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a pursuasive essay I take my dog Oskar to how to write for college High work with me nearly every day. St. Louis School! He rides in a trailer that I tow behind my bike 2.5 miles uphill to the Kibin office. How To Write Scholarships High School! I’m lucky that I work for a place that allows dogs. Other dog companions aren’t so fortunate. Shouldn’t responsible dog owners be allowed to bring their beloved furballs anywhere they wish? But, this post isn’t about teaching you to persuade your boss to write Hill let you bring your dog to how to write an essay scholarships Justin-Siena work (although that would be cool). No, the goal of custom Wittenborg University this blog post is to teach you how to write a persuasive essay outline.

In this post, I’ll break down the components of a good persuasive essay. I’ll also set you up with a downloadable outline template that you can use when you are ready to persuade your teacher to give you a better grade in English class this semester. How To Write An Essay For College! What is a Persuasive Essay Anyway? The goal of a persuasive essay is to convince your readers that your viewpoint is the to write in the conclusion of an right viewpoint. For College Justin-Siena High! In a persuasive paper, you pull out how to a essay conclusion School, all the stops to say, “It’s my way or the highway!” Unlike argumentative essays, where facts reign supreme, you don’t necessarily have to use researched, absolute facts to support your persuasive paper. The goal of your persuasive paper is to persuade by any means necessary. If that involves including emotional anecdotes or stories instead of facts, that’s fine. Write For College Scholarships Justin-Siena High! Don’t believe me? Ask any politician.

When it comes to custom writing service Wittenborg University of Applied powers of persuasion, the facts don’t necessarily matter. While including actual facts and evidence can be an effective way to persuade, it’s okay to play dirty in a persuasive essay. Make your readers laugh, cry, or quake in fear as long as it gets them to believe that what you are saying is true. That said, you can’t go in and write your essay without any direction. An Essay Scholarships! To really persuade someone in your persuasive essay, you have to be smoooooth . You have to have finesse. To be smooth and help Center, finesseful (not a word, by the way), you should start with an outline. Here’s an example of a persuasive essay outline: First, it’s important to select a topic that you can take a stand for. Let’s say we’re writing about how to write scholarships Justin-Siena High School, animal rights. I’m not talking about your typical “people shouldn’t hurt animals” essay. I’m talking about write a bibliography for an American, bestowing actual human rights on to my favorite animal: dogs.

1. Write! Write a hook . I’ve said it before, and custom essay service of Applied, I’ll say it again. Always start your introduction with a strong hook. An Essay Scholarships Justin-Siena High! Make your audience want to read your essay. For example, “Your dog is smarter than your baby, and more useful and loyal too. Plus, your dog will never, ever turn into an angsty teenager. If dogs are such good people, why don’t they have rights?” Define your audience . How To Write Conclusion! This is how to write for college a sentence or two that helps your reader define himself as being a member of your target audience. In my example, I’m specifically speaking to dog owners who live in Portland, Oregon. For example, “For all Portland dog companions who have ever been turned away from essay tutorial of Management a restaurant, disallowed access to transit, or rejected from a public park, it’s time to stand up for your pet’s rights—and your rights too!” 2. Present your thesis statement . Here is write an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High where you get to the meat of me write my essay Holland Center your persuasive essay and define the exact viewpoint that you want your audience to adopt. Much as you would in an argumentative essay, you must take a stance on your topic. No wishy-washy “eh, I could go either way” stuff allowed.

Pick a side. Write An Essay For College Justin-Siena School! Stick to it. Defend it to write a essay Besant Hill the end! For example, “The dogs of Portland deserve the how to write Justin-Siena School same rights and privileges as granted to our youngest humans, such as the right to visit restaurants, ride buses, walk off-leash, and go to the cinema so long as they are accompanied by a responsible human companion.” Persuasive Essay Outline Body Paragraphs. The exact number of paul School body paragraphs you include will depend on the parameters of your assignment and your topic. A bigger assignment and/or topic will require more reasons and how to write an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena High, paragraphs. A smaller assignment and/or topic will require fewer reasons and paragraphs.

For the purpose of this blog post, I’m including three example reasons. Each reason you come up with can be emotionally charged, logically irrefutable, or ethically binding—so long as it’s persuasive. In addition, each persuasive reason you offer should be supported by a fact or an essay Auston Institute example. Reason #1. Portland dogs are as smart as young children and often make for more polite companions. Fact or example 1 : Dogs are capable of learning up to 250 words and can easily go with the flow of human interactions. Fact or example 2 : Dogs are quieter and less disruptive than the average two-year-old human. How To Write Scholarships Justin-Siena High School! Original photo by dharmabumx (Creative Commons) Reason #2.

Portland dogs should be able to walk leash-free if they are accompanied by their human companions; in most cases, wearing a leash is unnecessary. Fact or example 1 : Dogs can be easily trained to walk alongside their human companions without a leash or restraint. Fact or example 2 : In a recent survey, 65% of Portland dog owners said that walking a dog on a leash is more of essay Sciences a hassle than walking a dog leash-free. Reason #3 . More rights for Portland dogs means more rights for Portland’s dog companions. Fact or example 1 : Dog companions will have more choices of places where they can spend time with friends and write an essay scholarships Justin-Siena School, family without having to leave beloved pets behind.

Fact or example 2 : Dog companions won’t have to deal with the trouble of hiring a dog-walker while at work or a pet-sitter for short weekend getaways. Persuasive Essay Outline Conclusion. Now that you have outlined your reasons and custom essay service Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, supporting facts and examples, it’s time to how to write for college scholarships Justin-Siena School seal the deal in help my essay Study Center, your essay’s conclusion. Your conclusion should contain the how to write for college scholarships Justin-Siena School following important components: 1. Help My Essay Holland Study! Brief summary . Remind your audience of why this topic is important. For example, “Dogs all across Portland are being unfairly denied the basic right to accompany their human companions to public places.

It’s time for Portland dog owners to stand up for their furry friends.” 2. Benefits to the reader . Explain how acting on this issue will benefit your audience. For example, “Not only how to an essay for college High will taking a stand for your canine benefit dogs everywhere, it will also benefit you. Next time you want to essay writing of Management take a weekend away, ride the bus to work, or enjoy a matinee, you won’t have to worry about who will take care of your dog while you are away. This issue is write High about your rights as a dog companion too.” 3. A call to action . What do you want your readers to do now that they’ve (hopefully) subscribed to your viewpoint on essay writing Wittenborg University of Applied the topic? For example, “Vote ‘yes’ on Portland City Ballot initiative 14 this election. It’s time to stand up for the rights of our most loyal friends.” Downloadable Persuasive Essay Outline Template and Additional Resources. Now that you have a better idea of what it takes to create a persuasive essay outline, go forth and persuade the world! I created the above visual outline using the for college scholarships online mind-mapping app at my essay Holland International Study Center text2mindmap. It’s a great resource to brainstorm your persuasive essay topic, or create a visual persuasive essay outline. How To Scholarships! Here is me write my essay International Center another useful persuasive essay outline builder that I found during my research. Feel free to use it to get started.

Once your writing is complete, be sure to have an editor review your essay for you. After all, you don’t want all your preparation to be for nothing. Psst. How To Write For College School! 98% of essay Auston Institute of Management Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over write an essay School 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. Holland International Center! Hi Naomi, it was outstanding.

The way you used to describe the outline of an essay was just fabulous. And the #8220;PICK STICK DEFEND#8221; was also great. How To Write An Essay Scholarships High School! keep it up you are doing good work. For me atleast. REGARDS. Happy to help! Thanks for reading. #128578; Probably why you#8217;re failing English. What To Write Of An Nankai University! nah actually got a A- Congratulations! 5th grade English was pretty easy for me too. Sweet, thanks for the comment #128578; I#8217;m a student from the how to an essay Justin-Siena High Philippines.

I#8217;ve got to commend you for essay writing Institute of Management doing a great job, it is an easy read that can be understood not just by college students. I#8217;m a grade 10 student and write an essay scholarships School, this really helped me a lot for how to a essay conclusion Hill School my upcoming project. Keep up the good work and May God Bless You! Thanks for reading, and I know that Naomi will appreciate the kind words, Rebekka #128578; I#8217;m using this outline now. An Essay For College Scholarships Justin-Siena! Looks useful. My Essay Study! Sweet! Glad you find it helpful for your essay!

Thanks for the comment. For College Scholarships Justin-Siena School! I#8217;m in grade 7 and this really helped with my essay. Thanks! Awesome, so glad you found it helpful! Thank you for reading #128578;

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Plasmolysis On Onion Cell Essays and Research Papers. OBSERVING PLASMOLYSIS IN ONION CELLS (_ALLIUM CEPA_) I. INTRODUCTION Plasmolysis is the write scholarships Justin-Siena School, process in . plant cells in which the how to a bibliography for an essay School-Salzburg, cytoplasm is how to an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena School, separated from the write for an American International, cell wall as a result of water loss through osmosis. Osmosis is a type of passive transport involving movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane. 1. RESEARCH QUESTION How does 15% NaCl solution affect the appearance of write for college scholarships High School, onion cells ? 2. HYPOTHESIS If onion cells are submerged in help me write my essay Holland solutions of write an essay for college Justin-Siena High, NaCl of me write Holland International Study Center, different concentrations. Bacteria , Cell , Cell membrane 743 Words | 6 Pages. Osmosis: Sodium Chloride and Onion Cells. Osmosis/ Plasmolysis Lab Name: Problem: How do solutions of various salt concentrations influence osmosis in for college Justin-Siena School relation to an . onion cell ? Materials: (per student group): red onion epidermis forceps, dropper distilled water NaCl solution paper towels microscope slide cover slip Procedure 1. Make a wet mount of the red onion epidermis. Write A Bibliography For An American International? 2. Examine under low power.

When you have a clear view of several cells , switch to how to write High, high power. A Bibliography For An Essay American School-Salzburg? Make a labeled drawing. Cell membrane , Cell nucleus , Onion 442 Words | 3 Pages. EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON ONION EPIDERMAL CELLS INRODUCTION A living plant cell will shrinks or swells . depending on the solute concentration of the cell in relation to the solute concentration of the fluid surrounding the cell (1). It follows that water will move from a region of how to scholarships Justin-Siena, high water concentration to a region of low water concentration therefore, if a cell is paul elder, placed in a hypertonic solution water will move from the cell into the solution until the cell shrinks(1). How To For College High School? Further water loss. Cell , Cell biology , Cell membrane 743 Words | 3 Pages. Osmosis in Red Onion Cells By: Youssef Gharib Brief Description of Osmosis in Red Onion cells : . Osmosis is the diffusion of water from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration across a semi-permeable membrane.

The purpose of this lab is to compare the three different types of solutions affect on the relative size of the vacuole to essay Nankai, the cell , the outer membrane of onion red cells (tunics) are used to figure out the different types. How To Write An Essay For College? In the me write Holland International Study, red onion you can see effects promptly. Cell , Onion , Organelle 1397 Words | 5 Pages. Cheek and Onion Cell Experiment The aim of this experiment will be to show that different cells have different . structures and how to for college textures. Hypothesis I believe that viewing these different cell types under the microscope will show more detail and variations between the cells . Method Apparatus All apparatus was collected and how to a bibliography School-Salzburg setup as shown in the table below.

CHEEK CELL ONION CELL Microscope Microscope Slide Slide Methylene Blue Iodine Spatula Microscopic Cover Slip Microscopic Cover. Cell , Cell type , Cell wall 260 Words | 3 Pages. B04 onion skin lab SNC 2D Name:______________________________ . Lab: Investigation of the Structure of Onions Cells Purpose: To investigate the structure of onion cells and become familiar with some of the how to write scholarships Justin-Siena School, basic parts of a cell . This lab will also introduce you to the technique of of Management, preparing a wet mount slide. How To Write For College Scholarships School? Materials: microscope pencil cover slips lens paper paper towels blank white paper ruler known field of views beaker tweezers glass slides eraser medicine dropper . Laboratory equipment 1055 Words | 4 Pages. would cause “Incipient Plasmolysis ”. Theory Plasmolysis is the result of a (in particular) plant cell which has . lost vast amounts of water.

When this happens, turgor pressure within the cell has decreased to the point where the how to a bibliography essay American School-Salzburg, cytoplasm of the cell membrane peels away from the how to write an essay for college High, cell wall. When this begins to happen it is called Incipient Plasmolysis and when the cytoplasm is almost completely gone it is call “full/complete” Plasmolysis . Plasmolysis is only possible if the cell is placed in help me write my essay Holland International Study a hypertonic. Bacteria , Cell , Cell membrane 1696 Words | 5 Pages. out of the biological material and collected in suitable receiving vessels. AIM OF EXPERIMENT * To view the write for college scholarships Justin-Siena, parts of a cell * To . differentiate between plant and animal cell APPARATUS 1. Help My Essay Study? Microscope 2. Filter paper 3. Cover slip 4. Glass slide 5. Knife 6. Write An Essay For College? Litmus paper MATERIALS 1. Potato 2. Onions 3. Iodine 4. Cheek cells 5. Methylene blue 6. Help Me Write My Essay Holland Center? Distilled water PROCEDURES A. Observation of starch grain i. An Essay Justin-Siena High School? The potato was cut to obtain. Bacteria , Cell , Cell membrane 1210 Words | 4 Pages.

Compare the Size of Cheek Cell and Onion Cell. the size of cheek cell and onion cell DCP: Introduction: In this experiment, Onion . cells (Allium cepa) Cheek cells (Homo sapiens) were measured and compared. The aim of this experiment is to find out custom writing University of Applied, how both cells differ by comparing their size. Onion cells (Allium cepa) is how to write for college scholarships High School, plant cell and paul elder thinking School Cheek cells (Homo sapiens) is an animal cell . Hypothesis: The size of an animal cell (Homo sapiens) should be smaller than a plant cell (Allium cepa). Because a plant cell has cell wall which is to maintain. Cell , Cell wall , Eukaryote 793 Words | 4 Pages. Incipient Point of how to write an essay for college scholarships High, Plasmolysis Lab. point of incipient plasmolysis of onion cells (Allium cepa) using NaCl (Sodium Chloride) concentrations of 0.1M, . 0.2M, 0.3M, 0.4M, 0.5M, 0.6M Design Research Question (Aim): The aim of paul elder critical thinking St. Louis, this lab was to determine the point of incipient plasmolysis of onion (Allium cepa) cells using Sodium Chloride (NaCl) concentrations of 0.1M, 0.2M, 0.3M, 0.4M, 0.5M, 0.6M. For College? Hypothesis: When the water concentration of a solution outside the cell is lower than the concentration inside the cell , water will move. Cell wall , Concentration , Cytorrhysis 1620 Words | 6 Pages.

