t send a JIST card to write analysis College, him as he knows you already.) The reason for not working directly with HR on this one: HR is usually the office which initiates a search and which must insist that a company follows a hiring process to fill a position. Writing MacDuffie School! If Ron can bring you in more quickly, that would be ideal for all concerned. In the interim, I#8217;d encourage you to continue to keep your overall job search going and writing an introduction for an St. Michaels University apply other places. Due to financial considerations many people do delay retiring for a month or two. Good luck and all the MacDuffie best, Please be sure that you attach your file!

I recently sent an application without the file attachment, which contained my resume and cover letter. Write A Film College! I re-sent it with the file, but that probably didn#8217;t correct the negative impression that I had made. When I attended the Jump Start program at The Maryland Professional Outplacement Assistance Center (POAC) in 2004, the instructors recommended sending a printed application after sending it by e-mail. They also recommended using rich-text format because it can be read by almost any word-processing program. I always compose my cover letter and resume together in one Word document, with a page break between the two, and then convert it to a PDF file. (While working at a college bookstore, I was lucky to find Adobe Acrobat on sale for essay writing $25.) With a PDF file, I have to be careful to ensure that any less-common fonts that I use are embedded. Using less-common fonts can be a problem with Word or WordPerfect documents because not all versions and installations of these programs include the same set of an introduction essay St. Michaels fonts. Bullet points, which are part of a symbol font, can sometimes appear different on the employer#8217;s screen. Internet Writing School! The instructors at POAC told of a case in which the how to a film analysis bullet points on an applicant#8217;s resume were rendered as puckered lips. I think, though, that software has probably advanced enough that such problems are less likely as long as the applicant is internet writing MacDuffie School careful. Thinking Queen's! Finally, I would consider that not all recipients of your e-mails are sitting in front of a Windows 7 machine with the latest version of Microsoft Word.

Some small businesses and non-profits still use XP. For these recipients, saving your files in an earlier version might be helpful. This last thought leads to the following question. What if the employer is reading your e-mail on an iPad or Android tablet? Thanks for weighing in.

Agree with you that PDF is a good way to MacDuffie School, send documents. This is what I now recommend for most employers and job applications as PDF allows information to be seen the same way across platforms. This should ideally also read the same way on an iPad or Android tablet. Insightful and helpful post and comments here. My question is somewhat related to the comment above about sending your resume/application through email. Basically, I#8217;m in the process of applying for writing an introduction essay University School a position as a probation officer, which is a multi-step process, starting with the initial online application that you submit to the #8220;.gov#8221; official state (SC, in my case, though I know other states use the internet writing MacDuffie same company to handle applicants) website, followed by the scheduling and taking of a sort of competency test that in my case is specific to write analysis Appleby College, the position.

You have to then wait for essay MacDuffie School your results, at which point they notify you by email whether or not you have passed ( I did), and they then send you the articles on critical addresses of the specific county offices that you wish to internet essay writing School, request an interview with, and require that you send a paper copy of your transcript as well as a printed copy of the essay pdf La original submitted application. Essay Writing MacDuffie School! I#8217;m assuming that along with the transcript and application, it would be wise to how to a film essay Appleby, include my resume as well as a cover letter (?). Internet Writing MacDuffie! I may be overthinking this, but I#8217;m caught up on just what might be the best particular ettiquite or way to mail off all of this paperwork, maybe you had a suggestion? I mean, I guess I don#8217;t really know if it would look good stuffing all of that paper into writing a 5 Academy a regular envelope obviously. Like I said, I may be overthinking this, but I don#8217;t want to let a seemingly small snafu cause me to miss out on an interview I guess. Sorry for the long comment! Would love to hear any suggestions if you think of it, thanks! You must be logged in to post a comment.

Answering Job Interview Questions: Work Coach Cafe is a safe place to share job search stories, find support, and see what others have on essay writing School their minds. Please enjoy browsing our site and add to the community with your thoughts! Even more About WorkCoachCafe.com. builtforteams on Smart Bragging Wins Your Next Job Stay Informed and Inspired with 5 Recommended Career Blogs Capella University Blog on 10 Steps from Job Interview to Job Offer You#039;ve Answered the writing Job Interview Question Already. So Stop Talking!The Savvy Intern by YouTern on essay writing School Build Your Confidence for Job Interviews in Less Than 5 Minutes builtforteams on on critical thinking Queen's College 7 Ways to Be Easy to Hire groovygal on After the internet writing School Job Interview: Why Haven#8217;t They Called Me Yet? 2007 -- 2015 NETability, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Parents As Role Models Education Essay. The reason for the choice to writing MacDuffie School study a child's perceptions of thinking College, their parents was influenced by previous research (REF), finding parents to be the essay MacDuffie most influential social agent during childhood. This study attempts to contribute to knowledge by articles on critical Queen's College, examining parental influence over a child's lifetime, as, to the authors knowledge, this has not been extensively analysed. Previous research (REF) has largely focused on the impact of parents during the early years of a child's lifetime sport involvement, as it is argued that other social agents (e.g. peers, teachers and coaches), are more influential during the later stages of internet essay writing MacDuffie School, a child's life. In order to writing and Burton Academy fulfil the current study's objectives the researcher conducted a study that assessed the way that parents' beliefs and the motivational climate that they create, can influence or affect their child's choices, attitudes and motivation towards sport and exercise. Writing School? Semi-structured interviews were conducted to writing an introduction St. Michaels School obtain information regarding the perceived parent-created motivational climate, from an adult-child's perspective. Socialisation influences from parents, and essay writing MacDuffie, social-cognitive perspectives were used to writing an introduction for an St. Michaels University School direct the research and ultimately influence the design for the interview guide. The first set of questions attempted to establish the degree of role modelling demonstrated by parents, and whether this had a positive or negative effect on internet essay MacDuffie their child's choices and attitudes towards sport and exercise. Questions such as Does/did your mum and dad play any sports? and Is your mum/dad involved with coaching any sports to you or another organisation?; were asked in order to establish the type of sport (if any) that the child's parents were involved with, in order to ascertain any correlations between the articles on critical Queen's child's chosen sport and that of their parents. Responses to these questions were mixed, therefore finding little or no link between parent and child activity habits. CHANGE THIS TO MIXED BUT MORE SAID THAT PARENTS WERE ACTIVE?

The narratives below from Participants 3 and 4 respectively, reflect the range of opinions regarding parents as role models: EL: Did your mum and dad play any sports from what you can remember? P1: Um. yes my mum was netball and hockey, my dad did cross country; and they both go to the gym all of the time. EL: Oh, so their quite athletic? P1: Yes quite athletic yes, they probably go to the gym two, three times a week. Despite the variety in response to essay School parents as role models, findings also suggested that if parents were involved with coaching a sport, it generally tended to be the how to Cologne School same sport that their child was involved with. This implies that parents can influence their child's choices towards a similar, if not the same sport that they are involved with. Internet Essay? Additionally, in the instance where a parent took on ib essay writing University the role of the sports coach; results demonstrated a strong trend, revealing that the essay writing MacDuffie School father would be the parent who would take on this coaching role.

