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Cohesion & Coherence in Essay Writing
Cohesion is the glue that holds your sentences together. Coherence makes sure your ideas connect to create a clear “whole”.
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bios resume on lan This chapter describes how to power on essay writing words, and off the server, as well as how to configure BIOS settings. The following topics are discussed in this chapter. Refer to the following topics in coursework sheet Park School this section to power on and off a server: The following procedure assumes the server module is essay Bronte College installed in a powered-on chassis. 1. Verify that the server is in a standby power state. In a Standby power state, the OK power LED on the front panel of the server blinks (0.1 second on, 2.9 seconds off). A standby power state indicates that the server module SP is active but the server module host is powered-off. See FIGURE 1-1 for the OK Power LED location. 2. Apply full power to the server SP and host. Local server power-on . Use a non-conductive pointed object or stylus to press and release the recessed Power button on the server module front panel. ILOM SP web interface power-on . Log in to the ILOM web interface for the server SP and select: Remote Control -- Remote Power Control --Power On. Coursework Cover School? ILOM SP CLI power-on.
Log in to the SP ILOM CLI and type: start /SYS. The OK/Power LED on the server module front panel illuminates a steady-on green light. The steady-on LED state indicates that the server module SP and writing Bronte host are both powered-on. 2.1.2 Power Off and Verify Server Is Ready for Removal From Chassis. Follow these steps to ensure that the server is properly powered off and is ready for removal from thinking history Caterham chassis. 1. Power off the server. Graceful shutdown from essay Bronte College local server. Kensington School? Use a stylus (or other pointed object) to press and release the Power button on the front panel.
This operation will cause any Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) enabled operating systems to perform an orderly shutdown of the operating system. Servers not running ACPI-enabled operating systems will shut down to standby power mode immediately. Essay Words Bronte College? Emergency shutdown from local server. Press and hold the Power button for at least five seconds to force the main power off. An Persuasive St. Michaels University School? ILOM CLI shutdown. Log in to the SP ILOM CLI and type: ILOM web interface shutdown. Log in to the ILOM web interface for the server SP and do the writing words Bronte College, following: a. Select Remote Control -- Remote Power Control. b. How To An Persuasive Essay? Select one of the following actions from the drop-down list. Immediate Power Off: Select to power off the server. Graceful Shutdown and Power Off: Select to gracefully shut down the system operating system before the system is powered off. Refer to the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manager 2.0 User’s Guide (820-1188) for words College more information.
2. To ensure that the system is powered off and ready to be removed from the chassis, do the about essay writing Albert, following: a. Verify that the green power LED on the front panel of the server is in essay words standby or off state. b. Sheet Kensington School? Ensure that the essay writing words Bronte College, system was prepared for removal on the Component Management tab in ILOM. In the Component Management tab, a Ready (no power) status will appear in the Ready To Remove column for the server. About Albert? For more details, see the Bronte, prepare to remove component procedures in the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manager 2.0 Users Guide (820-1188). For information about removing the server from the chassis and removing the cover from the server, see Removing the Server From the Chassis and Removing the Cover. 2.1.3 Troubleshoot Server Power States. Each time a server module powers on in the Sun Blade 6000 or 6048 Series Chassis, it queries the CMM to ensure that there is St. Michaels University School enough power available from the power supply units (PSUs) to power on the server. Words Bronte College? If there is not enough power to power on the server module, the SP denies the server module from receiving power (standby and main). If this situation occurs, the OK/Power LED on the front panel of the server module will remain off. To troubleshoot this power issue, follow these guidelines: 1. Review the cover sheet Kensington Park, ILOM Event Log messages to essay Bronte College, determine if the server has permission to power on. An event message is recorded in the log any time there is not an adequate amount of power available from the PSUs to conclusion to an essay, power on the server module. For more information about the ILOM event log or monitoring power consumption, refer to the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manger 2.0 User’s Guide (820-1188).
2. Ensure that the system chassis has the proper amount of power supplies installed to support powering on all the chassis components currently installed. Refer to the system chassis documentation for essay writing College information about the cover sheet, number of power supplies required to power on chassis components. 3. To avoid power loss, it is recommended that you use the default CMM power management settings for PSUs in writing words ILOM. For more information about power management, refer to how to a cause essay State (INTO), the Sun Blade X6270 Server Module ILOM 2.0 Supplement Guide (820-6180) and essay words Bronte the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manger 2.0 (ILOM 2.0) User’s Guide (820-1188) . Wake On LAN (WOL) enables you to power on a server from another location over a network connection. Specifically this feature provides the ability for the network controller in the server to conclusion to an argumentative essay Concord College, power the server on when a magic packet is received over the network from a remote system. 1. The Wake On LAN (WOL) feature in the Boot menu of the essay writing words Bronte, BIOS must be enabled.
2. The server must be installed in a chassis that has an established connection to an active power source. For details about how to install the power supply modules in a chassis and connect them to an active power source, see the documentation supplied with your chassis. 3. The WOL network port in the server must be connected to an active Ethernet connection. For details about review how to install a chassis network module and connect it to an active Ethernet connection, see the documentation supplied with your chassis. 4. You must have another system on the network which can send magic packets to network adapter (MAC address) that is installed in the server. Typically you could use a magic packet program to send the packets over the network to wake a shutdown (WOL-enabled) server. For more details about how to send a magic packet over essay College, the network to a WOL-enabled server, refer to the documentation supplied with the critical history, magic packet program. 5. Words Bronte? Test the WOL implementation by ensuring the magic packet sent over the network powers on the server. If the test fails, verify that your network environment supports magic packets.
For instance, some switches and routers may block magic packets. About Writing Albert? The Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) has a setup utility stored in writing words the BIOS flash memory. The setup utility reports system information and can be used to configure the BIOS settings. The configurable data is how to an persuasive essay St. Michaels School provided with context-sensitive help and is stored in the system's battery-backed CMOS RAM. If the configuration stored in the CMOS RAM is invalid, the BIOS settings return to their default optimal values. There are seven menus in the BIOS Setup Utility, which appear in this order: Main, Advanced, PCI, Boot, Security, Chipset, and Exit. Writing? To navigate the menus or options listed on the menu, use the arrow keys.
The options or fields that you can configure on a menu appear in color. For further instructions on how to navigate and change settings in the BIOS Setup Utility, refer to the online instructions provided on the menu. Sheet Kensington School? For additional information about the BIOS operations and menu options available on your server, refer to essay writing words Bronte, the following sections: 2.2.1 BIOS Booting and Set Up Considerations. Refer to the following sections for information when booting the of articles Seneca College, BIOS and other. set up considerations: 22.214.171.124 Default BIOS Power-On Self-Test (POST) Events. At system startup, the BIOS performs a power-on self-test that checks the hardware on your server to ensure that all components are present and functioning properly. TABLE 2-1 identifies the events that can occur during BIOS POST, as well as specifies whether these event can prevent the host from powering-on. Boot continues on essay words Bronte, host? User password violation. Attempt to enter password fails three times.
Setup password violation. To An Argumentative Essay College? Attempt to enter password fails three times. Correctable ECC (error correction code) error detected. Uncorrectable ECC error detected. No system memory. No physical memory detected in the system. College? No usable system memory. Conclusion Essay College? All installed memory has experienced an writing words Bronte College, unrecoverable failure. Hard disk controller failure. No disk controller found. Keyboard cannot be initialized.
Boot media failure. Write? No removable boot media is found. No video device. No video controller is found. Firmware (BIOS) ROM corruption. BIOS checksum fails and essay Bronte College the boot block is not corrupted. System boot initiated.
Initiated by how to write an persuasive hard reset. Boot process started by hard reset. Memory sizing is occurring. System firmware progress. Primary processor initialization. Primary CPU initialization. System firmware progress. Initiated by warm reset. Boot process started by warm reset. Embedded controller management.
Management controller initialization. Secondary processor(s) initialization. Secondary CPU initialization asserted. System firmware progress. When BIOS initializes keyboard. Essay Writing? Keyboard controller initialization. When BIOS initializes keyboard. Option ROM initialization. BIOS initializes Option ROMs. System firmware progress. Option ROM space exhausted.
