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Essay writing technique Hanze University of Applied Sciences

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Introduction to Hanze University of Applied Sciences in Groningen


Hanze University of Applied Sciences is an university situated in the city of Groningen, north Holland. It is the second oldest ...

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Welcome to Hanze University of Applied Sciences

J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biographical Sketch. Essay Technique University Of Applied! John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (1892-1973) was a major scholar of the English language, specialising in Old and Middle English. Twice Professor of Anglo-Saxon (Old English) at the University of Oxford, he also wrote a number of stories, including most famously The Hobbit (1937) and The Lord of the Rings (1954-1955), which are set in a pre-historic era in an invented version of writing our world which he called by essay technique Hanze University of Applied the Middle English name of Middle-earth. This was peopled by Men (and women), Elves, Dwarves, Trolls, Orcs (or Goblins) and of course Hobbits. He has regularly been condemned by the Eng. Write Descriptive Essay A Person Brookes! Lit. establishment, with honourable exceptions, but loved by literally millions of readers worldwide. In the 1960s he was taken up by essay writing many members of the nascent #8220;counter-culture#8221; largely because of his concern with environmental issues.

In 1997 he came top of three British polls, organised respectively by Channel 4 / Waterstone#8217;s, the Folio Society, and SFX, the UK#8217;s leading science fiction media magazine, amongst discerning readers asked to vote for the greatest book of the essay words MacDuffie School 20th century. Please note also that his name is spelt Tolkien (there is no #8220;Tolkein#8221;). The name #8220;Tolkien#8221; (pron.: Tol-keen; equal stress on both syllables) is believed to be of German origin; Toll-kuhn: foolishly brave, or stupidly clever hence the pseudonym #8220;Oxymore#8221; which he occasionally used. His father#8217;s side of the writing technique Hanze family appears to have migrated from Saxony in the 18th century, but over the century and essay a half before his birth had become thoroughly Anglicised. Essay Writing Technique University Of Applied! Certainly his father, Arthur Reuel Tolkien, considered himself nothing if not English.

Arthur was a bank clerk, and to write IMG Academy went to technique of Applied South Africa in the 1890s for better prospects of promotion. There he was joined by his bride, Mabel Suffield, whose family were not only English through and through, but West Midlands since time immemorial. So John Ronald (#8220;Ronald#8221; to family and early friends) was born in format essay John School, Bloemfontein, S.A., on 3 January 1892. His memories of Africa were slight but vivid, including a scary encounter with a large hairy spider, and influenced his later writing to some extent; slight, because on 15 February 1896 his father died, and writing technique Hanze he, his mother and his younger brother Hilary returned to England or more particularly, the West Midlands. The West Midlands in Tolkien#8217;s childhood were a complex mixture of the grimly industrial Birmingham conurbation, and the quintessentially rural stereotype of England, Worcestershire and surrounding areas: Severn country, the how to about Shawnigan land of the composers Elgar, Vaughan Williams and Gurney, and technique Hanze University of Applied more distantly the of an School poet A. E. Housman (it is also just across the border from Wales). Essay Technique University! Tolkien#8217;s life was split between these two: the University (INTO) then very rural hamlet of Sarehole, with its mill, just south of Birmingham; and essay writing Hanze Sciences darkly urban Birmingham itself, where he was eventually sent to King Edward#8217;s School. Of An Essay Writing! By then the family had moved to King#8217;s Heath, where the house backed onto a railway line young Ronald#8217;s developing linguistic imagination was engaged by essay the sight of to write IMG Academy coal trucks going to and from South Wales bearing destinations like#8221; Nantyglo#8221;,#8221; Penrhiwceiber#8221; and essay University #8220;Senghenydd#8221;. Then they moved to the somewhat more pleasant Birmingham suburb of Edgbaston. However, in the meantime, something of profound significance had occurred, which estranged Mabel and her children from both sides of the family: in 1900, together with her sister May, she was received into the Roman Catholic Church. From then on, both Ronald and Hilary were brought up in the faith of how to write about a person Brookes Lake Pio Nono, and remained devout Catholics throughout their lives. The parish priest who visited the family regularly was the half-Spanish half-Welsh Father Francis Morgan.

Tolkien family life was generally lived on the genteel side of poverty. However, the situation worsened in 1904, when Mabel Tolkien was diagnosed as having diabetes, usually fatal in those pre-insulin days. She died on 14 November of that year leaving the two orphaned boys effectively destitute. Writing Technique Sciences! At this point Father Francis took over, and made sure of the boys#8217; material as well as spiritual welfare, although in the short term they were boarded with an unsympathetic aunt-by-marriage, Beatrice Suffield, and thinking then with a Mrs Faulkner. By this time Ronald was already showing remarkable linguistic gifts. He had mastered the Sciences Latin and Greek which was the staple fare of an arts education at that time, and was becoming more than competent in a number of other languages, both modern and ancient, notably Gothic, and later Finnish. He was already busy making up his own languages, purely for Haileybury fun. He had also made a number of close friends at writing Hanze University of Applied King Edward#8217;s; in his later years at school they met regularly after hours as the #8220;T. C. B. S.#8221; (Tea Club, Barrovian Society, named after their meeting place at the Barrow Stores) and how to essay about they continued to correspond closely and exchange and criticise each other#8217;s literary work until 1916. However, another complication had arisen.

Amongst the lodgers at Mrs Faulkner#8217;s boarding house was a young woman called Edith Bratt. When Ronald was 16, and she 19, they struck up a friendship, which gradually deepened. Essay Writing Hanze University! Eventually Father Francis took a hand, and forbade Ronald to words MacDuffie see or even correspond with Edith for three years, until he was 21. Ronald stoically obeyed this injunction to the letter. In the summer of 1911, he was invited to join a party on Hanze University a walking holiday in Switzerland, which may have inspired his descriptions of the Misty Mountains, and of Rivendell.

In the autumn of that year he went up to Exeter College, Oxford where he stayed, immersing himself in the Classics, Old English, the Germanic languages (especially Gothic), Welsh and Finnish, until 1913, when he swiftly though not without difficulty picked up the threads of his relationship with Edith. He then obtained a disappointing second class degree in Honour Moderations, the #8220;midway#8221; stage of a 4-year Oxford #8220;Greats#8221; (i.e. Classics) course, although with an #8220;alpha plus#8221; in philology. As a result of this he changed his school from Classics to the more congenial English Language and Literature. One of the poems he discovered in essay IMG Academy, the course of his Old English studies was the Crist of Cynewulf he was amazed especially by writing of Applied the cryptic couplet: Eala Earendel engla beorhtast.

Ofer middangeard monnum sended. Which translates as: Hail Earendel brightest of angels, over Middle Earth sent to men. (#8220; Middangeard #8221; was an ancient expression for the everyday world between Heaven above and Hell below.) This inspired some of his very early and inchoate attempts at realising a world of ancient beauty in his versifying. In the summer of 1913 he took a job as tutor and escort to critical International University two Mexican boys in Dinard, France, a job which ended in tragedy. Though no fault of essay writing technique Hanze University of Applied Ronald#8217;s, it did nothing to counter his apparent predisposition against France and things French. Meanwhile the relationship with Edith was going more smoothly.

She converted to Catholicism and moved to Warwick, which with its spectacular castle and a person Brookes Shawnigan beautiful surrounding countryside made a great impression on Ronald. However, as the pair were becoming ever closer, the technique Hanze Sciences nations were striving ever more furiously together, and war eventually broke out in August 1914. Unlike so many of his contemporaries, Tolkien did not rush to join up immediately on the outbreak of war, but returned to Oxford, where he worked hard and finally achieved a first-class degree in June 1915. At this time he was also working on various poetic attempts, and on his invented languages, especially one that he came to call Qenya [ sic ], which was heavily influenced by Finnish but he still felt the lack of a connecting thread to bring his vivid but disparate imaginings together. Tolkien finally enlisted as a second lieutenant in the Lancashire Fusiliers whilst working on ideas of Earendel [ sic ] the Mariner, who became a star, and his journeyings. For many months Tolkien was kept in boring suspense in England, mainly in Staffordshire. Finally it appeared that he must soon embark for France, and he and Edith married in Warwick on 22 March 1916. Eventually he was indeed sent to active duty on the Western Front, just in writing a comparative essay (INTO), time for the Somme offensive.

After four months in and out of the essay Sciences trenches, he succumbed to #8220;trench fever#8221;, a form of typhus-like infection common in the insanitary conditions, and in thinking Florida International University, early November was sent back to England, where he spent the next month in hospital in Birmingham. By Christmas he had recovered sufficiently to stay with Edith at Great Haywood in Staffordshire. During these last few months, all but one of his close friends of the #8220;T. C. Hanze! B. S.#8221; had been killed in action. Partly as an act of piety to their memory, but also stirred by reaction against his war experiences, he had already begun to words MacDuffie put his stories into shape, #8220; … in essay writing University, huts full of blasphemy and smut, or by candle light in bell-tents, even some down in dugouts under shell fire #8221; [ Letters 66]. This ordering of his imagination developed into the Book of Lost Tales (not published in his lifetime), in which most of the major stories of the Silmarillion appear in their first form: tales of the Elves and the #8220;Gnomes#8221;, (i. e. Florida International! Deep Elves, the later Noldor), with their languages Qenya and Goldogrin. Hanze University Of Applied! Here are found the first recorded versions of the wars against Morgoth, the siege and fall of Gondolin and Nargothrond, and the tales of Turin and of Beren and Luthien. Throughout 1917 and 1918 his illness kept recurring, although periods of remission enabled him to do home service at various camps sufficiently well to critical Florida International University be promoted to lieutenant. It was when he was stationed in essay writing Hanze University of Applied Sciences, the Hull area that he and Edith went walking in the woods at nearby Roos, and there in a grove thick with hemlock Edith danced for him. This was the inspiration for the tale of Beren and Luthien, a recurrent theme in his #8220;Legendarium#8221;. He came to how to essay about Lake think of technique University Edith as #8220;Luthien#8221; and himself as #8220;Beren#8221;.

Their first son, John Francis Reuel (later Father John Tolkien) had already been born on 16 November 1917. Help! When the Armistice was signed on 11 November 1918, Tolkien had already been putting out feelers to Hanze of Applied obtain academic employment, and by the time he was demobilised he had been appointed Assistant Lexicographer on the New English Dictionary (the #8220;Oxford English Dictionary#8221;), then in preparation. While doing the thinking Florida University serious philological work involved in this, he also gave one of essay writing technique Hanze Sciences his Lost Tales its first public airing he read The Fall of Gondolin to the Exeter College Essay Club, where it was well received by an audience which included Neville Coghill and Hugo Dyson, two future #8220;Inklings#8221;. However, Tolkien did not stay in write descriptive essay about Brookes Lake, this job for long. In the summer of 1920 he applied for essay technique Hanze of Applied the quite senior post of Reader (approximately, Associate Professor) in English Language at the University of Leeds, and to his surprise was appointed. Of An Writing F. Kennedy International School! At Leeds as well as teaching he collaborated with E. Essay Writing Hanze! V. Gordon on the famous edition of Sir Gawain and essay the Green Knight , and continued writing and refining The Book of Lost Tales and his invented #8220;Elvish#8221; languages. In addition, he and Gordon founded a #8220;Viking Club#8221; for undergraduates devoted mainly to writing technique of Applied Sciences reading Old Norse sagas and drinking beer. It was for this club that he and Gordon originally wrote their Songs for the Philologists , a mixture of traditional songs and original verses translated into Old English, Old Norse and help Gothic to fit traditional English tunes. Leeds also saw the birth of two more sons: Michael Hilary Reuel in October 1920, and Christopher Reuel in 1924. Then in writing technique Hanze, 1925 the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of writing University Anglo-Saxon at Oxford fell vacant; Tolkien successfully applied for the post.

Professor Tolkien, The Inklings and Hobbits. In a sense, in returning to Oxford as a Professor, Tolkien had come home. Although he had few illusions about the academic life as a haven of unworldly scholarship (see for example Letters 250), he was nevertheless by temperament a don#8217;s don, and fitted extremely well into the largely male world of teaching, research, the writing technique Hanze of Applied Sciences comradely exchange of ideas and occasional publication. Technical Writing! In fact, his academic publication record is very sparse, something that would have been frowned upon in essay technique Sciences, these days of quantitative personnel evaluation. However, his rare scholarly publications were often extremely influential, most notably his lecture #8220;Beowulf, the Monsters and the Critics#8221;. His seemingly almost throwaway comments have sometimes helped to writing John International School transform the understanding of a particular field for example, in his essay on #8220;English and writing technique University of Applied Sciences Welsh#8221;, with its explanation of the descriptive essay a person origins of the term #8220;Welsh#8221; and essay technique Sciences its references to phonaesthetics (both these pieces are collected in The Monsters and help to write IMG Academy the Critics and essay writing Other Essays , currently in print). His academic life was otherwise largely unremarkable. In 1945 he changed his chair to the Merton Professorship of English Language and Literature, which he retained until his retirement in help essay, 1959.

Apart from all the technique of Applied Sciences above, he taught undergraduates, and played an essay Haileybury, important but unexceptional part in essay University, academic politics and administration. His family life was equally straightforward. Edith bore their last child and only daughter, Priscilla, in 1929. Tolkien got into the habit of writing the children annual illustrated letters as if from Santa Claus, and a selection of these was published in 1976 as The Father Christmas Letters . He also told them numerous bedtime stories, of which more anon. In adulthood John entered the priesthood, Michael and Christopher both saw war service in the Royal Air Force. International! Afterwards Michael became a schoolmaster and Christopher a university lecturer, and Priscilla became a social worker. Essay University Sciences! They lived quietly in technical writing Haileybury, North Oxford, and later Ronald and writing University of Applied Edith lived in the suburb of format of an essay F. Kennedy International School Headington. Writing Technique Sciences! However, Tolkien#8217;s social life was far from unremarkable. He soon became one of the writing essay University (INTO) founder members of a loose grouping of Oxford friends (by no means all at the University) with similar interests, known as #8220;The Inklings#8221;.

The origins of the name were purely facetious it had to do with writing, and sounded mildly Anglo-Saxon; there was no evidence that members of the group claimed to have an writing Hanze University, #8220;inkling#8221; of the technical writing essay Haileybury Divine Nature, as is sometimes suggested. Other prominent members included the above-mentioned Messrs Coghill and Dyson, as well as Owen Barfield, Charles Williams, and above all C. S. Essay Writing Of Applied Sciences! Lewis, who became one of Tolkien#8217;s closest friends, and for whose return to Christianity Tolkien was at least partly responsible. The Inklings regularly met for conversation, drink, and frequent reading from their work-in-progress. Meanwhile Tolkien continued developing his mythology and languages. As mentioned above, he told his children stories, some of help IMG Academy which he developed into those published posthumously as Mr. Bliss , Roverandom , etc.

However, according to his own account, one day when he was engaged in the soul-destroying task of marking examination papers, he discovered that one candidate had left one page of an answer-book blank. On this page, moved by who knows what anarchic daemon, he wrote #8220; In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit #8220;. In typical Tolkien fashion, he then decided he needed to find out what a Hobbit was, what sort of a hole it lived in, why it lived in a hole, etc. From this investigation grew a tale that he told to his younger children, and even passed round. In 1936 an incomplete typescript of it came into the hands of Susan Dagnall, an employee of the publishing firm of George Allen and Unwin (merged in 1990 with HarperCollins). She asked Tolkien to finish it, and presented the complete story to Stanley Unwin, the then Chairman of the firm. He tried it out on his 10-year old son Rayner, who wrote an Sciences, approving report, and it was published as The Hobbit in format F. Kennedy School, 1937. It immediately scored a success, and essay writing Sciences has not been out of children#8217;s recommended reading lists ever since. It was so successful that Stanley Unwin asked if he had any more similar material available for publication. By this time Tolkien had begun to make his Legendarium into what he believed to be a more presentable state, and critical as he later noted, hints of it had already made their way into The Hobbit . He was now calling the full account Quenta Silmarillion , or Silmarillion for short. He presented some of his #8220;completed#8221; tales to Unwin, who sent them to his reader.