The two examples below from participant 1 and writing University, participant 3 respectively, illustrate this point: EL: Cool. Um. so is your mum and dad involved with coching any sports to you or any other youngsters? P1: Um. my mum isn't but when, well i used to play basketball a few years ago and essay MacDuffie, my dad used to help coach the team so, when i was younger about 14/15. EL: Ok.

Um. are they involved, either of write Business School, them involved in School coaching any sports to you or anyone else? P3: Um. my dad used to be a coach for; well he used to a film essay Appleby coach the internet writing MacDuffie School swimming club that I used to University swim for. These findings illustrate that the internet essay child perceives their parents to be actively involved with sport, either through participation or coaching. Dixon et al (2008) recognised that parents are the analysis essay College most influential social agents for children. Therefore it is reasonable to assume that their role modelling behaviour would see them involved in sport by either competing or participating in physical activity themselves or by coaching, in order to lead by example and writing, thus influence their child's choices towards sport and exercise. Previous to this, Bandura proposed the 'Social Learning Theory' (1986), which claimed that parents exhibit behaviours that children may later imitate. In addition, Bandura maintained that the essay pdf La Trobe University (NAVITAS) task of learning would be a most tedious task if there was reliance solely on the effects of the learner's own actions.

This therefore identifies that there is a heavy reliance on role models (e.g. Writing School? parent's) to demonstrate desirable behaviours, for example: participating in regular physical activity, and finding enjoyment in sport. It is also important to essay pdf La University (NAVITAS) stress to parents that they only have a limited time in which to demonstrate this role modelling behaviour ,since that, as children grow older they spend the majority of their day outside of internet essay writing, direct parental contact (Welk et al., 2003). Welk (2003) also recognised the need to distinguish between positive and essay writing Trobe University (NAVITAS), negative forms of role modelling in writing MacDuffie School order to better explain this construct. Although participants from the present study were not affected by negative role modelling; social agents (e.g. teachers, peers, sporting heroes and parents alike) will need to take this into Auburn University consideration in practice, when conducting themselves as role models, so that children are not influenced by negative behaviours. For example, a sedentary parent may model inactive, unhealthy behaviours; therefore demonstrating to their child that this kind of writing MacDuffie, lifestyle is acceptable. MIGHT NEED A CONCLUDING SENTANCE HERE. Parents as Providers of the Experience. Parents can serve as role models not only by participating in the activity or sport themselves but also by providing the ib essay University sports participation experiences for children through transport, funding and spectating at their sporting events.

Results from this study regarding the participants' perceptions of their parents' sport involvement were mixed; with some viewing their parents as active, whereas others did not view their parents to be athletic at all. Nevertheless, it is possible that parents demonstrate role modelling characteristics (i.e. transmitting beliefs and values) through other means of support such as transport, funding and general encouragement to writing join clubs and become active. It is also possible that due to the amount of time parents devote to write analysis College their child's sport involvement (e.g. MacDuffie? transporting them to and from events, and writing University (NAVITAS), working in order to essay writing MacDuffie School be able afford to essay School invest in internet MacDuffie School their child's sporting future through membership and equipment); that they actually have little time left for themselves in order to participate competitively. Thus, for this reason it is understandable that the majority of participants stated that their parents do not currently participate in physical activity and how to Cologne School, some who ascertain that their parents have never been overly athletics. With this in mind, the additional ways in which parents can demonstrate their role modelling behaviour, will be discussed under three separate headings: Game attendance, transport and funding, and internet writing MacDuffie School, encouragement/ importance placed on sport. In order to investigate how the presence of a parent at competition, influenced the participants attitudes towards that event, questions regarding parental sideline support and articles on critical Queen's, attendance at school or club fixtures were raised.

Results illustrated a general trend, demonstrating that at least one parent would be present at every competition. Internet Writing? All participants considered parental support through competition attendance as extremely important. The following narratives from participants 4 and 5 respectively, demonstrate the importance to a 5 essay and Burton those individuals. EL: Ok. Writing MacDuffie? With regards to parental support now, and attendance. Did you mum or dad ever attend your school fixtures?

After-school clubs. P4: Um. they, i wouldn't say in secondary school but in a 5 paragraph Academy primary school they would be at, well there to support. EL: Yea. Do you think, what do you think that is because of? Do you think maybe they thought you needed them? P4: Um, i guess when your younger its nice to have your parent on the sideline, haha, sort of cheering you on. EL: Yea ok. Um. in what ways was them being at your competitions important to you? Did you like having them there or not? P4: Yea, because then you know that there is someone definitely watching you when your swimming or doing a competition, i don't know, its nice to feel that someone is there looking on and they will be proud of you.

EL: Ok. Um. Essay? was this important to you. Writing Pdf La (NAVITAS)? Did you like having them there or? P5: Um. I liked having my dad there because he was like a personal coach, he helped me through all things like; it was good when he was there because he could tell me what was going right and wrong. Scanlan (1996) predicted that during the early years, parents are likely to be present at their children's games and writing, sport fixtures; therefore giving them ample opportunity to writing essay express their values and beliefs of sport to their children. Internet Writing MacDuffie? The results support this hypothesis as all participants view parental support through game attendance as a dominant influence to their sport involvement choices. The next point of discussion relates to how to analysis essay Appleby College the degree of support that parent's demonstrate through the provision of transport and writing School, funding, in order for their child to attend clubs and take part in sport. Findings generated a general concencus amoungst the participant's, that financial parental support is University (NAVITAS), imperative during the early stages of development; but drops off significantly when a child reaches adulthood, as they will usually find a part time job and begin to fund themselves. Internet Writing School? Participant's also identified parents as the key providers of support in the form of transport to and from articles on critical thinking Queen's College training and competition. This type of essay MacDuffie, support could also become less important to the child as they grow older; as the coming of age brings multiple oppourtunities for the child to become increasingly indepedant, for example learning to drive so that they could then transport themselves to writing a 5 paragraph and Burton their sporting fixtures.

This was reflected through the responses given by essay, participant 1 and participant 8, as shown below: EL: Ok, and did that, did you find that changed when you got older at all? P1: Um. well when i learnt to writing University (NAVITAS) drive i started driving myself to internet MacDuffie School training and things, so i paid for the petrol and an introduction essay University, stuff so that was like less money for them to spend but, they still paid for membership and things so. EL: Ok, um, ok alrite with regards to transport and funding, um desbribe how your mum and dad supported you with regards to transport to and from essay School training and matches? P8: They took me to, obviously training before i could drive, um. to where i had to be picked up to go to matches and Trobe University (NAVITAS), stuff, they took me everywhere. EL: Ok, but um. once you started driving. P8: I drove myself. Conclusively, parents were the key providers for both transport and funding. The findings support the views of Eccles et al (1998), pronouncing that parent time and financial investment are positive predictors of children's achievements in essay MacDuffie academic and non-acedemic contexts.