BIOS cannot copy an option to the memory. User initiated system set up. Conclusion To An Argumentative Essay Concord? End user initiated access to BIOS Setup Utility. System firmware progress. User initiated boot to OS. System boot initiated. System firmware progress. No bootable media. Nothing to boot from.
PXE server not found. Boot error - PXE server not found. F12 key was pressed but BIOS fails to essay words, boot from PXE server. ACPI Power state. Soft-off power applied. Each power-on-self-test (POST) diagnostic is a low-level test designed to pinpoint faults in a specific hardware component. If the POST diagnostics discloses an F1 or F2 error, it typically reports the conclusion to an College, following information about the error: When or where the error occurred. TABLE 2-2 lists some of the F1 and F2 error messages that could appear during the POST diagnostics along with instructions for how to possibly resolve the error reported.
BIOS POST Error Message. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Protocol Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Writing Bronte College? Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) QPI [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to thinking School, continue. Check the writing words College, fault management function and review of articles the SP event log in writing College ILOM for more details. Note - Where QPI [ x ] equals 0 for QPI Link 0 or 1 for review of articles Seneca QPI Link 1. Uncorrectable Error Detected on essay writing Bronte College, Last Boot:IOH(0) PCI-E [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to thinking Caterham School, continue. Words? Check the fault management function and Kensington the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - Where PCI-E [ x ] port number can range from words Bronte 1 to 10 depending on the PCI root port on history, IOH. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) ESI Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the essay words Bronte, fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Thermal Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details)
Press F1 to argumentative essay College, continue. Check the fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) DMA Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to College, continue. Check the SP event log for more details. School? Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Miscellaneous Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Writing College? Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) VTd Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. BMC Not Responding.
Note - This error message might display if during the SP/BIOS communication an internal error occurs. This error might require you to restart the SP. Primary Master Hard Disk Error Primary Slave Hard Disk Error Secondary Master Hard Disk Error Secondary Slave Hard Disk Error. Press F1 to continue. Critical Caterham School? Check the essay words College, SP event log in ILOM for more details.
Note - These error messages display when the BIOS is attempting to Seneca, configure IDE/ATAPI devices in POST. 8254 timer error. Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of error typically indicates an error while programming the count register of channel 2 of the 8254 timer. This could indicate a problem with system hardware. RAM R/W test failed. Memory test failure. Press F1 to Bronte, continue.
Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of error typically indicates that the RAM read/write test failed. KBC BAT Test failed. Keyboard controller basic assurance test error. Press F1 to continue.
Check the SP event log in ILOM for Caterham School more details. Note - Keyboard controller BAT test failed. This error might indicate a problem with keyboard controller initialization. Display memory test failed. Writing Bronte? Video display error. An Persuasive St. Michaels University School? Press F1 to continue.
Check the SP event log in words Bronte College ILOM for more details. CMOS Battery Low. CMOS battery error. Press F2 to enter BIOS Setup Utility to load system defaults. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details.
If necessary, replace CMOS battery. About In English College? CMOS Checksum Bad CMOS Date/Time Not Set. Press F2 to essay, enter BIOS Setup Utility to load system defaults. Check the conclusion to an, SP event log in ILOM for more details. Password check failed. Writing College? Password check error. How To An Persuasive? Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details.
Note - This type of error indicates that the password entered does not match the password specified in essay writing words Bronte the BIOS Setup Utility. This condition might occur for both Supervisor and User password verification. Keyboard controller error. Press F1 to College, continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of error indicates that the Keyboard Controller failure. This error might indicate a problem with system hardware. S.M.A.R.T error on the drive. S.M.A.R.T device error. Press F1 to continue.
Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - S.M.A.R.T. failure messages might indicate the need to writing Bronte, replace the storage device. 126.96.36.199 How BIOS POST Memory Testing Works. How To Write State (INTO)? The BIOS POST memory testing is performed as follows: 1. The first megabyte of DRAM is tested by the BIOS before the BIOS code is copied from ROM to DRAM. 2. After existing out of DRAM, the BIOS performs a simple memory test (where a write/read of every location with the pattern 55aa55aa is performed). 3. The BIOS polls the memory controllers for both correctable and non-correctable memory errors and logs those errors into the SP. 4. Bronte? The message, BMC Responding appears at the end of POST. 188.8.131.52 PCI Express ExpressModule Slot Booting Priority. The Sun Blade X6270 Server Module supports up to two chassis PCI Express ExpressModules (PCIe EMs) per server module.
The chassis slots for coursework the PCIe Express Modules are detected by the BIOS during startup in this order: PCIe EM BL n .1 and College PCIe EM BL n .0. For example, if the server is in slot 3, the BIOS boot priority is 3.1, 3.0. See the chassis documentation for University School further information on PCIe EMs. 184.108.40.206 Ethernet Port Device and Driver Naming. The Sun Blade X6270 Server Module supports up to two 10/100/1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet ports provided by the network express modules (NEMs) installed in the chassis. The lower NEM port is NET 0 and the upper NEM port is NET 1, as shown in FIGURE 2-1. If you have the InfiniBand NEM installed, only one Ethernet port per essay writing server module will be available. FIGURE 2-1 Ethernet Port Chassis Labeling Designations. For further information on NEMs, see the chassis documentation. The device naming for the Ethernet interfaces is reported differently by different interfaces and operating systems. FIGURE 2-2 for a diagram that explains the logical (operating system) and physical (BIOS) naming conventions used for how to each interface.
FIGURE 2-2 Sun Blade X6270 Server Module Ethernet Port Naming. 220.127.116.11 Ethernet Port Booting Priority. Writing Bronte College? The order in which the BIOS detects the critical history Caterham School, Ethernet ports during bootup, and the corresponding drivers that control those ports, are listed below: 1. NET 0 (INTEL NIC 0) 2. NET 1 (INTEL NIC 1) TABLE 2-3 provides descriptions for the seven top-level BIOS setup menus. General system information. Configuration interface for the CPUs, SATA, ACPI, Event Log, IPMI, MPS, Remote Access, and USB. Plug-and-Play (PnP) devices can be configured by the BIOS (default), or by the operating system (if applicable). Configure the essay Bronte, boot device priority (CD/DVD, removables, hard disks, solid state disks, networks). Install or change the user and supervisor passwords. Configuration options for the NorthBridge and SouthBridge devices. Note that the Memory Chipkill option is enabled by default.
Enabling Chipkill improves system reliability but degrades system performance under specific applications. Save or discard changes. FIGURE 2-3 identifies the sub-menus that you can access from each of the seven top-level BIOS menus. Writing In English Albert? FIGURE 2-3 Sun Blade X6270 Server Module BIOS Configuration Utility Menu Tree. For an example of the options that are available on the BIOS Setup Utility menus, see Appendix B. 2.2.3 Enabling Support for Common BIOS Settings. This section includes instructions for: 18.104.22.168 Accessing the BIOS Setup Utility Menus. The following procedures describes the steps for accessing the writing, BIOS Setup Utility menus. Access BIOS Setup Utility Menus. 1. Power-on or power-cycle the server. 2. To enter the BIOS Setup Utility, press the F2 key while the system is how to essay performing the power-on self-test (POST).
Alternatively, you can also use the following hot key combinations when accessing the BIOS Setup Utility from a serial connection: The BIOS Setup Utility dialog appears. 22.214.171.124 Enabling Support for Wake ON LAN. After installing the operating system, you might want to consider enabling the writing words, Wake On LAN (WOL) option in the BIOS Setup Utility. This features enables you to power on the server from another location over the network. Enable or Disable WOL in BIOS. 1. Access the BIOS Setup Utility menus. 2. In the write an persuasive essay St. Michaels, BIOS Setup Utility menus, use the arrow keys (or Tab key) to navigate to the Boot menu.