The reader#8217;s reaction was mixed: dislike of the poetry and praise for the prose (the material was the story of Beren and Luthien) but the overall decision at essay technique University of Applied the time was that these were not commercially publishable. Unwin tactfully relayed this message to format essay John F. Kennedy International Tolkien, but asked him again if he was willing to write a sequel to The Hobbit . Hanze University! Tolkien was disappointed at critical thinking the apparent failure of The Silmarillion , but agreed to take up the challenge of #8220;The New Hobbit#8221;. This soon developed into something much more than a children#8217;s story; for the highly complex 16-year history of what became The Lord of the Rings consult the technique works listed below. Suffice it to say that the now adult Rayner Unwin was deeply involved in the later stages of this opus, dealing magnificently with a dilatory and temperamental author who, at one stage, was offering the whole work to writing a commercial rival (which rapidly backed off when the essay writing technique of Applied Sciences scale and nature of the package became apparent). It is thanks to Rayner Unwin#8217;s advocacy that we owe the fact that this book was published at essay John International School all Andave laituvalmes ! His father#8217;s firm decided to writing technique Hanze of Applied Sciences incur the probable loss of ?1,000 for the succes d#8217;estime , and publish it under the title of The Lord of the Rings in three parts during 1954 and technical writing essay 1955, with USA rights going to Houghton Mifflin. It soon became apparent that both author and essay Hanze of Applied Sciences publishers had greatly underestimated the work#8217;s public appeal. The Lord of the Rings rapidly came to public notice. It had mixed reviews, ranging from the ecstatic (W. H. Writing A Comparative! Auden, C. S. Lewis) to the damning (E.

Wilson, E. Muir, P. Toynbee) and just about everything in between. The BBC put on a drastically condensed radio adaptation in University of Applied Sciences, 12 episodes on the Third Programme. In 1956 radio was still a dominant medium in technical writing essay, Britain, and the Third Programme was the #8220;intellectual#8221; channel. So far from losing money, sales so exceeded the break-even point as to make Tolkien regret that he had not taken early retirement. However, this was still based only upon hardback sales. The really amazing moment was when The Lord of the Rings went into essay technique University of Applied Sciences a pirated paperback version in 1965. Firstly, this put the book into the impulse-buying category; and critical International University secondly, the publicity generated by the copyright dispute alerted millions of American readers to the existence of something outside their previous experience, but which appeared to speak to their condition.

By 1968 The Lord of the Rings had almost become the writing University Sciences Bible of the a comparative essay (INTO) #8220;Alternative Society#8221;. This development produced mixed feelings in the author. On the one hand, he was extremely flattered, and to his amazement, became rather rich. Essay Hanze University Of Applied Sciences! On the other, he could only deplore those whose idea of of an John International a great trip was to ingest The Lord of the Rings and LSD simultaneously. Arthur C. Clarke and Stanley Kubrick had similar experiences with 2001: A Space Odyssey . Hanze Of Applied Sciences! Fans were causing increasing problems; both those who came to gawp at his house and those, especially from California who telephoned at 7 p.m. To Write IMG Academy! (their time 3 a.m. his), to demand to know whether Frodo had succeeded or failed in the Quest, what was the preterite of Quenyan lanta -, or whether or not Balrogs had wings. So he changed addresses, his telephone number went ex-directory, and eventually he and Edith moved to Bournemouth, a pleasant but uninspiring South Coast resort (Hardy#8217;s #8220;Sandbourne#8221;), noted for the number of its elderly well-to-do residents.

Meanwhile the cult, not just of Tolkien, but of the fantasy literature that he had revived, if not actually inspired (to his dismay), was really taking off but that is another story, to be told in writing technique of Applied Sciences, another place. Despite all the fuss over The Lord of the Rings , between 1925 and thinking Florida University his death Tolkien did write and publish a number of other articles, including a range of scholarly essays, many reprinted in The Monsters and essay Hanze the Critics and Other Essays (see above); one Middle-earth related work, The Adventures of Tom Bombadil ; editions and translations of Middle English works such as the Ancrene Wisse , Sir Gawain , Sir Orfeo and The Pearl , and some stories independent of the Legendarium, such as the Imram , The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm#8217;s Son , The Lay of MacDuffie School Aotrou and Itroun and, especially, Farmer Giles of Ham , Leaf by Niggle , and technique University of Applied Smith of Wootton Major . The flow of publications was only University temporarily slowed by Tolkien#8217;s death. Essay University Of Applied! The long-awaited Silmarillion , edited by a person Shawnigan Lake Christopher Tolkien, appeared in essay writing technique Hanze University of Applied Sciences, 1977. To Write IMG Academy! In 1980 Christopher also published a selection of his father#8217;s incomplete writings from his later years under the title of Unfinished Tales of Numenor and Middle-earth . In the introduction to this work Christopher Tolkien referred in passing to essay writing technique University The Book of Lost Tales , #8220;itself a very substantial work, of the utmost interest to one concerned with the origins of Middle-earth, but requiring to be presented in a lengthy and complex study, if at all#8221; ( Unfinished Tales , p. 6, paragraph 1). The sales of The Silmarillion had rather taken George Allen Unwin by surprise, and those of Unfinished Tales even more so.

Obviously, there was a market even for this relatively abstruse material and they decided to risk embarking on this #8220;lengthy and complex study#8221;. Writing Haileybury! Even more lengthy and complex than expected, the resulting 12 volumes of the writing technique Hanze University of Applied History of Middle-earth , under Christopher#8217;s editorship, proved to be a successful enterprise. Help To Write Essay IMG Academy! (Tolkien#8217;s publishers had changed hands, and essay writing technique Hanze University Sciences names, several times between the start of the enterprise in 1983 and the appearance of the paperback edition of Volume 12, The Peoples of Middle-earth , in 1997.) After his retirement in 1959 Edith and Ronald moved to Bournemouth. Argumentative Words MacDuffie School! On 29 November 1971 Edith died, and Ronald soon returned to Oxford, to rooms provided by Merton College. Ronald died on 2 September 1973. He and Edith are buried together in a single grave in the Catholic section of essay technique University of Applied Wolvercote cemetery in the northern suburbs of Oxford. (The grave is well signposted from the entrance.) The legend on the headstone reads: Edith Mary Tolkien, Luthien, 1889-1971. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, Beren, 1892-1973. Tolkien: A Biography . Humphrey Carpenter. Allen and Unwin, London, 1977.

Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien . Ed. Humphrey Carpenter with Christopher Tolkien. George Allen and Unwin, London, 1981. The Tolkien Family Album . John Tolkien and Priscilla Tolkien.

HarperCollins, London, 1992. #8220; Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel (1892-1973). #8221; T. A. Shippey. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press. Print 2004. Online 2006. Technical Writing! (Also available as a podcast.) The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide . Wayne G. Technique University Of Applied! Hammond and Christina Scull. HarperCollins, London, 2006. 2 vols. President in how to descriptive Brookes, perpetuo : Prof. J.R.R.

Tolkien CBE. Vice President: Priscilla Tolkien. The Tolkien Society is a registered charity (registration no 273809) in technique of Applied Sciences, England and Wales.

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patent format resume This application claims priority of a provisional application, Ser. No. Writing Hanze Of Applied! 60/008,700, filed Dec. Essay About A Person! 15, 1995. The invention relates to electronic resume storage and retrieval systems and University of Applied Sciences methods. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. Resumes are a primary communication medium between employers and job applicants (candidates). Employers annually spend billions of dollars to solicit resumes using newspaper advertisements, job fairs, college recruitment seminars, and other methods.

In response, job applicants spend billions more to compose, typeset, print, and ship those resumes. Unfortunately, present resume delivery practices are expensive and writing a comparative University frustrating for job applicants. Identifying potential employers, obtaining addresses, producing resumes for each, and finally delivering them is burdensome and time-consuming. The success rate for such efforts is essay writing University of Applied discouragingly low, and the associated expenses can be quite significant. This makes the entire process quite inefficient from the applicant's point of view. Employers, too, suffer from the format essay writing International, inefficiencies of resume collection and handling.

The solicitation, receipt, storage, management, search, and Hanze Sciences retrieval of dozens, hundreds, and in some cases thousands of resumes can be a difficult, unwieldy, and expensive burden on the employer. Physical, paper-based resumes are often stored in writing a comparative of Gloucestershire (INTO), desk drawers and filing cabinets. The numerous limitations of essay Hanze Sciences present resume practices include consumption of substantial physical space; difficulty in searching through large quantities of paper documents; the near-impossibility of correlating applicants whose resumes may vary widely in organization, content, and clarity; and the lack of uniformity in technical writing essay Haileybury, the search process from one practitioner to another. From the above discussion, it is clear that a very significant need exists for an improved method of resume solicitation, sorting, delivery, handling, and management. Essay Hanze Sciences! Yet prior attempts to resolve some of to write these problems have achieved only limited success. Document scanners have been used in some attempts to essay writing University, reduce the physical space consumed by physical resumes. How To Write Descriptive About A Person Lake! However, search methods do not work well on scanned images because scanned resumes are stored as pictures, not searchable words or text. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) has been used in some attempts to essay writing technique, convert paper-based resumes to pure text.

However, employers are typically unwilling to forgo the traditional resume because of the a comparative essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), widely held belief that the ability to review the format, style, and presentation of the resume itself is of value. Still other attempts have employed the aforementioned OCR conversion to allow the use of keyword search methods on the resulting text of full resumes, in an attempt to find those which contain key words or phrases. However, such methods have proven inefficient because of the nature of written language. As just one example, an employer seeking applicants residing in the state of writing Hanze Indiana will find numerous false matches when searching with the standard postal service abbreviation IN. The letter pair in appears frequently in the English language (many times in this sentence alone), yet most such matches in help essay, the full text of a resume would have little or nothing to do with the essay writing Hanze of Applied Sciences, searcher's true intent.

A further difficulty with keyword search methods is the requirement that the words or phrases in question must match with near-perfect accuracy. The diversity of job applicant writing skills and vocabularies causes many resumes, which otherwise might describe applicants with similar attributes, to be written using very different terms and phrases. Such wide variation causes keyword search methods to often erroneously exclude qualified applicants--without notification to the searcher--while simultaneously including unqualified ones. Prior attempts at applying computer technology to resume management have been limited in scope, applicability, and usefulness. For example, many have been intended for use only by employers, employment specialists, or headhunters. Job applicants themselves are completely excluded from accessing such systems.

One prior attempt, described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,164,897 to how to essay a person Brookes Lake, Clark et al. (incorporated by University of Applied, reference), is illustrative. The first sentence of the prior art section of this patent describes the prior art as applying to employment agencies (sometimes called search firms). Help To Write Essay IMG Academy! The preferred embodiment section of the patent then describes a system designed for use by such agencies and essay writing technique Hanze Sciences firms--without direct applicant involvement of any kind. Other attempts have allowed applicants to initially enter some data, but make no explicit provision for ongoing involvement. Such approaches can result in writing a comparative, outdated information and questionable results.

Other attempts have required the installation of specialized computer hardware and/or software, or personnel training at the employer's place of technique Hanze business. The difficulty in essay about Brookes Shawnigan Lake, learning and writing technique University Sciences using the system often effectively restricts access to just those who have been appropriately trained. Other attempts have incorporated rudimentary computer-based searching methods. The most common method involves the aforementioned keyword searches on the contents of entire resumes, such as offered by Online Career Center, Indianapolis, Ind. and TMP Interactive, Framingham, Mass. The inherent limitations of such methods have already been discussed. Another attempt at incorporating computer-based searching methods is seen in the services available from Intellimatch, San Jose, Calif., (Internet address: http://www.intellimatch.com).

This attempt accepts weighted ranking data provided by applicants and employers. International University! There are several disadvantages of this type of method: First, the user interface for essay writing technique Hanze of Applied, interacting with such ranking systems can be complex, non-intuitive, unfamiliar, difficult to learn, and slow to operate. Second, there is no objective reference for ranking standards--individual applicants are asked to rank themselves, leading to an extremely subjective collection of personal opinions. Technical Writing! Third, employers are asked to essay Hanze University Sciences, rank their requirements in a like fashion, again without reference to an objective standard. Fourth, these highly subjective data are then compared to each other, compounding assumptions upon assumptions and often yielding startlingly mismatched and writing Haileybury valueless results.

Another attempt at providing resume services on the Internet is provided by Beverly Hills Software, 469 South Bedford Drive, Beverly Hills, Calif. 90212, (Internet address: http://www.Bhs.Com). Technique University Sciences! This attempt prompts applicants to Florida University, enter text-only information using a template. However, keyword searches still involve searching the entire contents of resume data; no searching by fields is available. A visual template is provided for applicant data, but the resulting pure text is sorted as one large text file, like other systems. There is also no provision for charging or collecting fees.

Some of the aforementioned examples have attempted to incorporate various remote connection means. Such remote methods have traditionally been limited to text-only resume storage and keyword-based searches of the full resume text. None have succeeded in essay, addressing all of the problems described above. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The invention provides a method of and writing a comparative University of Gloucestershire apparatus for storage and retrieval of resume images in essay writing University of Applied, a manner which preserves the appearance, organization, and information content of the original document. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for storing formatted summaries or outlines of a comparative essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO) resume images, and essay technique Hanze Sciences efficient searching and subsequent selection of the resume outlines and their associated resume images.

One embodiment of the invention provides a user interface for creating the aforementioned resume outlines which is based on technical writing Haileybury a familiar paper-based method already in common use, thus reducing the training required to effectively use the system. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for computer-assisted searching of the technique Hanze of Applied Sciences, aforementioned stored resume outlines in technical essay Haileybury, a manner which minimizes the need for specialized equipment and training. In one embodiment, such searches can be or suspended, and resumed at a later time. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for enabling the automatic and continuous execution of the searches through resume outlines, thereby determining when a potentially qualifying applicant has entered their resume outline and resume image and enabling employers to be automatically notified thereof. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for writing technique Hanze University, coordinating the writing John F. Kennedy International, terminology and vocabulary used by applicants and potential employers in the entry and searching for the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for the controlled expansion of the terminology and vocabulary used by applicants and writing University of Applied potential employers in the entry of and searching of the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, or other commercial connectivity services, for applicant submission of outlines or resume images, or employer searches through outlines or viewing of resume images. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems to automatically notify applicants or employers under certain conditions, such as the expiration of a time interval or occurrence of an event. One embodiment of the invention employs common and commercially available computer hardware and software to reduce or eliminate the need for specialized equipment by and training of the applicant or employer.

One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems for billing and payment for services. Other features of the invention will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon how to descriptive Shawnigan Lake review of the writing technique of Applied, following detailed description, claims, and drawings. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. Preferred embodiments of the invention are described below with reference to the following accompanying drawings. FIG. 1 is write about a person Lake a block diagram illustrating a system embodying the invention. FIG.

2 is a block diagram of a server included in the system shown in FIG. 1. FIG. 3 is an writing Sciences, example of a resume outline form sent from the server of FIG. 2 to to write IMG Academy, an applicant's client machine included in the system of FIG. Writing Technique University Of Applied Sciences! 1. FIG. 4 is an example of a search request form sent from the server of FIG.

2 to an employer's client machine included in the system of FIG. 1. FIG. 5 is an example of a summary of a resume outline sent from the server of writing School FIG. 2 to an employer's client machine in response to a search request. FIG. 6 is an example of a vocabulary assistance process in essay Sciences, accordance with one embodiment of the invention. FIG.

7 is an example of a resume image stored by International University, the server of FIG. 2. FIGS. 8A, 8B, 9-11, 12A, 12B, and 13 define a flowchart of essay technique of Applied a process performed by the server of FIG. 2. in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. This disclosure of the invention is critical Florida submitted in furtherance of the essay technique of Applied, constitutional purposes of the U.S. Patent Laws to how to descriptive essay Brookes, promote the progress of science and essay writing technique of Applied useful arts (Article 1, Section 8)

FIG, 1 shows a resume storage and retrieval system 10 embodying the invention. The system 10 comprises a server 12 including a memory 14, and a database 16 defined in the memory 14. The server 12 can be a minicomputer, a microcomputer, a UNIX (TM) machine, a mainframe computer, a personal computer such as an International University, Intel (TM) PC, 286, 386, 486, Pentium, P6, etc. Technique Hanze University Of Applied Sciences! (TM) personal computer or clone, or Apple (TM), Macintosh (TM), or PowerPC (TM) personal computer or clone, or any other appropriate computer. The memory 14 is preferably long term memory (e.g. hard drive, disk drive, tape unit, CD-ROM, etc.). The server 12 includes typical components (FIG. A Comparative Essay (INTO)! 2) such as a CPU or processor 18, input devices such as a keyboard (not shown), and mouse (not shown), output devices (not shown) such as a monitor and printer, RAM 20, ROM 22, serial ports (not shown), parallel ports (not shown), and communication hardware 24, which may either be internal or external, such as internal communication cards (e.g., modem card or network card) or external communication hardware (e.g., external modem), etc. In one embodiment, the communication hardware 24 connects the technique Sciences, server 12 to the Internet, so that the server 12 defines an Internet node. More particularly in one embodiment, the server 12 is a World Wide Web server connected to the Internet. In this embodiments the technical essay, server 12 has a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system such as UNIX (if the technique University of Applied Sciences, server is a UNIX machine), Windows NT, LINUX (if the how to descriptive essay about a person Brookes Shawnigan, server is a personal computer), etc. The system 10 further includes a job applicant's client machine (or applicant's client machine) 26 in essay writing Hanze, selective communication with the server 12.

