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More advice about teaching ESL students (FAQ) The primary audience for this FAQ are the mainstream (i.e. non-ESL) teachers at Frankfurt International School. For this reason some of the answers are related to the particular situation at FIS. Custom Writing Reviews! Some of the links (e.g. to critical College internal documents) will not work outside of the school's intranet. Most of the advice, however, will be of use to mainstream teachers of ESL students in School any school situation.
What's the most important thing I should know about the ESL students I teach? Who they are! It is essential to know which of the non-native students in your class are ESL students and what level of writing service International, ESL they are in. This will give you some idea how much English they know and will help you to have realistic expectations of what they will be able to understand and do in your lessons. Marking the names of the ESL students in your grade book, e.g. using an asterisk and a number for their level, is a good way to identify these students. Many teachers also note down the name of the ESL teacher of writing reviews, each ESL student. Who To Write High! This can facilitate the liaison that is a very important aspect of writing reviews, our joint efforts to support ESL children as effectively as possible. Should I correct an opinion of Gloucestershire ESL student's grammar mistakes? Generally not. Students who answer questions in class are working hard to show what they know or have understood and so they are usually not receptive to any feedback on the grammatical accuracy of their message.
Moreover, it would probably embarrass them to custom essay writing reviews School have their mistakes corrected in front of the rest of the class. Paper Bishopstrow College! There are occasions however when the content of their message is unclear because the grammar is essay, faulty. For example, a student who says: I am here for one year may mean I have been here for one year , or I will stay here for how to essay Cesar Сolleges Switzerland, one more year . In these circumstances, it is acceptable to ask for elucidation and to help them if they do not know the correct way to writing School express their idea. An indirect way to give corrective feedback is to provide the student with a model answer. So, for example, if he says: Columbus find America in critical institute College 1492 , you could reply: Yes, you're right. That's when he discovered America . There is conflicting research evidence as to whether this kind of feedback is effective, so it's best not to overdo it. As for written work, once again it is important that feedback is concentrated on the content quality of the answer rather than on its grammatical accuracy. It is discouraging for students who have worked hard to give a good answer to have their work covered in essay Caterham School red ink for mistakes that are peripheral to the main purpose of the assignment. There is also the danger that they may get the message that surface accuracy is more important than conveying ideas or showing understanding.
However, written work can generally be corrected without causing the academic writing articles IUBH School of Business, student embarrassment in front of his or her peers, and you may well wish to draw attention to one or two of the grammatical mistakes that could interfere with understanding. It is also not unreasonable, for example, to expect the verbs in a piece of writing about a historical event to be in the past tense. Consider asking the student what kind of feedback he or she would like. Custom Essay Reviews School! Some students may welcome the chance to focus on their grammar mistakes with a view to eradicating them in future pieces of written work. Thinking Institute College! Other students, however, will just completely ignore your corrections - and you can save your precious grading time! In general, it is worth pointing out that errors are a natural part of the language learning process. Students who are made to feel that mistakes should be avoided at custom writing reviews, all costs are likely to become inhibited and thinking institute Queen Ethelburga’s learn less quickly. Should I correct an ESL student's pronunciation mistakes? Students are usually even more sensitive about their pronunciation than their grammar, so be very careful how you deal with such problems. If possible, it is probably better to pretend you have understood rather than ask the student to repeat himself 3 or 4 times or ask another student what he meant. You could always ask him again in private after the lesson; and help him to a correct pronunciation of important subject-specific vocabulary.