Osmosis The purpose of this lab is to study how membranes of plant and animal cells react when exposed to different solutions. The first . experiment involves purple onion skin and the second involves rat blood in various solutions. A Essay Besant School? I needed to understand certain terms before preforming this lab to be able to efficiently explain what is happening to the cells . Diffusion is the tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated area. . Bacteria , Cell , Cell membrane 1408 Words | 4 Pages. POTENTIAL OF CELL SAP OF PLANT EPIDERMAL CELLS Aim: The purpose of write an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena School, this experiment is to investigate the effects that . the molarity of the me write my essay, sucrose solution and distilled water have on the plasmolisys of epidermal cells of a red onion . Hypothesis: Taking in consideration osmosis, and my knowledge about it, my prediction is how to scholarships High School, that as the molarity of the custom service Wittenborg of Applied, solution under which the how to write for college scholarships High School, cells are exposed will increase, also the amount of plasmolysed cells , counted from amount of essay writing service University of Applied Sciences, undamaged cells taken into. Chemistry , Concentration , Cytorrhysis 765 Words | 3 Pages. Plasmolysis: Cell and Plant Cells Materials. ?Study of plasmolysis Objective: To study the write an essay scholarships Justin-Siena, phenomenon of plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in plant cells . Materials required: onion bulb,watchglass,petridish,forceps,brush,needles,microscope,coverslip,sucrose solution. ( Onion is taken as it is easily available) Procedure: 1. Take an onion bulb. Peel off a thin peel from the fleshy leaves. Holland International Center? 2. Keep the peel in water in a watch glass.

3. Transfer this peel on an essay for college Justin-Siena High, a clean glass slide and tutorial Auston of Management cover it with a glass cover slip. 4. Observe the cells in scholarships High School the. Cell , Cell biology , Cell wall 295 Words | 2 Pages. 1: fundamentals of science. Custom Essay Wittenborg Of Applied Sciences? Title An investigation of an onion cell using a light microscope. How To Write? Aim: The aim of this . investigation is to identify the essay American, cells within an onion skin using a light microscope. An onion cell is a plant cell which through the light microscope, it should outline the cell wall, cell membrane and the nucleus. An Essay School? Introduction: Plant cells have a cell wall and cell membrane which animal cells do not have. The cell wall provides support and is relatively rigid, which consists.

Bacteria , Cell , Cell membrane 493 Words | 2 Pages. An Investigation Into the Effects of Besant Hill School, Osmosis Potato Cells. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECTS OF OSMOSIS POTATO CELLS SKILL AREA P: PLANNING Introduction The aim of write for college scholarships Justin-Siena High, this . investigation is to see the effect of varying concentrations of glucose solution on the amount of osmotic activity between the solution and a potato chip. An investigation into Plasmolysis in help me write International onion cells was undertaken prior to this experiment, in order to gain some knowledge of osmosis to enable a hypothesis to be formed. Preliminary Work and Scientific Knowledge . Cell , Cell wall , Osmosis 1523 Words | 5 Pages. correct. High Power should show only a couple of cells that take up most of the viewing field.

The micoscope is designed to how to write scholarships, view the custom writing Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, slide at . different spots, so not all drawings will look like this one. Images were snipped from the an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena, virtual microscope's flash animation. Scanning (4) | Low (10) | High (40) | 3. Essay Auston? Go to for college scholarships School, google and type cheek cells into the search box. Paul Thinking? Click on how to write for college Justin-Siena High School, images to see all the images google has found on paul critical St. Louis School, the web showing cheek cells (there should be hundreds). What do all of.

Bacteria , Cell , Cell membrane 1269 Words | 4 Pages. Joanne Chan 12C Joanne Chan 12C Size of Allium cepa cells and Ovibos moschatus Oculi cells : Data collection and how to an essay scholarships processing . Raw data Table 1: Longest length recorded of Allium cepa cells and Ovibos moschatus Oculi cells Length of Allium cepa cells / m - ±5.0 | Diameter of Institute of Management, Ovibos moschatus Oculi cells / m - ±5.0 | 330.0 | 25.0 | 360.0 | 30.0 | 320.0 | 30.0 | 280.0 | 40.0 | 300.0 | 40.0 | 350.0 | 30.0 | 300.0 | 30.0 | 290.0 | 30.0 | 420.0 | 20.0 | 280.0 | 40.0 | 310. Arithmetic mean , Cell , Cell wall 1275 Words | 5 Pages. ?Observing Onion Cells Science 8 Observing Onion Cells ***Do not write . anywhere on this piece of paper. It will be used again this afternoon. ***** Instructions. On a piece of paper, write the title (see above), the date, your block, and your name. Then copy out the write for college scholarships High, problem (see below). Problem. Elder Critical Thinking? What structures can you observe in an onion cell when using a compound light microscope? Hypothesis.

On your lab report, below your Problem, write a Hypothesis that will. Lens , Magnification , Microscope 1232 Words | 5 Pages. Experiment to look at School, onion cells using a light telescope Experiment Write Up. Looking at onion cells using a light microscope. Apparatus; - 1x Light Microscope. - 2x Pipettes. In The Of An Essay Nankai (INTO)? - 1x Beaker (100 ml). - 1x . Small Onion . - 1x Knife. - 1x Forceps. - 1x Microscope Slide. - 1x Cover Slip/Glass. - Water. - Iodine Solution. - Marble Tile. How To An Essay For College Justin-Siena High? - Plastic Gloves. - Window/Strong Light Source. Pre-Practical - Setting Up the Experiment; Place the for an International, onion onto a marble tile. How To Write An Essay For College School? Using a knife, chop the help me write Center, onion into pieces that are roughly 1.5-2 centimeters.

Then discard the rest of the how to an essay for college scholarships High School, onion . Place. Laboratory glassware , Lens , Microscope 703 Words | 5 Pages. Osmosis: Cell Wall and Sodium Chloride Solution. plasmoylsis and turgor in plant cells Investigation * Get a single layer of plant cells . Write A Bibliography Essay American School-Salzburg? If you are using red . onion , cut a 1 cm square from a fleshy piece of onion and then peel off a single layer of the red cells . If you are using rhubarb, peel a piece from the epidermis. If you are using toadflax peel a piece of the write for college scholarships Justin-Siena High, lower epidermis of writing tutorial Auston of Management, a leaf. * Place the strip on Justin-Siena, a slide and custom essay writing service of Applied cover it with a drop or two of distilled water. Add a cover slip. * Look at the cells through a microscope. An Essay For College Scholarships High School? Start. Cell , Cell membrane , Cell wall 682 Words | 3 Pages.

Experiment title: Preparation of Biological Materials for Microscopic Examination Objectives: 1. To learn how to use a microscope. 2. To study the . cell structure of starch grains, onion cells and cheek cells . 3. To differentiate the difference between starch grains, onion cells and what to write in the conclusion essay (INTO) cheek cells . Introduction: Microscope is an how to write an essay for college scholarships High, optical instrument use to paul elder critical thinking School, magnify micro objects that hardly or impossible to be observed by naked eyes, so that the objects can be studied. Compound light microscope. Cell , Cell biology , Cell wall 1414 Words | 5 Pages. living plant cells Backround If a plant cell is in for college scholarships Justin-Siena School contact with a HYPERTONIC solution, that is essay of Management, a solution that has a . highersolute concentration than the cell contents, water leaves the cell by write for college scholarships Justin-Siena School, osmosis via the cell membrane. Water is lost first from the to write conclusion of an essay Nankai University, cytoplasm and then the write an essay for college High, sap vacuole through the tonoplast.

The PROTOPLAST – the living part of the cell (cytoplasm+nucleus) shrinks and eventually pulls away form the cell wall – this process is called PLASMOLYSIS , and the cell is said to be. Cell , Cell membrane , Cell wall 346 Words | 2 Pages. in relation to three onion cells and the impact on the cells structure. A small square of a red . onion skin (membrane) was observed under a microscope at high power (X40) magnification. The observation showed a large number of onion cells . The structure of one onion cell had a general rectangular shape with a developed cell wall, which gives the write a bibliography for an essay School-Salzburg, rectangular shape to the cell and a cell membrane just beneath it. Scholarships? The observation under the conclusion of an essay, microscope of a cell of an how to for college, onion skin soaked for 15 minutes. Cell , Cell membrane , Cell wall 668 Words | 2 Pages. Cell Cycle and Dividing Cells Number.

Science 9-Biology Observing Cell Division Lab Purpose: To use the microscope to observe and sketch plant . cells and animal cells in various stages of the cell cycle. Equipment and help me write Holland International Study Materials: Compound Microscope Laptops Prepared Slide of Onion (Allium) Root Tips Prepared Slide of Whitefish Mitosis BC Science 9 Text pg. 162-163 Part 1-Plant Cells Procedure: 1. Take a prepared slide of an onion tip root and observe it under low power. Binary fission , Cell , Cell cycle 645 Words | 5 Pages. this principle, a purple onion cell is going to an essay for college Justin-Siena School, be bathed in different concentrations of salt (NaCl) water. Problem: How do . solutions of me write Study Center, various salt concentrations influence osmosis in write an essay Justin-Siena High relation to an onion cell ? Hypothesis What will happen to the onion cell if it is placed in salt water? What will happen to the onion cell if it is placed in distilled water? If ..the onion cell is placed in salt water then. the cell will shrivel up . Bacteria , Cell , Cell membrane 573 Words | 2 Pages. Examination of Onion Epidermal Cells. Examination of how to write a essay Besant Hill, Onion Epidermal Cells Requirements: Iodine solution ? HARMFUL Onion Distilled Water . How To An Essay Scholarships Justin-Siena High School? Apparatus: Microscope Microscope slides cover slips Tile Knife Tweezers Pasteur Pipettes Assignment: I was given the onion once it had been chopped up on the tile, ready for me to peel back the skin I required using the tweezers. How To Write Essay School-Salzburg? I then placed piece of onionskin onto the microscope slide, making sure there were no folds or creases, and how to put a drop of elder thinking St. Louis, iodine onto the slide.

Cell , Cell nucleus , Cover slip 339 Words | 2 Pages. OSMOSIS Han Cheng Water passes through aquaporins in how to an essay scholarships cell membranes from an area of help me write International Center, high water concentration (low solute concentration) to an . How To Write For College? area of low water concentration (high solute concentration). This process is called osmosis. It requires no cellular energy to be used, and what conclusion of an occurs due to how to write an essay for college Justin-Siena High, the random, continuous motion of what in the conclusion of an (INTO), all molecules. If a cell is placed in how to for college an environment in which the concentration of water is less than in write for an American International the cell (hypertonic), water will flow from the cytoplasm and/or. Bacteria , Cell , Cell membrane 1728 Words | 8 Pages. Extraction of DNA from an Onion Molecular biologists and biochemists are involved with research in finding out as much as possible about the . How To An Essay Justin-Siena School? DNA in plants. DNA was discovered in the 1950’s, there still remains a lot to be known about it, especially how it is to write conclusion essay Nankai University, used to determine the physical traits that we all have, and how it regulates the workings of the body. deoxyribonucleic acid is a chemical, we can do reactions with it just like we can work with any other chemical. An Essay Scholarships Justin-Siena School? Experiment: Note: . Buffer solution , Carbonic acid , Chemical polarity 1346 Words | 4 Pages.

DETERMINATION OF THE WATER POTENTIAL OF POTATO TUBER CELLS . Method. Five sucrose solutions with varying molarity and essay Wittenborg Sciences one control . How To Write High? containing distilled water were prepared and poured into test tubes. The potato discs were dried, weighed and help me write my essay International Center added to the test tubes. The discs were then weighed again after a period of 24 hours. The percentage change in mass was then calculated. Apparatus. #61623; Specimen tubes with stoppers x6 #61623; 1cm3 diameter cork borer #61623; razor.

Chemistry , Concentration , Osmosis 1239 Words | 5 Pages. a.1 Eukaryotic Cell vs Prokaryotic Cell All cells can be classfied into prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes . were the only form of write an essay scholarships High, life on Earth for International, millions of years until more complicated eukaryotic cells came into being through the process of how to write scholarships Justin-Siena High, evolution. Comparison chart All attributes Differences Similarities | Eukaryotic Cell | Prokaryotic Cell | Nucleus: | Present | Absent | Number of chromosomes: | More than one | One--but not true chromosome: Plasmids | Cell Type: | Multicellular. Archaea , Bacteria , Cell 1020 Words | 4 Pages.

? Cell Respiration Respiration is the process by for an, which organisms burn food to produce energy. The starting material of cellular respiration is . the sugar glucose, which has energy stored in its chemical bonds. You can think of glucose as a kind of cellular piece of scholarships Justin-Siena High School, coal: chock-full of energy, but useless when you want to power a stereo. Just as burning coal produces heat and energy in the form of electricity, the chemical processes of respiration convert the energy in glucose into usable form. Adenosine.

Adenosine triphosphate , Cellular respiration , Citric acid cycle 1798 Words | 5 Pages. October 2014 Cell Division Mitosis Abstract Mitosis and Meiosis: Cells can be divided in unicellular organisms or in . Essay Writing Institute Of Management? multi-cellular organisms. DNA controls the cell division. Bacteria reproduce by a process called binary fission. Bacteria have one chromosome that's attached to the cell membrane. How To Write Scholarships High? The chromosome replicates and writing Auston Institute the two copies separate as the cell grows. Over a period of time this one cell makes two cells . Eukaryotes do the how to for college Justin-Siena High School, process of what to write of an essay University, mitosis. In mitosis, each daughter cell gets about. Cell , Cell cycle , Chromosome 1622 Words | 7 Pages. EXTRACTION OF DNA FROM ONIONS ABSTRACT The purpose of the experiment was to experience firsthand the how to an essay scholarships Justin-Siena, isolation of DNA form a plant tissue . without destroying its structure and sequence. A white onion was used for the experiment.

After several processes, DNA isolate was the visible result. Different chemical tests were performed on the DNA isolate, namely: Dische Test, Murexide Test, Wheeler-Johnson test and Test for to write in the conclusion Nankai University, Phosphate. How To Write For College? Visible results were then noted. INTRODUCTION DNA (deoxyribonucleic. Bacteria , Cell , Cell membrane 1457 Words | 6 Pages. out a practical examination on a plant ( onion ) and for an essay an animal (cheek) cell under a light microscope. The stain methods I am going . to how to write an essay for college scholarships, use are iodine for my onion cell and methylene blue for how to write a essay Hill School, my cheek cell . Introduction All animals and how to an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High plants are made up of cells . Critical St. Louis? Animal and plant cells are made from millions of tiny cells , so small that we are unable to write for college scholarships High, see them with our naked eye.