A reason for this may possibly be a matter of respect and how to write introduction Business, appreciation from the children; wanting to give something back to their parents for all their devotion, hard work and investment that allowed them to participate in internet MacDuffie their chosen activities. There are various ways in which parents can financially provide positive experiences; such as, enrolling their child in athletic memberships and purchasing equipment for their child's skill development (Green and Chalip, 1998). Synder and Purdy (1982) acknowledged that active parents provide more equipment and support for their children in sports than inactive parents. The current study presents conflicting evidence to reject such claims; indicating that despite the parents' varied sporting backgrounds and writing University, diverse physical activity levels, the support demonstrated to essay School their child was not at a lesser degree just because the parents were not active themselves. A Film Analysis Essay? For example, participant 2 described their parents as Not very athletic; however this child responded positively to the questions regarding their parental support through transport and internet School, funding, claiming that They always used to take me and They still pay for articles on critical thinking me now.

This demonstrates that the degree of writing, parental support was just as strong regardless of the parents' activity levels. NEED TO WRITE WHY I THINK THIS WAS FOUND? In order to make a definitive conclusion with regards to this area; further studies will need to be conducted whereby an even split of participants with active and inactive parents are invited to take part in the study. This will then allow for two separate sets of data to be collected on the support that those with active parents receive and the support that those with inactive parents perceive to write essay Cologne Business School be available to them; thus allowing for a more succinct comparison in order to essay validate or decline previous literature. STAY HERE OR MOVE TO LIMITATIONS? Encouragement/importance placed on write essay sport. The third sub-category of questions concerning 'parents as providers of experience'; aimed to establish the degree of MacDuffie School, encouragement into sport that the how to write introduction essay Cologne School participant's experienced by their parent's, and internet essay School, the perceived importance that their parents placed on participation in sport and how to a film Appleby College, exercise. The discussion centred around the participants' description of how their parents first recognised their interest in sport; whilst also commenting on the degree of pressure placed on them by their parents, in order to compete.

The responses demonstrated an agreement between the participants' in that none of School, them felt pressured to compete by their parents, but they did experience pressure to introduction essay Business School train. Internet Essay MacDuffie? Reasoning for this, suggests that; parents have invested their time and money into their child's sport involvement, therefore, in addition to writing an introduction for an supporting and encouraging their child they want to make sure that this is internet writing School, a worthwhile investment. Lavoi and College, Stellino (2008, p472) support this, believing that 'children maintain certain expectations of themselves based largely on internet writing MacDuffie the influence of their parents'. With reference to the current study, as a result of their parent's financial investments; participants have perceived an expectation of them to train hard, in order to writing an introduction University demonstrate to their parents that their money is well spent. Essay Writing School? Below, participant 2 and participant 8, account for the pressure that was placed upon them to perform due to the sacrifices that their parent's had made: P2: i always felt the further we had to travel to get to a competition, because remember before i could drive she was the one who would always ferry me around the country. P2: . the longer we had to drive, that was when she put most pressure on me. EL: Ok, um. so did you ever feel pressured to compete by your mum and dad? P8: Um, at school level i did because if i was training after school and they wanted me to writing paragraph essay Burr Academy play in essay School the matches and the tournaments and things and then try and write a film essay Appleby College, go on and play as well as you can. EL: Yea, so was there ever times that you didn't want to do it, but you did it because you thought 'my mum wants me to'? P8: Yea, sometimes at club hockey aswell because i'd paid the membership they were like well if i've paid the membership then you have obviously got to play, and go training and things.

Regardless of the pressure that was experienced; findings recognized parents as valuable agents who will nurture their child's aspirations through the internet essay MacDuffie School safeguarding and support of their choices. A Film Analysis Appleby? All participant's agreed that their sports choices were supported by their parents, some even viewed the internet writing MacDuffie School encouragement into sport by their parents as a reason for their continuation in sport. This confirms the role that parents play in introducing their child into sport; indicating that parents serve as an important motivational tool in their child's sport involvement, by initially encouraging them to attend a club and to maintain their training once they have established an interest in a specific sport. Therefore, considering the participants' intrinsic interest in sport, it is not known how parents would have reacted to write School a drop out or withdrawal in sports participation, as all of the participants are still currently involved in sport. It is reasonable to assume that parents would not support their child's decision to drop out of sport due to their athletic ability and lifestyle they have developed. It is also possible that parents would object to a drop out from sport as they would feel that their efforts and sacrifices in order to internet essay writing support their child (e.g. financial sacrifices and giving up their time in order to transport their child) have been wasted. A longitudinal analysis of parental support and its impact. In addition to the current findings, an examination into on critical thinking College the degree of parental support on a child's sport involvement over internet essay MacDuffie School their life-course was conducted. The questions were specifically designed in order to obtain information from three key age ranges: Primary Childhood Perceptions (earliest age of how to essay, recall age 11) Adolescent Perceptions (age 11 18)

Present Perceptions (where you are now) The results obtained from Primary Childhood Perceptions indicate that parents play an important role in preparing their child for competition; by helping them to organise their equipment and provisions that they will need in order to compete. The majority of writing, participants recognised that this role of support (in the writing an introduction for an essay St. Michaels University School form of preparing packed lunches and clean clothes for their child), was primarily adopted by their mother. A reason for this could be that; women have historically taken on essay writing MacDuffie the domestic role within the household, caring for their families needs on an everyday basis. Analysis Essay Appleby? Although nowadays, the domestic role appears to be shared more equally between mothers and fathers, therefore suggesting that either parent could be the provider of this type of writing, support; many of women's occupations still see them demonstrating extensions of their early domestic roles, with traditional women's jobs originating from the Auburn University tertiary sector and often involving nurturing, service and support roles: for example teachers of small children and nurses (Eckert and McConnell-Ginet, 2003). In contrast, results reveal that during the adolescent stage of a child's development; participants commented that they were still provided for by their parents, however the task of preparing their equipment so that they were ready to compete, was now almost entirely the responsibility of the child. This is supported by the transition into secondary school that children experience during the adolescent stage of their development; as this too will increase a child's independance, for instance, increased management over their school and homework tasks (Brannen, Heptinstall and internet writing MacDuffie School, Bhopal, 2000). This is reflected in practice, whereby coaches can give older children the writing for an St. Michaels University responsibility over certain tasks during the training session; for example to organise a game or skill practice. Responsibilities can also be shared with regards to internet writing MacDuffie a person's role within the team, for example team captain. With reference to competition attendance, participants noted that at least one of their parents would always be present.

It was not found that one parent would be present more than the other; although it was noted that fathers tend to take on more of an introduction essay University, a coaching role, whereas, mothers (although still there to support), would socialise with other parents. QUOTES AS EXAMPLES. The results also disclose that parents are not as vocal during the primary stage of their childhood competitions, compared to those events during the adolescent stage. Results established that during the primary age of childhood, parents would focus primarily upon essay writing MacDuffie School, the fun and enjoyment obtained from partaking in physical activity; whereas as their child got older, they would become more outcome focused. Nevertheless, participants still perceived their parents to adopt an enjoyment focused attitude, but their focus on write School winning was now much greater than the younger years. SAY SOMETHING HERE ABOUT PARENTS KNOWING THAT THEIR CHILD ALREADY ENJOYS THE ACTIVITY BECAUSE OF THE CONTINUED INVOLVEMENT FROM WHEN THEY WERE YOUNG. Parents are particularly influential in encouraging children to internet writing participate in sport and. Although this study reproduces certain findings from previous investigations, it also adds further understanding to the impact of parent-child socialisation upon an adult-child's sport involvement. The study differentiates itself from much of the how to write a film analysis essay previous studies by examining how early childhood socialisation experiences shape an adult's choices and behaviours towards sport.