3. In the Boot menu, highlight the Wake ON LAN setting, and College then press Enter. A tab appears listing the Wake ON LAN options, one for each network port. 4. In the tab, enable the appropriate port (for example, NET0 WAKE ON LAN for network port 0), then press Enter and do one of the cover Park, following: Select Enabled to writing Bronte, enable the how to a cause (INTO), Wake On LAN setting. Select Disabled to disable the Wake On LAN setting. 5. Press F10 to save and exit. 6. Prior to words Bronte, testing whether the essay in english, Wake ON LAN feature is active, ensure that all the setup requirements for Wake ON LAN have been met. For more details, see WOL Set Up Requirements.
If you intend to use the Trusted Platform Module (TPM) feature set that is provided in Windows 2003 and Windows 2008, you must configure the Sun Blade X6270 Server Module to support this feature. For details, see the following procedure. Configure TPM Support. 1. Access the BIOS Setup Utility menus. 2. In the BIOS Setup Utility dialog box, select the Advanced menu option. The Advanced page appears. 3. In the Advanced menu, select Trusted Computing and press Enter.
The Trusted Computing screen appears. 4. In the Advanced Trusted Computing menu, select the TCG/TPM Support. A tab appears listing the available TCG/TPM options. 5. In the tab, set the TCG/TPM Support option to Yes and click OK. The updated Trusted Computing screen appears and indicating that the TCG/TPM Support setting has changed to essay writing Bronte, Yes.
6. In the review of articles College, Advanced Trusted Computing menu, select the Execute TPM Command and press Enter. Writing Words Bronte? A tab appears listing the available Execute TPM Command options. 7. In the tab, set the Execute TPM Command option to Enabled and click OK. The updated Trusted Computing screen appears and indicating that the Execute TPM Command setting has changed to an persuasive, Enabled . 8. Press F10 to save the changes and exit BIOS. 9. To verify that TPM support is enabled, do the following: a. Reboot the words College, server then access the about writing in english, BIOS Setup Utility by essay writing words Bronte College pressing F2 key. The BIOS Setup Utility screen appears.
b. In the BIOS Setup Utility dialog box, select Advanced -- Trusted Computing and press Enter. The updated Trusted Computing screen appears indicting that TPM Support is set to Yes and TPM Enable Status is set to Enabled. 10. Press F10 to exit BIOS. You can assign an IP address for the server SP from the BIOS Setup Utility on the IPMI LAN configuration menu. Alternatively, you can also specify the LAN settings for the SP using ILOM. For instructions for setting the review of articles Seneca College, IP address in ILOM, see the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manager 2.0 User’s Guide . To set the IP address in the BIOS Setup Utility, use the menus to navigate to essay writing Bronte, the LAN configuration setting as follows: Advanced -- IPMI Configuration -- LAN Configuration. See FIGURE 2-3 for menu navigation tree.
Configure LAN Settings for SP. 1. Access the BIOS Setup Utility menus. 2. About Essay Albert College? In the BIOS Setup Utility menus, use the arrow keys (or Tab key) to writing Bronte College, navigate to the Advanced menu. 3. Write An Persuasive St. Michaels? In the Advanced menu, select IPMI Configuration. 4. In the IPMI Configuration menu, select LAN Confutation. Writing Bronte? 5. In the sheet Park, LAN Configuration settings dialog, use the arrow keys to select and specify the appropriate LAN configuration settings. 6. Press F10 to save the changes and exit. 126.96.36.199 Configuring Option ROM Settings in BIOS. The BIOS Option ROM is 128 kbytes. Of these 128 kbytes, approximately 80 kbytes are used by the VGA controller, the disk controller, and the network interface card. Approximately 48 kbytes remain for the Option ROM.
Enable or Disable Option ROM Settings. 1. Access the writing, BIOS Setup Utility menus. 2. In the BIOS Setup Utility menus, use the coursework cover School, arrow keys (or Tab key) to navigate to the Boot menu. Essay Words? The Boot menu appears. Conclusion To An Argumentative Essay Concord? 3. In the Boot menu, highlight the Option ROM setting, and then press Enter.
4. In the Boot menu listing the Option ROM settings, highlight the essay writing words Bronte College, applicable Option ROM setting to modify, then press Enter. A tab appears listing the available settings. 5. In the tab, do one of the following: Select Enabled to enable the Option ROM setting. Select Disabled to disable the Option ROM setting. 6. Press F10 to save and exit.
The BIOS is updated whenever you update the ILOM SP firmware. For instructions about updating the firmware, refer to the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manager 2.0 User’s Guide (820-1188) . Copyright © 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
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PLANNING TO MANAGE YOUR NEXT CRISIS DECISIVELY AND EFFECTIVELY. Risk management (specific plans dealing with high-probability events) by itself cannot account for all levels of essay words, uncertainty. Management also needs to rely on thinking School, a generalized approach, a crisis-management plan to deal with low-probability but high-consequence events. This author, who has managed crises in large, multinational industrial corporations, has a practical, ten-step plan for managing a crisis. On January 15, 2009, US Airways Flight 1549 took off from writing Bronte New York’s LaGuardia airport for Charlotte, North Carolina. Shortly after takeoff, the plane went through a flock of geese at 3,000 feet and both engines were knocked out. Captain Chesley “Sully” Sullenberger later said that he felt an “adrenaline rush” right to cover Kensington Park his core. Essay College. As his heart rate increased, he forced himself to conclusion essay ignore the words College physical symptoms and face the situation.
1. Most of us know what happened next. Captain Sullenberger and the crew were able to guide the about essay writing Albert College crippled Airbus A320 to an emergency landing on the Hudson River. Despite the words College fact that “no modern airliner has ever ditched in water without fatalities” 2 , all 155 passengers survived. Sullenberger certainly hadn’t landed on write a cause essay Washington, water before, yet his training allowed him to writing Bronte College make rational decisions and take appropriate actions in an extreme situation. Though many of us have been or eventually will be involved in a crisis, surprisingly few organizations will be ready with a plan to manage the crisis. In surveying over 200 managers and executives from firms in write an persuasive School, diverse industries, I found that less than one-third could say that their organization had a crisis management plan.
Moreover, very few of those managers and writing words Bronte College executives had been formally trained or rehearsed in how they would handle a crisis situation. While organizations allot substantial resources to the development and execution of critical School, strategies and essay words College operating plans, few of them account for the management of how to write an persuasive essay University School, such high uncertainty in an effective, proactive manner. Whether through chance or poor execution, many of words College, these plans de-rail, and the crises that arise lead to lost time, failed innovations and projects, wasted investment, contentious customer issues, and potentially, legal quagmires. The intent of this article is to conclusion to an argumentative essay Concord College highlight the benefits of planning for a crisis. We’ll start with the premise that “stuff’ will happen in our companies, whether we have a well-thought-out business plan or fly by the seat of our pants. Acknowledged, well-led organizations tend to see fewer crises, but situations will arise that demand an immediate, clear response and a series of activities to prevent the issue from getting out of hand. Recent examples will highlight some companies that have reacted well in a crisis, and others, where delayed acknowledgement and resolution of the essay writing College issues led to substantial negative press, lost consumer faith and potential lawsuits. A ten-step plan will provide readers with effective strategies and tactics to cover sheet Kensington manage and words Bronte survive a crisis.
On a two-by-two matrix presented 3 (See Figure 1), crisis situations are what we would categorize as low-probability / high-consequence events. Typical risk management planning, even if done effectively, would not focus on about essay writing in english College, these eventualities. Risk mitigation tactics become too costly and time consuming if we try to manage for all eventualities. In the end, most crises aren’t predicted, and organizations are left with the fact that events will occur that are outside their normal operating scope and that the consequences will be severe. While assigning blame for the events will often be clear enough, our intent here is to focus on writing Bronte, resolving the crisis. More important than identifying the cause of the crisis is that, once detected, it is dealt with effectively and efficiently.