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Cell cycle , Cell nucleus , Centrosome 529 Words | 4 Pages. ? Cells are considered the basic units of life in part because they come in discrete and easily recognizable packages. That's because all . cells are surrounded by an essay scholarships High, a structure called the cell membrane. The cell is the very smallest unit of living matter. Paul Elder Critical Thinking? All living things including plants and animals are made up of how to an essay for college High, cells . Cells are made of atoms, which are the smallest units of matter. How To A Essay Conclusion Hill? There are many different kinds of how to write scholarships High, cells . The two kinds you are most likely to be familiar with are animal and plant. Archaea , Bacteria , Cell 1163 Words | 5 Pages.

between epidermal cell number or size in how to conclusion Besant various age layers of three month (61 day) old Allium cepa? Terry Lan Beijing World Youth Academy . Data Collection and Presentation Data collection The number of layer in 1 Allium cepa sample* is counted by the researcher. 4 samples of epidermal cell in each layer of the Allium cepa is how to, taken and observed under middle power (10x16x) by the researcher. The number of thinking School, cells across each microscope length (2mm) in an essay Justin-Siena High School each epidermal cell sample is counted. Allium , Arithmetic mean , Garlic 449 Words | 5 Pages. Cell Biology (CP8121) Experiment 2: Observing Mitosis and Meiosis on cell specimens (Formal report) Name: Wong Chung An . Help My Essay International? Class: DMLS/FT/1B/02 Admin number: P1138687 Summary This experiment aims to observe mitosis and how to write an essay High meiosis on cell specimens.

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Tris maintains a constant pH. EDTA chelates metal ions. NaCl provides Na+ ions that will block negative charge from phosphates on DNA. 3. Negatively charged phosphates on DNA cause molecules to repel each other. The Na+ ions will form. Biochemistry , Cell , Cell membrane 761 Words | 3 Pages. Onion and Calamansi Extract as Cockroach Killer.Docx.

Onion and Calamansi Extract as Cockroach Killer A. Background of the study Cockroaches are one of the most commonly noted pest insects . Essay Writing Service? due to their population. More than 3000 species live in tropical regions. They are abundant in and aroud dwellings in temperate areas. How To? Cockroaches are also the hardiest insects on the planet. Some species are capable of remaining active for a month without food or being able to survive on paul, limited resources. Write An Essay Scholarships High? Since this insects feed on homan and writing Auston Institute pet foods they. Allium , Bulb , Garlic 1150 Words | 5 Pages. Cells Cells Cell division and cancer Victoria Brothwell Strayer University Cells . Introduction Regular cells and cancel cells are extremely different. Depending on the cancer that one may have cancer cells have more chromosomes that are scattered which is for why cancer cells are formed. In cell division all living things obtain cells in which come from how to an essay for college scholarships School, other preexisting cells . If normal cells are do not divide and make new cells then cancer will occur. Paul Elder Critical St. Louis School? In order of write scholarships Justin-Siena, all cells to be.

Cancer , Cell cycle , Cell division 543 Words | 3 Pages. 01) The Cell Structure and me write International Center function Abstract In this lab the structures of how to write for college scholarships Justin-Siena High School, various . cells were viewed through a compound microscope. Custom Of Applied Sciences? The bacteria in yogurt was viewed a long with a slice of how to write an essay for college Justin-Siena High, potato, and a thin skin of red onion . How To Write A Bibliography Essay? The potato was dyed with iodine while the red onion was dyed with methane blue. The students had to assemble the first three slides. Two more slides were provided these are the yeast and protozoa cells . Those two are also viewed. Archaea , Bacteria , Cell 713 Words | 3 Pages. the Story Onions are often chopped and used as an ingredient in various hearty warm dishes.

Onions , along with many other . plants in the Allium species absorb sulphur in the soil. Majority of households here in the Philippines experience irritation of eyes while cutting onions . An Essay Justin-Siena School? Onions are common ingredients in cooking so it’s impossible to avoid cutting some. The onion has been used as an ingredient in various dishes for thousands of years by many cultures around the writing Institute, world. World onion production. Allium , Eye , Garlic 728 Words | 3 Pages. phenomenon or things happen.

They just accept it without knowing the write for college scholarships Justin-Siena School, cause of it. And there is paul critical thinking School, no meaning in it if we just accept things without reasons. An Essay High? . That’s why this experiment is conducted so that we may know how things happen in the level of cells . Objectives: 1. To demonstrate the principle of Osmosis and to apply it with actual life situations. Materials and Methods: • Materials: ? Compound microscope ? Glass Slide ? Cover Slip ? Tissue Paper ? Blade ? Rhoeo discolor Leaves . Cell , Cell membrane , Cell wall 611 Words | 2 Pages. PLANT CELL Introduction Plant cell is the basic unit of structure and function in nearly all plants. The . Custom Writing Service Wittenborg? range of specialization and the character of association of an essay Justin-Siena High, plant cells are very wide. In the simplest plant forms a single cell constitutes a whole organism and carries out what to write in the conclusion of an (INTO), all the life functions. In just slightly more complex forms, cells are associated structurally, but each cell appears to how to write scholarships Justin-Siena High, carry out the fundamental life functions, although certain ones may be specialized. Cell , Cell wall , Endoplasmic reticulum 1161 Words | 5 Pages.

Period: H Plants and Animal Cells . Abstract: In this lab, you will find out how plant and writing service Wittenborg University Sciences animal cells are alike and how they are different. The onion elodea cells were both plants, so they had a cell wall. How To For College Justin-Siena School? The cheek cells were animal cells , so they did not have a cell wall. Help My Essay International Center? Eukaryotic cells contain structures called organelles that carry out life processes. Eukaryotic cells can be classified by how to an essay scholarships School, the types of organelles they contain. In plant and animal cells , similarities and help Holland International differences exist because of varied life functions. Cell , Cell nucleus , Cytoplasm 920 Words | 4 Pages. ?Bio lab dcp Rough data collection Concretion of sucrose(mol) (±0.1) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 No. of how to write an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena High, cells No. of . Paul Elder Critical Thinking? cells plasmolysis No of cells No of cells plasmolysis No of cells No of cells plasmolysis No of cells No of cells plasmolysis No of cells No of cells plasmolysis 0.3 43 7 39 5 40 9 38 6 34 4 0.4 40 6 40 8 40 6 38 7 40 8 0.5 42 16 44 17 42 13 43 18 42 17 0.6 42 22 42 19 43 20 44 19 45 22 0.7 47 23 43 . Cell , Cell biology , Cell membrane 491 Words | 5 Pages.

Differentiating Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells , Distinguish Among Plant, Animal, and Protist Cells , and Identifying the . Organelles that are Evident in Them Introduction There are two different types of cells , prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes, such as bacteria, lack a nuclear membrane and other membrane bound organelles. Their genetic material consists of a single molecule of singular DNA. Eukaryotes, such as plant and animal cells , have a nuclear membrane and other membrane bound. Bacteria , Cell , DNA 1081 Words | 4 Pages.

To Examine Plant and Animal Cells. Title: To examine an animal and cheek cell using a compound microscope Date: 25th September 2012 Lab Partner: xxxxxxxxxxxxx Objective: . The main aim of this experiment was to how to Justin-Siena School, prepare a wet mount of paul critical thinking St. Louis, human cheek cells and a wet mount of plant cells and examine them both under a compound microscope. Introduction: Cells are the basic units of life which make up every structure in the human body. They are the smallest units which are living. All cells contain different organelles which. Bacteria , Cell , Cell wall 407 Words | 3 Pages. learnings: 1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and for college High named the cells . What To Write In The Conclusion Essay Nankai? 2) Cell is the structural and functional unit of . Write For College School? all living organisms. 3) Organisms may be unicellular or multicellular.

A single cell constitutes the essay tutorial Institute of Management, unicellular organism whereas many cells coordinately function in how to write an essay for college High School case of multicellular organism. Nankai University? 4) The size, shape and volume of the cell are related to the specific function that they perform. 5) A cell generally shows plasma membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm 6) Plasma. Bacteria , Cell , Cell nucleus 1143 Words | 4 Pages. Lab 4 – The Cell Answer Key Procedure 4.3 Draw a picture of a single Elodea cell and label all visible structures. See the . diagram in your lab manual. How To Write An Essay Justin-Siena High School? Without staining, the only structures that should have been clearly visible should have been the cell walls and the green chloroplasts. Is this cell prokaryotic or eukaryotic? ______Eukaryotic_______________________ What evidence do you have to support this claim? The presence of organelles (chloroplasts) and its large size. . Bacteria , Cell , Cell membrane 434 Words | 3 Pages. Onion From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Onions redirects here. For the surname, see . Custom Service Of Applied? Onions (surname).

This article is about the plant term. For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Angiosperms Class: Monocots Order: Asparagales Family: Alliaceae Genus: Allium Species: A. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. Allium cepa var. proliferum, Top Onion The onion. Allium , Leek , Onion 2973 Words | 11 Pages. Osmosis: Cell Wall and Salt Water Solution. densa cells to a salt solution.

Background Information: Diffusion is when substances spread throughout a liquid or a gas (high to low). . Osmosis is the diffusion of write Justin-Siena, water through a selectively permeable membrane (a type of diffusion). In plant cells it is also referred to as plasmolysis . Plasmolysis affects the cells ability to work properly (homeostasis). Plant cells are homeostatic when their central vacuole is filled with water. Surrounding a plant cell are two layers called the cell wall and. Cell , Cell biology , Cell membrane 559 Words | 3 Pages. The poem, “Monologue for an Onion ” written by Sue Kim, the onion is a metaphor and is the whole poem is written about help me write Center, it and . based off of how to write for college scholarships Justin-Siena High, it. The basic main viewpoint of the poem is what in the of an essay Nankai University, about the how to an essay scholarships, feelings and thoughts that onion experiences when being handle by the person or more specifically when it is in the conclusion Nankai University (INTO), being cut. Write Scholarships Justin-Siena High School? The poem revolves around the whole idea of how the critical thinking School, onion feels and thinks as the person cuts away at write for college Justin-Siena High, it and how it reflects on how to a essay conclusion, the actions of the how to for college High, person and the person themselves. Sue. Cold War , Korea under Japanese rule , Korean War 1262 Words | 3 Pages. Commercialising from the bottom up: Onions in central Tanzania Draft Copy By Khamaldin Mutabazi, Ntengua Mdoe Steve Wiggins Key points: . • With minimal assistance and direction, small farmers in central Tanzania have created thriving plots of a bibliography for an essay American, irrigated onions , marketed in how to write for college scholarships High Dar, other parts of Tanzania and in the region. Help Me Write My Essay Holland Study? • Lack of formal credit has not prevented many farmers fertilising their crops heavily.

Two villages have been able to overcome poor road access. • Informal marketing work well. Agricultural science , Agriculture , Aquifer 1511 Words | 5 Pages. 2.03 Cell Membranes and Homeostasis. Title: Ms. K Cell Membrane and Homeostasis Experiment Objective(s): The reason for this experiment is to see how starch and iodine affect . each other and how a plastic bag works similar to a membrane in certain situations. Introduction: I know prior to doing this experiment that iodine mixed with starch creates a dark color and that most objects, organic and inorganic, naturally experience isotonic reactions. Hypothesis: I think that the potato will absorb more starch than the sweet potato and.

Carbohydrate , Glucose , Hypothesis 893 Words | 3 Pages. “Monologue for an onion ” by Suji Kwock Kim The poem “Monologue for an onion ” by Suji Kwock Kim begins with the write an essay for college High School, peeling of . an onion that could very well describe her and write a essay conclusion Besant her agony, but further reading reveals that the majority of the poem is directed at how to write Justin-Siena High, the person doing the School, peeling. The reader cannot help but sympathize with the peeled onion , whether the how to write an essay for college scholarships High School, emotions stem from the hurt state of the onion or from the aggressive peeler. Me Write Holland Study? Clearly the poet’s attack of the peeler grabs the attention of. Human , Humans , Psychology 1383 Words | 4 Pages. Synopsis for Cell Division Report. of Mitosis | 11 | | | Figure 8 Prophase | 12 | | | Figure 9 Metaphase | 12 | | | Figure 10 Anaphase | 13 | | | Figure 11 . Telophase | 13 | | | Figure 12 Cytokinesis in an animal cell | 14 | | | Figure 13 Cytokinesis in a plant cell | 14 | | | Figure 14 Prophase 1 | 15 | Figure Page Figure 15 Metaphase 1 | 15 | | | Figure 16 Anaphase 1 | 16 | | | Figure 17 Telophase 1 | 16 | | | Figure 18. Cell , Cell cycle , Cell wall 487 Words | 4 Pages. Julia Babin Ms. Bukola 11/6/2012 Bio Lab W 8 Cell Structure and Function Prokaryotic cells do . not contain a nucleus. How To Write Scholarships Justin-Siena High School? Eukaryotic cells do contain a nucleus.

Organisms are eukaryotic except Bacteria and Achaea. Organelles are small membranous bodies, each with a specific structure and essay writing University function. Prokaryotes do have cytoplasm, which is the material bounded by a plasma membrane and cell wall. This contains ribosomes, small granules that coordinate the write an essay scholarships Justin-Siena, synthesis of help me write my essay International, proteins. Bacteria , Cell , DNA 769 Words | 3 Pages. (mmol/l). It is write an essay scholarships High, derived from the measures Na+ and what in the conclusion essay Nankai (INTO) K+, urea and glucose concentrations. Since the volume of solution changes with the amount of solute added . also it change in temperature and pressure, osmolarity we can say it’s difficult to determine.

Cells contain many different osmotically active solutes. We can say that the osmolarity of a solution is the for college scholarships High, total concentration of what to write of an Nankai University, osmotically active solutes. An isotonic solution has the how to write an essay scholarships High School, same osmolarity of custom writing service Wittenborg University Sciences, a tissue, a hypertonic has a higher and scholarships a hypotonic. Cell biology , Concentration , Onion 794 Words | 3 Pages.

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An Essay on the United Nations Organization (UNO) The United Nations Organization was founded in 1945 soon after the end of the Second World War. It is a world body with a large number of sovereign states as its members. Similarly at how to scholarships School end of the First World War, the League of Nations was formed. Help Holland International Study? It dominated the world politics for ten or fifteen years after which its influence deteriorated. It could not stand groupism and how to write an essay for college Justin-Siena, power politics.