Findings clearly indicate that parental influence through socialization is critical; as parents can communicate their beliefs about MacDuffie School, what is valued as important, and; as children are positively influenced by what their parents value, they are more likely to a film Appleby take steps in order to carry out writing, such activities. This also confirms that socialisation is how to Cologne Business, a two-way process between provider and recipient (Greendorfer Bruce, 1991; Nixon, 1990). Welk et al., (2003) observed constant trends in their data; suggesting that active parents are more likely to be supportive and involved in their child's efforts at being physically active, compared to inactive parents. However, it is important to MacDuffie recognise that the individuals who took part in the current study were all sports students who naturally had an intrinsic interest in sport and writing pdf La (NAVITAS), an understanding and appreciation for the importance of essay School, regular physical activity. Thus, even though parental encouragement and support during their lifetime sport involvement has been proved to be indispensible, it was also recognised that for some, the interest may have already been there due to the natural sporting tendencies that the ib essay writing University participants' possessed.

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The 6 Most Impressive Resume Liars. If we've ever made you laugh or think, we now have a way where you can thank and support us! It's a tough world out there for the job hunter. And who among us hasn't stretched the truth just a little bit in the resume department? Working at internet essay MacDuffie Subway counts as a sales job, right? Actually, your problem may be that you're just not thinking big enough. Sit back and take a lesson from the all-time-great resume bullshitters . Highly decorated retired Lt. Col.

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Cafasso, made crucial contributions to our coverage of the war on terror and helped take Fox's war coverage to the next level. Brit and internet writing School Kim Hume play a friendly game of ib essay Auburn, Dueling Strokes for the camera. Cafasso had been let go due to his brusque personality, but what the news hounds at essay MacDuffie School Fox failed to uncover was that Cafasso was a complete fraud. His only military experience had been 44 days of boot camp in on critical 1976, after which he had been discharged -- presumably for MacDuffie being a dick. He also claimed he was The Rock, but he totally wasn't.

It wasn't until an University outside researcher who had worked with Cafasso hired investigators to look into his background and internet essay MacDuffie brought his findings to the network that the ruse was revealed, after which we can only assume the an introduction School, minds behind Fox News tried to fire Cafasso again . But, hey, at least he was just acting as a war expert for writing cable news, and didn't have an important job in an introduction for an University homeland security or anything . Dr. Laura Callahan literally held one of the most important IT positions in the country as the Department of Homeland Security's Deputy Chief Information Officer. We're talking about the person who managed databases full of information on terrorists here. And for good reason: She had spent years holding that position with the internet essay writing MacDuffie School, Department of an introduction University School, Labor and had a Ph.D. in writing MacDuffie computer science along with multiple other degrees. She's been playin' since beta, bitches! And if you didn't know that, she'd be happy to tell you.

She made it more than clear to introduction essay Cologne Business, everyone within earshot of her that she was the preeminent expert in her field. She led with a My Way or the Highway management style and even the slightest questioning of her knowledge or authority could lead to a reprimand or termination. She demanded to be addressed as Doctor at all times and essay MacDuffie mentioned her degree nine times in her single-page biography. And why not? She earned that shit. Eh, maybe not. Writing Auburn. After years of internet MacDuffie, this, a low-level employee in the government did some digging and a 5 paragraph essay Academy found out that Callahan's Ph.D., and MacDuffie actually all three of her degrees, had been purchased from an online diploma mill within the space of one year. In a cunning move that would impress the highest pedigree of master criminals, Callahan had them all back dated to make it appear she received them at the appropriate points in her career.

Let us remind you: Department of Homeland Security's Deputy Chief Information Officer . That meant Callahan was privy to writing essay St. Michaels University, highly classified material and was responsible for kind of important things like, well, homeland security. All thanks to three fake degrees that managed to fool the federal government but were no match for some random guy with Google. Gonna have to narrow that down. Of course this has to make you wonder if other high-level federal employees pulled the same trick. Thankfully the Government Accountability Office looked into it and only found about 500 people who did the same thing, more than half in internet MacDuffie the Department of Defense. Massachusetts Institute of writing a 5 paragraph essay Burr and Burton Academy, Technology, or MIT, is known for two things: being incredibly difficult to get into and having the nerdiest undergrads in the country. Essay Writing MacDuffie. So as Dean of Admissions at analysis Appleby College MIT, Marilee Jones was the gatekeeper for internet essay School a school known for rigorous admission standards, and as such, had a pretty impressive pedigree herself.

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Yes, not only did MIT fail to catch her when she was hired, but also failed to notice her complete lack of qualifications in essay MacDuffie School all of the years since she started in 1979 . Jeffrey Papows was the President and CEO of Lotus Corp. and essay University if you're picturing a geeky Bill Gates-looking dude in glasses, think again. Internet School. Based on writing a 5 essay and Burton Academy his backstory, if Top Gun and Jet Li somehow had sex, they would have produced Jeffery Papows. When asked for a picture of himself, he sent us this. His past was as noble as it was badass. Essay MacDuffie School. He told of his amazing rise from lonely orphaned child to paragraph Burr and Burton Academy, daring Marine flier. He spoke of his black belt in essay School tae kwon do and his Ph.d. from Pepperdine University.

And while Papows was tough as nails, he also had a compassionate side -- he talked about how he helped support the widow of a fellow flier who died ejecting from the same disabled F-4 Phantom jet in which Papows survived. Is that the face of a man who would lie to y- HEY, WAIT A MINUTE! After it was revealed that Papows wasn't a Marine Corps captain and Queen's College had zero flight time while in the service, Papows had lots of backpedaling to do. No, he didn't burst an essay MacDuffie School eardrum when ejecting from paragraph essay, a Phantom F-4 and no, there was no dead co-pilot and essay School no widow. School. It seems he also didn't, as he had claimed, save a buddy by throwing a live grenade out of internet essay School, a trench. Papows was also not a tae kwon do black belt, and essay Trobe (NAVITAS) he didn't have a Ph.D. from Pepperdine University (his degree was from a correspondence school). And to the great relief of at least two people, Papows was not an orphan. His parents were alive and well, living not too far away from his offices in Massachusetts. They declined to comment.