It is very important that you do not allow other students to mock ESL students for their pronunciation or imitate their accents. And of essay writing reviews Caterham School, course, you should never be tempted to do so yourself. Even if you are sure that the essay, student in question can take a joke, there may be others of the same nationality in the class who would be offended. Should I correct an ESL student's spelling mistakes? As with grammar, it may on occasion be appropriate to custom reviews draw attention to spelling mistakes. It is reasonable to expect students to spell correctly the research College, keywords in custom writing reviews an assignment. If for example they are writing a homework about the water cycle, they should be corrected on mistakes in words such as evaporation, condensation etc. It may also be helpful to critical Queen Ethelburga’s draw their attention to mistakes in common words that they always get wrong. Custom Essay Writing Reviews Caterham! The student's ESL teacher will of an argumentative research, course be aware of the problem, and custom essay Caterham if it is really severe will have suggested ways for the student to write opinion essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO) practice spelling common words correctly - e.g. by doing the custom essay reviews Caterham School, spelling exercises on this site. Should I let ESL students talk in their native language in my classroom? It depends what they're talking about!
This is not intended to be a flippant answer. Most teachers will justifiably object to ESL students engaging in a general chat in how to write Cesar Ritz Сolleges their own language during lesson time. This excludes the custom essay, teacher and other students, and switches the students off from the focus of the lesson. However, there are occasions where it can be quite acceptable for a student to speak his or her own language. Stronger students can quickly explain to less proficient students what the latter have not understood or what they have to do - this frees the teacher from constantly needing to check on the progress of the weaker student, allowing the teacher to critical Queen Ethelburga’s devote enough attention to the other students in the class. It can be distracting to everyone, however, if an ESL student is trying to do a simultaneous translation of what you are saying while you are saying it. It is helpful therefore if the lesson contains a number of natural breaks in which less proficient students can be helped to understand the important points you have made or what they have to do next. In general, it is worth noting how important it is for students to essay writing Caterham be able to discuss their work in their own language. This not only helps to develop their understanding of the topic, but also serves to develop their mother tongue proficiency.
There is research paper Bishopstrow, more on this in my advice to parents about what they can do to custom essay School help their child at how to Switzerland, home. There is one more point to make: it can be very useful if you yourself speak the native language of an ESL student in custom reviews your class. Academic Writing Articles School! You can then use the language to facilitate or check the custom writing, student's understanding of a task or explanation. It is how to Ritz Switzerland, good for the student's self-esteem to essay reviews Caterham School know that you have learned and essay service ACS Cobham International School value her language. Should I encourage ESL students to essay School use their dictionaries in my lesson?
Within reason. There are times in lessons when it is essential that a student understands a word in order that what comes next makes sense. On such occasions a quick search in (INTO) the dictionary can be helpful (or alternatively, a compatriot might be able to provide the translation.) In general, however, students should be discouraged from looking up too many words in class, for two main reasons. Essay Writing Caterham School! Firstly, it does not allow them to develop the essential skill of how to a history essay Ritz Сolleges Switzerland, trying to understand words in custom writing Caterham context; and secondly, it cuts them off from what you say next. Learning to use a dictionary accurately and effectively is not an articles of Business easy skill, and custom many students take a long time finding a word, especially if they are trying to guess its spelling. They may often fail to locate the correct translation of the hundreds of words that have more than one meaning. If the prop of using the dictionary is to be discouraged, however, it is essential that the teacher makes an effort to make his or her spoken language comprehensible. (See my advice sheet on this topic.) It is also useful if the teacher can write key words on the board so that the student can look them up later in the lesson, or at home with the parents' help. The above advice refers to the use of a dictionary while a teacher is an argumentative, speaking to the class. The situation is a little different if the student is working individually on an assignment, when looking up words will not distract her attention from the teacher. Once again, however, it is undesirable if it is happening too often.
If you see a student overusing her dictionary you might ask her what word she was looking up and try yourself, or ask another student, to give her an oral explanation. Alternatively, a compatriot could help her in her mother tongue. How can I help my ESL students learn English as well as my subject? The most important advice is: Make it comprehensible! if you do this, the ESL students will not only custom writing Caterham, learn your subject but English as well. Read more on the the theory of comprehensible input. Professor Krashen, who developed this theory and who in my opinion has the most coherent and convincing account of language learning, has postulated that language is acquired, both in the language and the mainstream classroom, when the student is motivated by the task, feels low or zero anxiety, and has had his or her self-esteem protected or enhanced.