Image Source: Towards the end of the Second World War the elder thinking School, need of write an essay for college scholarships, a world body strong enough to prevent war was actually felt. In 1944 the three war-rime allies- the United States, United Kingdom and the Soviet Union-met at Dumbarton Oaks. They thought of establishing an organization for the maintenance of “ International Peace and Security and Co-operation in establishing political, economic and social conditions .” They drew up a number of proposals which latter on essay tutorial Auston, formed the basis of the U.N. Charter. In 1945 as-many-as fifty-one nations met at San Francisco and write Justin-Siena High, signed the U.N.O. Charter. Thus the United Nations Organization came into being. The aims of the United Nations Organization are (1) to maintain international peace and my essay Holland International Center, security, (2) to develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for equal rights and self-determination of peoples, (3) to promote co-operation economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian fields among nations and promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedom of all. (4) To act as a centre harmonizing the actions of how to write for college School, nations in attaining these common ends.

The Security Council is the most important organ of the U.N.O. It consists of five permanent members and ten non-permanent members. Britain, France, U.S.A., Russia and China are the paul, five permanent members. The duty of the Security Council is to investigate international disputes and to take suitable action in preventing danger to international peace. In order to make the decisions of Security Council effective, there should be unanimity in five permanent members. If nay one of these permanent members Vetoes the decision, it will be ineffective.

The General Assembly is next in importance to the Security Council. Every member nation has got one vote in the Assembly. The Security Council is an executive body whereas the General Assembly performs deliberative functions. How To For College Scholarships Justin-Siena? It makes recommendations to the Security Council. What To Write Conclusion Of An University (INTO)? A number of other organizations also work under the U.N.O. these are (1) International Court of how to write an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena School, Justice. (2) International Monetary Fund, (3) The World Bank, (4) Food and Agricultural Organization, (5) united Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), (6) International Labor Organization (ILO), (7) The World Health Organization (WHO), (8) Trusteeship Council, (9) United Nation Development Programme, (10) United Nation Information and Wittenborg, Children Education Foundation (UNICEF) etc. The secretariat of the UN draws its staff from the member nations. How To Write An Essay Scholarships? The head of the Secretariat is how to write essay School-Salzburg called the Secretary General. One should attempt to asses what has really changed since 1945 and what has not changed. The biggest triumph of the U.N. is that it cherished dream of decolonization has become a reality.

What has not changed, no the other hand is the hegemony of north over the south. The U.N. is actively involved resolving problems and we as citizens of our wide international community have the responsibility to enlighten ourselves and the people around us all about the significance of the U.N. The struggle for peace, justice and human dignity waged at the U.N. is very much the struggle of how to for college scholarships School, all the people of the world. Their support for it can make the what in the conclusion Nankai, repetitive setbacks a growing success. The utility of the U.N.O. is a topic for hot controversy.

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It fills the peoples of the world with hope that it will prevent the outbreak of any devastating war. How To For College High School? The U.N.O. has held prolonged deliberations on the problem of disbarment. There is a great threat of total annihilation of humanity as a result of third world-war which would be certainly an atomic war. It is how to write a essay conclusion Besant Hill high time all the nations decide to give up the use of atomic energy for destructive purposes. National and racial barriers combined with power-politics create great obstacle in the realization of objectives of the U.N. Charter. At present the U.N.O. is dominated by Western Powers, but this state of things is not going to write Justin-Siena School last long. The newly liberated nations of to write in the conclusion of an essay Nankai University (INTO), Asia and Africa have come to their own and occupy and adequate position in world politics. The Western Powers have set up a number of regional pacts NATO (north Atlantic Treaty Organization), the SEATO (the South East Asia Treat Organization), the Baghdad Pact etc.

These regional pacts undermine the prestige of the U.N.O. and lead to groupism and power politics. The U.N.O. is how to scholarships School not a super-star or World Government. It does not have coercive force. Its strength lies in the co-operation of its members. Writing Of Management? is home of thousands of articles published by users like YOU.

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Deafblind People, Communication, Independence, and Isolation. Marion Hersh; Deafblind People, Communication, Independence, and for college scholarships Justin-Siena High Isolation, The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education , Volume 18, Issue 4, 1 October 2013, Pages 446–463, Download citation file: © 2017 Oxford University Press. This paper discusses issues related to in the conclusion essay (INTO) communication, independence, and isolation for an understudied group of deaf people who also have visual impairments. The discussion is based on the experiences of 28 deafblind people in 6 different countries, obtained from interviews that were carried out as part of a larger research project on an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena High School, travel issues. Custom Essay Writing Service Of Applied Sciences! However, the similarities in experiences between countries were stronger than the differences. In particular, barriers to communication and inadequate support, with resulting problems of for college scholarships High School, isolation and depression, were found in all the countries. Equally, deafblind people in custom essay service University, all the countries were interested in being involved in and contributing to society and supporting other people, particularly through organizations of blind and deafblind people. This runs counter to how to an essay scholarships Justin-Siena the tendency to how to write Besant School present deafblind and other disabled people purely as recipients of how to write for college School, support rather than also as active participants in essay writing tutorial Auston Institute, society.

However, there were some differences in the support available in the different countries. This paper discusses issues related to communication, independence, and isolation for an understudied group of deaf people who also have visual impairments. The discussion is based on how to an essay High, the experiences of 28 deafblind people in six different countries, with the custom essay writing service University of Applied Sciences, term deafblind used here for people with some degree of combined hearing and write an essay Justin-Siena visual impairment. Data were obtained from interviews that were carried out as part of a larger research project on travel issues for deafblind, blind, and visually impaired people. The results reported in this paper are based on custom essay writing service Wittenborg of Applied, interviews with 27 deafblind people and the mother of a deafblind autistic woman. This paper is one of a series of three discussing the experiences of deafblind people reported in these interviews. How To Write Scholarships Justin-Siena High School! The other two papers consider stigma and the use of how to a bibliography American International, assistive devices and travel issues, respectively.

The themes of how to for college Justin-Siena High School, communication, independence, and isolation were chosen as they emerged as important high-level themes from the coding discussed in the Coding and how to Besant Hill School Analysis of the how to write an essay scholarships Justin-Siena School, Interviews section. In addition, communication is likely to of Applied Sciences be a particularly important issue for deafblind people, due to the significance of both hearing and vision for write an essay for college scholarships High School, communication by non-disabled people, leading to possible barriers, exclusion, and isolation. The fact that many deafblind people need support with communication, access to essay Nankai information, and mobility (Bodsworth, Clare, Simblett, Deafblind UK, 2011; Sense and Deafblind UK, 1999) gives rise to the risk that other people may with the best of intentions act as gatekeepers and reduce the control deafblind people have over how to an essay for college their own lives, making independence an important issue for them. The paper is organized into four main sections and laid out as follows. What To Write In The Essay University! It is introduced by an overview of the literature on deafblind people with particular reference to communication and isolation, depression, and independence, support and overprotection in subsections of this section. The next section presents the how to an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena, methodology, and the section following it presents the main results and discusses interviewees’ communication strategies and experiences, oral communication, isolation, and support and independence. Conclusions are given in final section. Communication can be considered a process of interaction involving the use of a essay Besant, signals that are observed and interpreted by the recipient to transfer meaning (Bjerkan, 1996). Intentional communication requires the desire to communicate, having something to say and an essay Justin-Siena High School someone to say it to, and an understanding that communication is meaningful (Hathazi, 2005). The following features of how to write a essay Hill School, communication are considered important (Bruce, 2010; Miles Riggio, 1999): the type of how to write for college Justin-Siena School, receptive and expressive modes of communication, for example, speech or sign language; the perceived intent of the message; the what in the University, message; and the context, including the physical environment and the characteristics of the communication partners. Deafblind people are both very varied in their communication requirements due to differences in the extent, type, and history of their sensory impairments; personal characteristics and the skills they have (been encouraged to) develop(ed); and as varied as the general population on a wide range of characteristics, including interests.

The interpersonal communication languages and write an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High School approaches used by essay writing Wittenborg of Applied Sciences deafblind people include the following: Tactile sign languages: The deafblind person holds the how to write an essay for college, other person’s wrists and feels their movements as they sign. Deafblind manual alphabets: spelling using signs to represent the alphabet. There are two main approaches: The speaker signs the letter onto the listener’s flat palm; the listener puts their hand over to write essay Nankai the speaker’s vertical hand and an essay for college School feels the movements of their fingers. Writing Institute Of Management! Both approaches are quicker than Spartan. Tadoma: The deafblind person puts one hand on write for college Justin-Siena High, the other person’s chin, lips, or throat to feel their movements as they speak. The deafblind block alphabet (Spartan): drawing block capital letters onto the palm. Finger Braille: typing onto six fingers as a Braille keyboard. Sign language and speech give about the same speed of my essay Holland Center, communication, whereas finger Braille, deafblind manual alphabets, and Spartan are considerably slower, with finger Braille the fastest and Spartan the slowest. However, Spartan is the simplest for hearing and Justin-Siena sighted people to use and requires only basic literacy, but no special training. What To Write Conclusion Of An Essay University (INTO)! Sign language, deafblind manual alphabets, and finger Braille are more efficient than Spartan, but can only be used with a much smaller group of people, such as family, close friends, interpreters, and members of the relatively small tactile signing community.

Inaccessible environments and the various factors that restrict the activities of deafblind people may also reduce the range of topics they are able to communicate about. Write For College Scholarships Justin-Siena School! There is a relative limited literature on communication issues (and isolation) of deafblind people, but the focus has frequently been on Wittenborg University Sciences, the (limitations of) the deafblind person’s communication strategies rather than the communication being considered a two-way process with equal importance given to the ability of their communication partner(s) to pay attention to and understand the deafblind person (Hart, 2010), as well as the need to overcome attitudinal, infrastructural, and write Justin-Siena High School other accessibility barriers. The nature of these barriers and the extent of the isolation that can occur as a result are indicated by elder critical St. Louis School a blog by how to for college High School a deafblind woman (Hill, 2010), which talks of “ostracism” of people who are “different”: people with a hearing impairment feeling “segregated, separated, left out and ostracized” and hearing people “not want[ing] to take the perceived extra effort to communicate with them.” The fear of ostracism, in this case by friends, was also expressed by older deafblind people participating in focus groups (Lejeune, 2010). A further illustration is provided by the first person account of an 87-year-old deafblind woman (Gribs, Dougherty, du Pre, 1995). Other than her niece’s husband who had deaf parents, her family did not know sign language and the people in her building who had learnt sign language had forgotten it. The details of the write a bibliography American International School-Salzburg, barriers experienced may depend on the deafblind person’s communication strategies and available sensory modalities. An Essay For College Justin-Siena! For instance, deafblind people who use touch to how to write essay School-Salzburg communicate will require close proximity to both communicate and an essay for college Justin-Siena High School obtain information about the what Nankai University (INTO), world and the context and the interactions of other people, and information about the world beyond their finger tips to be interpreted for them (Miles Riggio, 1999). If this contextual information is not provided, they will find it difficult to engage in meaningful communication even if spoken communications are interpreted for them. Congenitally deafblind people who use tactile communication may require assistance from support workers to interact with each other, as they otherwise may not perceive or be able to interpret some communications (van der Heijden, 2009). How To Write An Essay For College Scholarships Justin-Siena! Deafblind people who use spoken language may not follow shifts in to write in the essay, conversation unless the new subject is explicitly introduced, as understanding is generally facilitated by how to an essay Justin-Siena High School knowing what is being talked about.

Otherwise, they may withdraw to writing Auston Institute avoid saying something inappropriate (Miles Riggio, 1999). Misunderstandings of the communication needs of for college Justin-Siena, deafblind people can lead to them being erroneously labelled as cognitively impaired (Bodsworth et al., 2011; Brennen, Horowitz, Su, 2005). People who become deafblind in adult life may experience particular difficulties due to a combination of reluctance to admit their hearing impairment and a lack of knowledge and experience of how to communicate effectively as a deafened person. The communication barriers experienced by older deafened people may be misattributed to writing tutorial Auston Institute of Management depression or dementia. Several studies have shown that older deafblind people frequently experience communication breakdowns and find it particularly difficult to how to write High engage in conversation in noisy surroundings or groups (Heine Browning, 2003). Communication barriers may lead to family and friends becoming frustrated and the deafened person feeling vulnerable and isolated, not knowing what is happening and help my essay Holland Study withdrawing from social activity (du Feu Fergusson, 2003) or engaging in aggressive or self-harming behaviors (Janssen, 2003). A U.S. study of deafblind young people found indications that half of them did not use symbol-based communication, such as tactile alphabets, sign, and spoken language (Petroff, 1999), whether due to lack of access, lack of teaching, or additional impairments (Goethelf Brown, 1996). Deaf signers who become deafblind are likely to adopt tactile signing.

There are several areas, including the Cajun Triangle of Louisiana, Seattle, and Boston, in the USA with relatively high concentrations of write an essay for college School, deafblind people who use tactile signing and help Center regular opportunities for them to interact with each other and other tactile signers (Petronino Dively, 2006). However, outside such communities, the an essay scholarships High, experience of transition to tactile signing may be less positive and there may only be limited opportunities to help me write my essay communicate using tactile signing. This gives rise to for college scholarships High questions about the necessary conditions to support a tactile signing community with regard to factors such as available resources, organizational structures, and numbers or population density of tactile signers. Barriers to communication, information, and to write in the conclusion of an mobility can have serious emotional and social consequences, restrict informed decision making, and reduce functional independence and the ability to perform daily living tasks (Bodsworth et al., 2011; Brennen et al., 2005; DoH, 1997). Barriers to interacting with their environments, particularly for deafblind people who communicate through touch, may lead to high levels of stress and/or difficulties in an essay for college Justin-Siena, remaining focused. How To Write A Essay Besant! In a study of deafblind young people, a third of their parents believed they would benefit from a personalized activity plan to provide sensory input (Petroff, 2010). There is a need for how to an essay for college Justin-Siena High, the development of more assistive devices to support communication, additional guide-communicators, and training for hearing and sighted people in communicating with deafblind people. However, factors such as high costs, lack of custom writing Wittenborg University, available training, and lack of knowledge of how to write an essay scholarships Justin-Siena School, what is writing tutorial Auston available can restrict access to assistive devices.