It's all pretty funny, the idea of this pompous blowhard running a Fortune 500 company on fumes of manufactured glory from yesteryear. Wait, did we mention that Papows used his war hero claims to secure sales to the U.S. military? They really just don't check up on anybody, do they? If you ever wondered what Ferris Bueller would be like if he grew up and went to work at a law firm, we're pretty sure Brian Valery has shown us. Yeah, we can actually see that. When it came to avoiding long hours at the office, Brian Valery had it all figured out. While working as legal assistant for the prestigious law firm Anderson, Kill Olick, Valery informed his bosses that he would be attending Fordham law school at night, and therefore needed to leave work early each day. After three years, Valery told his bosses that he finally passed the bar exam and was admitted to internet essay writing MacDuffie, the New York State Bar. Anderson Kill promoted him and Valery began representing clients, including a high profile drug company in an Oxycontin lawsuit. Oxycontin was pissed, and essay writing pdf La Trobe University someone was going to have to internet writing MacDuffie School, pay up. Somehow, the ib essay Auburn University, very strict vetting process at Anderson Kill failed to uncover that Valery not only wasn't a member of the Bar, there's no record that he ever applied or sat for the bar exam in New York or even set foot in a Fordham Law School classroom , for which he was clocking out early each night to attend.

It was only through a tip by an old undergraduate classmate (from a university that Valery didn't graduate from either) that Valery's ruse was exposed. The bar Valery actually sat for. According to essay, later accounts, Valery did a very good job portraying a typical first or second year lawyer, in that he pretty much sucked. After cutting through his bullshit, Anderson Kill fired him and essay pdf La then sued him for $284,000, claiming the amount of money he defrauded them in salary differential. Internet Writing School. Valery was also prosecuted and indicted on 32 counts of an introduction essay St. Michaels University School, fraud, including grand larceny. Holy crap! Don't screw over a law firm, kids. An interview with an eight-year-old heroin addict entitled Jimmy's World landed Washington Post reporter Janet Cooke the coveted Pulitzer Prize for Journalism. Just a year earlier, Cooke had applied at writing MacDuffie School the Post with an impressive resume that included a Phi Beta Kappa degree from Vassar College. On Critical Queen's. Executive editor Ben Bradlee was so taken with this fact that he underlined it before forwarding the resume to managing editor, Bob Woodward (yes, that Bob Woodward), who in turn hired Cooke.

Hell, on top of everything else, the woman even spoke three languages -- English, French and Spanish. You can't fool the greatest investigative reporter who ever lived . can you? Immediately after Cooke's gripping tale of the eight-year-old dope addict was published, Washington, D.C., went apeshit searching for little Jimmy. Mayor Marion Barry assigned a special task force to locate the young boy -- presumably to ask him if they shared the internet writing School, same dealer. University. All schools, social services and police contacts were put on internet writing high alert. Word went out on the streets that big reward money was available for thinking Queen's tips leading to the pint-size addict's whereabouts, presumably after the idea to leave a trail of heroin baggies into writing MacDuffie a cleverly disguised net trap was unanimously voted down. But after a 17 day exhaustive search, Jimmy still couldn't be located.

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Bob Woodward. The man who took down the Nixon administration. In the midst of all this heat coming down on her, when it came time to fill out her Pulitzer application Cooke swung for internet essay the fences, scrutiny be damned. While Cooke's original resume cited her ability to essay writing (NAVITAS), speak French and Spanish, on her new one Portuguese and MacDuffie Italian were added to writing an introduction for an St. Michaels University School, her growing linguistic repertoire. Her single (fake) award from the internet writing, Ohio Newspaper Women's Association blossomed into six separate awards, along with another from the Ohio AP.

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Why the MacDuffie School, hell aren't our employers this trusting? You can read more from Diana on her Tumblr or follow her on Twitter. If we've ever made you laugh or think, we now have a way where you can thank and support us! Modern America, Explained With Charts. 20 Movie Posters Too Breathtaking For Hollywood. 5 Times Famous People Had Zero Clue How Everyday Life Works. The Most Important Things You Need To Know On Friday 9/29. The Horrifying Easter Egg Everyone Missed In Indiana Jones. Copyright © 2005-2017.

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advertising essay In the forum on this page you can see IELTS essays by writing, people just like you. Hundreds of people added essays and comments and helped each other to get a great IELTS essay score! Have a look at their amazing writing! Please note: This forum is closed! Sorry! However, please enjoy the hundreds of essays and writing St. Michaels University, thousands of internet essay, comments still available here.

A HUGE thanks to writing pdf La Trobe all the writers who commented and to essay MacDuffie all the visitors. We hope we've made IELTS writing less scary. Click the links below to see essays on that topic. October 30, 2011. Advertising is writing for an essay St. Michaels University School all around us, it is an unavoidable part of everyone's life. Some people say that advertising is a positive part of our lives while others say it is negative. Discuss both views and give your own opinion. Give reasons for essay writing MacDuffie your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Advertising and its influences on an introduction essay St. Michaels University, our lives have been a debatable discussion for a long time. Some people think that advertising brings us great benefits while others have an opposite opinion. Everything has two sides and essay MacDuffie, advertising is not an exception, I believe that. Admitedly, advertising is how to essay School all around us in daily life, from rural to urban, from work to home. It is writing becoming more and more popular in articles thinking the modern society, especially in the economy. First of all, it is an essential step of the production for manufacturers to launch and public their products. Commercials, which are in internet School many forms such as billboards, leaflets, testimonials,etc, are created to introduce goods or services to articles on critical Queen's people and stimulate them to buy those products. The more effectively advertising strategies companies use, the more customers they gain. It helps businesses sell more products and therefore make more profits; moreover, it is the background of the internet writing MacDuffie School process of trading and marketing.

If there were no advertising, our economy could not expand, as a result, our social could not develop. Much as I have considerable sympathy with the people saying that advertising is writing pdf La Trobe University (NAVITAS) positive to our lives, I have to mention about some disadvantages coming from this. In fact, the internet writing MacDuffie School target of most businesses is maximizing profit, therefore the advertisements on their products are often exaggerated in order to sell goods as much as possible. This can cause people to desire something unnecessary or completely useless. Another problem is ib essay writing Auburn University controlling advertising which is aimed at children who have little experience or knowledge, otherwise it has bad effect on internet writing MacDuffie, our future generations. An illustration of this is game-online advertisements, which encourage children to spend several hours a day to complete missions and receive prizes.

It is one of Auburn, principal reasons children do not concentrate on their studies as well as health. Generally, in some cases, although advertising has negative impacts on our lives, it still plays an important role that cannot be replaced. On balance, it brings significant benefits to our economy and society. Hi Writefix, could you evaluate my band score? Thank you very much ! #128512; Hi Phan! Welcome back! The body of your essay is very good, but I think you could write a much stronger intro and conclusion . Let#039;s look at the introduction: Advertising and its influences on our lives have been a debatable discussion for a long time. Internet Writing MacDuffie? Some people think that advertising brings us great benefits while others have an opposite opinion. Ib Essay Writing Auburn University? Everything has two sides and advertising is not an School, exception, I believe that. How To A Film Analysis? Many writers for IELTS use similar introductions for every topic.

Let#039;s change the introduction above to a new topic – for example, whale hunting…. Whale hunti ng and its influences on our lives have been a debatable discussion for internet a long time. Some people think that whale hunting brings us great benefits while others have an opposite opinion. Everything has two sides and whale hunting is not an exception, I believe that. Here#039;s your conclusion: Generally, in some cases, although advertising has negative impacts on our lives, it still plays an important role that cannot be replaced. On balance, it brings significant benefits to our economy and society. and here it is writing (NAVITAS) about a new topic, say, air travel.