The job applicant's client machine 26 is connected to the server 12 via a communication link 28. Various possible types of communication link can be employed for the communication link 28 between the server 12 and the applicant's client machine 26. For example, the communication link 28 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, a combination of the preceding, or any other desired type of connection. Many applicant's client machines 26 can communicate with the essay, server 12 at the same time. Different applicant's client machines can connect with the Hanze University, server using different types of communication links 28. For example, one of the communication links 28 can be a hard wired connection while another one of the communication links 28 is a telephone connection. After the communication link is established, communications can take place over write essay about a person Shawnigan Lake, the link using any of various protocols, such as e-mail, FTP (file transfer protocol), TCP/IP (Internet protocol, which can be used with HTTP-hyper text transfer protocol, or GOPHER), ASCII, X-MODEM, Y-MODEM, KERMIT, any variation s on these protocols, or any other appropriate protocol. During a session, the Hanze University Sciences, server 12 communicates to the applicant's client machine a resume outline form 30 (FIG. 3) to be completed by a job applicant.

The form 30 has a plurality of fields 31 relevant to employment, using which typical information found on a resume is summarized by essay School, the applicant, The form 30 has fields that are similar to blanks found on traditional job application forms available from essay University of Applied Sciences, employers. In the illustrated embodiment, the form 30 has various sections, such as a personal information section 32, an optional information section 34, a position desired section 36, an argumentative essay words School, education section 38, and an employment history section 40. Other sections can be used, as desired. Each section has various fields 31. For example, in the illustrated embodiment, the personal information section 32 has fields 39, 41, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, and 56 for the job applicant's first, middle, and last names, address, city, state or province (e.g., the two letter postal service abbreviations), zip code or postal code, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address, respectively; the of Applied, optional information section 34 has fields 58, 60, 62 and 64 relating to writing a comparative essay, citizenship, fields 66 and 68 relating to security clearance, and a field 70 for a social security or social insurance number; the position desired section 36 has a field 72 for job title, fields 74, 76, 78, and 80 relating to the type of employment sought (full time permanent, full time temporary, part time permanent, or part time temporary), fields 82, 84, 86, and writing Hanze of Applied 88 relating to essay, compensation requirements, and a field 90 relating to the date when the applicant will be available for essay writing technique of Applied, the new position, the education section 38 has fields 94, 96, 98, 100, 102, 104, 106, and 108 relating to majors, degrees, school names and locations, and argumentative essay words MacDuffie grade point averages (multiple copies of fields 100, 102, 104, 106 and 108 can be included for writing technique, multiple colleges attended); and the employment history section 40 has fields 110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 118, and 120 for employer name, employer city, employer state or province, previous job title, start date for that position, and end date for that position (multiple copies of fields 110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 118, and 120 can be included for multiple prior positions).

Other or additional fields can be used, as desired, or synonyms can be used in place of the words shown in thinking University, FIG. 3 adjacent the essay writing technique, fields. For World Wide Web applications, the of an essay John F. Kennedy International School, form 30 is an HTML form, and has submit and clear buttons 122 and 124 using which the technique University of Applied, applicant can either send the format John International School, information from the filled fields to the server, or can clear the form and writing technique University of Applied Sciences start over. The form 30 further includes a vocabulary assistance button 146, the function of which is technical writing essay discussed below. Upon receiving the form 30, the job applicant fills in (using his/her machine 26) as many fields 31 as desired, including some mandatory information such as name and contact information (address and/or phone number) in section 32.

The applicant also effects creation of a graphics file 126 (FIG. 7) of the applicant's resume for Hanze University, receipt by the server. The graphics file 126 contains all the formatting, fonts, and margins of argumentative a traditional paper resume, and is of great assistance to employers wishing to Hanze of Applied, gain some insight into the professionalism of an applicant. Florida University! The graphics file can be, for example, in essay writing Hanze Sciences, a file format identified by of Gloucestershire, one of the following extensions: .GIF,.TIF (or .TIFF), .JPG (or .JPEG or .JPE),.BMP,.TGA,.EPS,.PCX or another form of essay writing technique Sciences graphics file that maintains the appearance, format information, and font information of the original document. The applicant can create the graphics file in any appropriate manner at a location 134 remote from the server 12. For example, the applicant can create the graphics file using a scanner 128 (FIG. 1), by critical thinking Florida International, scanning his or her actual printed resume. Alternatively, the applicant can use a facsimile machine 130 (FIG. 1) to fax his or her actual printed resume to a facsimile machine 132 in the possession of the writing technique Hanze University of Applied Sciences, administrator of the system 10 (e.g., located at the location of the server 12).

The facsimile machine 132 creates graphics file 126 that is stored by the server. In one embodiment, the system administrator can convert the graphics file from a fax format to one of the above mentioned graphics file formats. Preferably, however, the server 12 itself will automatically perform the conversion from MacDuffie School, fax format to Hanze University Sciences, a more appropriate format such as described in the previous paragraph, so that human intervention is not required. In this preferred embodiment, the facsimile machine 132 may comprise a fax card housed in the server 12. In another embodiment, the Haileybury, system administrator can receive a mail copy of a printed resume, and can scan it into the server 12 for the applicant using a scanner 133 in the possession of the system administrator (e.g., located at the location of the server 12). The server 12 receives and stores in the database 16 the graphics file 126 as well as an writing technique Hanze of Applied Sciences, entry defined by the summary information filled in on the form 30 by writing a comparative University, the job applicant. In one embodiment, the graphics file 126 can be communicated to writing Hanze of Applied Sciences, the server using a different protocol than was used for transmitting the summary information. For example, the summary information can be sent from the applicant's client machine 26 to the server 12 via HTML, and the graphics file 126 can be sent from that applicant's client machine 26 to the server 12 via e-mail.

Any other combination of protocols can be used, at the applicant's option. The form 30 is useful in that it provides searchable information. The information of the graphics file 126 cannot be easily searched. In addition, the form defines fields 31, so that searches can be performed by field, by prospective employers. Further, the form 30 is of a format known to technical Haileybury, both applicants and employers (i.e., a format like a traditional employer's job application), so that the need for training applicants and employers in using the system is Hanze University of Applied avoided. Instead, applicants can easily fill the form 30, and employers can easily search the University, database. Essay Writing Hanze! In a preferred embodiment, the employers search the database using a form 136 (FIG. 4) that is thinking University very similar in essay writing Hanze of Applied Sciences, appearance to the form 30 presented to applicants The forms 30 and 136 provide a standard framework to be used by all applicants, and all employers. The server 12 associates or links the summary information entry from the form 30 with the graphics file 126 submitted by the applicant's client machine 26. Essay Writing F. Kennedy International! In other words, if a search by essay writing technique Hanze of Applied, an employer turns up the summary information for a particular applicant, the graphics file 126 containing an image of format of an writing F. Kennedy International that applicant's resume can be easily pulled up as well. The form 30 and graphics file 126 may be transmitted by the applicant's client machine during a single session.

It is also possible that the applicant may fill out and transmit the form 30 during one session, and then upload the resume image during another session. Or, the technique Sciences, applicant could fax a resume at some later time. In other words, it is a comparative University of Gloucestershire (INTO) not required that the two actions occur during a single session. The system further comprises an employer's client machine 138 in selective communication with the server 12. The employer's client machine is connected to the server 12 via a communication link 140.

Various possible types of communication link can be employed for University of Applied Sciences, the communication link between the server 12 and the employer's client machine 138. How To Write About A Person! For example, the communication link 140 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, or any other desired type of connection. Technique University! Several employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 simultaneously. Format Essay Writing School! Employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 at the same time that one or more applicant's client machines 26 are connected to the server 12. Different employer's client machines 138 can connect with the server 12 using different types of communication links 140.

For example, one employer's client machine 138 can be communicating with the server 12 using a telephone connection, while another employer's client machine 138 communicates with the server 12 using an Internet connection. University Of Applied! Employers may prefer to writing John International School, use a telephone connection, instead of an essay writing technique Sciences, Internet connection, because of thinking Florida University less security risk in transmitting credit card information. If an Internet connection is used, some security precautions are taken in the preferred embodiment. For example, a secure server can be used for the server 12, or encryption can be used (e.g., using PGP--pretty good privacy encryption, such as is provided by essay technique Hanze University Sciences, ViaCrypt (TM) software, or some other encryption method). Upon connection, the server 12 provides the employer's client machine 138 with search form 136 (FIG.

4). The search form 136 is preferably similar to the form 30 filled by applicants, as described above, and preferably includes fields 31 corresponding to format of an John F. Kennedy International, fields contained on the form filled by University Sciences, applicants. After filling in to write IMG Academy, the search form, entering search terms in the fields of importance to writing technique Hanze University of Applied Sciences, the employer, the employer sends the of an essay John International School, search form to the server (e.g., by pressing a submit, send, or search button 142 on the form in a HTML application). This results in the employer's client machine 138 providing a search request to the server 12 and initiating a search of the summary information in the database 16. As was the case with the of Applied, applicant's form 30, the form 136 also includes a clear button 144, in an HTML application, using which the employer can clear the form 136 and start over. The search parameters are defined by the filled search form 136 The filled search form 136 indicates which fields 31 are to argumentative words, be searched for essay of Applied, which keywords. Help To Write Essay! For example, based on which fields 31 are filled with which keywords, a search query can be constructed which takes the logical OR of each word contained in a field, and which takes the logical AND of each of the fields 31. Other logical and weighted combinations are possible.

In one embodiment, if an employer fills in writing Hanze of Applied, US in the citizenship field, and fills in Engineer, Scientist in Florida University, the job title field, a search query can be constructed requiring that qualifying applicants be U.S. citizens AND be engineers OR scientists. Writing Technique University! Alternative appropriate systems for creating search queries can also be employed. For example, different fields 31 can be assigned different importance weights. It may be more critical to have a close match in the city field in the Personal Information section than to have a close match in the compensation field. In one embodiment, employers are able to indicate logical connectors between keywords, such as engineer NOT chemical (e.g., if an employer is format essay F. Kennedy looking for any type of engineer other than a chemical engineer) In a preferred embodiment, the employer can use natural English (without logical connectors), and the server 12 creates an appropriate search query. Upon completing the search, the server 12 communicates to the employer's client machine an amount of the summary information for essay writing, entries that satisfy the search parameters (search query). Preferably, contact information (e.g., name, address, phone number, e-mail, fax number, etc.) of qualifying applicants is suppressed at this stage, In one embodiment, the information presented to the employer for each entry that satisfies the search parameters is technical writing essay summarized information, for easy and quick review in a standardized, compact, format.

An example of summarized information is shown in FIG. Essay Writing Technique University Of Applied! 5. Relevancy ranking is performed in a preferred embodiment. The relevancy ranking identifies entries in the database 16 which, while perhaps not perfectly matching the criteria specified in International, the search form 136, are substantially similar enough to be of potential interest to writing University of Applied, the employer. Writing Essay! Relevancy ranking can be performed in University Sciences, a manner such as performed by: CPL Retrieval Engine, sold by Personal Library Systems, 2400 Research Blvd., Suite 350, Rockville, Md. 20850; NexTrieve Indexing Engine from Nexial Systems, St. Annastraat 4, 6109 RH, Ohe en Laak, The Netherlands; MetaMorph Text Retrieval Engine sold by Thunderstone Software--EPI Inc., 11115 Edgewater Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 44102; InTEXT Retrieval Engine, sold by InTEXT Systems, 715 Sutter Street, Folsom, Calif. 95630; or Fast Data Finder, sold by format essay John F. Kennedy International School, Paracel Inc., 80 South Lake Avenue, Suite 650, Pasadena, Calif. 91101, or any other appropriate manner. Summarized information (as shown in FIG.

5) is provided for the best matches to essay technique University of Applied, the search request, after taking into account the relevancy ranking described above The maximum number of matches supplied to the employer's client machine can be set to any appropriate number by thinking Florida University, either the administrator of the system 10, or the employer performing the search. In one embodiment, the employer can request summarized information for additional, less relevant, entries than those initially presented. The server 12 then queries the employer's client machine as to whether to present graphics files 126 of resumes associated with the entries that satisfy the essay Sciences, search parameters. The server does not present the graphics files 126 of the resumes or the contact information for entries that satisfy the search parameters until payment is made or authorized by the employer. The employer may establish an account, and provide billing information (such as by providing a credit card number) to the administrator of the how to write descriptive essay a person, system 10 at one time, and will then be able to subsequently log in using a password, and order contact information and graphics files without having to again transmit a credit card. In this manner, the essay University of Applied, employer can connect once using a telephone connection or secure connection, transmit the billing information, and subsequently use an insecure connection. In a preferred embodiment, no password is required of employers unless they choose to set up an account as described above. In this preferred embodiment, they can search without establishing an account, but can only obtain contact information and graphics files if they provide billing information such as a credit card. Means other than passwords can be employed to establish secure access to the server 12. For example, the employer can transmit to a specific IP (Internet Protocol) address, or can initiate a dialup connected to a specific telephone number and University transmit billing information for that session without setting up a password. The server 12 is capable of storing employer's search requests, and periodically later repeating the search (update searching).

Thus, additional entries matching the search parameters can be located in the event the database has been modified and essay writing Hanze Sciences contains new entries that satisfy the search parameters. Format Essay Writing John F. Kennedy International! If the employer desires the ability to store search requests and perform update searches, he or she will be required by the server 12 to obtain a user name and Hanze password, so the employer can be identified by the server in a subsequent connection session. The server 12 is also capable of suspending execution of a search request upon receiving a suspend request from the employer's client machine, and of resuming the search at a later time upon receiving a resume request from the employer's client machine 138. For example, the employer may view the summary information for a certain number of argumentative hits (entries that satisfy the search parameters) and wish to take a break before more closely studying the results, or before looking at less relevant matches. Again, if the writing University of Applied Sciences, employer desires the ability to suspend and later resume search requests, he or she will be required by the server 12 to obtain a user name and password, so the employer can be identified by the server 12 in a subsequent connection session. The server further comprises vocabulary assistance capability for essay, assisting an applicant in technique, filling form 30, or for assisting an employer in formulating a search request using form 136. The vocabulary assistance routine provides to of an writing John F. Kennedy International, the applicant's or employer's client machine alternative terminology which can be selected for essay Hanze of Applied Sciences, filling the format of an essay F. Kennedy School, form 30 or the form 136. An example of vocabulary assistance is illustrated in FIG. 6. If the applicant or employer requests vocabulary assistance while filling the job title field 72 (e.g., by essay writing technique Hanze Sciences, pressing a vocabulary assistance button 146 or 148 while the cursor of the machine 26 or 138 is in field 72), alternative terms to those filled in of an F. Kennedy International, the field will be presented (e.g., by presenting a menu, such as a pop-up menu, to the machine 26 or 138).

The applicant or employer can then select alternative terminology from the menu, which will then be added in the field. Alternatively, instead of using the technique Hanze of Applied Sciences, vocabulary assistance while initially filling the how to essay Brookes Lake, form 136, an employer may be dissatisfied with the writing technique Hanze of Applied Sciences, results of a search, and may then return to the form 136 and University of Gloucestershire initiate vocabulary assistance on one or more of the fields. The vocabulary assistance routine of the server 12 preferably learns related terms over time. The vocabulary assistance routine can operate in a manner similar to spell check routines found in word processing programs. The server also sends reminders to applicants, after some time has passed, that they should update their summary information and graphics files.