If such conditions prevail, then there is no filter or barrier preventing the natural acquisition of language - provided that the input is comprehensible, interesting and relevant. Why don't my ESL students look at me when I'm talking to them? For some ESL students direct eye contact with a teacher is an argumentative Bishopstrow College, considered disrespectful and could be construed as a challenge to custom writing Caterham School the teacher's authority. This is the reason that Asian students in particular may avoid looking the teacher in the eye, especially when being reprimanded. Another ESL student behaviour that is sometimes misinterpreted is the essay writing, brusqueness of their language; for example: You shut the window!, or Give me 10 Euros. In most cases this is custom Caterham, not rudeness or lack of cooperation but simply a manifestation of their limited English. An Argumentative Paper College! It is a luxury of native or proficient speakers of custom writing School, English to express their feelings and requests politely, since politeness is usually conveyed in grammatically complex language: I'm feeling cold. Critical Thinking! Would you mind shutting the window?, I was wondering if I might possibly be able to borrow 10 Euros. How can I judge if a task or assignment will be too difficult for ESL students?
A very useful way of determining the difficulty of custom reviews Caterham, a task is to refer to the model propounded by Professor J. School & Management! Cummins. ESL teachers are also very happy to advise on the likely difficulty of an custom essay writing reviews assignment for any particular student or groups of students. My advice sheet Helping ESL students understand what they read contains suggestions on how to Saint High School assess the difficulty to ESL students of written language. What can I do to make it easier for the ESL students in my classes? This is an essential question and there are many answers. For example, take a look at the list of suggestions made by custom essay writing reviews, the ESL students themselves in articles IUBH of Business & Management response to the question, and check out the list of guidelines for mainstream teachers. It is vital to custom writing Caterham ensure that ESL students can make sense of how to write Cesar Сolleges, what you say in class.
For this reason it is helpful if you are aware of the ways in custom writing which you can improve their chances of understanding what they hear. See the an argumentative Bishopstrow, advice sheet Helping ESL students understand what you say for detailed suggestions on this topic. My sheet Helping ESL students understand what they read may also prove helpful. (These two documents emphasize the importance of activating background knowledge before having students read or listen to complex text.) You may also wish to read the suggestions below on reviews School cooperative groupings, which are very important for maximizing the ESL student's chance of producing language in opinion of Gloucestershire the class. You can help further by essay writing, explicitly teaching the study skills necessary in your subject. If you use a course book, you could show students how it is organized, where to find the glossary, how to make effective use of the table of contents, chapter headings, graphics and captions etc. Consider increasing wait time; ESL students take longer than their peers, both to comprehend the question and to prepare their answer. They generally benefit from a classroom where students are called on to reply to questions rather than allowed to shout out answers.
They also feel more comfortable when lessons follow established routines; for example, they are expected to copy the homework from the board at the start of each lesson; the teacher always briefly previews what they will be doing that lesson; or the teacher spends the last 5 minutes of the lesson with quick-fire review questions on what was taught in that lesson. Alert students to cognates and other helpful mother-tongue equivalents. Asking a proficient student for the translation into institute Queen, Japanese or Korean of an important word you have been explaining often helps a shyer, less proficient ESL student with what she had been struggling to understand. Hearing different languages in the classroom sends an important message to students. Another way that you can help ESL students is to provide a model of what you are expecting them to custom reviews Caterham School do. Critical Institute! This is School, especially useful when the task is to critical institute Ethelburga’s College produce an extended piece of writing - but it is custom reviews, also of value when the assignment is a poster or oral presentation.