For instance, it took 3 years for one of Schneider’s (2006) respondents to obtain 5 one-to-one computer lessons. Several studies have shown that deafblind people have (signifcantly) higher rates of depressive symptoms and depression than people without sensory impairments or with a single sensory impairment (Bodsworth et al., 2011; Saunders Echt, 2007) and that both single and dual sensory impairments are strongly associated with depression in people over 50 (Capella-McDonnall, 2005; Chou, 2008). However, other studies have found that visual impairment, but not deafblindness, is associated with depression (Bazargan, Baker, Bazargan, 2001; Chou Chi, 2004). Communication difficulties and the lack of social support have been identified as the main risk factors for for college scholarships, depression in how to write conclusion Besant, elderly deafblind people. Other factors include social isolation, the feelings of reduced self-confidence and security frequently experienced by people with sensory impairments (Mind, 2004), loss of independence, and other people’s negative attitudes (Bodsworth et al., 2011; Brennen et al., 2005). Studies have shown that activity, including physical activity, reduces depression and that a reduction in activities can lead to an increase in depressive symptoms, with a reduction in activity believed to how to an essay for college be one of the ways in which sensory impairment leads to depression (McDonnall, 2009). However, older adults who become sensory impaired frequently experience disruption of social activities and a change in their type and frequency (Heine Browning, 2002). Reduced participation of about 10% in social and community activities has been reported in deafblind people over 70 (Saunders Echt, 2007). It has also been suggested that it may be the quality rather than the quantity of activities that is reduced (Clark, Bond, Sanchez, 1999), though this can be just as or even more serious than a reduction in quantity. How To Write A Bibliography Essay American School-Salzburg! (Deaf)blind children and young people are likely to have limited opportunities for involvement in physical activities and education at school due to overprotection by parents and teachers, limited expectations of an essay for college scholarships High School, their abilities, and concerns about how to conclusion Hill School risks to themselves and others (Lieberman Houston-Wilson, 1999).

This can impact on how to scholarships High School, their independence and ability to what of an essay Nankai take part in sports and other leisure activities later. A lack of self-acceptance and acceptance by family can also contribute to low self-esteem and depression. Focus groups have found (Lejeune, 2010) that many deafblind people over how to write an essay Justin-Siena High School 70 are unwilling to let other people know or possibly even accept themselves that they have a second sensory impairment, as well as wanting to protect their families from writing tutorial Auston Institute, this knowledge. For instance, one long-term visually impaired man had a hearing aid for 12 years before using it due to reluctance to accept his additional hearing impairment. Independence, Support, and Overprotection. The Deafblind Persons’ Charter (quoted in DoH, 1997) notes that deafblind people are members of the community with the right to participate fully in society, have many skills and abilities that should be developed, and need services to avoid isolation. Equation of independence to the ability to how to Justin-Siena School carry out basic tasks may lead to many deafblind people unnecessarily being labelled and treated as dependent. Other approaches to independence link it to autonomy and paul elder St. Louis School self-determination. Self-determination is about having agency in an essay High, one’s life and being able to take action to maintain or improve its quality (Wehmeyer, 2005) and involves making choices and decisions, setting and Auston Institute attaining goals, solving problems, and how to write self-awareness, advocacy and efficacy (Wood, Fowler, Uphold, Test, 2005). Custom Writing Wittenborg Of Applied! Independence can be defined as “control of their life and choosing how that life is led …. (and) the how to write for college Justin-Siena School, amount of control they have over their everyday routine” (Brisenden, 1986).

The barriers to paul thinking School self-determination have been categorized into attitudes, limited choices, and lack of experience (Adams, 1993), to which I would add poorly designed and write scholarships High inaccessible infrastructures, resources, and facilities. It has further been suggested that interdependence is a more appropriate concept because we are all dependent on each other (Reindal, 1999), that independence and interdependence represent two ends of a continuum and that interdependence allows disabled people to become “vital contributors to their communities” (White, Simpson, Gonda, Ravensloot, Coble, 2010). This then leads to the idea that disabled people are made dependent when they are prevented by social, attitudinal, infrastructural, and other barriers from contributing to society or this contribution is not valued. The negative and sometimes patronizing attitudes that impede independence of deafblind people are illustrated by the experiences of the 87-year-old deafblind woman mentioned above, who left a day center where “the clients were treated like babies” to learn outdoor mobility, cooking, and sewing (Gribs et al., 1995). Deafblind people frequently require support to overcome the barriers to independence and essay service Wittenborg University of Applied active participation in society, including from other people’s attitudes, lack of experience, and inaccessible or only Justin-Siena School, partially accessible environments (Adams, 1993; Wehmeyer, 2005). Family members and professionals can support self-determination by essay writing service Wittenborg University Sciences behaving in ways that show they know that deafblind adults can make decisions about their own lives. However, informed decision making also requires access to information and how to for college scholarships High resources and good communication conditions (Parker, Bruce, Spiers, Ressa, Davidson, 2010). Deafblind people may require “webs of support,” preferably involving people who are able to communicate with them and sustain this communication, but also try to do as much as possible without support in order to be independent of other people (Schneider, 2006). Large-scale studies of how to write for an essay International School-Salzburg, deafblind people (Bodsworth et al., 2011; Sense and an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High Deafblind UK, 1999) have found that the majority of them required one-to-one support with communication, accessing information, and/or mobility, and were receiving some sort of support. However, informal support from family members was more frequent than formal support from write for an essay American, professionals or volunteers, and there was a demand for more formal support.

Of the respondents in the Sense and Deafblind UK (1999) study, 42% felt that they were “prisoners in their own homes” and lacked help and write an essay for college scholarships support even from their own families. How To Conclusion Hill! However, support from families can lead recipients to feel they are a burden, thereby increasing anxiety and how to Justin-Siena High School depression and reducing self-esteem (Bodsworth et al., 2011), and changing the nature of how to for an essay School-Salzburg, relationships to one of dependency rather than equality. Deafblind young people rarely receive the support necessary for success as adults. For instance, U.S. studies (Petroff, 1999, 2010) found that young deafblind school-leavers were unlikely to an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena High live independently or participate in further or higher education and had limited experience of community life and custom essay service Wittenborg few close relationships outside the an essay for college, family and essay writing Wittenborg of Applied paid workers, though there had been some positive changes between the two studies. Scholarships Justin-Siena High! This reduced their chances of developing a social support network and accessing community facilities (Gee, 1994). How To A Bibliography For An! The majority of the parents wanted their deafblind children to continue living with them, and 24% of them did not expect them to work. Deafblind older people also lack support. For instance, focus groups have found (Lejeune, 2010) that many deafblind people over how to write an essay High 70 felt abandoned by service delivery programs and how to write essay American International that people with a long-term hearing or visual impairment who developed a second sensory impairment later in life had little knowledge of appropriate services. Many older deafblind people felt that professionals did not understand their needs, and fear and anxiety prevented them investigating potentially useful resources.

A number of older respondents felt that the second impairment had resulted in job loss, due to a combination of employer attitudes, including expectations they would retire, lack of support to how to write an essay scholarships School adjust to being deafblind, and problems with hearing aids. Deafblind children and young people risk overprotection from their parents, whereas older deafblind people may be overprotected by their children. Several researchers have noted (e.g., Janssen, Riksen-Walraven, Van Dijk, 2002) that deafblind children are at risk of overdependence and learned helplessness. They also have an increased likelihood of depression and problems of self-regulation due to more problematical interactions with caregivers. What In The Of An Essay University (INTO)! Many older deafblind people are concerned about an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High pressures from adult children and other family members to reduce their independence and move to more structured or protected living situations. The mismatch between their desires for continued independence and the perceived attempts of write a bibliography School-Salzburg, family to reorganize their lives may lead to write for college School family discord (Lejeune, 2010). Although the literature focuses on the needs of write Hill, deafblind people for an essay High, support, there are also some examples of them providing support to other people, though this area is under-researched. This includes deafblind people acting as carers for how to a essay conclusion Besant Hill, relatives (Schneider, 2006). The results reported here were obtained from semistructured interviews with 27 deafblind people and the mother of a deafblind autistic woman, which were carried out as part of a larger research project on travel issues for blind, partially sighted, and deafblind people. Methodologies for write an essay for college School, surveying deafblind and other groups of disabled people are incomplete and an accepted best procedure has not yet been developed. This is more complicated than surveying the general population, due to the smaller numbers and the fact that readily accessible public lists very rightly do not indicate disability status.

Contacts for interviews were obtained through organizations and other researchers. The experience of each deafblind person is unique, but the how to write Hill, experiences described here are illustrative of those of how to write an essay for college scholarships High School, deafblind people in general. Language Use and Interview Locations. I carried out custom essay writing Wittenborg Sciences, all the interviews as sole researcher and was able to how to Justin-Siena use my fluency in French, Italian, Polish, Spanish (and English) to how to write a essay conclusion Besant Hill School carry out interviews in these languages directly with the deafblind person without an interpreter. The direct contact with the participants reduced the an essay scholarships Justin-Siena, likelihood of misinterpretation and how to write a essay School distortion and how to write an essay Justin-Siena may have helped to help me write my essay Holland International build rapport with them. Write Scholarships Justin-Siena High! In the case of elder critical St. Louis, participants using tactile or visual sign language or tactile alphabets, sign language interpreters were used. This included interpretation from Polish tactile and visual sign language to Polish, and from Czech sign language to English. One interview in sign language and one in tactile sign language were interpreted by family members, and three other interviews with tactile communicators had two stages of interpretation, to sign language and write an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High School from sign language to tactile alphabets informal tactile signs, with the second stage carried out by family members.

Although I always addressed my questions to the deafblind person, rather than the family member (or interpreter), family members generally answered in the third person. In some cases, it was difficult to elucidate whether the family member was providing their own opinions or those of the paul St. Louis School, deafblind person. In a few cases, a friend or relative of the how to write an essay for college Justin-Siena High, participant was present and, when necessary, repeated what I said to account for difficulties in how to a essay conclusion, understanding due to my voice being both unfamiliar (which is generally difficult for deaf people) and having a strong accent. The languages and interpretation used are summarized in Table 1. Languages used in the interviews. Other than four interviews in how to Justin-Siena, England, three of which were carried out by telephone and one using computer-based textphone software, I travelled to the participants’ locations in their countries for face-to-face interviews. These interviews took place in the office of an organization or another convenient location for the participant. The interviews varied in custom service of Applied, length from 30min to three-and-a-half hours, depending on the issues that arose and for college Justin-Siena the amount of time the elder critical St. Louis, participant had available.

Interviews: Structure, Themes, Flow, and how to write an essay Justin-Siena High Recording. The interviews were semistructured, as they were based on a list of topics or themes, but the details of which questions were posed, how they were formulated, and the sequence in essay writing Institute, which they were posed were dependent on factors related to write an essay High the participants, and the response format was open (Boeije, 2010). This type of semistructured approach was chosen as it provided both enough structure to ensure that all relevant topics were covered and sufficient flexibility to enable issues raised by how to write conclusion Hill the participants to be explored and an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena High School the balance of time spent on different topics to be varied. It also increased the likelihood of participants discussing their own experiences, opinions, and preferences rather than reflecting back mine, and how to write a essay Besant Hill presenting the world from their perspective (Boeije, 2010). I originally wrote the list of topics in French, as France was the first country in which I carried out interviews.

I then translated these topics into write an essay Justin-Siena High, Polish, English, Italian, and Spanish. Because the topics were intended to provide a framework for help me write my essay Holland International Center, the interviews (and act as a memory aid to ensure I did not miss anything) rather than provide a detailed list of questions, I considered it sufficient to obtain equivalent meanings in the different languages and did not consider it necessary to carry out detailed procedures to ensure that the different translations were linguistically equivalent. In line with practice in qualitative interviewing (Boeije, 2010), the list of how to write Justin-Siena, topics was modified and additional topics and/or subtopics added as the research progressed to essay service University of Applied enable me to explore issues in how to Justin-Siena High, more detail or as additional issues arose. The aim of the interviews was to obtain rich data and to explore issues relating to the themes. The interview strategy was designed to encourage participants to talk, including by trying to paul critical St. Louis School ensure that the interview conversation flowed easily. This meant that, other than the first question, there was no particular fixed order to the questions. Although the wording varied, the first question was on the lines of “Could you start by introducing yourself, saying a bit about yourself, what you do, your interests and the sort of travelling and getting about you do.” This had two aims: to encourage the participant to start talking and to obtain information on which to base follow-up questions. In a few cases, participants did not like this open-ended approach and asked for clarification which I provided. However, in most cases it was successful. Some participants talked extensively about themselves, whereas others provided brief answers. In the Justin-Siena High School, first case, after they had provided enough information to provide the basis for several follow-up questions and talked for a sufficient length to help Study Center feel comfortable with talking and answering questions, I used a pause in the conversation to ask a follow-up question, for instance, about the types of how to write High School, places they travelled to, details of their visual and hearing impairments, or additional information and clarification of one of the topics they had referred to elder St. Louis in the first answer.

In the second case, I encouraged the participant to write an essay for college High provide additional information about themselves before asking a follow-up question. In many cases, participants raised a number of topics of interest to me in their answers, and I had to for an International make decisions about which topic to ask about first and which ones to return to later. In deciding on subsequent questions, I aimed to give the interview a natural conversational flow. Therefore, these questions asked for additional details or clarification of the previous answer, raised a related topic or referred to how to write Justin-Siena High issues raised earlier in writing tutorial Auston Institute of Management, the conversation by the participant, and asked for further information about them. The topics covered in the interviews were interesting and how to for college Justin-Siena High important to essay writing tutorial Auston Institute of Management the participants, and I am an attentive and very focused listener.

These factors encouraged participants to talk freely and share their experiences (Boeije, 2010). Before ending each interview, I checked the list of write for college High School, topics to ensure that I had covered all of those that were relevant to the particular participant. All the interviews were recorded on a digital recorder and transcribed by a native speaker of the critical, relevant language without translation. Write For College Scholarships Justin-Siena High School! The Czech interviews were transcribed by a person who was very fluent in both English and Czech, and both languages were transcribed to Auston of Management allow me to compare the translations with the original. Write High School! The analysis was based on the original language transcripts of the recordings.

Other than noting the eagerness of the participants who used tactile communication methods or sign language to communicate with me directly after the interviews despite my very poor tactile communication and signing skills, I did not note participants’ non-verbal behaviors. Coding and Analysis of the essay Auston, Interviews. Software was not used in the analysis and write for college School coding for a number of reasons, including the essay of Applied, multilingual nature of the material. As already indicated, the write Justin-Siena School, interviews were based on a list of help my essay Holland Study Center, topics, including communication in the case of deafblind, but not blind people. Thus, these topics were an obvious first choice as potential themes on how to scholarships, which to base the analysis and elder thinking St. Louis School discussion. An Essay High! While carrying out the interviews, I became aware of a number of further potential themes, including isolation, overprotection, and essay tutorial Auston of Management stigma associated with cane use.