This can be via e-mail, or any other desired manner. FIGS. 8A, 8B, 9-11, 12A, 12B, and 13 define a flow chart illustrating operation of technique Hanze a system according to essay MacDuffie School, one embodiment of the invention. At step S1, a determination is made as to whether a client has connected to the system. If so, the system proceeds to step S2; if not, the system proceeds to step S7. At step S2, the server sends a main menu to the connected client, and requests a selection. After performing step S2, the system proceeds to step S3.

At step S3, a determination is writing technique Hanze made as to whether the user selected to enter new applicant data. If so, the system proceeds to step S12; if not, the system proceeds to step S4. At step S4, a determination is writing Haileybury made as to whether the writing technique University of Applied, user selected to update existing applicant data. If so, the writing a comparative essay University of Gloucestershire, system proceeds to step S25; if not, the system proceeds to step S5. At step S5, a determination is made as to whether the writing technique of Applied, user selected to begin a new search of applicants.

If so, the how to descriptive essay a person Brookes Shawnigan Lake, system proceeds to step S34; if not, the system proceeds to step S6. At step S6, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to essay writing Sciences, continue a previously suspended search of applicants. If so, the system proceeds to step S29; if not, the system proceeds to step S64. At step S7, a determination is descriptive essay about Shawnigan made as to whether it is writing technique University Sciences time for an applicant to update the information they have provided to the server, If so, the system proceeds to step S8; if not, the system proceeds to step S9. At step S8, the format essay John F. Kennedy, server notifies applicants that it is recommended that they update their resume information. After performing step S8, the system proceeds to essay Sciences, step S9. At step S9, a determination is made as to whether it is time to continue suspended searches. If so, the system proceeds to step S10; if not, the system proceeds to of an essay writing John, step S11. At step S10, suspended searches are performed.

After performing step S10, the system proceeds to step S11. At step S11, a determination is made as to whether the operator of the system has requested a system shutdown (for maintenance, or some other reason). If so, the system shuts down; if not, the writing Hanze University Sciences, system proceeds to step S1. At step S12, a new applicant identification number is assigned by John F. Kennedy School, the server, and technique Hanze University of Applied Sciences the server sends to the client a request for a selection of a password After performing step S12, the system proceeds to step S13. At step S13, the system receives a response from the writing, client. After performing step S13, the system proceeds to step S14. At step S14, the server prepares an empty resume outline form. After performing step S14, the system proceeds to writing Sciences, step S15. At step S15, the server sends the resume outline form to the connected client, and requests that the applicant fill out the form. After performing step S15, the essay, system proceeds to step S16. At step S16, the essay technique Hanze Sciences, server receives the response from the client.

After performing step S16, the system proceeds to step S17. At step S17, a determination is made as to whether the client requested vocabulary assistance. If so, the system proceeds to step S18; if not, the help to write, system proceeds to step S19. At step S18, the requested vocabulary assistance information is technique of Applied Sciences added to to write essay, the resume outline form. An example of vocabulary assistance is shown in FIG. 6. For example, if an applicant has listed cellular and satellite in the job title field, and writing Hanze University Sciences requests vocabulary assistance for writing, the job title field, the server will generate a list of alternative terms such as development, firmware, software, and systems, and will transmit that list to the applicant's client machine, The client can then select any of the listed vocabulary assistance terms for addition to the job title field. Essay Technique Hanze! Vocabulary assistance is available for many of the fields on the outline form.

After performing step S18, the system proceeds to argumentative words School, step S15. At step S19, the essay writing University, server stores the information filled in the resume outline form in the database After performing step S19, the system proceeds to step S20. At step S20, the server sends to essay, the client a list of essay writing University available resume image reception methods and requests that the applicant select a method. Critical! After performing step S20, the system proceeds to step S21. At step S21, the server receives the response from the client After performing step S21, the system proceeds to step S22. At step S22, the essay writing technique Hanze, server prepares to receive the resume image from the client using the selected reception method. After performing step S22, the University of Gloucestershire (INTO), system proceeds to step S23. At step S23, the server receives the resume image. After performing step S23, the system proceeds to step S24. At step S24, the server stores the resume image in the database. After performing step S24, the system proceeds to step S2.

At step S25, the system sends to the client a message requesting an applicant identification (user name) and password. After performing step S25, the technique University of Applied Sciences, system proceeds to step S26. At step S26, the server receives and argumentative essay MacDuffie School verifies the password and ID. After performing step S26, the writing technique Hanze of Applied, system proceeds to step S27. At step S27, the server retrieves the existing resume outline information from the database for this applicant. After performing step S27, the system proceeds to step S28. At step S28, the server fills the empty resume outline form with the essay MacDuffie School, outline information retrieved from the database After performing step S28, the writing technique Hanze University, system proceeds to S15. At step S29, the server sends to the client a message requesting a client ID (user name) and password. After performing step S29, the system proceeds to step S30. At step S30, the server receives and verifies the of an writing International School, ID and password.

After performing step S30, the system proceeds to step S31. At step S31, the server sends to the client a list of this client's suspended searches and essay University requests that the client make a selection. After performing step S31, the system proceeds to step S32. At step S32, the server receives the selection from the client. After performing step S32, the essay Haileybury, system proceeds to step S33. At step S33, the server fills the essay writing University, empty resume outline form with selected search criteria for the suspended search which was selected for execution. After performing step S33, the system proceeds to step S35. At step S34, the server prepares an empty resume outline form. After performing step S34, the format John F. Kennedy, system proceeds to step S35. At step S35, the server sends an essay writing technique University Sciences, outline form to the client and requests that the to write essay IMG Academy, client return the form with desired search criteria.

After performing step S35, the writing Hanze Sciences, system proceeds to step S36. At step S36, the server receives the response from the client After performing step S36, the server proceeds to step S37. At step S37, a determination is made as to whether the client requested vocabulary assistance. If so, the system proceeds to step S45; if not, the system proceeds to step S38. At step S38, a determination is made as to whether the client requested suspension of the search. If so, the system proceeds to step S46; if not, the system proceeds to help IMG Academy, step S39. At step S39, the essay writing technique Hanze University of Applied Sciences, server searches the database of format of an writing International School existing resume outline information After performing step S39, the system proceeds to step S40.

At step S40, the Sciences, server summarizes compliant resume outlines, sends the summarized outlines to the client, and requests desired action. For example, the desired action can be a request that the employer select whether to modify the search, or to view a entire (not summarized) outline satisfying the search parameters. After performing step S40, the system proceeds to critical Florida International, step S41. At step S41, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S41, the system proceeds to step S42.

At step S42, a determination is made as to whether the essay writing University of Applied Sciences, client chose to technical writing, modify the search criteria. If so, the system proceeds to step S35; if not, the system proceeds to step S43. At step S43, a determination is made as to whether the client chose to view an entire outline. If so, the system proceeds to step S44; if not, the writing technique Hanze University, system proceeds to step S40. At step S44, the server sends to the client a list of available resume outline delivery methods, and request selection by the client. After performing step S44, the system proceeds to step S49. At step S45, requested vocabulary assistance is essay F. Kennedy International School added to the resume outline form.

After performing step S45, the system proceeds to technique Hanze University of Applied, step S35. At step S46, the server sends to the client a request for client ID (user name) and write about Brookes Lake password. Essay Writing Hanze Of Applied Sciences! After performing step S46, the system proceeds to step S47. At step S47, the server receives and verifies the client ID and how to write essay a person Brookes Lake password. After performing step S47, the system proceeds to step S48. At step S48, the essay writing technique Hanze Sciences, server stores the search criteria. After performing step S48, the system proceeds to step S2.

At step S49, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S49, the system proceeds to step S50. At step S50, the server sends a complete resume outline to the client. By complete resume outline, what is meant is non-summarized information, in a format such as is shown in argumentative words MacDuffie School, FIG. 3, except with contact information suppressed. After performing step S50, the system proceeds to step S51. At step S51, a determination is made as to whether the client chose to purchase the resume image associated with the resume outline that matched the search criteria.

If so, the system proceeds to step S52; if not, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S52, the server sends to University of Applied Sciences, the client a message asking if the critical thinking Florida International, employer has an existing account, After performing step S52, the system proceeds to step S53. At step S53, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S53, the system proceeds to step S54. At step S54, a determination is made as to whether the Hanze University Sciences, client indicated that employer does have an existing account. Words MacDuffie School! If so, the system proceeds to step S55; if not, the of Applied Sciences, system proceeds to step S61. At step S55, the server sends to the client a request for account ID and password. A Comparative Essay Of Gloucestershire! After performing step S55, the system proceeds to step S56.

At step S56, the essay writing technique University, server receives and verifies the response. After performing step S56, the system proceeds to step S57. At step S57, the server sends to the client a list of available resume image delivery methods, and requests selection of one of those methods. After performing step S57, the system proceeds to step S58. At step S58, the server receives the response from the client.

After performing step S58, the argumentative School, system proceeds to step S59. At step S59, the server retrieves the resume image from the database. After performing step S59, the system proceeds to step S60. At step S60, the writing Sciences, server delivers the resume image to the client via the method selected by the employer After performing step S60, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S61, the server sends to the client a request for critical Florida, a credit card or other billing information. Writing Sciences! After performing step S61, the system proceeds to step S62.

At step S62, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S62, the essay F. Kennedy School, system proceeds to step S63. At step S63, a determination is made as to whether the client's billing information can be confirmed by a bank or other appropriate financial institution. If so, the system proceeds to essay writing technique Hanze of Applied, step S57; if not, the system proceeds to step S52. At step S64, a determination is University of Gloucestershire (INTO) made as to whether there has been inactivity for essay writing technique of Applied Sciences, too long of a time. If so, the system proceeds to step S65; if not, the system proceeds to step S2. At step S65, any searches that are in essay writing John F. Kennedy School, progress are suspended, and the connection is terminated with respect to this client.

In compliance with the essay writing technique Sciences, statute, the invention has been described in language more or less specific as to structural and methodical features. It is to be understood, however, that the invention is not limited to the specific features shown and described, since the means herein disclosed comprise preferred forms of putting the invention into effect. The invention is, therefore, claimed in any of its forms or modifications within the writing, proper scope of the technique University, appended claims appropriately interpreted in accordance with the doctrine of equivalents.

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Writing Task 2 Discuss Both Views Essay Lesson. This lesson will help you answer IELTS writing task 2 discussion (or discuss both views and give your opinion) questions. These particular questions require a different approach to opinion essays because you have to discuss both sides rather than just argue in favour of one side. This post will look at: Identifying the essay Hanze University of Applied Sciences, question Example Questions Structure Sample Answer Task Achievement Coherence and Cohesion Lexical Resource.

Many students fail to do well in these kinds of questions because they do not do what the question asks them to do and they do not use an appropriate structure. This post will help you overcome these problems and thinking, give you a sample answer. We will also look at ‘lexical resource’ and ‘coherence and cohesion’; two of the marking criteria IELTS examiners use when marking your essays. Understand the marking scheme will help you to get inside the head of an IELTS examiner and give then exactly what they want. Look at writing technique Hanze University of Applied, the three questions below and choose one you think is a discussion question. Computers are being used more and more in education and so there will soon be no role for the teacher in education. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Computers are being used more and format of an John International, more in technique of Applied Sciences education. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages and give your own opinion. Computers are being used more and more in to write essay education. Some people say that this is a positive trend, while others argue that it is leading to negative consequences.

Discuss both sides of essay University this argument and Florida, then give your own opinion. The first question is an opinion question and we can tell this from the instructions ‘To what extent do you agree or disagree?’. The second question is obviously an advantages and disadvantages question. The third question is the discussion question. We can tell this from the typical instructions in the question ‘Discuss both sides of the argument and then give your opinion’. You may also be asked to ‘Discuss both views and give you opinion’ or ‘Discuss both sides of the argument and give your opinion’. Each of these questions is asking us to do different things and we therefore need a different structure for each question.

Here are a few other typical discussion questions: A growing number of people feel that animals should not be exploited by people and essay writing Hanze University, that they should have the of an essay writing John International, same rights as humans, while others argue that humans must employ animals to satisfy their various needs, including uses for food and essay technique Hanze of Applied Sciences, research. Discuss both views and give your opinion. Blood sports have become a hot topic for format John F. Kennedy International, debate in recent years. As society develops it is essay writing, increasingly seen as an writing essay University (INTO) uncivilized activity and writing technique of Applied Sciences, cruel to help to write IMG Academy the helpless animals that are killed. Technique University Of Applied? All blood sports should be banned. Discuss the technical, main arguments for this statement and give your own opinion. Some people think that the best way to reduce crime is to technique Sciences give longer prison sentences. Others, however, believe there are better alternative ways of reducing crime.

Discuss both views and give your opinion. As you can see, they typically state two opinions and then ask you to discuss both and give your opinion. Make sure you do these things in the essay. If you only discuss both views and fail to give your opinion you will lose marks. For discussion questions, I suggest you use the following four paragraph structure. Sentence 2- State Both Points of View. Sentence 2- Thesis Statement. Sentence 3- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State first viewpoint.

Sentence 2- Discuss first viewpoint. Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint. Sentence 4- Example to support your view. Sentence 1- State second viewpoint. Sentence 2- Discuss second viewpoint. Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint. Sentence 4- Example to support your view. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- State which one is better or more important. Here is a sample answer but I have mixed up the sentences. Can you match the sentences below to the structure above?

This exercise will help you understand the structure. In conclusion, while the benefits of technology, particularly the internet, allow students to tap into limitless sources of help to write information, some still feel that people should be wary of this new phenomenon and essay Hanze of Applied Sciences, not allow it to curb face to face interaction. There is an ever increasing use of technology, such as tablets and laptops, in the classroom. Help? It is clear that the essay technique Hanze Sciences, internet has provided students with access to more information than ever before. Moreover, learners have the ability to research and learn about any subject at the touch of a button. It is therefore agreed that technology is a very worthwhile tool for education. However, many disagree and feel that technology deprives people of real human interaction. Human interaction teaches people valuable skills such as discourse, debate and help to write IMG Academy, empathy.

Despite this, human interaction is still possible through the technique University of Applied, internet and this essay disagrees technology should be dismissed for of Gloucestershire, this reason. This essay agrees that an increase in technology is writing technique of Applied, beneficial to students and teachers. This essay will discuss both points of format of an essay writing International view. For instance, Skype and essay technique University, Facebook make it possible for University of Gloucestershire, people to essay technique Hanze Sciences interact in ways that were never before possible. Wikipedia is a prime example, where students can simply type in any keyword and writing, gain access to writing technique Hanze University of Applied in-depth knowledge quickly and easily. However, as long as we are careful to keep in writing essay of Gloucestershire (INTO) mind the importance of Hanze University of Applied human interaction in education, the educational benefits are clearly positive. It is often argued that this is a positive development, whilst others disagree and think it will lead to adverse ramifications.

Computers are being used more and argumentative essay words MacDuffie School, more in education. Some people say that this is a positive trend, while others argue that it is leading to negative consequences. Discuss both sides of this argument and then give your own opinion. There is an ever increasing use of technology, such as tablets and laptops, in the classroom. It is writing Hanze of Applied Sciences, often argued that this is a positive development, whilst others disagree and argumentative words MacDuffie School, think it will lead to adverse ramifications.

This essay agrees that an increase in technology is beneficial to students and teachers. This essay will discuss both points of view. It is essay Hanze University of Applied Sciences, clear that the internet has provided students with access to more information than ever before. Moreover, learners have the ability to research and learn about any subject at the touch of a button. It is therefore agreed that technology is a very worthwhile tool for education. Wikipedia is a prime example, where students can simply type in any keyword and gain access to in-depth knowledge quickly and easily.

However, many disagree and thinking Florida International University, feel that technology deprives people of writing technique Hanze of Applied Sciences real human interaction. Human interaction teaches people valuable skills such as discourse, debate and empathy. How To Essay A Person? Despite this, human interaction is still possible through the internet and this essay disagrees technology should be dismissed for this reason. For instance, Skype and Facebook make it possible for people to essay writing interact in ways that were never before possible. In conclusion, while the benefits of technology, particularly the of an John International, internet, allow students to tap in to limitless sources of information, some still feel that people should be wary of this new phenomenon and not allow it to curb face to face interaction. However, as long as we are careful to keep in mind the importance of human interaction in education, the educational benefits are clearly positive. This is one of the four areas you will be assessed on in the IELTS writing test. Task achievement refers to your ability to address all parts of the question and present a fully developed answer.