Not long ago, I worked for a company that supplied General Motors. As my company was emerging from a particular crisis, a senior supplier development executive from cover Kensington Park GM told me, “All companies have problems. We know that. What set you apart in this situation is how you dealt with the writing Bronte College crisis.” At the time, I could honestly say that our reaction to that crisis was appropriate, because we had been through too many crises in the past. Write An Persuasive St. Michaels University School. As our organization grew and matured, a plan began to take shape that streamlined our reactions to various situations in essay writing College, our business – some random, some caused by suppliers’ actions and others by internal, organizational factors. In this case, we reacted quickly, notified GM immediately of about essay Albert, a potential supply issue, and worked together to prevent a problem in a particular process from becoming a real supply issue that would impact the production schedule in their assembly facility 90 minutes from our plant. Yes, we funded significant expedited freight to GM, getting parts to their line truly just-in-time in small batches as they came out of our production process, so their line suffered no disruptions. GM helped by essay writing providing us with hour-by-hour build schedules and some leverage with the logistics providers, and we worked through it. Since then, my research focused on various and diverse organizations (See Research Methodology.) The research spelled out a clear theme – companies that plan for a crisis have a much better chance of emerging from that crisis successfully, especially where success is measured by review of articles Seneca College preserving employee morale, timeliness in problem resolution, and generating customer enthusiasm.
Solid planning protects the integrity business plans, supply chain management, projects, and service operations. Great companies display clear, decisive leadership in challenging situations, leading to reduced stress internally and in the market place. Conversely, a company without a crisis plan will take longer to react, have varying results once they do react, lose employees and customers, and generally spend more funds solving the problem. In some of these cases, companies do not emerge from the crisis intact. Two examples, in this case based solely on information published in Bronte College, the business press, are The Gap and critical thinking history School Mattel. Writing. The Gap was accused of employing child labour in the manufacture of certain clothing items.
Within 24 hours, Gap President Marka Hansen had conducted an interview on CNN, commenting that the thinking history Caterham incidents involving sweat shops and child labour were, “deeply disturbing,” effectively presenting the company’s position 4 . Essay Words. The Gap’s clothing supplier that had allegedly recruited the local labour in critical thinking School, India was immediately suspended, and key executives from the clothing chain were on their way to India to investigate the essay situation. As the largest clothing retailer in the United States, The Gap had a lot to lose. Their reaction to the reports, however, was swift and unequivocal. They reminded the public of of articles, their Code of Conduct that spelled out the appropriate use of essay writing words, labour and environmental practices, and that they had fined or fired 23 suppliers in the past year for essay, violating that Code. Words. Specific to the products in question, seasonal clothing for the upcoming holidays, The Gap announced that none of that clothing would be brought to the U.S. and of articles College sold, despite the costs already incurred and resulting loss in revenues. Essay Words Bronte College. As well, 90 supplier quality reps from The Gap would be increasing the critical thinking history frequency of their unannounced visits to essay words Bronte subcontractors 5 . Consumers and industry watchdogs alike in this situation were left with the impression that the crisis occurred despite the best efforts of The Gap, and that the retailer reacted appropriately to write an persuasive essay St. Michaels University the circumstances. Indeed, The Gap’s stock price, as an indicator of public opinion, did not change materially after the event 6 . Internally, employees remained confident in essay Bronte College, leadership’s ability to execute in times of need. Contrast this situation with that of several toy and write State University (INTO) pet food companies supplied by manufacturers in Asia over the past year. Bronte College. In the case of contaminated pet food, the initial problems were reported by consumers on review Seneca College, February 20th, 2007, but responses from the manufacturer, including a widespread recall, did not happen until March 16th, a lag of almost a month. Essay Writing College. The company, it was stated, was more concerned about a court of law than the review Seneca College court of public opinion 7 . That court of law recently awarded $24 million to essay words owners of dogs and cats that were sickened after eating the of articles Seneca College pet food.
8. In August through October 2007, Mattel Inc. announced a series of recalls for toys produced in China that were suspected of having excess levels of lead in the paint. Mattel attempted to keep initial recalls quiet until all the product had been removed from stores 9 . Essay Bronte. It wasn’t until September 7, 2007 that the company took out full-page advertisements in national newspapers proclaiming how seriously they were taking the incidents 10 . There was a lag of a month before the company addressed the public. Shares of Mattel Inc. fell about 20 percent in the three months following the initial events. Critical Caterham. 11. The point here isn’t the crisis itself.
Indeed, some advocate that these types of problems are “Made in writing words, America” 12 , as competition and the drive to reduce costs force companies to off-shore products to low-cost countries in essay writing in english Albert, search of essay Bronte, supply-chain efficiency. 1 While the use of unvetted suppliers and unclear supply expectations are significant issues, our focus here is on how the ensuing crisis was handled. How To Write State University (INTO). With The Gap, the writing Bronte reaction was prompt and clear, while the toy and pet food companies procrastinated, looking for opportunities to salvage a win. In the to an essay College case of a crisis, however, it’s about managing the outcome, and less about winning 14 . How a company manages through a crisis cannot be left to Bronte College chance or good “management reflexes.” Indeed, entire consulting practices and advisory groups have been formed in the interest of about essay in english College, supporting companies’ needs in crisis management. In most cases, however, a plan, sound communication, 15 and employee training will go a long way towards effectively managing the majority of College, crises. Consider firefighters, who go through hundreds of hours of training every year. Firefighters generally acknowledge that training actually mimics very few real life occurrences.
16 However, the repeated training does teach the firefighters how to think clearly in a crisis situation by keeping stress levels low. How To A Cause Washington State. The firefighters’ experience and training levels help them think rationally, make decisions in an emergency, and react well to whatever crisis they are in. In effect, they practice feeling competent, and preserve the ability to make decisions . The military bases its training exercises on similar principles. The flight simulator exercises employed by US Airways, other airlines and the military can’t predict every situation that could develop on the aircraft, but running pilots through the essay words Bronte process in a virtual environment helps prepare them for real-life emergencies, such as the one that occurred on Flight 1549. Effective risk-management planning should account for most high-probability events and even some low-probability situations when the investment is justified.
Crisis management plans are broad-brush strategies and tactics to help the firm manage those events without specific risk management plans or tactics. Some organizations, however, take things to the next level, and spend significant time and resources developing plans to deal with worst-case scenarios. The Kroger Co., the U.S.-based grocery chain, developed a Discreet Event Simulation program that presents its supply chain as an entity, and allows it to evaluate what happens if one of its 31 Distribution Centers(DCs) goes “off-line” due to fire, hurricane, tornado, a labor strike, or some other event. 17 How well does the rest of the supply chain react to protect their 2,500 grocery stores? Though the program was costly (several hundred thousand dollars), Kroger determined that its supply chain was robust, in that it could take a hit in one of the distribution centers. With the help of the software, Kroger could re-route goods from other DCs and maintain delivery to its retail locations. GE’s Aircraft Division spent $300 million developing and review of articles implementing its Business Continuity Plan to essay writing Bronte ensure the write an persuasive delivery of writing Bronte College, aircraft engines, components and other industrial goods whenever and wherever needed. 18 At one point, this included maintaining two Boeing 747s “on-call” to transfer product should no other transport be available. This may sound extreme, but the products involved included engine components for F16 fighter jets stationed in the Middle East that could not afford to be grounded. Progressive organizations will learn from the crises and build specific risk management procedures around potentially similar events to ensure it doesn’t happen again.
Crisis Management, on the other hand, is a broader, generalized plan developed prior to events like this, that helps the organization react when they do happen. Without the time and resources to develop risk management plans for every eventuality, organizations need to build “planned reaction.” Developing a company’s plan starts by defining what is core to the business’s strategy and conclusion to an essay College operating plan, and essay consequently, what needs to essay writing Albert College be protected. Essay. In some service organizations, it is simply a matter of training employees in “What if” scenarios that mimic basic customer problems. Call centers do this all the time. Some manufacturing companies carry an extra day of conclusion to an argumentative, finished-goods inventory to protect against production, quality or shipping issues. Whatever plans a company makes, however, the writing words Bronte College true crises are those that happen outside the best-made plans. Ultimately, a firm will be judged by its customers, peers and employees on how they react to that crisis. Below are 10 Steps an organization can take to critical thinking history School develop an writing College, effective crisis management plan. (See Figure 2).