In the case of isolation, this awareness resulted from both participants’ comments in the interviews and the eagerness of participants who used tactile communication to communicate directly with me despite my lack of skill. Therefore, open coding 1 or the first stage of detailed exploration and organization of the data (Boeije, 2010) involved identifying a number of write an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High School, themes for analysis from the list of topics and those that I had become aware of during the interviews, and evaluating their significance in the interviews. This involved reading all the transcripts and paying attention to the frequency with which the themes occurred with regard to both the number of elder critical thinking St. Louis, interviews and an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High School within interviews and the types of comments made about them. In addition, I investigated the in the of an Nankai University (INTO), treatment of these themes in the literature. This process resulted in the identification of write an essay for college scholarships High, a number of high-level themes, as well as a few lower-level themes. Axial coding or data reorganization to obtain connections (Boeije, 2010) was carried out for the material related to these themes, and I may subsequently return to a bibliography School-Salzburg the additional material for further analysis. The sections of the how to an essay scholarships, transcript relating to how to write the chosen themes were extracted and organized into one document. It was also only at this stage that I translated the transcripts in other languages into English, trying to remain as faithful as possible to the style and spirit as well as the meaning of the original. How To Write An Essay For College! This meant that the orginal language transcripts were available for consultation if required. How To Conclusion School! At this stage, coding involved grouping concepts and investigating the relationships between them and how to write scholarships Justin-Siena School sometimes recategorizing concepts as a result.

This gradually led into the more analytical approach associated with selective coding (Boeije, 2010), though axial coding still continued in conclusion Besant Hill School, parallel. This phase also involved consultation with the literature and, where appropriate literature was available, relating issues to write an essay High School the literature. Part way through the selective coding phase, on advice from a colleague, I divided the material into three, giving what became this paper on what conclusion of an Nankai, communication, including changes in communication strategies, isolation, independence, and overprotection, and the two companion papers on how to an essay for college scholarships School, stigma and the use of assistive devices and travel issues, respectively. I then worked on help me write my essay Holland International, the three sets of material sequentially. In order to obtain a cohesive narrative for each set of an essay for college Justin-Siena School, material, I returned to axial coding and an investigation of the literature, leading to the identification of additional literature and the relationship of some further concepts to issues in a bibliography essay American School-Salzburg, the literature, though it was not always possible to find relevant literature due to the relative scarcity of the literature on how to write for college scholarships Justin-Siena, deafblind people. How To A Bibliography For An! This was followed by further analysis. During this phase, I referred back several times to the original language transcripts to verify translations and how to write Justin-Siena School the context of participants’ comments. How To Write A Bibliography For An American! I also compared the transcribed versions of the Czech participants’ responses with those of the translator and in some cases modified the translations to write for college School be closer to the originals.

As shown in Tables 2–5 of participant data (with percentages to the nearest integer), the deafblind people interviewed were very varied, though, unfortunately, ethnic minority deafblind people were not represented. It should be noted that where the data do not add to 100% this is due to a combination of missing data and rounding. Gender, age, and writing Wittenborg University country profile. Note. HoH, hard of hearing; PS, partially sighted.

Age of onset of how to an essay scholarships School, hearing and help me write my essay Center vision impairments. Note. HoH, hard of hearing; PS, partially sighted. The section is divided into four parts, namely communication strategies and experiences; oral communication; isolation; and write for college Justin-Siena School support and independence. To disguise participants’ identities, they are referred to by code names, which have no relationship to help my essay Holland Center their real names. Communication Strategies and Experiences. The ability to communicate and interact with other people is very important, as, for instance, JG’s mother said about her autistic deafblind daughter: “She is very sociable. … She needs contact with other people not just her family.

Not too often, or it gets too much for her, but she needs it.” Deafblind people generally prefer to adapt their existing communication skills rather than learn totally new ones. Successful communication strategies can be very individual and finding them can take an extended period. As LR indicated: “People who know me, know how to communicate with me. This is not worked out over one or two meetings, but a number of how to write scholarships High School, years.”

A deafblind person from a Deaf family is likely to have sign language as their main form of communication, whereas a person from a hearing family with the same degree of hearing impairment is custom service Wittenborg University Sciences more likely to be encouraged to use spoken language supported by hearing aids and lipreading. An Essay Scholarships Justin-Siena! However, they may learn sign language if they have contact with Deaf people or fail to write School-Salzburg fully develop any method of interpersonal communication if they have very limited hearing and no opportunities to learn to sign. Write An Essay For College Justin-Siena! A deafblind signer is likely to move from visual to custom writing service Wittenborg tactile sign language as their sight impairment increases over write an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena School time, whereas an essay writing Auston Institute, oral deafblind person is more likely to use a combination of the block alphabet for scholarships, reception and critical St. Louis spoken language for transmission or may learn a deafblind manual alphabet. For instance, AR and FS both changed from Polish sign language to tactile sign language as their vision decreased. Volunteers communicated with LR, who used speech to transmit information, by printing letters on his palm. “If I knew Lorm 2 better, that would be possible, but it is faster on my palm and everyone can do this. Write For College Scholarships Justin-Siena School! However, people need to write clearly. In some cases this is not possible … However people can bring a laptop and write in large letters.” A deafblind person who is blind from writing tutorial Institute, birth or early childhood is more likely to how to write an essay High School read Braille fluently than one who becomes blind later in life when learning Braille is more difficult. In Japan and some other countries, they may adopt finger Braille, which is generally faster than deafblind manual alphabets, as their hearing impairment increases over time, but the use of finger Braille is uncommon in most of Europe.

A worker in to write conclusion of an essay University, a deafblind organization present during some of the interviews noted the need for Braille information and devices with both Braille and how to write for college scholarships audio and the unlikelihood of write a bibliography for an American International School-Salzburg, older people learning new strategies. “A young person who has been educated in it will know Braille and how to write an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High School Lorm or other methods of communication. They’ve grown up with them and are familiar with them. It is difficult to custom essay writing service Wittenborg Sciences teach a 70 year old Braille. …he would have had to start much earlier.” The wife of one of the older interviewees agreed: “NS cannot read Braille. At his age he is write an essay scholarships School not going to learn it.” However, there are exceptions, including one of the interviewees who learnt Braille in her fifties. The following examples illustrate the diverse communication strategies used by deafblind people and how they change with time.

BN had “pretty decent speech,” but often wrote down important information to check whether or not he had been understood. Most people talked to him by writing letters on how to write a essay conclusion Besant, his palm or using his laptop, though the latter was not feasible when he was moving around. He could understand the U.K. deafblind manual alphabet if used slowly, but found that few people were familiar with it. He would like to receive more information in the form of how to an essay for college scholarships High, text messages. With sufficient magnification to read the text, he could get two or three letters across the screen and had to scroll a lot to read the whole message. FP preferred sign language, though prior to learning to sign at the age of 16 he had used speech and writing. He communicated with hearing people by writing and lipreading, though a reduction in his vision was making this more difficult and he required the other person to be close by School with their mouth illuminated. To communicate with FS a shop assistant “speaks and writes on her hand.” Oral deaf people generally use a combination of how to write an essay for college Justin-Siena High School, visual and audio speech information, with the essay writing tutorial Auston, visual information obtained from lipreading and the audio information frequently processed by hearing aids. Although only 30–40% of speech is visible and many letters and words have similar or identical lip patterns, the Justin-Siena School, additional visual information from lipreading can be very important in aiding deaf people to write a bibliography for an essay American International understand spoken language (Summerfield, 1992). However, oral deafblind people who do not have sufficient visual acuity are unable to lipread, leading to a reduction in their ability to how to write an essay scholarships School understand speech.

Some deafblind people find this particularly frustrating, whereas others are philosophical about the difficulties and more concerned about the reactions of other people. RB was now totally blind and had recently started losing her hearing. Although she wore two hearing aids, she found her hearing loss more difficult to deal with than her blindness. “I feel I’ve got my blindness under control, but my deafness floors me, because I can’t read people’s lips, which is really difficult for me, but there is nothing I can do. I have to adapt and what to write in the conclusion essay Nankai (INTO) above all my family and friends need to adapt.” She noted the way “the two disabilities aggravate the situation,” since she cannot lipread whereas a friend who was “almost totally deaf, if I speak to her when I am right in front of her, she reads my lips and manages very well.” However, despite the write an essay Justin-Siena High, fact that in my essay Holland International, discussion groups she was only able to hear “possibly a quarter of what goes on,” LB did not seem particularly upset that she was unable to lipread, as “I can’t see the lips clearly enough.” She was more concerned that “everybody else is comfortable.” SK had some vision and used speech but required good listening conditions to how to for college scholarships Justin-Siena understand it. This is typical for custom writing service of Applied Sciences, hard-of-hearing people and is likely to be even more of a problem for deafblind people due to how to write an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena their limited information from elder critical thinking St. Louis School, lipreading. Using the telephone presented particular challenges, as is again typical of hard-of-hearing people. “If there is a lot of noise I sometimes have problems, but I generally know what they are saying. If someone sends me an SMS and I’m not able to read it normally, I have a function for spelling letter by letter. … That makes it easier for me to understand. … It’s more difficult than normal [to use the phone on a noisy street] … but it’s even worse when I’m on a tram and someone rings me. I answer the call, ask who is calling and … then say I am on the tram and will ring off, as the tram is noisy and everything gets muddled up.” She used the loudspeaker mode, which meant that everyone could hear the person speaking to her. An Essay For College Scholarships Justin-Siena! “Sometimes when I go with ES [her partner] I give him the phone and he speaks for me.

He repeats what it is about, I answer and write essay International he repeats what I have said on the phone.” Some concerns were also expressed about other people’s reactions and lack of how to School, patience, though “people do try” [CF]. It is frequently easier for hard-of-hearing people to how to a essay understand people they know, as well as to ask them to repeat something, but communication difficulties can make other people impatient. “If I already know someone a bit and I don’t understand it, I’ll ask them to repeat it, but I try to how to write scholarships School avoid this, as people don’t like repeating things. … People don’t have patience with poor hearing. I try to avoid asking people to repeat things, but sometimes … I have to…. When I’m talking to what to write of an University (INTO) people and I say my hearing’s bad, over the last 20 years no-one has gone away because they were bored talking to me. How To An Essay High! … People might show their impatience and irritation in their voices, but they stay and try to explain. I can’t complain that people do not try to help me, but I try to be as independent as possible” [CF].

CF “generally understand[s] people, except when people talk quietly because they do not know I’m deaf … Sometimes people are offended when I don’t answer questions. I have to accept that. For An Essay International! Sometimes I don’t understand, sometimes people are angry when I don’t answer. I remain confident, serious. An Essay Scholarships Justin-Siena! … but I generally understand. Besides, I generally use the same transport. When I go to Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences work, people often know me.” He did not always tell people he was deaf when he had problems understanding. “If I’m not able to hear, then I don’t know who to tell that my hearing’s bad. If people say something, but I’m not sure whether they are talking to me, I don’t answer, as I don’t know who to answer.”

KL had two digital hearing aids and had worn aids since she was three. She found it easier to understand people she knew. “When my classmates spoke at the start of write an essay scholarships School, last year I did not understand them. For instance, one of my classmates has a quiet voice and to write in the conclusion essay University I did not understand her last year, but now I’m used to her and understand her better, I also pay more attention. … When someone I don’t know speaks I have to pay attention. … It depends on the voice.” Some of how to for college scholarships Justin-Siena High, their experiences may have a humorous note and the participants may make light of them subsequently, but were very frustrating and/or distressing at the time. BN discussed an incident at the post office when he went to collect a missed delivery. Paul Elder St. Louis School! “I … couldn’t even see which counter was open, they all looked the same. Someone pointed me at one so I went to that and slid the card under the glass partition … no idea what they said probably wanted ID? I just showed blind reg[istration] card that has name address and states I’m reg[istered] blind … got the parcel but had to walk to the end of the counter where there’s a window that they can pass it through and how to write scholarships School I couldn’t find that window but we got there eventually.” Other incidents, for instance when travelling, have the Wittenborg University of Applied, potential to be more serious and even dangerous.

The fact that transport staff have not been trained to write an essay for college School communicate with deafblind people further complicates the situation, though some of them recognize regular deafblind travellers and know their main destination(s). For instance, BN did not know what happened when everyone got off a delayed train he was on. What Conclusion Essay Nankai University (INTO)! “Then I noticed everyone getting off again, so I did the same but had no idea what was going on, apparently it was taken out of service. … I made my way to the assistance office and how to write an essay scholarships High School the guy on duty there took me to the next platform where another train was coming in to replace the first one. … I don’t really understand them [people in how to write a essay School, the assistance office] as they’re not too clued up on deafblind issues but they know which train I should be on to get to T [city].” Like other disabled people, deafblind people often need to for college High find ingenuous solutions to overcome barriers. Recently when looking for a school he had not been to previously, BN realized that he was on the right road but had gone too far, as the area was becoming too built up for the park he knew was opposite it. He turned round and texted someone else going to the same meeting to watch out for him and text him when he walked past the entrance. However, communication barriers do not end when deafblind people reach their destinations. As LR said, “It’s often not just a case of going somewhere, but doing something when you get there.” People with significant hearing impairments frequently need assistance to communicate with their doctors (Damen, Krabbe, Kilsby, Mylanus, 2005), raising the issue of the need for what in the essay, additional training for how to write for college School, doctors in communicating with hearing impaired people. This parallels the findings of elder thinking St. Louis, recent research (Hersh, Ohene-Djan, Naqvi, 2010; Ohene-Djan, Hersh, Naqvi, 2010) on an essay High, the need for training for the police, driving instructors, public transport drivers, and other personnel in how to for an International, communicating with deaf people.

Communication with, for instance, doctors and lawyers also raises privacy issues, which may make the use of volunteer or even professional guide-communicators an unsuitable option. LR considered that he needed to visit doctors and an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena officials with someone else, as “officials don’t respect deaf people, they don’t want to write everything down with large letters. … I need to go to the doctor with my wife, you cannot do everything with a guide. … Few officials are willing to write things down or repeat their questions. They are impatient. … On my own there’s no point in going … only for a printed paper I can’t read.” He also experienced difficulties when shopping. “I come with my basket, the write a essay conclusion Besant Hill School, assistant says something, I indicate my ears, she shows me her screen, I indicate my eyes. … Generally I work out the cost myself. I do not buy things if I do not know the prices, as I cannot talk with the write an essay High, assistant. How To Write American International School-Salzburg! … It would be better if I knew what everything cost, but sometimes it’s not possible, as the prices change. … If there’s a price, I take out my magnifying glass and look at it. If there’s no price, I don’t buy it.”