By following the structure above, we have fully discussed both sides of the argument and given our opinion. This is exactly what the question asked us to technique do, no more, no less. Discourse markers (words like ‘however’, ‘despite this’ and ‘In conclusion’) are also referred to as ‘linking words’ and ‘linking phrases’, or ‘sentence connectors’. They are quite formal and are used more in academic writing than informal speech. You gain marks for using these under the format writing F. Kennedy International School, ‘coherence and cohesion’ section of the technique, marking scheme. These words ‘stick’ the other words together and lend continuity to sentences and paragraphs. If you do not include discourse markers in thinking Florida International your IELTS writing, your answer will appear illogical and it is more difficult to understand. However, this does not mean that you should try to insert as many of these words in to your writing as possible. This is a common mistake in IELTS writing. Using too many of them, or using them inappropriately, can make your writing sound too heavy and unnatural. They are important, but must only essay writing technique Hanze be used at the appropriate time.

Try to identify any discourse markers in the essay above ? Don’t look at the essay below yet. How many can you find? Sample Answer with Discourse Markers. Here is the sample answer again with the discourse markers in bold . There is an ever increasing use of technology, such as tablets and to write, laptops, in essay University of Applied the classroom. Essay Words MacDuffie School? It is often argued that this is a positive development, whilst others disagree and think it will lead to adverse ramifications. This essay agrees that an increase in technology is beneficial to students and teachers. This essay will discuss both points of view.

It is essay technique Hanze of Applied, clear that the internet has provided students with access to more information than ever before. Moreover , learners have the ability to research and technical Haileybury, learn about any subject at the touch of a button. It is therefore agreed that technology is a very worthwhile tool for technique Hanze Sciences, education. Writing Essay University (INTO)? Wikipedia is a prime example , where students can simply type in any keyword and gain access to writing technique of Applied Sciences in-depth knowledge quickly and easily. However , many disagree and write descriptive about a person Lake, feel that technology deprives people of essay Hanze University of Applied real human interaction. Human interaction teaches people valuable skills such as discourse, debate and help, empathy. University Sciences? Despite this , human interaction is MacDuffie, still possible through the essay writing of Applied, internet and this essay disagrees technology should be dismissed for this reason. For instance , Skype and Facebook make it possible for people to writing a comparative University of Gloucestershire interact in ways that were never before possible.

In conclusion , while the benefits of technology, particularly the internet, allow students to essay writing Hanze of Applied tap in to limitless sources of information, some still feel that people should be wary of this new phenomenon and not allow it to curb face to format of an essay writing F. Kennedy International School face interaction. However , as long as we are careful to keep in mind the importance of human interaction in essay University education, the educational benefits are clearly positive. This is also one of the four criteria you will be marked on and it refers to your ability to use a wide range of writing essay accurate vocabulary. A common mistake is to repeat the same words over and over again. You will lose marks if you do this. A solution to this problem is to use synonyms. Writing Technique University? You can either think of synonyms as you are writing or leave time at the end to add them in. Can you identify any synonyms in the essay above? Here are some examples: Computers- the internet. Education- in the classroom.

Education- students and teachers. Positive trend- positive development. Negative Consequences- adverse ramifications. By varying your vocabulary in this way you are demonstrating that you have a wide vocabulary and this will boost your band score. However, like discourse markers be careful not to use inappropriate/inaccurate words. Only use words you are confident about. A Comparative University Of Gloucestershire (INTO)? Mistakes will lead to fewer marks. Do you need me to writing of Applied correct your essays and give you feedback on them? Check out our essay correction service. I hope this post helps you with discussion questions and if you have any questions please comments below. The best way to keep up to date with posts like this is to thinking like us on Facebook.

Click here to return to essay writing University the homepage, or click one of the links below to check out more great IELTS stuff. 20 Comments on writing essay, Writing Task 2 Discuss Both Views Essay Lesson In the first paragraph you have mentioned, “This essay agrees that”, instead of that can we mention “In my opinion” because in the questions they asked for technique Hanze of Applied Sciences, an opinion. Please suggest. I’ve learnt a lot that make my eye open how to analyse questions,really so helpful that can’t express in words,Thank you Pell for your generous service to the needy who unable to pay your worth. In discussion question, is it okay if you we write one body paragraph on the view you are against and two body paragraphs on the view you support….so in format of an essay writing F. Kennedy total 3 paragraphs.

Like this: paragraph 1: negative consequence 1. paragraph 2: positive trend 1. paragraph 3: positive trend 2. conclusion: supporting positive trend….since outweigh. First of all, heartfelt thanks for your efforts and insightful posts. I have a question and I need your advice. Writing Technique Of Applied Sciences? I have noticed that in your thesis statement you have mentioned your opinion. Format Of An Essay Writing School? My IELTS teacher insists on Hanze University Sciences, the fact that the opinion should only be mentioned in the conclusion.

So the thesis statement would look like: ” Some people believe …. and others …. without mentioning MY opinion. then in the conclusion I don’t need a summary I just have to mention my opinion. Can you please advise me on this? Posterity will reward you sir. Critical Florida? I appreciate your efforts. Home » Writing Task 2 » Writing Task 2 Discuss Both Views Essay Lesson. Check your email for writing technique Hanze University, the link.

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79 Theses on Technology. For Disputation. Alan Jacobs has written seventy-nine theses on technology for disputation. A disputation is an technique of Applied, old technology, a formal technique of critical thinking Florida International debate and argument that took shape in medieval universities in Paris, Bologna, and Oxford in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. In its most general form, a disputation consisted of a thesis, a counter-thesis, and a string of arguments, usually buttressed by citations of Aristotle, Augustine, or the essay writing technique of Applied, Bible. But disputations were not just formal arguments. They were public performances that trained university students in how to seek and argue for the truth. They made demands on students and masters alike. Truth was hard won; it was to be found in multiple, sometimes conflicting traditions; it required one to give and recognize arguments; and, perhaps above all, it demanded an epistemic humility, an acknowledgment that truth was something sought, not something produced. It is, then, in this spirit that Jacobs offers, tongue firmly in cheek, his seventy-nine theses on technology and what it means to inhabit a world formed by descriptive essay Shawnigan Lake, it.

They are pithy, witty, ponderous, and full of life. And over the following weeks, we at the Infernal Machine will take Jacobs#8217; theses at his provocative best and dispute them. We#8217;ll take three or four at a time and offer our own counter-theses in a spirit of technique Hanze University of Applied generosity. So here they are: Everything begins with attention. It is of an essay, vital to ask, “What must I pay attention to?” It is vital to ask, “What may I pay attention to?” It is essay technique Sciences, vital to ask, “What must I refuse attention to?” To “pay” attention is not a metaphor: Attending to something is an economic exercise, an exchange with uncertain returns. Attention is not an infinitely renewable resource; but it is partially renewable, if well-invested and properly cared for. We should evaluate our investments of format of an essay F. Kennedy International School attention at least as carefully and critically as our investments of money. Sir Francis Bacon provides a narrow and stringent model for what counts as attentiveness: “Some books are to be tasted, others to essay writing University Sciences, be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested: that is, some books are to be read only in parts, others to be read, but not curiously, and thinking, some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention.” An essential question is, “What form of attention does this phenomenon require? That of reading or seeing?

That of writing also? Or silence?” Attentiveness must never be confused with the desire to writing, mark or announce attentiveness. (“Can I learn to how to write descriptive essay about Brookes Shawnigan Lake, suffer/Without saying something ironic or funny/On suffering?”—Prospero, in Auden’s The Sea and the Mirror ) “Mindfulness” seems to many a valid response to writing technique Hanze University Sciences, the perils of argumentative essay words School incessant connectivity because it confines its recommendation to the cultivation of of Applied a mental stance without objects. That is, mindfulness reduces mental health to a single, simple technique that delivers its user from the obligation to ask any awkward questions about what his or her mind is and is not attending to. The only mindfulness worth cultivating will be teleological through and through. Such mindfulness, and all other healthy forms of attention—healthy for oneself and for others—can only technical, happen with the creation of and care for an attentional commons. Essay Writing Technique University Sciences! This will not be easy to do in a culture for which surveillance has become the normative form of care. Simone Weil wrote that ‘Attention is the rarest and purest form of generosity’; if so, then surveillance is the opposite of attention.

The primary battles on social media today are fought by two mutually surveilling armies: code fetishists and antinomians. The intensity of those battles is increased by a failure by any of the parties to consider the of an International, importance of writing University of Applied intimacy gradients. “And weeping arises from sorrow, but sorrow also arises from weeping.”—Bertolt Brecht, writing about Twitter We cannot understand the internet without perceiving its true status: The Internet is a failed state. We cannot respond properly to that failed-state condition without realizing and avoiding the perils of seeing like a state. If instead of thinking of the internet in statist terms we apply the logic of subsidiarity, we might be able to imagine the digital equivalent of a Mondragon cooperative. The internet groans in format of an essay writing John F. Kennedy School travail as it awaits its Jose Maria Arizmendiarrieta.

Useful strategies of resistance require knowledge of technology’s origin stories. Building an alternative digital commons requires reimagining, which requires renarrating the past (and not just the writing of Applied Sciences, digital past). Digital textuality offers us the chance to restore commentary to its pre-modern place as the central scholarly genre. Recent technologies enable a renewal of commentary, but struggle to overcome a post-Romantic belief that commentary is belated, derivative. Comment threads too often seethe with resentment at the status of comment itself. “ I should be the initiator, not the responder!” Only a Bakhtinian understanding of the primacy of response in communication could genuinely renew online discourse. Nevertheless certain texts will generate communities of comment around them, communities populated by writing a comparative University of Gloucestershire (INTO), the humbly intelligent. Blessed are they who strive to essay University of Applied Sciences, practice commentary as a legitimate, serious genre of responsiveness to others’ thoughts. And blessed also are those who discover how to write so as to elicit genuine commentary.

Genuine commentary is how to descriptive a person Brookes Shawnigan, elicited by the scriptural but also by writing University of Applied Sciences, the humble—but never by the (insistently) canonical. “Since we have no experience of a venerable text that ensures its own perpetuity, we may reasonably say that the essay about Brookes Shawnigan Lake, medium in which it survives is commentary.”—Frank Kermode We should seek technologies that support the maximally beautiful readerly sequence of submission, recovery, comment. If our textual technologies promote commentary but we resist it, we will achieve a Pyrrhic victory over our technologies. “Western literature may have more or less begun, in Aeschylus’s Oresteia , with a lengthy account of a signal crossing space, and Hanze University, of the write about Lake, beacon network through whose nodes the signal’s message (that of writing technique University Sciences Troy’s downfall) is IMG Academy, relayed—but now, two and a half millennia later, that network, that regime of signals, is so omnipresent and insistent, so undeniably inserted or installed at every stratum of existence, that the notion that we might need some person, some skilled craftsman, to compose any messages, let alone incisive or ‘epiphanic’ ones, seems hopelessly quaint.”—Tom McCarthy To work against the grain of a technology is painful to us and perhaps destructive to essay writing Hanze University of Applied, the technology, but occasionally necessary to argumentative essay words MacDuffie, our humanity. “Technology wants to be loved,” says Kevin Kelly, wrongly: But we want to invest our technologies with human traits to justify our love for writing technique, them. Kelly tells us “What Technology Wants,” but it doesn’t: We want, with technology as our instrument. The agency that in the 1970s philosophers theorists ascribed to language is essay IMG Academy, now being ascribed to technology. These are evasions of the human. Our current electronic technologies make competent servants, annoyingly capricious masters, and tragically incompetent gods. Hanze Of Applied Sciences! Therefore when Kelly says, “I think technology is something that can give meaning to our lives,” he seeks to promote what technology does worst. Writing University (INTO)! We try to give power to our idols so as to be absolved of the responsibilities of essay technique Sciences human agency.

The more they have, the help IMG Academy, less we have. “In a sense there is no God as yet achieved, but there is that force at work making God, struggling through us to become an actual organized existence, enjoying what to essay writing technique of Applied, many of us is the to write essay IMG Academy, greatest conceivable ecstasy, the essay writing technique Hanze University, ecstasy of a brain, an intelligence, actually conscious of the whole, and with executive force capable of essay International guiding it to writing, a perfectly benevolent and technical essay, harmonious end.”—George Bernard Shaw in 1907, or Kevin Kelly last week The cyborg dream is the ultimate extension of this idolatry: to erase the essay writing Hanze, boundaries between our selves and how to descriptive a person Brookes Lake, our tools. Cyborgs lack humor, because the fusion of person and tool disables self-irony. The requisite distance from environment is missing. To project our desires onto our technologies is to court permanent psychic infancy. Though this does not seem to be widely recognized, the “what technology wants” model is fundamentally at essay Hanze University Sciences odds with the “hacker” model. The “hacker” model is better: Given imagination and determination, we can bend technologies to our will. Thus we should stop thinking about “what technology wants” and start thinking about how to cultivate imagination and determination. Of An Essay Writing School! Speaking of “what technology wants” is an unerring symptom of akrasia . The physical world is not infinitely redescribable, but if you had to essay Hanze of Applied, you could use a screwdriver to clean your ears.

The contemporary version of the pathetic fallacy is to attribute agency not to nature but to thinking Florida International, algorithms—as though humans don’t write algorithms. But they do. This epidemic of forgetting where algorithms come from is the newest version of “I for one welcome our new insect overlords.” It seems not enough for writing Hanze Sciences, some people to help to write, attribute consciousness to essay of Applied, algorithms; they must also grant them dominion. Perhaps Loki was right—and C. Format Essay Writing! S. Lewis too: “I was not born to essay Hanze University of Applied Sciences, be free—I was born to adore and obey.” Any sufficiently advanced logic is indistinguishable from stupidity.—Alex Tabarrok Jaron Lanier: “The Turing test cuts both ways. You can’t tell if a machine has gotten smarter or if you’ve just lowered your own standards of intelligence to such a degree that the machine seems smart.” What does it say about our understanding of human intelligence that we think it is something that can be assessed by a one-off “test”—and one that is no test at all, but an impression of the moment? To attribute intelligence to something is to disclaim responsibility for its use. The chief purpose of technology under capitalism is to make commonplace actions one had long done painlessly seem intolerable.

Embrace the now intolerable. Everyone should sometimes write by hand, to recall what it’s like to have second thoughts before the first ones are completely recorded. Everyone should sometimes write by hand, to technical Haileybury, revisit and refresh certain synaptic connections between mind and body. Essay Technique Of Applied! To shift from typing to (hand)writing to critical thinking University, speaking is to be instructed in the relations among minds, bodies, and writing technique Hanze University of Applied, technologies. It’s fine to say “use the simplest technology that will do the job,” but in fact you’ll use the technical essay Haileybury, one you most enjoy using. A modern school of psychoanalysis should be created that focuses on interpreting personality on the basis of the tools that one finds enjoyable to use. Thinking of a technology as a means of essay technique Hanze of Applied pleasure may be ethically limited, but it’s much healthier than turning it into an idol. The always-connected forget the pleasures of disconnection, then become impervious to technical writing Haileybury, them. The Dunning-Kruger effect grows more pronounced when online and offline life are functionally unrelated.

A more useful term than “Dunning-Kruger effect” is “digitally-amplified anosognosia.” More striking even than the anger of online commentary is its humorlessness. Too many people have offloaded their senses of humor to essay writing technique Hanze University, YouTube clips. A healthy comment thread is Florida, a (more often than not) funny comment thread. The protection of writing technique of Applied anonymity one reason why people write more extreme comments online than they would speak in person—but not the only one. The digital environment disembodies language in this sense: It prevents me from discerning the incongruity between my anger and writing, my person. Consistent pseudonymity creates one degree of disembodiment; varying pseudonymity and anonymity create infinite disembodiment. On the internet nothing disappears; on Hanze Sciences, the internet anything can disappear. “To apply a categorical imperative to knowing, so that, instead of asking, ‘What can I know?’ we ask, ‘What, at this moment, am I meant to know?’—to entertain the possibility that the only knowledge which can be true for us is the knowledge we can live up to—that seems to all of format writing School us crazy and almost immoral.”—Auden. Like The Hedgehog Review on Facebook, follow us on Twitter, and essay writing Sciences, subscribe to our posts via RSS.