The core principle is to have a plan in the first place, communicate that plan, and how to an persuasive essay St. Michaels University School train your employees. The best defense is a good offence. Establish guidelines for all key supervisors, managers and executives for Crisis Prevention, Early Detection and Management. Essay Words Bronte. Communicate the Seneca College fact that you have a plan and ensure that all parties know their roles. Then, train employees to execute that plan. Conduct practice runs; simulate a truck going off the essay Bronte road or a supplier having a labour issue in Mexico. How do employees react in the case of a cause State (INTO), a simulated illness that keeps a third of the workforce at home? Tell me now. Words College. Communicate quickly, according to internal guidelines, when something comes up. When in doubt, always have your people contact the most senior person in the organization who may be available.
Keep in mind that junior employees may be overconfident in their ability to resolve the situation themselves. In other cases, employees are less comfortable waking people up in these situations. If it’s three o’clock in the morning when you get the call, you have a four-hour jump on the situation compared to your normal arrival time at seven o’clock. Rally the team. Gather the affected team members, key decision makers and conclusion to an essay problem solvers as soon as possible. Have a pessimist or devil’s advocate or two in the room as well to make sure people see the essay writing Bronte College worst in the situation while reactions are being crafted, but keep the team size to a functional 6-8 people and how to an persuasive essay School blitz the essay writing problem. Identify and verify the issue. Is the customer involved? Do we need to how to State (INTO) inform them? (Generally, the answer is “Yes”). What about the media?
Toyota has a principle in its management philosophy called, essentially, “Go and See” 19 . Like The Gap executives, get someone you trust, or perhaps yourself, on the scene to witness exactly what is going on. Words. Being able to say, “Yes, I’m there now, and this is what I see…” is extremely powerful and goes a long way towards soothing affected parties and facilitating a problem-solving environment, rather than a hostile one. The truth is easier to cover sheet Park remember. The Spin Doctors will always try to words make it sound better, and that may be OK. Stick to the main thread of the truth, however, as the truth will always come out eventually.
Don’t think it didn’t hurt The Gap to essay College admit that its sub-contractor violated clear expectations, which basically meant their Supply Chain Management group had dropped the ball. That issue can be resolved internally, while untruths aren’t easily forgotten. Appoint a champion. This is one key spokesperson for any customer, employee or press release. Who this is essay Bronte, depends on the severity of the coursework sheet Kensington Park issue (with The Gap, it was the writing words president). This person is responsible for any “spin” associated with #5.
Isolate and contain the problem. Conclusion To An Concord College. This step could be anywhere on the list, and College is usually carried out concurrently with other steps. Go further, however, and ensure that upstream and how to write St. Michaels downstream processes or products are not affected by the crisis, and ensure unequivocally that no further suspect product is shipped or a sub-par service is provided. This was not done in essay Bronte, the case of the contaminated pet food or toys with lead paint, as third and essay Concord fourth recalls occurred over several months and writing words Bronte College destroyed any remaining consumer confidence. Fix it. Correct the problem and prove to customers that the correction is irreversible; this means trying to get the essay writing in english system to fail or be disrupted by a similar event again. Essay Writing Words College. Our friends at a cause State, GM called this Irrevocable Corrective Action. Train all team members. Ensure that everyone understands what went wrong and what was done right.
Fine tune detection and prevention practices if necessary, especially quality guidelines that suppliers must follow off site. In some cases, (as with GE and Kroger), actual events can facilitate the tuning of your risk management plans. Congratulate the team. You’ve worked through a crisis. In reviewing this plan, you will see that the first two and last two points are “environmental” steps, activities that embody a proactive crisis management culture in the firm. Steps 3 through 8 are situation specific and are tailored by the firm to suit the writing Bronte College specific event.
Your Top 10 may differ from this list. How To Write A Cause Washington State. As long as you have a process, however, the firm is well positioned. In some firms, managers I have talked to apply a theory of “Deny, deny, deny” in essay writing Bronte, the case of a crisis. They express outrage with the to an essay College accusation, or worse yet, fail to acknowledge that there is really a situation at hand. Crises like that, however, tend to fester and get worse very quickly. Shortly, the press or lawyers (or both) are involved, and it becomes like wrestling with a pig – you both get dirty, but the pig likes it. Properly managed, however, a crisis enhances morale in your company, and even customer and public enthusiasm. Also, key team members develop a bit of a swagger. Consider our final example, Stella Artois, the European beer company.
In 2007, six (6) bottles of beer were suspected of being tampered with, likely after the beer had been sold by Stella. The company’s reaction was swift and clear, and full-page ads in national papers again proclaimed the words ‘facts’ to consumers, in most cases before any had heard of the situation. 20. It is the nature of business that a crisis will happen at some point. Projects and innovations increase the level of critical, uncertainty in writing College, our operations, yet it just isn’t possible to account for all the uncertainty inherent in our risk management. An effective crisis management plan and preparation will distinguish an coursework sheet, organization as a company that manages well in those situations that do happen, whether it’s a result of an essay words Bronte College, internal fault or one in history Caterham, the supply chain, or just plain dumb luck.
Forewarned is forearmed. As the probability of an event that would derail a project increases, Risk Management becomes more important. Writing Bronte College. Low probability, but high consequence events require a broader approach that may manage numerous scenarios. Figure 2 – Top 10 Steps To Crisis Management. The Best Defense is a Good Offence Tell Me Now Rally the Team Identify and thinking history Caterham School Verify the writing Issue The Truth is Easier to Remember Appoint a Champion Contain and Isolate the thinking history Issue Fix it Train All Team Members Congratulate the Team. B. Hewitt and essay writing Bronte N. Weisensee Egan. Essay. “Flight 1549: The Right Stuff”, People, 64 IBID.
Adapted from Y. Essay Words College. Sheffi and J.B. Rice Jr., “A Supply Chain View of the Resilient Enterprise.” MIT Sloan Management Review, Fall 2005, Vol 47 No. 1. The Gap: Report of kids’ sweatshop ‘deeply disturbing’; October 29, 2007; www. How To Write An Persuasive Essay School. CNN.com.; and essay company information. The Gap: Report of kids’ sweatshop ‘deeply disturbing’; October 29, 2007; www. CNN.com.
In fact, The Gap (gps-n) rose roughly 10% in the two months following the event, while the Dow Jones Average fell roughly 5%. www.globeinvestor.com Z. Olijnyk, “A doggone shame”, Canadian Business, April 9, 2007, 66-67. “Pet Food Settlement wins U.S. Of Articles. Judge’s Approval”, Globe and essay words College Mail, October 15, 2008 “Fisher-Price recalls toys made in China”, Calgary Herald, August 2, 2007 “Mattel: We take our promises seriously”, National Post, September 7, 2007 www.globeinvestor.com K. Wutkowski, “Toy safety crisis was made in America,’ watchdog group says, National Post, December 20, 2007 H. Lee, “The Triple-A Supply Chain,” Harvard Business Review, October 2004 Z. Olijnyk, “A doggone shame”, Canadian Business, April 9, 2007, 66-67. C. How To Essay Washington State (INTO). Pearson, “A Blueprint for Crisis Management”, Ivey Business Journal, Jan/Feb 2002, 69-74 R. McAlpine, Captain, Barrie Fire Department, Barrie, Ontario; Interview with author. Essay Writing Bronte. B. Bonner, “Supply Chain Planning in the 21st Century: Dealing with Risk in a Lean Environment” (presentation at the Symposium held at TechSolve, Inc, Cincinnati, November 29, 2007). S. W. McIver, “Supply Chain Planning in the 21st Century: Dealing with Risk in a Lean Environment” (presentation at the Symposium held at essay writing in english Albert College, TechSolve, Inc, Cincinnati, November 29, 2007). Writing Words Bronte College. J. Liker, “The Toyota Way”, McGraw Hill, 2003 “A Word About Trust From Stella Artois”, The Globe and Mail, July 14, 2007. © Copyright 2017 Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation.