You could prepare your own perfect answer or you could keep pieces of work done on research paper Bishopstrow College the same assignment by students in writing Caterham other classes or previous years. It is often helpful to discuss poorer pieces of work and have students analyse why these don't meet the requirements. A final suggestion: How about write, asking the students themselves how you could make it easier for them in your lessons? Important: ESL students need to have grade-appropriate cognitive challenges. Making things easier for ESL students in the mainstream classroom means making accommodations that help them to essay reviews Caterham do the tasks that the native speakers are expected to do. It emphatically does not mean watering down the cognitive difficulty of those tasks, however well-meaning this might be. I have produced a graphic to illustrate how a task can be made achievable by ESL students without reducing its cognitive demands - namely, by expressing the task in comprehensible language and by providing appropriate assistance. (This kind of assistance is academic IUBH & Management, often called scaffolding.) Finally, here is an excellent overview of strategies you can use to help ESL students understand your lessons and earn from you. What can I do to help ESL students do good homework? Assume that you have followed the advice given in custom essay reviews the answer to the previous question, and academic writing of Business & Management have done what you reasonably can to help ESL students understand the new information, skills and concepts that you have been teaching them. You now want to set a major piece of custom writing reviews School, homework to who to essay Saint High deepen or assess this understanding.
What final steps can you take to optimize your students' chances of doing a good job in this homework? In response to writing Caterham School this question it is helpful for opinion essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), teachers to know the Caterham, advice given to of Gloucestershire ESL students who wish to do good homework, namely to follow the essay Caterham School, UDS method and ensure that they: U nderstand exactly what they have to do D o exactly what they have to thinking institute Queen College do S how that they have done exactly what they had to do. Teachers can assist students in heeding this advice by allowing sufficient time during the class or after it for students to ask for elucidation of the task. Of course, it is essay reviews Caterham, helpful to students if the Queen College, task is written on the board, or on a sheet that is given to them. Students should be encouraged to writing take notes in opinion essay University of Gloucestershire their own language as the teacher is explaining what to do. Same-nationality students who have better English can be asked to explain the work to their less proficient peers, using their shared mother tongue. It is also helpful to custom reviews School show the students the criteria by which the task will be assessed. Giving students model answers or allowing them to analyse the shortcomings of less than perfect work (done, for example, by students in critical thinking institute College the previous year's class) will also help them to understand exactly what they have to do and the form in custom essay writing reviews Caterham which it should be done. Students appreciate being told the minimum length requirements, and an argumentative College they certainly need to be clear on essay due dates. ESL students often lose time at home puzzling over the requirements of a task they did not fully understand when it was set.
ESL teachers have difficulties helping students do tasks that neither they nor their students comprehend. To avoid this wasted time and frustration, mainstream teachers are well-advised to Saint do what they can to ensure that the students know exactly what is expected of them. Should I modify homework tasks for the ESL students in my class? It depends. In many cases you may not wish or be able to give ESL students a modified homework assignment. And even if you are able and would like to custom writing reviews Caterham assign a less time-intensive task, you yourself may not have enough time to how to a history essay Ritz Сolleges prepare it. However, it is important to note that ESL students often need to spend two or three times as long to complete a task as it takes the native speakers in the same class. Custom Essay Writing Caterham! Some students at FIS regularly stay up beyond midnight to get all their homework done and write Ritz Switzerland rarely have the time to recharge their batteries.
So ESL students will certainly appreciate any contribution you make to the reduction of their total workload. There are various ways that you can do this. Firstly, it goes without saying that homework should only be assigned if there is a clear rationale behind it. But even if the writing School, homework fulfils a particular learning purpose, you may find it possible to allow ESL students to skip it on occasion or to do it when their homework schedule is currently not so full. Secondly, you may find be able to reduce the scope of the task; for write a history essay Ritz Сolleges, example, by decreasing the writing Caterham, word count of a piece of writing, the minimum length of a science presentation, or the number of questions expected to be done in a mathematics homework. Thirdly, you could replace a long, linguistically-demanding reading homework text with a shorter, less complex one on the same subject.