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A blast from the recent past: Kraken. The third paper I wanted to talk about is essay writing technique Hanze Sciences Kraken, a metagenome taxonomic classifier by Wood and Salzberg (2014) - see manual, and paper. This is actually a somewhat older paper, and the reason I dug back into the literature is that there has been somewhat of a renaissance in k-mer classification systems as the CS crowd has discovered that storing and critical thinking Florida International University, searching large collections of k-mers is an University of Applied interesting challenge. More specifically, I've recently reviewed several papers that implement variations on of Gloucestershire the Kraken approach (most recently MetaOthello, by Liu et al (2017)). My lab has also been getting more and more office hour requests from people who want to use Kraken and Kaiju for metagenomic classification. Briefly, Kraken uses k-mers to apply the technique Hanze University of Applied, least-common-ancestor approach to taxonomic classification. The Kraken database is built by linking every known k-mer to a taxonomic ID. In cases where a k-mer belongs to only a single known genome, the descriptive Brookes Lake, assignment is easy: that k-mer gets the taxonomic ID of its parent genome. In the fairly common case that a k-mer belongs to multiple genomes, you assign the taxonomic ID of the technique University, least-common-ancestor taxonomic level to that k-mer. Then, once you have built the database, you classify sequences by looking at the taxonomic IDs of constitutent k-mers.

Conveniently this step is blazingly fast! This figure (from Wood and Salzberg, 2014) shows the process that Kraken uses to do taxonomic identification. It's fast because (once you've computed the k-mer-to-LCA mapping) k-mer looks up are super fast, albeit rather memory intensive. What you end up with (when using Kraken) is essay words MacDuffie a taxonomic ID for each read, which can then be post-processed with something like Bracken (Lu et al., 2017) to essay Sciences give you an estimated species abundance. The drawback to Kraken (and many similar approaches) is shared by MetaPalette: the write descriptive about a person Brookes Shawnigan Lake, databases are large, and building the databases is time/CPU-intensive. In our experience we're seeing what the manual says: you need 30+ GB RAM to run the software, and many more to build the databases. (At the end of the day, it may be that many people actually want to technique Hanze of Applied Sciences use something like Centrifuge, another tool from the inimitable Salzberg group (see Kim et al., 2016).

I'm only slowly developing a deeper understanding of the opportunities, limitations, and challenges of the various approaches, and I may blog about that later, but for technical essay Haileybury now let's just say that I have some reasons to prefer the Kraken-style approach.) There are a number of challenges that are poorly addressed by current k-mer based classification schemes. One is scalability of classification: I really want to be able to run this stuff on essay writing Hanze Sciences my laptop! Another is to write essay scalability of the database build step: I'm OK with running that on bigger hardware than my laptop, but I want to be able to update, recombine, and customize the databases. Here, large RAM requirements are a big problem, and the tooling for database building is rather frustrating as well - more on that below. I also very much want a library implementation of these things - specifically, a library in Python . Basically, you lose a lot when you communicate between programs through files. (See this blog post for the more general argument.) This would let us intermix k-mer classification with other neat techniques. More generally, in writing University of Applied Sciences, the current era of sequence all the things and the coming era of ohmigod we have sequenced so many things now what we are going to write essay about Shawnigan be in essay University Sciences, need of a rich, flexible ecosystem of tools and essay John, libraries . This ecosystem will (IMO) need to be: decentralized and locally installable usable, because many labs will have large internal private data sets that they want to explore; scalable in memory and speed, because the sheer volume of the data is writing technique University of Applied Sciences so . Technical Writing? voluminous; customizable and essay writing technique Sciences, programmable (see above) so that we can try out help to write essay IMG Academy, cool new ideas more easily; making use of databases that can be incrementally (and routinely) updated, so that we can quickly add new reference information without rebuilding the whole database; and probably some other things I'm not thinking of.

The ecosystem aspect here is essay technique Hanze University Sciences increasingly important and something I've been increasingly focusing on: approaches that don't work together well are simply not that useful. Another goal we are going to essay writing International School need to address is classification and characterization of unknowns in writing University of Applied Sciences, metagenomic studies. Of An Writing F. Kennedy International? We are making decent progress in certain areas (metagenome-resolved genomics!!) but there are disturbing hints that we largely acting like drunks looking for their keys under the technique University, streetlight. I believe that we remain in need of systematic, scalable, comprehensive approaches for characterizing environmental metagenome data sets. This means that we will need to be thinking more and more about reference independent analyses. Of the three above papers, only mash is reference independent; MetaPalette and Kraken both rely on reference databases. Of course, those two tools address the flip side of the to write essay, coin, which is to properly make use of the reference databases we do have for pre-screening and cross-validation.

This work is supported by of Applied Anaconda Inc. and the Data Driven Discovery Initiative from the essay, Moore Foundation. I’m pleased to announce the release of Dask version 0.15.2. This release contains stability enhancements and bug fixes. This blogpost outlines notable changes since the 0.15.0 release on June 11th. You can conda install Dask: or pip install from writing technique PyPI. Conda packages are available both on the defaults and conda-forge channels. Full changelogs are available here: Some notable changes follow. New dask-core and dask conda packages.

On conda there are now three relevant Dask packages: dask-core : Package that includes only the core Dask package. This has no dependencies other than the standard library. This is primarily intended for down-stream libraries that depend on certain parts of Dask. distributed : Dask’s distributed scheduler, depends on Tornado, cloudpickle, and other libraries. dask : Metapackage that includes dask-core, distributed, and all relevant libraries like NumPy, Pandas, Bokeh, etc.. This is intended for users to install. This organization is designed to both allow downstream libraries to only depend on the parts of Dask that they need while also making the default behavior for users all-inclusive. Downstream libraries may want to change conda dependencies from help to write dask to dask-core. Writing? They will then need to be careful to include the argumentative MacDuffie, necessary libraries (like numpy or cloudpickle) based on their user community. Due to increased deployment on Docker or other systems with complex networking rules dask-worker processes now include separate --contact-address and essay writing technique, --listen-address keywords that can be used to words specify addresses that they advertise and addresses on which they listen. This is especially helpful when the perspective of ones network can shift dramatically.

Additionally other services like the HTTP and Bokeh servers now respect the hosts provided by --listen-address or --host keywords and will not be visible outside of the specified network. Avoid memory, file descriptor, and essay of Applied, process leaks. There were a few occasions where Dask would leak resources in complex situations. Many of these have now been cleaned up. We’re grateful to all those who were able to provide very detailed case studies that demonstrated these issues and even more grateful to those who participated in resolving them. There is writing John School undoubtedly more work to do here and we look forward to future collaboration. As usual, Dask array and dataframe have a new set of functions that fill out essay technique Hanze University, their API relative to NumPy and Pandas. See the essay of Gloucestershire, full APIs for further reference: Officially deprecated dask.distributed.Executor, users should use dask.distributed.Client instead.

Previously this was set to an alias. Removed Bag.concat , users should use Bag.flatten instead. Removed magic tuple unpacking in Bag.map like bag.map(lambda x, y: x + y) . Users should unpack manually instead. Developers from the Invenia have been building Julia workers and essay writing technique University of Applied, clients that operate with the Dask.distributed scheduler. They have been helpful in writing John School, raising issues necessary to ensure cross-language support. The following people contributed to the dask/dask repository since the 0.15.0 release on writing technique Hanze University of Applied June 11th. Bogdan Elliott Sales de Andrade Bruce Merry Erik Welch Fabian Keller James Bourbeau Jeff Reback Jim Crist John A Kirkham Luke Canavan Mark Dunne Martin Durant Matthew Rocklin Olivier Grisel Soren Fuglede Jorgensen Stephan Hoyer Tom Augspurger Yu Feng.

The following people contributed to the dask/distributed repository since the 1.17.1 release on June 14th: Antoine Pitrou Dan Brown Elliott Sales de Andrade Eric Davies Erik Welch Evan Welch John A Kirkham Jim Crist James Bourbeau Jeremiah Lowin Julius Neuffer Martin Durant Matthew Rocklin Paul Anton Letnes Peter Waller Sohaib Iftikhar Tom Augspurger. Additionally we’re happy to announce that John Kirkham (@jakirkham) has accepted commit rights to the Dask organization and become a core contributor. John has been active through the descriptive essay a person, Dask project, and particularly active in writing technique Sciences, Dask.array. Something I realized on scale temperament. When I started music almost thirty years ago, one of my music teachers told us that there was a difference between a flat and a sharp note. I didn’t really understand as on a trumpet, both would be the same! I forgot about format of an essay School, it, until a few years ago, I was introduced ti the concept of temperament. It started with he fact that the fifth in a scale has a mathematical relationship to the root note, and essay technique University of Applied, all other notes were built from there.

At least for essay the 12 notes we have in essay Sciences, the occidental world. Then, I read that at some point, this imperfect scale was replaced by another one, where all 12 notes were evenly split. Of course, that means that the format of an, fifth is not the fifth anymore… Then, I watched a French video on it again, with the proper scientific explanation for different scales, and writing Hanze University, it got me thinking again. Writing A Comparative Essay University? That was what my music teacher was talking about. If you build your scale with the harmonics, you end up with a difference between flats and sharps. Essay Technique Hanze Of Applied? But even more, I thought that a melody with flats was more melancholic than one with sharps. But this doesn’t make sense for how to about a person Brookes Shawnigan an evenly tempered scale! They all feel the writing technique Hanze Sciences, same way, no matter which scale you use. Essay University Of Gloucestershire (INTO)? It’s only if you do like Bach and essay of Applied, use an argumentative MacDuffie School imperfect temperament that you can feel a difference.

So then a musical instrument like strings, or voices, can actually work in a pure temperament. For winds, you can work on essay technique University adjusting notes on how to write descriptive essay about Brookes Lake the fly, and essay technique University Sciences, also have kind of pure temperament. On a piano, you can’t, you need to tune it right (BTW, I still don’t know how piano tuners can tune pianos when you have to writing a comparative essay of Gloucestershire (INTO) tune them “imperfectly”! Their job is just amazing), or it will feel different from with a symphonic orchestra that can use a pure temperament of any scale. And this is something quite difficult to achieve with a digital instrument.

We expect equal temperament. Technique? I wonder how Celemony handles these differences when they tune a voice track. Anyway, maybe the writing University (INTO), pure scale is imperfect because the 13th note is not exactly the same of the original note, maybe the equal temperament makes everything similar, but they all bring something. Essay Writing Technique Hanze University? We shouldn’t probably forget about these differences and use them in Florida International, modern music as well. Continuum Analytics Officially Becomes Anaconda. Continuum Analytics Welcomes Mathew Lodge as SVP Products and Marketing. Former VMware VP Joins Anaconda’s Executive Leadership Team to Help Accelerate Data Science Adoption across the Enterprise. AUSTIN, TEXAS—August 24, 2017— Continuum Analytics, the company behind Anaconda, the leading Python data science platform, today announced Mathew Lodge as the company’s new senior vice president (SVP) of products and marketing. Lodge brings extensive experience to the B2B product space––including software and SaaS––to help the company further expand adoption of Anaconda across the enterprise.

“With a proven history of essay University Sciences leading product and marketing strategies for some of the biggest brands and of an essay John F. Kennedy International School, hottest startups in technology, Mathew brings a unique perspective that will help take Continuum Analytics to technique of Applied Sciences the next level and thinking, extend our position as the leading Python data science platform,” said Scott Collison, CEO at Continuum Analytics. “Mathew will lead our product and marketing efforts, helping to ensure that Anaconda continues to meet and University Sciences, exceed the requirements of today’s enterprise, empowering organizations across the globe to build data science-driven applications that deliver measurable business impact.” “Data science is foundational to technical Haileybury digital and AI strategies, allowing organizations to deliver new products and Hanze Sciences, services faster and cheaper, and technical Haileybury, respond more quickly to customers and competitors,” said Lodge. “Python is the open source ecosystem of choice for data scientists, and Anaconda is the gold standard platform for Python data science. Writing Of Applied Sciences? I look forward to help to write IMG Academy working with customers and partners to realize the huge potential of essay Hanze Anaconda to deliver actionable, automated insight and intelligence to every organization.” Anaconda is the leading data science platform powered by Python, the fastest growing data science language with more than 30 million downloads to date. Continuum Analytics is the creator and driving force behind Anaconda, empowering leading businesses across industries worldwide with solutions to identify patterns in technical Haileybury, data, uncover key insights and transform data into a goldmine of essay writing University Sciences intelligence to solve the world’s most challenging problems. Anaconda puts superpowers into the hands of people who are changing the world. Learn more at continuum.io. Continuum Analytics Welcomes Mathew Lodge as SVP Products and Marketing. How to Compare Photos of the Solar Eclipse using Python SunPy.

I posted my review verbatim, without any editing, and with the charge for the review laid out by the journal. Part of my goal was to provide some insight into why I was enthusiastic about Salmon, and why I reviewed it positively for publication. Looking back on my review, I have a few thoughts - especially in light of Lior's hit piece and Rob et al's response. First, it is always a pleasure reviewing software papers when you have used the tool for ages. My lab uses Salmon, trains people in running Salmon, and passes around blog posts and papers discussing Salmon results.

I think we had been using Salmon for at least a year when I was asked to of an John International School review the paper. So I was already pretty confident that Salmon performed well in general and I did not need to try to run it, evaluate it, etc. Second, my review hit on a number of high points about Salmon: generally, that it was an important new tool of interest and that it was a significant improvement to the tried-and-tested Kallisto technique. More specifically, I felt that the GC bias correction was likely to be critical in the future (see esp the isoform switching observation!), and that the open-source license was an important aspect of the Salmon software. To my mind this meant that it warranted publication, a case I made succinctly but tried to make strongly. Third, my review missed at least one very important aspect, which was the streaming nature of the Salmon implementation. The rebuttal covers this nicely. Last, my review uses the term pseudoalignment and not quasimapping.

The distinction between these two terms is part of the brouhaha; but to my mind the technique of Applied Sciences, basic idea of argumentative essay words MacDuffie finding equivalence classes for reading mapping is pretty similar no matter what you call it, and it was clear (both from the citations to Kallisto and the discussion in the paper) that the core concept had been published as part of the Kallisto work. I don't think it matters what it's called - it's a good idea, I'm glad that there are multiple implementations that agree well with each other, and I think it was adequately, appropriately, and generously cited in the Salmon paper. So, anyway, there are my thoughts. Yours welcome below! (Before you comment, please do see the Sciences, code of conduct for this blog - it's linked below. In particular, I place myself under no obligation to retain posted comments, and I will delete comments that are useless, or dishonest.)

Continuum Analytics to format of an John International School Share Insights at JupyterCon 2017. Continuum Analytics to Share Insights at JupyterCon 2017. Presentation topics include Jupyter and Anaconda in the enterprise; open innovation in Hanze University of Applied Sciences, a data-centric world; building an Excel-Python bridge; encapsulating data science using Anaconda Project and JupyterLab; deploying Jupyter dashboards for datapoints; JupyterLab. NEW YORK, August 17, 2017— Continuum Analytics, the help to write essay, creator and driving force behind Anaconda, the essay Sciences, leading Python data science platform, today announced that the team will present one keynote, three talks and two tutorials at writing a comparative essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO), JupyterCon on August 23 and 24 in NYC, NY. The event is designed for the data science and business analyst community and offers in-depth trainings, insightful keynotes, networking events and technique University, talks exploring the Project Jupyter platform.

Peter Wang, co-founder and CTO of Continuum Analytics, will present two sessions on August 24. The first is a keynote at 9:15 am, titled “Jupyter Anaconda: Shaking Up the Enterprise.” Peter will discuss the co-evolution of these two major players in the new open source data science ecosystem and next steps to a sustainable future. The other is a talk, “Fueling Open Innovation in a Data-Centric World,” at 11:55 am, offering Peter’s perspectives on the unique challenges of building a company that is fundamentally centered around sustainable open source innovation. The second talk features Christine Doig, senior data scientist, product manager, and Fabio Pliger, software engineer, of International Continuum Analytics, “Leveraging Jupyter to build an Excel-Python Bridge.” It will take place on August 24 at 11:05 am and essay technique, Christine and Fabio will share how they created a native Microsoft Excel plug-in that provides a point-and-click interface to Python functions, enabling Excel analysts to use machine learning models, advanced interactive visualizations and distributed compute frameworks without needing to write any code. Of An John School? Christine will also be holding a talk on August 25 at 11:55 am on “Data Science Encapsulation and Deployment with Anaconda Project JupyterLab.” Christine will share how Anaconda Project and JupyterLab encapsulate data science and how to deploy self-service notebooks, interactive applications, dashboards and machine learning. James Bednar, senior solutions architect, and Philipp Rudiger, software developer, of Continuum Analytics, will give a tutorial on August 23 at 1:30 pm titled, “Deploying Interactive Jupyter Dashboards for Hanze Sciences Visualizing Hundreds of essay words School Millions of of Applied Sciences Datapoints.” This tutorial will explore an overall workflow for building interactive dashboards, visualizing billions of words data points interactively in a Jupyter notebook, with graphical widgets allowing control over data selection, filtering and display options, all using only a few dozen lines of code.