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Analysis of Disability by Nancy Mairs. Author of disability Nancy Mairs who’s a feminist and a cripple, has accomplished a lot in writing and teaching. Her remarkable personality shows in many of her essays especially in Disability which was first published in 1987 in the New York Times. In this essay, Nancy Mairs shows how disabled people are constantly excluded, especially from the media. By giving out facts and essay College, including her personal experiences, Mairs aims for making some changes regarding the relationship between the coursework cover sheet Park School media and essay writing College, people with disabilities. How To Write Essay (INTO)? Mairs thesis is College shown implicitly in the first and last paragraphs. Her main goal is to Seneca College show everyone that people with disabilities are just like everybody else and they should be included and essay writing Bronte College, accepted in all daily activities. Thinking History Caterham School? By using irony, intensity, humor and self-revelations, Nancy Mairs succeeds to get her message through. Essay Writing Words College? Nancy Mairs starts her essay by describing herself as a crippled woman with multiple sclerosis. She talks about her condition and how she’s never seen a crippled woman like her in the media. Then she mentions some television shows about sheet Park School, disabled people that focus almost entirely on essay Bronte College disabilities and neglect the person’s character.
Mairs states that although disability changes a lot in how to write a cause essay Washington, one’s life, it doesn’t kill him/her. She for essay writing words, example, can do what every other woman her age can do. And although she’s a great consumer, advertisers never choose someone like her to represent their products publicly; and the reason for that, according to Mairs, is that people cannot yet accept the fact that disability is something ordinary. The consequences of this situation are hash on disable people, for they might feel like they don’t exist. Finally, Nancy Mairs says that anyone might become disabled. But if one sees disability as a normal characteristic then it won’t be hard on him/her psychologically. And then once again, Mairs mentions that disabled people should be included in daily activities. Nancy Mairs starts “Disability” with self-revelations which show through her entire essay, like for instance: “I am a forty-three-year-old woman crippled with multiple sclerosis…”; “take it from me…”; “I’m the advertisers’ dream…” The fact that Nancy Mairs mentions herself a lot makes her essay lack objectivity. How To Write An Persuasive Essay St. Michaels? But the reason behind this is words Bronte that few are the people who can relate to critical Caterham School this topic.
So no one really knows what this is about as much as Mairs and all disabled people who form a minority do. This tells us that the author knows what she’s talking about. Since this essay is addressed to people who don’t know much about disability, its purpose is essay writing Bronte College not merely to inform us about the physical disability itself but also about the psychological effects of the constant isolation and exclusion of people with disabilities. This makes the essay persuasive rather than argumentative since the author only mentioned her attitude towards this subject. But what a better way to do it than having a person with disability talk about sheet Kensington, his/her personal experiences? Persuading people of Mairs point of view which is that disabled people should be included in the daily activities couldn’t be done by just stating objective facts. This kind of essay writing words Bronte College, persuasion needs examples. To prove that disabled people are unfairly treated, Nancy Mairs gives an example of a crippled women who was stopped from doing what she wanted to how to a cause essay Washington (INTO) do, though she was still physically able to do it. She also gives examples of products to prove that she’s regular consumer and that there’s no reason there’s no reason why people with disabilities couldn’t get the opportunity to appear in words, the media and represent these products. Nancy Mairs is well known for an persuasive St. Michaels School, her style in writing. She uses irony to essay writing Bronte College show that the how to a cause essay reason why media always excludes disabled people is ridiculous: “if you saw me pouring out writing words Bronte College puppy biscuits, would you think these kibbles were only for the puppies of the how to write a cause State (INTO) cripples.
She also uses humor: “she got as far as a taxi to the airport, hotly pursued by the doctor. ” Intensity is also shown when she says: “advertisers who determine… deny the essay Bronte College existence of me and my kind absolutely”. This intensity is nothing but the result of cover Kensington, a strong anger caused by the mistreatment of disabled people. Essay Writing Bronte? This style gives the essay a kind of vivacity, sparkle and even strength. It shows that Mairs is not afraid of making fun of the advertisers. So basically, Nancy Mairs refers to emotions: “you might feel as though you don’t exist, in any meaningful social sense at all. ” While in some cases appealing to emotions can be inappropriate, in this particular essay it’s not. It is Caterham only inappropriate when a certain topic requires logic and words Bronte, reason. Actually getting people to School accept disability and people carrying it requires neither logic nor reason. They’re just human beings who deserve to be treated like anyone else. This essay lacks some evidence though: “I once asked a local advertiser…”; “one of those medical dramas” which makes these two stories less credible and leaves us wondering whether they are true or simply made up. But as for the rest of the essay, the information is writing words College based on personal experiences and emotions that don’t require much evidence. As for the audience, this essay is addressed to conclusion to an essay Concord College all people who read the Bronte New York Times, while it should have been addressed specifically to how to write a cause essay Washington State (INTO) advertisers so they can make a change regarding the inclusion of words Bronte, disabled people.
Nancy Mairs in of articles College, her “disability” has done a good job in writing words, delivering her message. I believe she managed to review Seneca persuade the audience that there is no reason to exclude disabled people from the media. Her information was clear and made sense, her examples were enough to support her thesis and essay writing Bronte, her tone added a certain flavor to her essay. “Disability” can actually make certain changes if it is thinking Caterham School addressed to its right audience and I certainly recommend it to essay Bronte my friends and coursework cover sheet Kensington Park, anyone who might be interested in this topic. Nancy Mairs is a writer afflicted with multiple sclerosis. In her essay, #8220;Disability#8221;, she explains how the media fails to accurately portray individuals living with a debilitating disease.
This causes people with a handicap to feel inadequate, isolated, and lonely. #8230; Nancy Mair’s “Disability” shows us the view a disabled woman has on how the world perceives people with disabilities. Nancy is “a forty- three year old crippled woman.”(Bedford Reader 13).Nancy is a woman who spends most of her time in #8230; The essays that Nancy Mairs and Rosie Anaya wrote discuss the media’s lack of proper representations for essay writing Bronte, those with disabilities. Cover Sheet Kensington School? Mairs speaks about how people with disabilities have the same sense of words, normality as those who do not. Anaya talks #8230; According to Mairs, the only thing #8220;normal#8221; about write University, seeing disabled people on TV was their daily appearance on a medical drama. As the time went by since 1987, Anaya wrote on how disabilities have become more normal in our everyday #8230; In her essay, “Disability,” Nancy Mairs argues that our society must take the disability as normal. She describes her own experience where she finds the people taking disability as abnormal especially in media. College? She says, “I once asked a local #8230; “And yet the advertisers, who determine nowadays who will be represented publicly and who will not, deny the existence of me and my kind absolutely.” (paragraph 4) In this passage, Mairs displays her emotions of frustration and anger towards the #8230; David from Healtheappointments: Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy. Haven’t found what you want?
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essay copies Copies and Forgeries: What Difference Does It Make? If originality is a primary value in the modern art market, then copies, whether had-painted or mechanical reproductions, become problematic. Copies would seem to be bad because they are not unique and the more there are of such objects, the less valuable they are. Masterpieces are supposed to be ‘one of a kind’ objects, but artists even great ones - have always copied. Writing Words Bronte College! They did it in order to learn; they did it for pleasure and they did it for clients who want copies of unavailable works. “Titian, Tintoretto, El Greco and in english College Poussin were great copiers”. Rubens imitated Michelangelo, Raphael, Tintoretto, Titian, Veronese and others.
In the 19 th century, Delacroix, Gericault, Manet, Degas and essay writing words Cezanne spent time copying paintings in the Louvre. Review Seneca! Titian’s Bacchania was copied by Rubens, Van Dyck and Poussin. His Entombment was copied by Gericault, Delacroix, Fantin- Latour, Cezanne, Chagall and Derain. Some artists have copied their own work. One of the greatest artists of the end of the 18 th century, the French sculptor, Jean-Antoine Houdon, produced more than forty replicas of one bust of writing words College Voltaire, sixteen copies of his bust of John Paul Jones and thirty copies of his bust of Sophie Arnould and had plans to make as many as two hundred copies of a portrait of George Washington.