There are various online resources that provide versions of the same content with varying length and linguistic complexity. Of Gloucestershire! [An example is Newsela.] And if you are assigning Google research, you could show students how to filter the results by reading level to ensure that they are not attempting texts that will clearly be beyond them. Finally, you could determine how long it would be likely to take the custom reviews Caterham School, average native-speaker in your class to complete the assignment and tell the ESL students to work on the assignment for essay writing ACS Cobham International, that length of time, then stop. ESL teachers at essay writing Caterham, FIS are very flexible about allowing extra time in ESL lessons for students to complete other subject work that they had no time to finish at home, or to start the work in class and therefore need to spend less time on it later that evening. If you feel that any given homework assignment is likely to be demanding and service ACS Cobham International School thus time-consuming, or if you are not sure if it will be, you are recommended to contact the students' ESL teacher. He or she will be able to advise on the demands of the task, and will be happy to suggest - and in most cases to prepare - a modified task. It is clear that ESL students need to spend longer on homework than native-speakers, and may occasionally need to stay up very late to complete it. But it is important that this does not happen regularly. Any excessive time spent doing homework eats into the time when they should be relaxing, pursuing their hobbies, or just reading for pleasure.
Students who are tired and stressed because of homework demands and custom reviews Caterham School lack of opportunities to switch off will not be fresh and productive in the classroom, and may well become sick. Why don't my ESL students ask for help in class? It is notable how often mainstream teachers comment that the academic writing articles & Management, students in essay writing reviews School the class who generally need the most help, namely the ESL students, are the ones least likely to ask for it. There are various reasons why this is the case. Firstly, the ESL students may simply not feel that their proficiency in English is good enough for them to ask the right questions or understand the teacher's answers.
Furthermore, ESL students may feel embarrassed to show their lack of understanding in front of the rest of the class; better to say nothing than have the academic writing IUBH & Management, other students think that you are slow or stupid. ESL students who were proud of their achievements in their previous home-country school may feel it demeaning to now be so reliant on essay School the teacher, and prefer to keep face rather than expose their helplessness. It is possible, finally, that some ESL students believe that by articles School of Business, asking many questions or frequently asking for help, they somehow convey the the idea that the teacher has not done a good enough job in teaching them. The advice to the teacher with ESL students in the class is to writing Caterham structure lessons so that there is some time when students are working individually or in small groups. This allows the student to ask questions or for help without being exposed to the attention and possible derision of the full class. Articles IUBH School Of Business! It also allows the teacher to approach students suspected of struggling and discreetly offer help. Teachers could also make it clear to their ESL students that they are generally available to answer student questions after class or during break and lunch. For a more detailed analysis of the reasons why Asian students at FIS may be reluctant to ask for help, see The Quiet Girls (Greenwood, Cathleen F.. The Quiet Girls . The English Journal 86.6 (1997): 82-86. Web.).
What advice can I give to ESL parents about custom reviews Caterham School, how to essay service ACS Cobham International help in my subject? The best way that parents can help at home is to discuss with their child, in their own language, the work in progress. There is more detailed advice on this on the parents' pages of this website. It would be useful to custom essay Caterham School refer parents to an argumentative research College these pages when you call them or meet them to talk about reviews Caterham School, their child's progress. Additionally, you could reinforce the constant message we ESL teachers give students and parents about the importance of extensive reading in English - particularly of non-fiction texts. As Cummins points out: If ELL (ESL) students are not reading extensively and understanding what they read, they have little hope of bridging the gap in academic language proficiency between themselves and native speakers of an argumentative paper Bishopstrow College, English. Academic Language Learning, Transformative Pedagogy, and Information Technology: Towards a Critical Balance , Cummins, J. (2001) TESOL Quarterly, Vol 34, No. 3. An ESL student is struggling in my lessons? What is the best way I can help her?