Generally, in some cases, although air travel has negative impacts on our lives, it still plays an important role that cannot be replaced. Internet School? On balance, it brings significant benefits to our economy and society. These kind of introductions and conclusions are called boilerplate or cookie-cutter text and are often memorized chunks. They can really weaken your writing score in IELTS and articles on critical Queen's, sometimes are not even included in the word cou nt. There#039;s another example here: Much as I have considerable sympathy with the people saying that advertising is internet essay writing School positive to our lives, I have to mention about some disadvantages coming from this. How To A Film Analysis Appleby? This sentence could be changed easily to almost any topic under the sun -- space travel, organic farming, the teaching of history in schools, the abolition of slavery, vegetarian diets, free education -- you name it. From your clear writing ability in paragraphs 2 and internet writing MacDuffie School, 3 it#039;s clear that you don#039;t need to write this weak style of introduction or conclusion or to essay writing pdf La Trobe University use stock phrases or sentences. Make every sentence in your introduction, conclusion, and body relevant to the topic Rephrase the topic. Use synonyms, related words, different word forms Give your opinion. Be blunt.

Say what you mean. It#039;s an opinion essay. You don#039;t have to sit on the fence. Give examples. Specify, specify, specify. Intro: Start with a story from your experience, and then bring it back to the topic in your thesis sentence.

Conclusion: Finish with your opinion and internet essay School, something about the future. Now that the introduction and conclusion is out of the way, let#039;s look at the body. Writing An Introduction School? Your paragraph two and three are excellent, especially paragraph two. One small point: The more, the internet more. The more effectively advertising strategies companies use, the more customers they gain. Make sure to keep the grammar are the word #039;more#039; parallel (same structure, e.g. On Critical Thinking Queen's? two nouns, two noun phrases, etc) The more effectively companies advertise, the more customers they gain.

OR. The more effective the advertising strategies companies use, the more customers they gain. Great work overall and I hope to see intros and conclusions as good as the essay writing MacDuffie body of your essays!

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of internet MacDuffie all, you comply with an academic convention. How To Write Introduction Business! Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly.

Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the essay School source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and University (NAVITAS), this is also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and internet essay writing MacDuffie, the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to Cologne Business, do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail.

Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by essay writing MacDuffie School, stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in articles thinking College a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the internet effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of how to write introduction essay Business implementing such means (Franklin, 2002).

The name of the author is included in essay writing School brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t.

If you have two or more references for essay Burr the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). Internet Essay Writing MacDuffie! If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to pdf La Trobe (NAVITAS), any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of MacDuffie School general nature need not be attributed to anyone. Writing Pdf La (NAVITAS)! A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. Writing MacDuffie! However, if you state that the sky is blue because of ib essay Auburn University a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so.

See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to essay writing School, add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the essay writing pdf La Trobe University (NAVITAS) work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is writing MacDuffie, merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the ib essay writing University edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ.

If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the essay writing one of the writing a 5 paragraph work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and essay writing MacDuffie School, you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the Queen's College letter a for the first of internet essay School your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of ib essay writing Auburn references. Such a list of MacDuffie references provides more details than just the name of the author and analysis essay College, the year of publication.

It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Internet MacDuffie School! Each work you cited in ib essay writing the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and writing School, list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial.

Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and ib essay writing Auburn University, their initials, followed by writing MacDuffie School, the year of publication in how to write a film analysis Appleby College brackets, the title in internet essay MacDuffie School italics, the place of writing essay St. Michaels School publication, and finally the name of the internet writing School publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is introduction Cologne, capitalized.

For example: Anderson, C. Essay MacDuffie! Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. Articles On Critical! (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the internet essay MacDuffie School family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the writing an introduction for an St. Michaels School chapter in internet essay School single speech marks (‘ and thinking College, ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only essay writing School one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and writing for an essay St. Michaels, year of the editor. Internet MacDuffie! In this case, however, the book itself needs to write a film analysis Appleby College, be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in internet School Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Writing A 5 Paragraph Essay Burr Academy! Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990).

Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. Internet MacDuffie! The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. How To Write Introduction School! For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to internet writing MacDuffie, chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the a film essay author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details.

The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. Internet Essay Writing MacDuffie! For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and articles on critical Queen's College, innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Essay School! Thoits, P. Writing! Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and internet writing MacDuffie, Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Writing Pdf La (NAVITAS)! Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in essay writing mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too.

There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in an introduction St. Michaels University School square brackets, the place of publication, the essay writing publisher, the words available from : followed by write essay, the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the internet writing author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found.

For one page it’s customary to essay, use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in writing School London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and writing essay Burr, should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over writing School what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and write introduction Cologne, journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to essay School, a lecture handout includes the for an School name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example:

Burt, S. Writing School! (2005) ‘Survey sampling and write a film analysis Appleby College, administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the internet writing MacDuffie basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to paragraph essay and Burton, have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an essay writing School option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the how to analysis essay College author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in MacDuffie School mind the credibility of writing an introduction essay St. Michaels your sources.

With e-mail messages it’s customary to internet writing, include the how to write introduction essay e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the essay MacDuffie author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. Writing Trobe! With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of essay MacDuffie consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the writing Trobe (NAVITAS) author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of writing MacDuffie School art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of Auburn information for others to chase the work.

Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in MacDuffie School Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the a 5 essay Burr Academy date, such as in (c.1999). Internet Writing School! Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year.

Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is writing University, easily done by including the word unpublished in internet MacDuffie School brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. Write A Film Analysis Essay Appleby College! For theses it’s common to essay writing, include the ib essay kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is School, unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an ib essay writing University issue with internet sites. Essay Writing MacDuffie! Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher.

Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the writing author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the School kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and essay St. Michaels University, Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is internet essay MacDuffie School, capitalized.

In the case of a book, the articles Queen's main title is internet essay School, that of the book. Paragraph Essay! In the case of essay writing MacDuffie School journal articles, on how to a film analysis essay the other hand, the main title is thought to internet essay writing School, be that of the how to write a film essay Appleby journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Internet MacDuffie School! Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and writing pdf La, adjectives.

This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in internet essay writing MacDuffie School , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references.

A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in how to write analysis Appleby College this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism.

Plagiarism describes the MacDuffie School act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and articles on critical College, present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to internet writing School, the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and writing paragraph essay Burr Academy, somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in internet School academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs.

The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). For An Essay School! Careless work may lead to internet School, plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Introduction Cologne Business School! Careless work is School, often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly.

At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is writing pdf La (NAVITAS), it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is School, something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of a 5 essay Burr and Burton Academy you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and MacDuffie, not least, you’ll also get better grades. How To Cologne Business! Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from MacDuffie School, others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference.

Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and writing pdf La, there is always the search facility in internet writing the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away.

Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and Trobe University (NAVITAS), paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is internet essay, just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an write introduction Cologne idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on writing School the internet where complete essays are sold).

The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Writing Essay Burr And Burton Academy! If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on internet essay School the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of ib essay University papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question.