The second tutorial, “JupyterLab,” will be hosted by essay Sciences Steven Silvester, software engineer at Continuum Analytics and Jason Grout, software developer at Bloomberg, on August 23 at 1:30 pm. Writing University Of Gloucestershire? They will walk through JupyterLab as a user and as an extension author, exploring its capabilities and offering a demonstration on how to create a simple extension to the environment. WHO: Peter Wang, co-founder and CTO, Anaconda Powered by Continuum Analytics. WHAT: Jupyter Anaconda: Shaking Up the Enterprise. WHO: Peter Wang, co-founder and CTO, Anaconda Powered by Hanze University Continuum Analytics. WHAT: Fueling Open Innovation in a Data-Centric World. WHEN: August 24, 11:55am–12:35pm ET. Christine Doig, senior data scientist, product manager, Anaconda Powered by Continuum Analytics Fabio Pliger, software engineer, Anaconda Powered by Continuum Analytics. WHAT: Leveraging Jupyter to Build an format essay International School Excel-Python Bridge. WHEN: August 24, 11:05am–11:45am ET.

WHO: Christine Doig, senior data scientist, product manager, Anaconda Powered by Continuum Analytics. WHAT: Data Science Encapsulation and Deployment with Anaconda Project JupyterLab. WHEN: August 25, 11:55am–12:35pm ET. James Bednar, senior solutions architect, Anaconda Powered By Continuum Analytics Philipp Rudiger, software developer, Anaconda Powered By Continuum Analytics. WHAT: Deploying Interactive Jupyter Dashboards for essay writing Hanze University of Applied Visualizing Hundreds of Millions of help to write IMG Academy Datapoints. Steven Silvester, software engineer, Anaconda Powered By Continuum Analytics Jason Grout, software developer of Bloomberg. About Anaconda Powered by Continuum Analytics.

Anaconda is the leading data science platform powered by Python, the fastest growing data science language with more than 30 million downloads to essay University of Applied date. Continuum Analytics is the creator and driving force behind Anaconda, empowering leading businesses across industries worldwide with solutions to Florida identify patterns in essay writing Hanze Sciences, data, uncover key insights and how to write descriptive about a person Brookes Shawnigan, transform data into a goldmine of intelligence to writing technique Hanze of Applied solve the thinking, world’s most challenging problems. Anaconda puts superpowers into the hands of people who are changing the essay writing technique University, world. Technical Haileybury? Learn more at essay writing Hanze University of Applied, continuum.io. I was one of the reviewers of the Salmon paper by Patro et al., 2017, Salmon provides fast and bias-aware quantification of transcript expression. I was asked to review the paper on September 14, 2016, and submitted my review (or at least stopped getting reminders :) soon after October 20th.

The review request stated, . I would be grateful for your views on both the technical merits of this work and its interest to a broad readership. Please try the tool and report your experience. Let me know if you have issues with access. Brief Communications are intended to report concise studies of high quality and broad interest but are expected to argumentative essay words be less substantial than Articles. Typically, a Brief Communication will describe a significant improvement to a tried-and-tested technique, its adaptation for a new application, or an important new tool of interest to the scientific community. and I reviewed the paper as requested. Below is the full text of my review as I submitted it. (Note that I have not been posting my reviews lately because I've been busy, and I don't have a simple automated system for essay technique University of Applied doing it. In this case the review seems like it might be of general interest.)

The authors present salmon, a new RNAseq quantification tool that uses pseudoalignment and how to descriptive a person Brookes Lake, is highly performant. The significant factors recommending salmon over writing technique University of Applied, other tools include speed, high sensitivity, correction for technical biases in essay IMG Academy, sequencing, an open source license, and a robust implementation that is straightforward to use. The paper makes the argument that salmon is the premier tool for RNAseq quantification. The paper is well written, if unavoidably dense due to the nonsensical space constraints of this journal. The supporting and supplemental material is well written and seems comprehensive. The comparisons with kallisto and express seem fine to University Sciences me although I note that the x axes of the various figures are zoomed into a slightly absurd extent; nontheless, the comparisons support the conclusions reached in a comparative (INTO), the paper. There are some interesting gems buried deep within the essay writing of Applied Sciences, paper. For example, I was struck by the observation that apparent isoform switching may be caused by writing of Gloucestershire (INTO) technical artifacts (supp fig 5).

While the format and journal chosen by the authors doesn't permit proper exploration of this, I suspect that the technique Hanze University Sciences, technical bias correction is going to be a very important aspect of this software. I should also say that various versions of the help essay IMG Academy, preprint and software have been out for well over essay technique Hanze, a year, and we and others have been using it since very early on. Others have done independent benchmarks that agree with the conclusions reached in the paper. the authors should provide an archival location for salmon, and include a DOI to essay words MacDuffie School the specific version used in this paper. This can be easily accomplished with e.g. zenodo/github integration. as the authors are putting this forward for general use, I would like at least a brief discussion of essay technique Sciences how they do software testing and validation. Descriptive Essay Lake? In particular, this can answer the writing University, important question of how users and developers can know that future versions of salmon will produce results at least as correct as the results in this paper.

optional but recommended: the documentation should be expanded to essay Haileybury include a getting started tutorial. Right now a naive user would have no idea where to star. p3, at the same false discovery rate than those = as those. probabilistic is mis-spelled on p5. p7, reference 5 has page in it inappropriately. Five Organizations Successfully Fueling Innovation with Data Science. Five Organizations Successfully Fueling Innovation with Data Science. Data science innovation requires availability, transparency and interoperability. But what does that mean in practice? At Anaconda, it means providing data scientists with open source tools that facilitate collaboration; moving beyond analytics to essay technique Hanze intelligence. Open source projects are the foundation of technical writing essay Haileybury modern data science and are popping up across industries, making it more accessible, more interactive and more effective.

So, who’s leading the open source charge in the data science community? Here are five organizations to keep your eye on: 1. TaxBrain . TaxBrain is essay of Applied Sciences a platform that enables policy makers and the public to simulate and study the effects of tax policy reforms using open source economic models. Using the open source platform, anyone can plug elements of the administration’s proposed tax policy to Haileybury get an idea of how it would perform in essay Hanze of Applied Sciences, the real world. — Continuum Analytics (@ContinuumIO) August 17, 2016. 2. Recursion Pharmaceuticals.

Recursion is a pharmaceutical company dedicated to finding the remedies for rare genetic diseases. Its drug discovery assay is built on an open source software platform, combining biological science with machine learning techniques to visualize cell data and essay MacDuffie School, test drugs efficiently. Writing Technique University? This approach shortens research and thinking International, development process, reducing time to market for remedies to these rare genetic diseases. Their goal is to essay writing Hanze University of Applied treat 100 diseases by 2026 using this method. 3. The U.S.

Government. Help Essay? Under the previous administration, the U.S. government launched Data.gov, an open data initiative that offers more than 197K datasets for public use. This database exists, in essay technique Hanze University of Applied, part, thanks to format essay writing F. Kennedy School the former U.S. Technique University Of Applied? chief data scientist, DJ Patil. He helped drive the government’s data science projects forward, at the city, state and federal levels. Help To Write Essay IMG Academy? Recently, concerns have been raised over Sciences, the the Data.gov portal, as certain information has started to disappear. Data scientists are keeping a sharp eye on how to write essay a person Brookes Lake the portal to ensure that these resources are updated and essay technique of Applied, preserved for future innovative projects. 4. Comcast.

Telecom and broadcast giant, Comcast, run their projects on open source platforms to drive data science innovation in how to write descriptive Brookes Shawnigan Lake, the industry. For example, earlier this month, Comcast’s advertising branch announced they were creating a Blockchain Insights Platform to make the planning, targeting, execution and measurement of video ads more efficient. This data-driven, secure approach would be a game changer for the advertising industry, which eagerly awaits its launch in 2018. 5. DARPA. Technique Of Applied Sciences? The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is behind the Memex project, a program dedicated to fighting human trafficking, which is a top mission for the defense department. DARPA estimates that in format writing John International School, two years, traffickers spent $250 million posting the temporary advertisements that fuel the human trafficking trade. Essay Hanze Of Applied? Using an open source platform, Memex is able to index and cross reference interactive and social media, text, images and video across the essay, web.

This allows them to find the patterns in web data that indicate human trafficking. Memex’s data science approach is already credited in generating at least 20 active cases and nine open indictments. These are just some of the examples of open source-fueled data science turning industries on their head, bringing important data to the public and technique Hanze University of Applied Sciences, generally making the world a better place. What will be the next open source project to put data science in the headlines? Let us know what you think in the comments below! Anaconda Rides its Way into Gartner’s Hype Cycle.

How rOpenSci uses Code Review to critical thinking Florida Promote Reproducible Science. Anaconda Rides its Way into Gartner’s Hype Cycle. If you’re an Anaconda user and/or frequent reader of our blog, then you know how passionate we are about empowering our community (and future community!) with all the essay Hanze University Sciences, resources needed to bring data science to life. And while it will never stop us from tooting the data science horn, it’s always nice to know we are in good company. Continuum Analytics was recently included in critical thinking International, Gartner’s Hype Cycle for Sciences Data Science and Machine Learning for 2017, Peter Krensky and Jim Hare, July 28, 2017. Per the Gartner report, “The hype around data science and machine learning has increased from already high levels in the past year. Data and analytics leaders should use this Hype Cycle to understand technologies generating excitement and words MacDuffie School, inflated expectations, as well as significant movements in adoption and essay technique of Applied, maturity.” We couldn’t agree more.

This report comes on the heels of help to write essay IMG Academy our inclusion in Gartner’s Cool Vendors in Data Science and Machine Learning, 2017 report Peter Krensky, Alexander Linden, Svetlana Sicular, and Cindi Howson, May 11, 2017. One important point is writing of Applied that this was the first time Machine Learning was included in Gartner’s Hype Cycle for argumentative essay School Emerging Technologies, which we believe clearly validates the writing technique of Applied, growing importance of data science across the enterprise. While this isn’t news to us, it is important that influencers are acknowledging the shift to a more data-driven enterprise and to write essay IMG Academy, moving data science from an ‘emerging’ category to ‘established.’ We witness this shift everyday as the Anaconda community swells to 4.5M active users with more new members joining daily. Our excitement grows along with every new user because we know the impact data science can have on so many areas––from enabling new and cutting edge innovations to solving some of the essay writing technique University, world’s biggest challenges and uncovering answers to questions that haven’t even been asked yet. We’re grateful to our incredible community for thinking International University bringing our vision to life and truly embracing the superpowers we offer for people who change the writing Hanze University of Applied, world. Gartner does not endorse any vendor, product or service depicted in its research publications, and does not advise technology users to select only those vendors with the highest ratings or other designation. Argumentative Words? Gartner research publications consist of the writing technique Hanze, opinions of Gartner's research organization and should not be construed as statements of fact. Format International School? Gartner disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, with respect to this research, including any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. Galvanize Capstone Series: Elderly Financial Fraud Detection. Meet our GSoC Students Part 4: Astropy, SunPy Shogun.

Below is a question that gets asked so often that I decided it would be helpful to publish an answer explaining the technique Hanze of Applied Sciences, various ways in which Anaconda can be kept up to date. The question was originally asked on StackOverflow. I have Anaconda installed on my computer and I'd like to update it. In Navigator I can see that there are several individual packages that can be updated, but also an anaconda package that sometimes has a version number and sometimes says custom. How do I proceed? In most cases what you want to do when you say that you want to update Anaconda is to execute the argumentative words MacDuffie School, command:

This will update all packages in the current environment to the latest version—with the small print being that it may use an older version of some packages in technique Hanze University, order to of an essay F. Kennedy International satisfy dependency constraints (often this won't be necessary and when it is necessary the package plan solver will do its best to essay writing technique Hanze University Sciences minimize the impact). This needs to be executed from the command line, and the best way to get there is from Anaconda Navigator, then the format of an F. Kennedy International, Environments tab, then click on Hanze Sciences the triangle beside the root environment, selecting Open Terminal: This operation will only format essay writing F. Kennedy International, update the writing technique of Applied, one selected environment (in this case, the root environment). If you have other environments you'd like to update you can repeat the writing (INTO), process above, but first click on the environment. Writing Technique Hanze? When it is selected there is a triangular marker on how to essay about a person Shawnigan Lake the right (see image above, step 3). Or, from the command line, you can provide the environment name ( -n envname ) or path ( -p /path/to/env ). For example, to update your dspyr environment from the essay Sciences, screenshot above: If you are only interested in updating an individual package then simply click on the blue arrow or blue version number in technical writing Haileybury, Navigator, e.g. for essay University of Applied Sciences astroid or astropy in the screenshot above, and this will tag those packages for critical Florida University an upgrade. When you are done you need to essay Hanze Sciences click the Apply button: Or from the essay words, command line:

Updating Just the essay writing technique Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Packages in the Standard Anaconda Distribution. If you don't care about format John F. Kennedy International School, package versions and just want the latest set of essay Hanze University all packages in the standard Anaconda Distribution, so long as they work together, then you should take a look at this gist. Why Updating the Anaconda Package is Almost Always a Bad Idea. In most cases, updating the writing Haileybury, Anaconda package in technique of Applied, the package list will have a surprising result—you may actually downgrade many packages (in fact, this is likely if it indicates the version as custom ). The gist above provides details. Your root environment is probably not a good place to try and manage an exact set of essay of Gloucestershire (INTO) packages—it is going to be a dynamic working space with new packages installed and packages randomly updated.

If you need an exact set of essay writing technique packages, create a conda environment to thinking University hold them. Thanks to the conda package cache and the way file linking is used, doing this is writing Hanze University Sciences typically fast and consumes very little additional disk space. Essay Words MacDuffie School? For example: The conda documentation has more details and examples. None of this is going to writing Hanze University of Applied Sciences help with updating packages that have been installed from help essay PyPI via pip , or any packages installed using python setup.py install . conda list will give you some hints about the pip-based Python packages you have in an environment, but it won't do anything special to update them. Commercial Use of writing Hanze of Applied Anaconda or Anaconda Enterprise. It's pretty much exactly the help essay IMG Academy, same story, with the exception that you may not be able to update the root environment if it was installed by Hanze University Sciences someone else (say, to /opt/anaconda/latest ). If you're not able to update the environments you are using, you should be able to clone and then update: If you have more questions about Anaconda then you can refer to our online documentation, or make use of our commercial (paid) or community (free) support channels. If you are using Anaconda in an enterprise setting, then I think you'll be interested in technical, learning about how Anaconda Enterprise can help you and your colleagues with collaboration, security, governance, and provenance around your data science workflows.

Leveling up with Open Astronomy: Astropy affiliated packages. Audio ToolKit: modules for the JUCE framework. As some may know, I’ve switched from wdl-ol to JUCE 5 for my free plugins. In the past, I had to modify by hand all the projects created by the Projucer. And each time JUCE is technique Hanze of Applied updated, I need to add these changes to the generated project. On the develop branch, and in the next minor release ATK 2.1.2, modules for the Projucer will be available. This will enable an essay writing John F. Kennedy International easier integration of ATK in your project, as you will “just” need to technique University add these modules to the Projucer (and some additional include files to make ATK compliant with JUCE hierarchy). There are currently 11 new modules (shameless comparison, that’s far more than the new DSP module, even if there are some filters than I’m missing, but feel free to propose a pull request with new features!). See the explanation on the release branch and let me know what you think: https://github.com/mbrucher/AudioTK/tree/develop/modules/JUCE. It’s hard to believe that we’re halfway through 2017.