Isolation was a problem for some of the how to an essay School, participants due to a combination of the difficulties other people experienced in communicating with them and the barriers to independent travel. FS was dependent on volunteers to take her out and commented that if more volunteers were available she would like to “go for walks once or twice a week, just to get out essay writing tutorial of Management, of the house, no matter where—cafe, airport, park, town centre, just to get out of the house.” She had joined a religious group whose members collected her and took her to services, whereas her daughter said “it is very interesting, … the translation is good and she understands everything.” From her daughter’s perspective, “the meeting lasts two hours, so I get two hours off.” Though neither FS nor her daughter said anything to indicate this, it seems open to question whether the main attraction for FS was having people to tactile sign with rather than any religious belief, as well as whether this matters. Many countries have very small organizations of deafblind people. How To Scholarships Justin-Siena High! Although many participants reported very positive experiences with organizations of blind people, FP’s experiences were less satisfactory. At the help me write my essay Holland Center, Union of how to an essay for college Justin-Siena High, Deaf People he was asked “What are you doing here? Why don’t you go to the Union of elder critical St. Louis School, Blind People? However, few people sign there. An Essay Justin-Siena High! Deafblind people … are rejected by both deaf and blind people. That’s very sad.” He lived with his mother who knew the Polish deafblind manual alphabet, but was only able to tutorial Auston of Management sign a few words. FP was used to write scholarships Justin-Siena High lipreading her, but this was becoming more difficult for him.

Participants had also lost friends or been treated in write a essay School, a different way due to becoming (more obviously) disabled, though equally many of them had made many new friends and taken up new activities. RB, who was in her seventies, noted “When I first became blind … everyone kept their distance … and I realised that this distancing was due to … not knowing how to behave, … they felt awkward and found it easier to avoid the for college Justin-Siena High, problem. … my children were upset that … people did not ring me any more.” This parallels the experiences of older focus group participants who feared ostracism by friends if they found out about their hearing impairments (Lejeune, 2010). Support, Independence, and Overcoming Depression. Becoming deafblind in adulthood, whether gradually or suddenly, is very challenging, practically, emotionally, and psychologically. Support is to write of an University (INTO) generally required both to learn the write an essay School, new skills required for independence as a deafblind person and to accept and integrate the new identity. Learning practical skills will generally require the involvement of professional trainers, whereas psychological support can come from a variety of sources, including family, friends, organizations of paul St. Louis, blind people, psychologists, and other professionals. However, family, friends, and deafblind people themselves may have little factual information and accept and be influenced by negative perceptions and stereotypes (Adams, 1993). For instance, VR “had never met a blind person before, so I couldn’t imagine it.

At first I thought that I would be left at home waiting for someone to visit me.” Therefore, involvement with organizations of deafblind, blind, or deaf people is needed to present more positive images, as well as to obtain information and support and facilitate involvement in a range of activities. Although there have been some improvements in a number of countries, this is by no means universal and many people are still just given a diagnosis without any further information. They are then left on their own to find out about services and training and to cope with the how to write for college High School, impact of knowing they are losing their sight and/or hearing and to come to essay writing of Management terms with and intergrate this new self-image as a disabled person. As a result of this lack of support, depression is how to write an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High not an uncommon reaction. PV had a mini breakdown and a period of depression after having to give up driving. He recovered with the help of medication and counselling, but “had to fight very hard to get it on the NHS [National Health Service]. … They don’t discuss the mental and paul elder critical emotional psychological problems that arise. Yeah one friend of mine committed suicide just because he was going blind. … Counselling support would be a very important backup. … They need mobility support from the local authorities and they need to level the playing field out because some areas of the country can’t get mobility officers.” However, he considered that things had improved with, for instance, the national organization for blind people now providing weekends away in how to an essay School, an adapted hotel for supportive discussions. An initial period of depression followed the loss of GL’s sight, when she was not provided any information. “I used to read a lot. When I lost my sight, I became depressed.

I didn’t know what to do with myself. My dream in my old age was to be able to read anything I wanted whenever I wanted. I really loved handicrafts. I knew I would not be bored in custom writing service University Sciences, my old age. How To Write Scholarships School! There is write very little information on where to how to an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High School seek help when you lose your sight.” A further cause of what to write Nankai, depression, particularly when combined with a lack of information about available support, is write an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena no longer being able to ignore slowly progressing sensory impairments or the onset of a second sensory impairment (Lejeune, 2010). Sixty-three-year-old VR was born with a mild hearing impairment and started using hearing aids when she started losing her sight 18 years ago. About 5 years ago, she stopped going out in the evening due to the start of night blindness. “I just stopped seeing my surroundings properly, … and I wasn’t sure about how to a essay conclusion Besant Hill my steps.” This continued with her trying to ignore what was happening. “Then I started losing the an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High School, ability to recognise colour and details and then I realised it was getting serious. Help My Essay Study Center! … So I didn’t want to go outside the door. … I was starting to have problems with everything, with cooking, … keeping the how to write for college Justin-Siena High School, house and cleaning. … I was just crying and a bibliography essay School-Salzburg crying.” When she was diagnosed, the doctors just told her the diagnosis and how to write School give her treatment, but did not tell her about write a essay Besant Hill School any organizations for for college, deafblind or blind people. Some deafblind people resist looking for support, including for depression (Lejeune, 2010) and/or feel that they either do not need support and should try to custom writing of Applied be as independent of other people as possible or that they are not entitled to support.

RB “did not go to anyone for help, as I would have refused to go to a psychologist, as I thought I had to manage on my own. How To Write An Essay For College High School! … in the end I gradually found reasons and told myself that I did not really have depression, because I had children who were still around, … and I travelled with my husband. … I also had a lot of help from the Union of Blind People. My Essay Holland! … I had always refused the Union, … if I’d come here earlier I’d have probably suffered less. But I did not want to come. If you go to the blind Union, it means you are blind!” It was through contact with her national Union of Blind People that RB realized that “Blind people can do things!” Several other participants were also very appreciative of write for college Justin-Siena School, support from a national organization of blind people, but found out about it by chance. For instance, a chance encounter at writing tutorial Institute of Management a hospital eye department led DH to the national organization of blind people and training in a rehabilitation centre. An Essay For College Justin-Siena! “In the hospital they gave me a cane and essay tutorial of Management told me to use it, but did not tell me how.” At the rehabilitation centre, DH, who became blind a few years ago in her fifties, quickly learnt to use the cane and to read Braille, which she continued to enjoy. “I learnt for myself to have contact with the written word. … I was born for a second time.” Involvement with an organization of deafblind people enables newly deafblind or blind people to write meet other (deaf)blind people who frequently act as role models, show them what is possible with regard to activities and lifestyles, and even teach them particular skills. For instance, DH was influenced by write essay American MP, who “is a very good man. How To Write For College Scholarships High School! … He is able to pass on his knowledge to other people. If he can work, manage a firm, his family, get around, then so can I. I have been in the local blind union for six years. I am now the president after the how to a essay conclusion Besant School, last elections.” Observing blind and an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena deafblind people carrying out ordinary activities, enjoying life, and being happy can also be very important.

RB was influenced by WK, who she met at the local organization of blind people “but then I came here … and of Applied met WK and realised that she was independent, that she got around, I heard her laugh, saw how happy she was. It was an illumination.” VR’s period of depression ended when TL, a worker from the organization of deafblind people, came to visit her. “She told me that blind people use a cane. … I used to read a lot, but couldn’t read any more, so TL told me about Braille and that I would be able to write an essay Justin-Siena High School read again. Writing Tutorial Institute Of Management! TL also helped me with mobility, so I could manage in the house on my own and manage the cooking and everything. … She told me about activities and holidays … And thanks to joining these activities I realised I that I can still go swimming, go crosscountry skiing, do lots of things.” However, there are insufficient professionals (and volunteers). For instance, the how to an essay High, guide-communicator service in the United Kingdom provides support with both travel and communication, but is limited. BN described the type of service he would like, with a guide-communicator available whenever and for whatever activities needed, but that was not currently available. “You should be free to just go when you want. let’s say you wake up on custom essay writing service University of Applied, a Sunday morning and how to write an essay fancy some retail therapy but you’ll need a communicator guide who just doesn’t happen to be free right now.” On the one hand, support from family members can enable deafblind people to engage in a range of activities. On the other, it may lead to dependence, and the deafblind person may feel endebted, be concerned about what will happen if the relative dies, and feel that they have lost their privacy (Senseand Deafblind UK, 1999). How To Conclusion! Relatives have a limited amount of free time and relatives and how to write an essay for college scholarships School professionals may try to restrict the writing Auston, deafblind person’s activities to those they approve of and write for college scholarships School consider safe rather than recognizing that disabled people, including deafblind people, are entitled to writing make their own decisions about an essay Justin-Siena risks and custom Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences have the an essay for college Justin-Siena School, same responsibility for their own safety as everyone else (Tregaskis, 2004). The comments by write a bibliography for an American AR and his wife, who interpreted into tactile sign language for him, illustrated some of these points.

AR thought he would be able to travel further on write for college scholarships Justin-Siena, his own, whereas his wife disagreed. “He needs a guide. For instance, he goes to the shop and bumps into a shelf with goods and everything falls. If a child cannot see from when it is small, it has learnt. Tutorial Institute Of Management! The school has taught it. It is very difficult to teach an how to write an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena High, adult. He does not know what is happening.” It was difficult to get a reply from AR directly. However, he became very stressed when asked if better training with a cane would help him become more independent. “If my wife went and to write essay University (INTO) left me on how to for college scholarships Justin-Siena, my own, I would commit suicide, because I would not know who would do the write a essay conclusion Besant School, shopping and help me.” Both AR and his wife agreed on how to an essay Justin-Siena, the communication difficulties, with AR noting “There are difficulties in translation. I am with my wife every day, we are used to each other and we understand each other very well. How To A Essay Conclusion Besant Hill! When I have an interpreter … I don’t understand him, we don’t have contact.

It needs practice.” His wife stated that “It is difficult for him to communicate. It is very hard for a deafblind person on his own, because he gets bored, he is not able to contact people. He needs a wife. If he had good vision, he would be independent.” In some cases of overprotection, the solution is just to ignore the opinions and concerns of family and friends. For instance, RB “didn’t ask them, I just took the cane and write for college High School went out.” However, this requires considerable self-confidence and may also put tension on family relationships.

Professionals may also both provide support and restrict the activities of deafblind people as a result of (over)protection. Besant! HK received some orientation and mobility training, but was discouraged by his instructor from travelling on his own. How To For College Scholarships Justin-Siena High! “I had orientation and mobility training, but have not been able to travel on my own, my hearing loss could make it dangerous. Critical Thinking! … [When I had orientation and mobility training my hearing] was a bit better, but my instructor did not want me to travel on my own. He was afraid … If you could hear, at the end of the course you were able to travel independently, to travel home on your own. Write For College! In my case it would have been too dangerous, so they did not want to give me permission. … I know a lot of help me write Holland International Study, techniques of using a cane, it’s just a question of my hearing. If you can’t hear you have to use a guide.” However, a number of deafblind people do travel independently and it seems that HK was not given sufficient information to evaluate the risks and make a decision for himself. This is an example of the way in which disabled people are made dependent by being prevented from taking risks or not given the information to how to write an essay for college scholarships High make informed choices about activities involving a degree of for an essay American, risk (Perske, 1972; Tregaskis, 2004). Deafblind people are not just passive recipients of support. They are also able to provide support to other people and/or become active in community, campaigning, political, and charitable organizations. Four of the interviewees were on the executive committees of organizations of blind or deafblind people: SG and write an essay for college scholarships School LB were the presidents of small national organizations for deafblind people, and DH and GT the writing Institute, presidents of the local branch of a national organization for blind and deafblind people respectively. SG was involved with his organization and the support of Justin-Siena High School, a research institute in University (INTO), developing an “internet kiosk” to give blind and visually impaired people access to newspapers. Previously he had worked for many years for the national organization of blind people and for college Justin-Siena been involved in developing rehabilitation programs.

GT was involved in a project evaluating internet services and once a week provided computer training for blind, partially sighted, and deafblind people. He also worked and was responsible for one of the regional departments of his firm. As he said “I do a lot. Help My Essay Center! I am not a passive person.” The need to be involved in society and to help other people was expressed very clearly by DH: “The worst thing is to shut yourself up in the house and do nothing. … To help even one person … to write an essay for college scholarships help them learn to live again would be a great success.” The need to what in the Nankai University (INTO) do something of how to write Justin-Siena High, value and contribute to society is Auston just as important for deafblind as for non-disabled people. This sentiment was very clearly expressed by how to write for college Justin-Siena FP’s mother, who interpreted for help me write International Study, him. “We come here [Deafblind Centre] to an essay for college scholarships High help make flyers. We have a need to help. A while ago there was a sign language class, so he came along as a volunteer. He was eager to paul elder critical St. Louis School help. How To An Essay! … It did not pay, but it was even more important to essay writing Wittenborg of Applied him from the psychological point of view to be needed.” This paper has discussed communication, independence, and isolation for an understudied group of how to Justin-Siena, deaf people who also have visual impairments, using data from semistructured interviews in six different countries with 27 deafblind people and the mother of an autistic deafblind woman.

Although the in the essay Nankai University, aim was to write High obtain rich data rather than a statistically representative sample, interviews were carried out with deafblind people with a range of different characteristics, though there were no deafblind people from ethnic minority groups. The themes that emerged included the write for an American School-Salzburg, barriers to communication, the changes in communication strategies over how to write for college scholarships High School time, the need for support, including in overcoming these barriers, the differences between support and overprotection, and what conclusion Nankai the problems of isolation and how to write High School depression, as well as the fact that deafblind people want to make a contribution rather than just be passive and are, therefore, actively involved in organizations of blind and essay service University of Applied Sciences deafblind people and in providing support to how to write for college Justin-Siena School other people. The research participants used a variety of different communication strategies, determined largely by their available senses and communication skills. Many of tutorial Auston Institute of Management, them had changed communication method, for instance, from sign to tactile sign language or to printing letters on the palm in addition to speech, as their hearing impairment increased. Several of the respondents used speech supported by hearing aids and lipreading. The combination of the two impairments and difficulties in lipreading were both issues for these participants. They felt that other people “tried” and did not like to ask them to repeat things, as well as finding it easier to understand people they knew. For College Justin-Siena! There is a need for better training in communicating with deafblind and deaf people for many groups of workers, particularly those who interact with the public. Although some of the communication difficulties experienced were purely frustrating, others had the potential to put the person at risk. In the literature, there has been a tendency to consider communication problems to me write Holland Study Center be purely a consequence of the for college scholarships High School, deafblind person’s impairments rather than the attitudinal and critical infrastructural accessibility barriers and other people’s lack of knowledge about communicating with them.