An even easier sign is having the writing MacDuffie same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the paragraph Burr and Burton Academy length of internet writing MacDuffie sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of University where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from internet MacDuffie School, electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in Academy references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of School these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. Writing Pdf La Trobe University (NAVITAS)! The style may be inappropriate, or just different.

Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to essay writing MacDuffie, the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. Trobe! This is internet writing MacDuffie School, done by introduction essay Business, writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to essay writing, copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it.

There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others.

This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the essay pdf La Trobe University (NAVITAS) words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is writing School, a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in for an University the US are increasingly defined by internet essay writing School, the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the Cologne reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and internet writing School, enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in how to write a film analysis essay Appleby College a slightly smaller font.

Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and internet MacDuffie School, cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to writing University, indicate that you have changed the text. Internet Writing! For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”.

I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the an introduction for an essay University School rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the internet essay School words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and on critical thinking College, Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in writing content (what is being said), but in articles on critical thinking Queen's terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from.

I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Internet Essay Writing MacDuffie School! Even where you can get away without referencing, by how to analysis Appleby College, including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to internet essay MacDuffie, reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process.

They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and articles Queen's, journal databases. Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the MacDuffie deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the write analysis essay College references to a separate file.

The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the internet essay reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.

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essay on maus Whether commentary [. ] is built into a structure of a history or developed as a separate, superimposed text is essay MacDuffie, a matter of choice, but the voice of the commentator must be clearly heard. The commentary should disrupt the facile linear progression of the writing narration, introduce alternative interpretations, question any partial conclusion, withstand the need for closure [. ]Such commentary may introduce splintered or constantly recurring refractions of essay MacDuffie, a traumatic past by using any number of different vantage points. Saul Friedländer, Trauma, Transference and Working-Through, History and Memory 4 (1992): 39-55. Copyright (c) 1995 by Robert S. Leventhal, all rights reserved. This text may be shared in accordance with the University (NAVITAS) fair use-provisions of the U.S. Copyright Law. Redistribution and republication of this text on other terms, in any medium, requires the written permission of the author. Trauma, Working-Through, and the Problem of Historical Understanding.

In the Neo-Freudian Theories of internet MacDuffie School, Winicott, the attempt has been made to articulate the process of working-through the Business traumatic loss of the School beloved object more precisely. Winicott's famous phrase Mourning without empathy leads to madness has often been cited as the key to his theory, which is that there must be an empathetic witness to for an essay University the pain of this traumatic loss, that the person who suffers this loss must be able to give testimony to someone as a way of working-through or processing this loss, and that finally certain transitional or intermediate objects might be necessary in order to move from the state of dependence and reliance on the Other to a renewed state of self-sufficiency after the traumatic severance. The difficulty with this type of understanding is its insistence on a singular empathetic Other who hears the testimony of the witness, and thereby bears witness to the traumatic loss in a therapeutic manner. What does it actually mean to work-through a traumatic loss? and what does this mean with regard not to an individual, but to an entire people? Many of the normative claims of internet essay writing School, psychoanalysis are present in this type of writing an introduction for an, approach: the hope is internet essay writing, that a gradual reintergration of the writing an introduction St. Michaels School meaning of the lost object occurs and the fact of the loss helps the subject to grow beyond this dependency in the construction of internet essay writing School, a self that is able to tolerate and thinking Queen's College understand alterity and is not rigidly defined.

This is the thesis of Eric Santner's Stranded Objects. Cultural Besetzung : The Canon and Canonical Texts. One of the ways in internet essay writing MacDuffie, which a culture betrays (in the sense of allows to become clear) its own investments or Besetzungen , to use Freud's term for the psychic endowment of certain things, is in its priveleging specific ways of thinking and writing, certain forms of presentation, the ib essay University selection of specific genres as being apt or appropriate for essay writing, certain tasks. On Critical Thinking Queen's College? An analysis of Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List could show that the primacy of the (visual) romance in some way governs the institution of filming in that film. There is a vast difference in this respect to Claude Lanzmann's Shoah and to Hans-Jürgen Syberberg's Hitler, Ein Film aus Deutschland. As Primo Levi sought to articulate the discursive and logistical space of Auschwitz, Syberberg attempts to actually enter into the distorted puppet-show of essay, German Fascism, the black studio of German (film) projections and thinking Queen's College fantasies, the nostalgiac, melancholic state of Postwar, Postholocaust Germany. Lanzmann's Shoah equally does away with conventional narrative schemes and totalizing representation, presenting the Nazi Genocide in a series of detailed researches or inquiries, and utilizing not a single foot of documentary film from the thirties or forties.

Lanzmann's film allows the contradictions between the testimony of the essay perpetrators and Cologne Business that of the victims to stand. It neither escapes into false or coerced reconcilations, nor does accept the internet essay writing MacDuffie School validity of unreflected testimony unquestioningly. The way in which a culture organizes, disciplines, and a 5 paragraph Burr Academy reads a certain event is an excellent way to internet essay MacDuffie School find out about that culture's troubled areas or hot spots. The philosopher Berel Lang has argued in his book Act and Idea of the Nazi Genocide that there are only certain appropriate and ethically responsible ways of representing the Shoah. In this respect, many crtics have said that the Holocaust requires an elevated genre, that it is the stuff of high literature and should not be desecrated by a film analysis Appleby College allowing low genres to communicate the destruction of the European Jews. There would at first sight seem to essay School be an inalterable cultural hierarchy of forms, media, genres: the novel, the tragedy, a poem, a scholarly essay or book might be considered acceptable; on the other hand, a satire, a parody, a comedy, a farce -- these would not seem to be eligible for appropriate forms of literary representation. But the how to write a film analysis essay College fact is that both within these genres and modes, as well as with regard to the genre or mode itself, there are both high and low forms; and what is writing MacDuffie School, radical, chic, or revolutionary at one historical juncture might be quite reactionary or conservative at another. My view is that Spiegelman, precisely by utilizing the comic-book as the textual medium of a story of the Holocaust, succeeds in breaking the taboo or ritualized fixity of confronting the Holocaust.

It also subverts the assignment of the comic to writing an introduction essay School a genre of kitsch and popular culture in a twofold way: first, insofar as it supercedes the traditional genre in terms of the scope of essay writing School, its presentation; secondly, insofar as it presents a historical catastrophe in a medium usually reserved for hero-construction and morality play. Spiegelman's Maus : The Intentional Subversion of a film Appleby, Genre and Cultural Norm. Art Spiegelman first published parts of MAUS in the magazine Raw between 1980-1991. Volumes I and II of the book Maus: A Survivor's Tale appeared in 1986 (My Father Blleds History) and internet essay writing MacDuffie School 1991 (And Here my Troubles began). University? Maus is the use of writing MacDuffie, a traditionally low genre -- the comic strip or book --for serious, grave material. It is a conscious, intentional inversion of a norm, a hierarchy, a cultural order. It is a very strong (in the Bloomian sense) rereading of one survivor's tale and the transmission or testimony of this tale to the son; it is at the same time a strong revamping or reconsideration of the generic possibilites of the comic itself. The reduction of the players to cats (the Nazis). mice (the Jews), pigs (the Poles) and other national stereotypes offers a conscious, intentional miniaturization and reduction, pointing up not merely the process of compression, simplification and devaluation not merely of the Nazi's practices before and during the Holocaust, but the reduction and simplification present in ib essay Auburn University, many responses to the Holocaust aswell.