In some cases, the in english Albert, copies, some in plaster and terra cotta, were superior to the originals. According to the art historian, F. Winkler, Van Eyck, the master of Flemalle, Durer , Holbein, Baldung Grien, Mabuse, and Terborch produced exact duplicates of some of their pictures. (Wind) Sometimes, great artists made copies of the work of lesser artists. Bronte College! Rembrandt made a copy of Peter Lastman’s Suzanna and the Elders, perhaps improving on it, but Titian’s copy of Caterham School Jacob Seisenegger’s full-size portrait of Emperor Charles V and essay words College his Ulm Mastif - made to get a job - may or may not be an improvement. How original, and, therefore, how valuable, is a copy by a great artist of a work by another great artist? In 1525, Andrea del Sarto copied - to order - Raphael’s Leo X with Two Cardinals which was done in 1518-19. A contemporary, Giulio Romano, complimented the work by saying he couldn’t tell the difference. The art historian, John Shearman, writing in 1965, thought that del Sarto had made changes that were an about essay writing in english, improvement of the original painting. Pieter Breughel the Younger made his living by making copies of his father’s paintings.
Perhaps 30 copies of the Peasant Dances are known. Words! (Milwaukee Art Museum) For several hundred years, families and tribes of write an persuasive St. Michaels artists supported themselves by essay, making copies of famous paintings and sculptures throughout Europe. How To A Cause State (INTO)! By 1760, hundreds of copies made by writing College, the numerous followers of several 17 th century masters were circulating throughout Europe, sometimes mistakenly classified as genuine. And of course students have always copied their master’s work. Roman stonecutters made thousands of copies of Greek marble and bronze statues for in english College, cult purposes (different from original Greek cults) as well as decorations for private gardens, bathhouses and other public buildings when Greek originals became too expensive to import. (Praxeteles’ Knidos Aphrodite had more than 50 replicas, the Medici Venus-type had 33, and the Capitolium Venus-type had 101 surviving versions. P 97, Fn 20. Radnoti,). Many of these were eventually sold as Greek originals and later became valuable as Roman copies. There are also many Renaissance copies of antique marble statues.
Most African sculptures we know are copies made for the tourist trade - copies made by Africans. Essay Writing Words! What is original African sculpture, - art made for rituals or tourists? And what is an how to write essay Washington State (INTO), original Inuit Eskimo sculpture carved by Indians from India if you can’t tell the difference? The Caryatids on the Erechtheum on the Acropolis in Athens are copies made out of concrete and the bronze horses on the façade of essay writing St. Essay College! Marks in Venice are also copies. Even St Marks itself is a copy of another building (in Constantinople(?) There are also imitations of the caves at Altimira and Lascaux. When Van Gogh made oil paintings from Millet’s drawings he said he “was not so much copying as translating from writing College one language to another.” During the last half-century, this idea became a major, economically successful international style when Pop artists created original art by adopting the styles and subject matter of popular culture comics, magazine advertising, billboards and photography. Some of these artists even translated reproductions of fine art painting into Pop styles. Art had finally become its own subject in an persuasive essay University School that images were being made of images. Jasper Johns made paintings of flags and targets so that the words Bronte, image and what it represented were congruent. Coursework Sheet School! Andy Warhol made silkscreen copies of newspaper photographs.
He also painted soup can labels and constructed Brillo Boxes. Lichtenstein made paintings of essay writing reproductions of Fine Art paintings as well as popular images in about the style of comic strips. Rosenquist made paintings in the style of billboards. Although Richard Estes worked in the style of photographs, most Photo realists actually copied photographs. Robert Rauchenberg made a painting that included sweeping, spontaneous, ‘expressive’ brushstrokes and writing words Bronte College drips and critical history School then proceeded to copy this painting exactly, including the writing words College, drips, among other things challenging the abstract expressionist idea of brushstroke and thinking history Caterham drip as being expressive. The ultimate in words Bronte College copying and imitation as ‘original’ art was initiated by a movement called ‘Appropriationism’. As I mentioned in a previous paper, in the 1980’s, Mike Bidlo made a copy of School Warhol’s Brillo Boxes which was originally a copy of College Steve Garvey’s Brillo Box. Coursework Cover Kensington Park! He also exhibited 40 copies of essay words Bronte College Picasso paintings, called Not Picasso, and among others, he copied Picasso’s Mademoiselles d’Avignon and Portrait of Gertrude Stein. He has also made paintings called Not Duchamp, Not Giacometti, Not Leger, Not Matisse, Not O’Keefe, etc. When he made a painting called Not Lichtenstein, Lichtenstein, who also uses other artist’s paintings as subject matter, responded by copying Bidlo’s painting of his painting and called it Not Bidlo. Conclusion To An Essay Concord College! Richard Pettibone made copies of essay Bronte College Duchamp’s Bottle Rack and Bicycle Wheel, both of critical Caterham which were originally mass-produced objects.
Some artists, like David Salle, merely ‘quote’ from the styles of essay Bronte College several other artists in the same paintings. All of these artists signed their own names to how to essay Washington (INTO) these works. Once we demand that artworks be original, we will find that we have a problem with multiple prints, - etchings, engravings, and woodcuts made by individual artists or statues cast from clay or wax models made under the supervision of the artist. Are all such prints and writing Bronte statues equally original? Sculptures are cast from review of articles Seneca College molds made by essay writing Bronte College, Rodin 100 years ago with his family’s legal permission and sold to collectors as original Rodins; prints are taken from plates made by Rembrandt 350 years ago. Bronze casts are made of Degas’ clay originals after he died. How original are they? How original are Holbein drawings etched and printed by Lutzelberger or Breughel drawings engraved by Jerome Cock or Pieter Perret?
The use of terms like original, creative and expressive has had many dire effects on our conception of art. Critical History School! Such terms are, or should be, descriptive. Like “rational” and writing Bronte “logical”, they are processes; they describe ways of working. They do not establish the value of the results of review of articles such processes. They are not evaluative and should be used judgmentally only in appropriate contexts. Their indiscriminate use has destroyed our sense of quality. Many original, creative and expressive art objects are also failures, second rate and ugly. Its emphasis in art schools at the expense of essay writing Bronte College craft, knowledge of thinking history art, has resulted in the idea that anything goes. Deliberate forgeries create a special problem for the modern art market. Next to prostitution, forgery is probably mankind’s oldest profession. Ever since there has been a market for desired as opposed to necessary - objects, there has been a market for forgeries.
Today, status-seeking, gullible people buy fake Rolex watches and essay writing Armani shirts; in coursework Kensington Park School the 6 th century BC, Phoenicians bought fake Egyptian pottery supposedly from 2000 years before and rich, 2 nd century Romans bought fake 4 th century BC Greek statues as decorations for their gardens. While forgery has always accompanied (is a “by-product” of) art collecting, since the Renaissance, with the writing words Bronte, development of the aura surrounding the notion of artist-genius and Albert College especially since the 1880’s, with the essay writing words College, influx into the art market of critical School “squillionaire” American art collectors, the market for Fine Art forgeries has grown immensely. Essay Writing Words! Although the purpose of such forgeries for the forger is obviously deception, whether for financial gain or personal gratification, the question is asked by many viewers, “If you can’t tell the difference, what difference does it make? What’s wrong with a fake? Tom Hoving, former director of the Metropolitan Museum of how to an persuasive Art in words Bronte New York, says that fully 40% of the 50,000 objects that he examined during his 15 years as director “were either phonies or so hypocritically restored or so misattributed that they were just the same as forgeries”. He maintains that many celebrated objects displayed in major museums around the world are fakes. About Essay Writing Albert! For example, he considers the essay writing words, popular relief on a Greek sarcophagus in the Boston Museum of Fine Art and the Getty’s 6 th Century BC marble Kouros to be bogus.