I joined Anaconda as CEO back in critical Florida International University, January and I’ve been deeply impressed by this amazing team and all that we have collectively accomplished in of Applied, just six short months. Haileybury? From new events to new products, our teams have already squeezed quite a bit into 2017. Before the writing technique Hanze University Sciences, year flies by format essay writing School completely, I wanted to take a moment to reflect and share the exciting milestones we’ve hit on the road to 2018. New Senior Leadership Team Members. Here at Anaconda, the writing technique Hanze University, first half of the words MacDuffie, year was bookended by new hires. At the beginning of the year, I joined to run the company. Writing Hanze? This move allowed Anaconda’s co-founder, Travis Oliphant, to critical Florida International University channel his energy into open source innovation and community. At the end of June, we added another new name to the executive team when Aaron Barfoot came on-board as CFO. Aaron is writing technique Hanze a world class CFO and is leading the effort to make our finance, IT and HR departments top notch.

Both Aaron and I are thrilled to be a part of the critical thinking Florida International, next chapter for Anaconda as our numbers continue to essay of Applied Sciences climb past four million active users. One of Anaconda’s most exciting projects this year was the release of our data-backed report: Winning at Data Science: How Teamwork Leads to Florida Victory. Working with the independent research firm Vanson Bourne, we surveyed 200 data science and analytics decision makers, digging into the adoption, challenges and value of data science in essay Hanze of Applied Sciences, the enterprise. While some of the argumentative essay MacDuffie School, findings were expected, others were jaw dropping. For example, 96 percent of essay University Sciences respondents agree that data science is critical to the success of their organization, but 22 percent are failing to fully take advantage of descriptive essay Brookes Shawnigan their data. Writing Technique? If you love numbers as much as we do, check out the full findings here. This February, our inaugural user conference, AnacondaCON was a box office hit. Words? Literally. I’ve been at companies known for their stand-out conferences, and technique Hanze University, this is one of the best industry conferences I have ever attended, by far.

With speakers from the essay writing John F. Kennedy, Anaconda team, our customers/users and partners, it was fantastic to essay writing Hanze have the brightest minds in data science together in the same room. If you couldn’t make it to this year’s event, you can watch the 2017 keynotes and keep your eye out for updates for AnacondaCON 2018, which will be April 8-11, 2018 at writing a comparative essay University of Gloucestershire, the JW Marriott in Austin, TX. In April, we joined forces with IBM to offer Anaconda on IBM’s Cognitive Systems, the company’s deep learning platform, as well as the IBM Power AI software distribution for machine learning. In May, we made another big announcement with our partners H20.ai and MapD Technologies with the launch of the Hanze Sciences, GPU Open Analytics Initiative (GOAI). Essay Haileybury? GOAI is designed to essay writing University of Applied Sciences create common data frameworks using NVIDIA’s technology, accelerating data science on technical essay GPUs. We see both of these partnerships as major points of validation for data science and essay writing of Applied, machine learning, as data scientists continue to stretch their legs in the enterprise. Keep an eye out for critical University even more activity in this area later in the year. If you’re an Anaconda user, we hope you were as thrilled as we were about the launch of Anaconda 4.4 this June. Besides delivering a comprehensive platform for Python-centric data science with a single-click installer, Anaconda 4.4 is designed to simplify working with Python 2 and essay Hanze of Applied Sciences, Python 3 code, supporting a gradual migration and avoiding the how to write descriptive a person Brookes Lake, need for any “big bang” cutover.

— Continuum Analytics (@ContinuumIO) June 9, 2017. In 2016 alone, Anaconda user growth products and services grew more than 100 percent. In 2017, the number of downloads-to-date has surpassed 25 million with more than four million active users, since the company’s founding in 2012. A recent poll from KDnuggets found that Anaconda usage has increased 37% since 2016, placing the Hanze University of Applied, platform in the top 10 ranking for the industry’s most popular analytics/data science tools. The poll also found that Python has overtaken R as the most popular data science language, a trend we anticipate will continue in thinking International University, the years ahead.

I’m super pleased with our accomplishments for the first half of the year and look forward to writing Hanze Sciences exciting second half of 2017!

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Handler and Phase in Apache Axis2. (For more resources on Hanze Sciences Axis2, see here.) In any messaging system, the interceptor has its factual meaning in the context of messaging, where it intercepts the flow of messaging and help, does whatever task it is essay writing technique Hanze University Sciences assigned to do. In fact, an critical thinking International University interceptor is the technique of Applied Sciences, smallest execution unit in a messaging system, and an Axis2 handler is also an interceptor. Handlers in Axis are stateless, that is, they do not keep their pass execution states in the memory. A handler can be considered as a logic invoker with the input for the logic evaluation taken from the MessageContext. A Handler has both read and write access permissions to MessageContext (MC) or to an incoming SOAP message.

We can consider MessageContext as a property bag that keeps incoming or outgoing messages (maybe both) and other required parameters. It may also include properties to carry the writing essay, message through the execution chain. On the other hand, we can access the whole system including the system runtime, global parameters, and property service operations via the MC. In most cases, a handler only touches the header block part of the SOAP message, which will either read a header (or headers), add a header(s), or remove a header(s). (This does not mean that the handler cannot touch the SOAP body, nor does it mean that it is not going to touch the SOAP body.) During reading, if a header is targeted to a handler and is not executing properly (the message might be faulty), then it should throw an exception, and the next driver in the chain (in Axis2, it is the Axis engine) would take the necessary action. A typical SOAP message with few headers is shown in writing technique Sciences the figure given below:

Any handler in critical Florida Axis2 has the capability to pause the message execution, which means that the handler can terminate the message flow if it cannot continue. Reliable messaging (RM) is a good example or use case for that scenario, when it needs to pause the flow depending on some of the preconditions and the postconditions as well and it works on a message sequence. If a service invocation consists of more than one message, and if the technique of Applied Sciences, second message comes before the first one, then the essay University (INTO), RM handler will stop (or rather pause) the execution of the message invocation corresponding to the second message until it gets the writing technique Hanze University Sciences, first one. And when it gets, the first message is invoked, and thereafter it invokes or resumes the second message. Just learning the critical Florida International, concepts will not help us in remembering what we have discussed. For that, we need to write a handler and writing University of Applied Sciences, see how it works.

Writing a handler in argumentative essay words Axis2 is very simple. If you want to write a handler, you either have to writing technique Hanze of Applied Sciences, extend the AbstractHandler class or implement the Handler interface. A simple handler that extends the AbstractHandler class will appear as follows: Note the return value of the invoke method. We can have the how to write descriptive essay about a person Shawnigan Lake, following three values as the return value of the invoke method: Continue : The handler thinks that the message is ready to writing technique Hanze of Applied, go forward. Suspend : The handler thinks that the message cannot be sent forward since some conditions are not satisfied; so the execution is suspended.

Abort : The handler thinks that there is something wrong with the message, and cannot therefore allow the message to how to descriptive essay a person Brookes Shawnigan, go forward. In most cases, handlers will return InvocationResponse.CONTINUE as the return value. When a message is received by the Axis engine, it calls the invoke method of each of the handlers by passing the argument to the corresponding MessageContext. As a result of essay Hanze Sciences this, we can implement all the processing logic inside that method. A handler author has full access to the SOAP message, and essay words, also has the required properties to process the of Applied, message via the MessageContext. In addition, if the handler is not satisfied with the invocation of some precondition, the invocation can be paused as we have discussed earlier (Suspend). If some handler suspends the execution, then it is argumentative essay School its responsibility to store the message context, and to forward the essay writing technique Hanze, message when the conditions are satisfied. For example, the RM handler performs in critical thinking International University a similar manner. The concept of phase is writing Hanze introduced by Axis2, mainly to critical thinking International University, support the dynamic ordering of essay writing Hanze Sciences handlers. A phase can be defined in a number of ways: It can be considered a logical collection of handlers.

It can be considered a specific time interval in the message execution. It can be considered a bucket into which to put a handler. One can consider a phase as a handler too. A flow or an execution chain can be considered as a collection of how to descriptive about a person Shawnigan Lake phases. Even though it was mentioned earlier that an Axis engine calls the invoke method of a handler, that is not totally correct. In fact, what the engine really does is call the invoke method of each phase in a given flow, and then the phase will sequentially invoke all the handlers in it (refer to the following figure). As we know, we can extend AbstractHandler and writing Hanze, create a new handler; in the same way one can extend the Phase class and then create a new phase. But remember that we need not always extend the Phase class to create a new phase. We can do it by just adding an entry into Haileybury axis2.xml (All the configuration that requires starting axis2 is obtained from essay writing Hanze, axis2.xml ). Write Descriptive A Person Brookes Shawnigan? A phase has two important methodsprecondition checking and postcondition checking. Therefore, if we are writing a custom phase, we need to consider the methods that have been mentioned.

However, writing a phase is not a common case; you need to know how to writing Hanze University of Applied Sciences, write a handler. A phase is designed to support different phase rules. These rules include phaseFirst as well as phaseLast. Writing John International? In a phase, there are reserved slots to hold both phaseFirst handlers and phaseLast handlers. The rest of the handlers are in a different list. A phase can, therefore, be graphically represented as follows: Once the engine calls the invoke method of the phase, it has the following execution sequence: First, check whether the precondition is essay Hanze Sciences satisfied.

Then check whether the phaseFirst handler is there. If it is present, then it will be invoked. Next, the Florida International, rest of the handlers will be invoked, except for the phaseLast handler. If the phaseLast handler is there, then it will be invoked. Finally, it will check whether the postcondition is satisfied so as to forward the message. There are two types of phases defined in axis2.xml . There are no differences between the ways the logic is implemented. However, the location of the phase in the execution chain differs.

The two types of phases are: A global phase is a phase that is invoked irrespective of the service. Essay Writing Technique? In simple terms, whenever a message comes into the system, it will go through the global phase. The whole idea of writing a comparative University defining a global phase and essay technique Hanze Sciences, an operation phase in axis2.xml is to provide an easy path for module authors. If we consider the default axis2.xml file which is present in our download directory, we will observe that it has a set of global as well as operation phases. Of An Essay F. Kennedy School? The splitting point of the global phase and operation phase is the Dispatch phase. All the phases up to and including Dispatch phase are considered global phases, whereas the rest are considered operation phases.

The phase section of the default axis2.xml file is given below. Writing Technique University? It is a bit complicated. Critical University? But all you need to do is focus on writing technique University Sciences the keyword 'phase'. In the previous code, 'Transport', 'Security', 'PreDispatch', and 'Dispatch' are the global phases while 'OperationInPhase' and how to write descriptive essay about a person Brookes, 'soapmonitorPhase' are the essay writing Hanze, operation-specific phases. All the global phases have semantic meanings from their names as well. Transport phase consists of a handler, which performs the tasks that are dependent on the type of transport.

In the Security phase, WS-Security implementation will include their handlers. As the name implies, PreDispatch phase is the technical writing essay, phase consisting of essay technique Hanze University a set of handlers that performs the work needed for dispatching. Critical International? Handlers such as WS-Addressing, are always included in this phase. Dispatch phase is the phase that does the dispatching by simply finding the corresponding service as well as the operation for the incoming message. As a result, it is evident that Dispatch phase consists of writing Hanze Sciences dispatching handlers. For instance, suppose that we have a handler, that we do not have to argumentative MacDuffie, run for every message coming to of Applied, the system, rather we need to run that for a selected set of operations. This is where the essay, operation phase comes into the picture. The main idea of the phase rule is to correctly locate a handler, relative to the one that is inside a phase, either at deployment time or at essay writing University of Applied run time. Words MacDuffie? In Axis1, we did not have the essay writing technique, concept of write essay a person Brookes Shawnigan Lake phases or phase rules.

What it had was a global configuration file wherein we defined our handlers. But it had a number of limitations such as loosing the dynamic nature of the handler chain. One aspect of phase rule is addressing the issues of dynamic execution chain-building capability. Characterizing a phase rule can be based on one or more of the following properties: Phase name : Name of the phase where the handler must be placed. Phase first (phaseFirst): First handler of the phase. Phase Last (phaseLast): Last handler of the phase. Before (before): should be positioned before a given handler. After (after): should be positioned after a given handler.

Before and after : should be placed between two given handlers. Phase is a compulsory attribute for any phase rule, which specifies the phase in which the handler must fit. For validity, the name of the phase should be either in the global phase, or in writing Hanze University the operational phase, and help to write essay IMG Academy, should be defined in axis2.xml . If we want a handler to be invoked as the first handler in a given phase, irrespective of the other handlers in the phase, then we need to set the phaseFirst attribute to true. A handler, which has phaseFirst as the essay writing technique University, only phase rule, is shown below: If we want a handler to run last in a given phase irrespective of the other handlers, then the phaseLast attribute should be set to true. Refer to the following code: If there is a phase rule with both phaseFirst and phaseLast attributes set to true, then that phase cannot have any other handlers. As a result, the phase has only one handler. There may be situations where a handler should always run before some other handler, irrespective of its exact location. A real-time use case for this can be a security handler, which needs to run before the RM handler.

Refer to the following code to understand the logic. Here, the essay writing John F. Kennedy School, value of the 'before' attribute is the name of the handler before which this handler must run. Axis2 phase rule processing logic is implemented in such a way that if the handler referred to by the Hanze of Applied, attribute 'before' is not available in the phase but only at the time the rule is being processed, then it just ignores the essay, rule and the handler is placed immediately after the phaseFirst handler. (If it is available, it places the handler somewhere in the phase.) As before, if a handler always runs after some other handler, then the writing Hanze University of Applied Sciences, phase rule can be written using the attribute 'after', and the value of 'after' attribute is the name of the handler after which this handler must run. The validity of a phase rule is an important factor in Axis2. There can be many ways to get the same handler order by using different kinds of phase rules. But when writing a phase rule, it is required to check whether the rule is a comparative essay a valid rule. There are many ways in which a phase rule can become an invalid rule. Some of them are:

If there is a phase rule for a handler with either the phaseFirst or the phaseLast attribute set to true, then it can have neither 'before' nor 'after' appearing in the phase rule. If they do, then the essay writing technique of Applied, rule is invalid. If there is a phase rule for argumentative essay School, a handler with both phaseFirst and phaseLast set to essay writing technique Hanze University, true, then that particular phase cannot have more than one handler. If someone tries to write a phase rule that inserts a handler into the same phase, then the second phase rule is invalid. There cannot be two handlers in one phase with their phaseFirst attribute set to true.

There cannot be two handlers in one phase with their phaseLast attribute set to true. If the rule is such that the attribute 'before' refers to a phaseFirst handler, then the rule is invalid. If the rule is such that the attribute 'after' refers to a phaseLast handler, then the rule is invalid. Phase rules are defined on a per-handler basis, and any handler in the system must fit into a phase in the system. Flow is simply a collection of phases. The order of phases inside a flow is defined in help to write axis2.xml . Essay Writing Technique Hanze Of Applied Sciences? Since phase is a logical collection (which is in fact a virtual concept), a flow can be assumed to writing a comparative essay (INTO), be the execution chain (collection of handlers). The following are the four types of flows in Axis2: InFlow : When a message comes in (request message), it has to go via the InFlow. This in turn invokes all the handlers in University of Applied Sciences the InFlow. InFlow is somewhat different from OutFlow.

The Inflow consist of two parts. The first part starts from the Transport Receiver, and ends at Dispatcher (up to and including Dispatch phase). The second part will be there only argumentative essay words MacDuffie School, if the corresponding service and operations are found at the end of Dispatch phase. Therefore, the second part of the flow is the InFlow of the essay technique Sciences, corresponding operation for the incoming message. So the InFlow consists of global as well as operation parts. InFaultFlow : This flow is invoked if the writing essay, incoming request is faulty (request with HTTP status code 500). OutFlow : When a message is moving out from the server (say a response), the OutFlow is writing Hanze Sciences invoked.

As a result, the outgoing message is always bound to an operation, and there is nothing similar to dispatching in the out path. OutFaultFlow : If something goes wrong in the out path, then the OutFaultFlow is essay MacDuffie invoked. In this article, we gave an introduction to handlers and technique Hanze of Applied, saw how to implement a simple handler. This was followed by the description of Haileybury phase and essay writing technique of Applied Sciences, its types. Axis2 is good enough to provide flexible Web Service interaction and this flexibility is achieved using the concept of phases and format of an essay writing School, phase rules. You've been reading an excerpt of: Get in touch here if you have any queries or issues. Click here for essay Hanze University Sciences, FAQs, order information, TCs, errata and write descriptive essay about a person Brookes Shawnigan Lake, code downloads.

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