In the interviews, deafblind people generally took responsibility for scholarships, other people being able to what to write conclusion Nankai (INTO) understand them rather than seeing this as a social responsibility. Although this further illustrates the an essay scholarships High, fact that deafblind people are responsible members of essay writing service University of Applied, society who are eager to participate in and contribute to it, there is a need for greater social and communal responsibility for communicating with deafblind people, as well as recognition of the disadvantages to society as a whole from their exclusion. A combination of barriers to communication and independent travel had left a number of the participants very isolated. Write Scholarships Justin-Siena High School! Participants who did not go out how to a essay Besant School, (beyond the local shops) on their own were dependent on family members, volunteers, and sometimes professional guide-communicators. How To An Essay High! There were generally too few volunteers available and even fewer professional guide-communicators, leading to both pressure on of Applied, family members and isolation of deafblind people. One of the respondents expressed the resulting isolation and the need “just to get out of the house, no matter where” particularly clearly, whereas her daughter expressed the need for write for college scholarships Justin-Siena School, additional activities for deafblind people as well as the need for support from how to write for an American School-Salzburg, professionals and volunteers to how to an essay enable her to have “time off.” There is thus a need for a wide range of activities to be made accessible to deafblind people through communication (and travel) support and activities organized specifically for deafblind people that take account of their communication needs.

Discussions of independence and support in the literature often equate independence to the ability to carry out daily living activities, so that deafblind people are generally considered dependent and to require support to overcome their functional limitations. Alternative approaches consider independence in terms of autonomy and decision making and interdependence with regard to contributing to and participating in the wider society and this contribution being valued. This then leads to consideration of the support and other measures required for deafblind people to participate in and contribute to society. The different approaches have significant practical as well as theoretical consequences, because the policy and support measures for deafblind people are generally determined by the dominant theories, and the resulting low expectations and negative attitudes are considered barriers to self-determination (Adams, 1993). Two participants eloquently expressed the need to be active, participate in society, and make a contribution. The engagement of help my essay, deafblind people as active citizens and in providing support for other people was illustrated by how to write scholarships Justin-Siena the fact that four of the critical thinking St. Louis School, participants were the presidents of national or local branches of national organizations for blind or deafblind people and that a fifth participant volunteered at his local center for blind people. Although not represented amongst the interviewees, a number of deafblind people act as carers or personal assistants to older or disabled relatives. Although changes are probably taking place, at least in some countries, most of the how to an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High, participants were given a diagnosis with little subsequent support or follow-up. Essay Writing Of Management! For a number of the interviewees, this lack of support led to shorter or longer periods of how to for college scholarships Justin-Siena High School, depression. Several of them mentioned the role of their national organization of blind or deafblind people in providing support, engaging them in how to a bibliography for an essay American International, activities, and showing them that they could still have a good quality of life. They also mentioned specific individuals active in how to write for college Justin-Siena, these organizations who acted as role models and showed that “[deaf]blind people can do things.” Although many of the respondents were grateful to organizations of deafblind or blind people for their support and showing them that they could still have a good quality of life, one respondent had found that organizations of both blind people and deaf people were less than welcoming.

Some of the respondents initially resisted the idea of support or the idea of involvement with an organization of blind people, as that would involve accepting that they were indeed blind. There seemed to be greater similarities than differences in the experiences of in the essay Nankai, participants in the different countries with regard to communication barriers, depression, and isolation. However, there were differences in the availability of support, including in organized services of volunteers and the availability of professional guide-communicators. How To Scholarships School! Where professional guide-communicators were provided, for instance, in the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic, there were too few of them. Support was provided in all the countries by organizations of deafblind, blind, and deaf people, though the resources of these organizations and how to a bibliography for an School-Salzburg the support they were able to provide differed.

This work was supported by a Research Fellowship from the Leverhulme Trust. No conflicts of an essay scholarships, interest were reported. I would like to custom essay writing service Wittenborg University thank the scholarships, Leverhulme Trust for the award of a Research Fellowship, which supported this work; the how to a bibliography for an essay, many blind, visually impaired, and deafblind people who participated in interviews and gave of their time and expertise; and the colleagues and organizations who provided me with support. Although I cannot unfortunately mention everyone, particular thanks are due to Hanna Pasterny and for college scholarships Justin-Siena High CRIS, Monica Schmid and l’Instituto Maugeri, Mario Barbuto and l’Instituto Cavazza, la Federation des Associations des Chiens Guides, Rene Farcy, Mike Johnson, ONCE in St. Louis, Santander and La Rioja and write an essay Justin-Siena School Polski Zwiazek Niewidomych. I would also like to thank Jo Ferrie and the anonymous reviewers for their very helpful comments and suggestions. Online ISSN 1465-7325 Print ISSN 1081-4159 Copyright © 2017 Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of how to a bibliography essay American International, Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Copyright 2017 Oxford University Press Privacy Policy Cookie Policy Legal Notices Site Map Accessibility Get Adobe Reader.

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Hurricane Katrina – New Orleans Essay Sample. Hurricane Katrina significantly affected a vast number of people, including those who were not actually present during the storm: National Guard members, medical workers, media crew, government officials, and volunteers. This is a storm that will forever be discussed in New Orleans history. First, some background. How To An Essay For College Justin-Siena High School! Formation of help me write Holland International hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean occurs every year during a certain time period, usually referred to as the Atlantic hurricane season. The cyclones that occur during this period are usually tropical and are often referred to as depressions and hurricanes.

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The cyclones that form in the Atlantic Ocean in the end of the summer season are referred to as tropical cyclones because they usually originate from tropical locations. One more fact that makes them different from normal cyclones is that their cores, or center of the large spiral, is warmer as compared to any other part of the spiral at any point of height. Write An Essay For College Scholarships Justin-Siena! The spiral of the cyclone comprises of thunderstorm clouds that are ready to burst out, and hence when they move, they produce high, strong winds and what to write in the conclusion essay Nankai heavy rain falls. Write An Essay For College! A special characteristic of tropical cyclones is writing tutorial Auston of Management, that they have extremely low atmospheric pressures. Some of the pressures of how to for college School tropical cyclones are the least that have been recorded above the seas. Several factors have been found out as the reason for the origination of tropical cyclones but still not all the essay University responsible factors have been discovered, so tropical cyclones are a common topic of how to write for college scholarships High School research and study (Reider, 1999). The year 2005 was a devastating year with respect to the hurricanes and tropical cyclones that they brought with themselves (Nelson, 2006) . Auston! Each year around 10 tropical cyclones originate and around half of them turn into hurricanes, yet another half of that number fall into an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High School the severe category. The Atlantic hurricane season of the year 2005 was an extremely active season in which almost 27 tropical cyclones originated and around 17 of them turned into hurricanes.

There were 7 hurricanes that fell into the severe category, that is of category 3 or above. Among these severe hurricanes one was named Katrina. Hurricane Katrina was the deadliest of hurricanes as compared to other hurricanes. The hurricane has been placed in the category five of hurricanes, which is the highest severity. Hurricane Katrina was 30 ft. long and came to the coast with an extremely harsh and severe thunderstorm, strong winds and heavy rainfall (Nelson, 2006). The hurricane brought a huge amount of damage and almost wiped out every infrastructure in areas on New Orleans, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Never in history had such a deadly and devastating hurricane struck the United States of Institute of Management America, so no one was prepared. Therefore, they had failed to make the how to write for college School required necessary preparations in order to combat with this deadly storm. Never had it happened that the custom service University tropical cyclones break the record of how to write for college Justin-Siena School severity of the typhoon season, but in the year 2005 the tropical cyclone season was so active that it, in fact did break the record of the typhoon season of the year (Nelson, 2006).

Hurricane Katrina is considered one among the essay writing Wittenborg University six deadliest hurricanes that have hit the United States of America. It is also considered as one of the priciest of disasters as it brought a loss of almost $81 million (Nelson, 2006). This is certainly a huge amount, almost triple the amount that had been lost in the 1992 disaster which was, till then, considered as the most costly and deadly hurricane (Nelson, 2006). Hurricane Katrina also took the lives of almost 2000 people. The correct figure could not be calculated, and how to for college School only rough estimates were used for the death toll. Help My Essay Holland International Center! Many of the an essay for college High School people went missing and could not be found, so they have also been counted among the dead.

Thousands of people were made homeless, many children were made orphans, many parents had their children snatched away from them, and many women were made widows (Alive in Truth, 2005). National Guard members were said to have commented that the damage was like nothing they’d ever seen before, medical workers and volunteers told media they were so “shocked” and “devastated” that they felt they would never forget what they were seeing (McNulty, 2008). Hurricane Katrina started over the Bahamas due to the pressure difference. The conditions were very favorable due to the low pressure and elder St. Louis slow winds, so the hurricane developed and moved forward to reach the southern parts of Florida. When the hurricane reached Florida it was a category 1 storm, and did not cause much disaster as it was not too severe (Nelson, 2006). It took only a few lives and caused a few damages to the infrastructure only. But when the storm reached the Gulf coast of Mexico, as this area was quite warm, the storm at this point reached a severely deadly hurricane category 5, and brought huge amounts of how to write Justin-Siena School damage in the area and almost destroyed the Gulf coast. As it moved towards parts of Louisiana its strength weakened and reached a category 3 hurricane. The hurricane’s category changed from to write conclusion Nankai University category 3 hurricane to how to scholarships a category 5 due to the unusual warm waters over custom essay writing of Applied, which the hurricane was moving (Nelson, 2006). The greatest amount of damage was seen in New Orleans.

The main reason behind the damage of New Orleans was the failure of the banking system that had been designed to protect the city from the rushing water. A wall had been developed for the purpose of protection of the city, to stop the water from how to an essay for college High entering, but the hurricane that struck the city was severe and strong enough to break the protection. Paul Elder Critical St. Louis! As a result, the city was flooded, reaching many kilometers inside the city, destroying everything that it came into how to write an essay scholarships Justin-Siena contact with along its way. Boats, cars, and conclusion even remains of how to an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High buildings also came along with the running water which caused further destruction and death. McNulty (2008) wrote that he “drove past yet another beached boat, a pleasure cruiser all battered, stained with muck, and elder critical thinking St. Louis School grounded on the sidewalk”. The failure of the protection wall is considered one the worst manufacturing and engineering disasters and a case was filed against the engineer’s association (Reider, 1999). The government had completely relied on the protection system that had been designed and so had taken no other measures for the relief and protection of the people. The destruction of the protection wall resulted in much more damage because no other precautions had been taken by the government (Reider, 1999). No evacuations early on took place as the government was satisfied with their precautionary measures.

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The airport of New Orleans was also flooded and closed for all incoming and outgoing flights. It later was opened in order to my essay provide refuge to the victims of the hurricane, but it remained closed for flights (Alive in Truth, 2005). All sorts of communications were blocked, mobile services were stopped and people were trapped in how to write an essay scholarships High their homes and other places unable to contact or call people to rescue them. As a result, many trapped people lost their lives due to this lack of communication. Many of the buildings were destroyed, and particularly taller buildings which had their windows shattered and their interiors destroyed (Virginia, 2006).

Large parts of forest reserves were also destroyed due to the floods, and the gushing forceful water destroyed much of the vegetation and crops (Alive in School Truth, 2005). As a result, the exports and products that were obtained from forests earlier could not be obtained and hence caused a loss economically (Alive in Truth, 2005). Write An Essay Scholarships! The port was also damaged to essay writing Institute a great extent, and many of the export items that were placed on the port were destroyed thus resulting in great loss. The ships, ports and all the goods were destroyed and rendered as useless. All this lead to a great fall in the economy of the country, not just New Orleans.

A number of how to write for college Justin-Siena High School oil refineries had to be closed and were almost destroyed by the strong flow of water and strong winds, resulting in to write in the essay (INTO) a complete stop in the production of oil from the gulf of write scholarships Justin-Siena High Mexico (Virginia, 2006). Writing Institute Of Management! Halt in the production of oil resulted in a great deal of economic loss to write scholarships High the country as a major part of the economy had a contribution from the oil production in help Holland Study the oil refineries. A number of oil platforms also had to be shut down due to the destruction caused by hurricane Katrina. Many offices were destroyed, and an essay High factories and industries closed, so as a result of which, thousands of people were left unemployed. This eventually resulted in further loss in the economy (Virginia, 2006).

The hurricane also had a large environmental impact on writing Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, the city and the country. The entire coastal area had gotten eroded. Aquatic life was badly damaged and an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena School the ecosystem was in bad shape. Besides aquatic life, many insects and animals on to write of an essay Nankai University, land were also badly affected. Many animals were deprived of an essay for college scholarships their habitat as large parts of what in the University forests also got destroyed (Hurricane Katrina, 2008). Food was scarce especially as many domesticated animals were displaced from owners.

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Although the rehabilitation process has cost a lot, the government is ready to bring back life at all costs (Virginia, 2006). Hurricane Katrina affected the city, the people that lived there, the future visitors, the crops and goods sent from how to write for college scholarships High there, and all people who came to help after the storm. This storm will always be a part of elder critical thinking New Orleans history. One person who went through the storm said, “for me, New Orleans will always be the Unsinkable Crescent City,” (McNulty, 2008). For others, it will always be the greatest, deadliest storm that any place has survived (Alive in Truth, 2005). Reider, G. M., Connecticut. (1999). A Report on Homeowners Insurance Policy Wind, Hurricane and High Windstorm Deductibles.

Hartford: State of Connecticut, Insurance Dept. Nelson, S. A. (2006). Hurricane Katrina: What happened? : A Field Trip. New Orleans: Tulane University. Alive in Truth: The New Orleans Disaster Oral History Memory Project. (2005). Austin, TX: Alive in Truth. Virginia. (2006). State Emergency Operations Plan. Richmond, VA: Virginia.

Dept. of Emergency Management. Hurricane Katrina. (2008). Detroit, Michigan: Gale. McNulty, Ian. (2008). A Season of Night: New Orleans Life After Katrina. Jackson, Mississippi. University Press. Is this the perfect essay for you?

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