For many decades, three statues of Etruscan warriors were on thinking Caterham exhibit at the Metropolitan until it was discovered that were made in 1918 by essay words College, the brothers Riccardi and Alfredo Fioravanti. The Metropolitan’s famous ‘Greek’ Horse was first thought to be 7 th Century, BC, then 5 th Century BC, then a 20 th Century fake and is now displayed as a Roman fake of the 1 st Century BC. Possibly even Van Gogh’s, Sunflowers, bought by the Japanese Yasuda Marine and Fire Insurance Company for sheet Kensington, over 40 million dollars in writing Bronte College 1987, is a forgery. Although the works of many famous 19 th and 20 th century forgers have been exposed (for example, Elmyr de Hory, Davis Stein, John Drew, Aleco Dossena and Eric Hebborn), thousands of “unrecognized or undisclosed” forged Monets, Renoirs, Matisses, Picassos, Giacomettis, Modiglianis, Rodins, Derains, Vlamincks, Dufys and others are still in an persuasive University private and words public collections around the world. An Persuasive Essay St. Michaels University! Anywhere between 15 and 40% of the objects in art museums are estimated to be forgeries. According to the records of the New York Customs office, between 1909 and 1951, a total of 9,428 works by Rembrandt were imported into the country. A US Customs official said that 27,000 Corots had entered this country since Corot died in 1875. A Corot expert commented that this figure was short by 10,000.
In 1934, Time magazine wrote that of the 2,000 paintings that Corot had painted, 10,000 were in American collections. It is also said that of the 200 paintings that Van Gogh painted, 500 are in this country. In the 16 th century, Albrecht Durer complained about forgeries of his work. In 1511, on the title page of his series of woodcuts prints, Life of the Virgin, he inscribed, “Be cursed, plunderers and essay writing words Bronte College imitators of the review of articles College, work and talent of others. Beware of laying your audacious hand on this artwork!” As the Roman poet and critic, Horace, put it 1500 years before, “He who knows a thousand works of art knows a thousand frauds.”
The fact that experience leads to greater visual discrimination does not mean that art experts, whether professional artists, curators and writing critics or discriminating connoisseurs will necessarily see the how to a cause State University (INTO), same thing or agree in their judgments. Writing Bronte College! In so far as experienced, knowledgeable people come from different backgrounds, they are likely to make different assumptions about what is significant in works of art. Thinking History Caterham! Because they may have come from different times and places and subject to the taste of their milieu, because they may have studied different works of art from different historical periods with different professors and learned different study techniques, it is not surprising that their perceptions are not the same. People who disagree do not just respond differently to the same features; they literally see and interpreted them differently. Words! Art historians have been famously wrong in essay in english College recognizing fakes and forgeries. According to Mark Jones, in the introduction to writing words a book on of articles Seneca College an exhibition of fakes at the British Museum, experts make mistakes, not simply “because knowledge and experience can never be complete, but because perception itself is determined by essay Bronte, the structure of expectations that underpin it.” What do these experts think they are looking at? What are they looking for? In fact, what are their motives for looking?
Belief and desire can make you see what’s not there as well as not see what is there. Of Articles! The famous Dutch art historian, Abraham Bredius, became infamous after announcing his discovery of a major, historically significant painting by Jan Vermeer, but which was really by essay words College, the forger, Hans Van Meegeren. At the time, 1937, Bredius was an to an essay Concord, old man and half blind. He had spent a good part of his life trying to discover unknown Vermeer paintings from the early period of Vermeer’s life and this ‘discovery’ would be the high point of words Bronte his career. Here is Bredius on seeing Van Meegeren’s, Christ at Emmaus, with Vermeer’s forged signature: It is a wonderful moment in the life of a lover of art when he finds himself suddenly confronted with a hitherto unknown painting of a great master, untouched, on the original canvas, and without any restoration, just as it left the painter’s studio! And what a picture! . The subject is Christ and cover School the Disciples at words Emmaus and the colors are magnificent and characteristic: Christ in a splendid blue; the disciple on the left, whose face is barely visible, in a fine grey; the about essay Albert, other disciple on essay Bronte College the left in yellow the yellow of the review Seneca College, famous Vermeer at Dresden, but subdued so that it remains in perfect harmony with the Bronte, other colors. The servant is clad in dark brown and how to write an persuasive St. Michaels dark grey; her expression is wonderful. Essay Words! Expression, indeed, is the most marvelous quality of this unique picture.
Outstanding is the head of Christ, serene and sad, as he thinks of all the suffering which He, the Son of God, had to pass through in His life on earth, yet full of essay College goodness After Christ at Emmaus was accepted as authentic, Van Meegeren was able to essay words Bronte pass off several more of his paintings as Vermeers even though they looked less and less like his work. Although little is known of the first 10 years of Vermeer’s life, there is no evidence that he ever used such heavy-lidded eyes, elongated foreheads, long hollowed cheeks or congested, confused compositions as appears progressively in Van Meegeren’s forgeries. Compared to Vermeer, Van Meegeren’s colors lack luminosity; his shadows are repetitive (“raccoon-like”) and about College his textures are unnaturally smooth. These characteristics are more typical of Van Meegeren’s own religious paintings than Vermeer’s. Although he makes limited use of pointille’, he does not seem to understand the effects of the camera obscura or even that Vermeer probably used one. Essay Writing Words! In fact, if you are knowledgeable of Van Meegeren’s milieu, you can detect traces of a 20 th century Symbolist style in his 17 th century forgeries. There are even those who can see, not only resemblances to Van Meegeren’s own face, but also to Greta Garbo’s in how to essay University School his paintings. Although some of Bredius’ contemporaries recognized Van Meegeren’s work as forgeries, today almost everyone can see what Bredius and others could not see in 1937 and essay writing the years following. Forgeries are wrong because they falsify perception. Although some forgeries may be more beautiful than originals, most are not.
Van Meegeren’s forgeries are bad, not only because they are not what they claim to be; they are bad because they are poorly painted works into of articles Seneca which good qualities are projected and whose bad qualities are imperceptible to essay words Bronte College those who believe that they are the about writing in english Albert College, works of Vermeer. Forgeries are also wrong because they falsify history. The characteristics of a forgery accrue to the original artist. Van Meegeren’s forgeries were assumed to have filled the gap in our knowledge of essay writing words Vermeer’s unknown early history. Coursework Park! When other forgeries by Van Meegeren were placed on Bronte the market, they were compared with Van Meegeren’s, Christ at Emmaus then at the Boymans Museum, to determine their authenticity, and, of course, the characteristics of the forgery became accepted as part of Vermeer’s style.
Consider, also, that if undetected forgeries are accepted as being authentic, then even forgeries can be forged. It may not matter if a painting is State (INTO), intended only to hang on a wall as decoration, but when we say that it does make a difference whether the work is an original or a fake, we are not merely talking about writing words taste or aesthetics. History School! Although some have maintained that beauty is more important than history, as did even the great cultural historian, Jacob Burckhardt, I argue that history determines our perception of beauty. As I have tried to show, what we know and assume about a work of words Bronte College art can’t help but affect our perception of it and, therefore, our appreciation and judgment. Works of art don’t exist in a vacuum, although we might get that idea when we see them, torn out of essay writing Albert College their original historical and essay writing words functional context, hanging next to each other on a museum wall. They have a history; they originally served social functions in temples, churches, chapels, palaces or private homes and knowledge of how to essay Washington State University (INTO) that history determines our understanding of what is significant about them. If we know that a work is the product of a particular artist, knowledge of that person’s history, his culture, and his motives and essay writing goals, that knowledge will affect how we see his work. How To Write An Persuasive Essay St. Michaels University School! If we see his paintings in relation to words Bronte his other work or the work of his contemporaries, followers and predecessors, we will see where he got his ideas and Caterham School whom he might have influenced.
Seeing an artist’s work in essay College this context will certainly affect our notions of his originality and uniqueness. If we know that a painting is from the hand of Vermeer, we will see it in terms of argumentative College what we know about the art of 17 th century Netherlands; if we know that the writing words, work was by a forger working in 1936, we will be able to detect in it 20 th century traces which were unnoticed before. Van Meegeren’s paintings are not copies; they are original paintings from the ‘hand’ of Van Meegeren in the assumed style of University Vermeer. Essay Words College! Only their signatures are forged. Even if the Van Meegerens and about essay the Vermeers superficially look alike, they are different objects because they have different histories.
Although works of art perform different functions in museums today, and although we can’t resurrect their original milieu, we cannot or should not ignore the knowledge of what those objects are and were.