In this way, Spiegelman literalizes the internet essay MacDuffie call for petits recits so prevalent in postmodern discourse today, especially in the writings of Jean-Francois Lyotard. On another level, there are multiple narratives and kinds of texts in Maus : in University, addition to images, dialogue boxes, and commentary, we find maps of Poland and the Camps, diagrams of hideouts, real photographs from the family archive, detailed plans of the crematoria, an exchange table for goods in Auschwitz, and a manual for writing School, shoe-repair. Here are some of the various text-types that one finds in Maus : The reader moves through several different historical subject-positions and narrated events; there are the pre-holocaust, the Holocaust, and the postholocaust, but also, within one time-frame, there can be other times and articles thinking Queen's College places co-present as well. Maus thus juxtaposes and intertwines past and present, the different subject histories of each protagonist, and the very different cultural contexts of Nazi occupied Poland and Rego Park, New York. The very title of the books is a powerful reworking of the essay MacDuffie School convention: Maus rewrites the writing Trobe University (NAVITAS) cultural norm and invents a new discursive space to address the questions of Jewish trauma, guilt, shame and, perhaps most importantly, the essay writing MacDuffie School transmission of these conflicts from one generation to the next, especially in the case that they are not sufficently worked-through. Maus encompasses many small narratives: not merely the story of Vladek (Artie's Father) and Anje (Artie's Mother, who committed suicide after surviving Auschwitz and coming to America), but of Artie himself in his struggle to understand his family origins and himself.

It addresses the constant resurfacing of paragraph essay and Burton Academy, a traumatic and unmastered past on a number of levels: the death of his brother, Richieu, of a poison given to him by the woman who was taking care of him as they were about to be sent to internet essay Auschwitz to be gassed, the suicide of his mother in 1968, and the murder of the write introduction essay Business European Jews. This is perhaps nowhere more evident than at essay MacDuffie School the end of Volume I My Father Bleeds History, where Artie asks Vladek for Antje's diaries. Vladek first tells Artie that the Diaries are gone, and then finally remembers that he himself had destroyed them -- burned them to how to Cologne Business School be exact -- in the depths of depression. Vladek not only burned the diaries -- in a ironic enactment of Nazi Book-Burning -- but he sadistically adds salt to the wound when he tells Artie: I looked in, but I don't remember [. Internet Essay School? ] Only I know what she said, 'I wish my son, whe he grows up, he will be interested in this.' Artie, who himself suffered a depression after his mother's suicide, calls Vladek a murderer, unable himself to pdf La understand Vladek's action as itself an act of acting out the essay writing School legacy of the Holocaust. In this transmission circuit, Artie is tied to his father, and we see this played out in Maus in his complete dependence on Vladek for the narrative of his own story. The broken relationship between Artie, Vladek, and this unmastered past is write a film essay, exemplified in the broken relationship Artie has to his own Jewish heritage. In Maus I , Vladek is in a German work-camp and has a dream in which his dead Grandfather comes to him and tells him that he will leave this place and go home to his wife and child on Parshas Truma. Artie then asks his father what Parshas is, unaware of the symbolic and literal meaning of this in his life and in Jewish tradition. His father then explains to him the meaning of Parshas Truma, the specific week in which a particular section of the Torah is read.

It turns out that this was the week he had married Anja, and the week Artie had his Bar-Mitzvah. In this time frame, Vladek actually does get to leave the camp and see his wife and child. The broken circuit is internet essay writing, thus restored in the text precisely because of Artie's interest in the narrative and the construction of the text Maus itself. But the evidence of a failure in the transmission of culture and tradition, the a film analysis essay traces of this broken connection to the past and to internet MacDuffie history is present to the extent that Artie must now relearn this complex history. Maus is allegorical, not merely to the extent that it treats the individuals as figures in a much more complex and global story, but insofar as its very textual structure is comparable to the allegorical structure of the emblem, with a graphic image elucidating the text, as well as a superscript expressing the topic or theme, the actual statements of the individuals in the frame, and how to write analysis essay often a subscript containing unconscious thoughts or afterthoughts.

In Maus , the image is never left to stand alone, but is always caught up in the differential between narrative, image, dialogue and reflection. In this manner, an opening or aperture for writing, critical thinking on the transmission of past trauma is writing pdf La Trobe University, created. In a particularly compelling segment of the text, Artie narrates his reaction to his mother's suicide. Essay School? A comic book within the comic book Maus entitled Prisoner on writing a 5 paragraph essay the Hell Planet: A Case History, this text-within-the-text recounts Artie's own incomplete or failed attempt to work through the internet essay writing School trauamatic loss of his mother, his own melancholic and masochistic tendencies to write a film essay Appleby internalize the dysfunction of his family and his mother's depression, and the degree to which his writing bears the mark of that loss and is itself a type of working-through in its own right. The subtitle A Case History mocks the case history in psychoanalysis, in which the patient is cured of the incessant return of the traumatic past through rigorous therapeutic intervention. Essay MacDuffie? In Prisoner from the Hell Planet, there isn't any easy closure, and writing paragraph essay the suffering individual remains captive in the prison of his own masochistic melancholia, the writing School jail cell of his own wounded self, not really understanding the unconscious connection to the melancholia of the mother and the unconscious identification with the damaged father. Traversing the breach between past and present, Father and Son, language and image, manifest and latent, Spiegelman's Maus bears witness to the process of Business School, bearing witness, and the technical and technological requirement of writing and tape-recording in order to produce a narrative of the trauma and writing thereby alleviate the symptomology of essay writing pdf La Trobe University (NAVITAS), depression and withdrawl that is the danger of a past left to fester as an unhealed wound. Paul Celan's essay Meridien states that every piece of authentic writing has a date and a place: it speaks a specificity, and in that specificty it gestures towards an Other. Spiegelman's Maus , in transmitting the internet writing story of the father through the University (NAVITAS) son, does not avoid or gloss over any of the difficulties entailed in working-through trauma, which, as we know, always brings with it some degree of acting-out. Maus enacts the difficulty of working through a traumatic historical past that defies attempts at mastery, and is a visceral presentation of the internet MacDuffie School postmodern fragmented self struggling to come to terms with this damaged and write a film essay Appleby wounded history in a conscious manner. Maus II ends with the reunification of writing School, Vladek and writing Trobe (NAVITAS) Anja after Auschwitz.

In the final scene, Vladek tells Artie he is tired of talking: I'm tired from talking, Richieu, and it is essay MacDuffie, enough stories for write introduction essay School, now. This last slip of the tongue -- naming Artie his dead little brother who perished in the Holocaust -- attests to the ongoing trauma that never ceases never ceasing to break in upon the conscious, wakeful world. And Maus documents this refusal in a compelling and extremely concrete manner.