The best thing to do is to alert the ESL teacher so that a special action plan can be worked out. You may also wish to essay writing reviews Caterham tell the parents what they can do to help. Bishopstrow! See my answer to the previous question. Before suggesting private tuition, it is recommended that you contact the custom writing reviews, ESL teacher. A History Essay Ritz Сolleges! See the newsletter article about private tuition if you want to read the advice we give to ESL parents when they ask if this is necessary for their child. An ESL student is doing badly in my tests. Why is this? If a student does poorly in one of your tests, it is helpful to analyse with her the essay Caterham School, possible reasons. These could be any of the following (or a combination of them): She never did (or understood) the work in the first place She did and understood the work, but she didn't study for the test She understood the institute Ethelburga’s College, work and studied for the test, but she didn't understand the question(s) She understood the questions, but didn't know how to answer She understood the School, questions and knew how to answer in her native language, but couldn't answer in English She (thought she) knew how to answer in how to a history Cesar Ritz English but she didn't give the essay writing Caterham, right answer or she didn't give the full answer She didn't check her work carefully before turning in the test paper.
Obviously, a child who doesn't work hard through the term, or who lacks good test-preparation and test-taking strategies, will struggle to do well in tests, and these issues should be addressed by the teacher. An Argumentative! The other reasons listed above, however, are more to do with language ability, and custom essay writing reviews Caterham School you may wish to adopt a flexible response in order to writing service ACS Cobham School help the essay reviews Caterham, ESL student show what she has learned and understood. For example, you may wish to prepare an ESL version of the test. Essay Service! Alternatively, you could make sure you are on hand during the test to custom essay Caterham explain what the questions mean. Or you could allow the student to write part of an answer in writing School of Business & Management her own language and then explain it to custom School you or have it translated after the test. ESL students usually need more time than their native-speaking peers to complete the test. It takes the pressure off them a little if they know they will have the chance to continue into break or finish off in write essay of Gloucestershire the ESL lesson. Of course, it is very important that the language of the reviews Caterham, test questions and tasks is unambiguous, so the student can quickly understand what she has to essay writing toronto do. [See my advice on custom essay Caterham School how to make tests and worksheets comprehensible.] One of my ESL student's written work contains large chunks of text that she has copied from other sources? What should I do? Plagiarism is Bishopstrow College, quite common among ESL students and can have many causes.
Please contact the writing Caterham, child's ESL teacher if the problem persists despite implementing some of the advice on how to deal with it. What is the critical Queen, best way to integrate ESL students into my lessons? It is helpful if you know a little about the ESL students' backgrounds and interests, since this will enable you to make connections to their personal lives. At the ESL placement interview the ESL teacher finds out this information and then sends it out to essay reviews Caterham all concerned by e-mail. Little things can be important, such as spelling the child's name correctly and learning how to pronounce it with some accuracy. Write Anthony’s! It is also helpful in class to seat ESL students with native-speakers who are sympathetic and encouraging. You can also devise group activities in which the ESL student's contribution is essential to the successful completion of the task. (See next question!) On a more general level, it is useful if the culture and history of the student can be incorporated into lessons. [More] It is important that students feel teachers respect their cultures as much as the dominant cultures of the school. (The ESL department has a very useful set of materials of the different countries of the world, called Culturegrams.
There is essay writing reviews, also another set in the school library.) Cummins (1996) has an excellent explanation of the importance of integrating ESL students' cultures and thinking Queen Ethelburga’s background experiences into your lessons, thereby validating their personalities and identities: .. when students' language, culture and experience are ignored or excluded in classroom interactions, students are immediately starting from a disadvantage. Everything they have learned about life and the world up to essay writing School this point is of Business, dismissed as irrelevant to reviews school learning; there are few points of an argumentative research Bishopstrow, connection to curriculum materials or instruction and so the students are expected to essay writing reviews learn in an experiential vacuum. Students' silence and non-participation under these conditions have frequently been interpreted as lack of academic ability or effort, and teachers' interactions with students have reflected a pattern of critical, low expectations which have become self-fulfilling. Cummins J (1996) Negotiating Identities: Education for Empowerment in a Diverse Society Ontario CA California Association for Bilingual Education. Two simple examples of including the non-native speaker's culture and previous educational experience: In the mainstream English class where Romeo and Juliet is being studied, the reviews, teacher could ask students if there are similarly celebrated stories of critical, thwarted love in the literatures of their cultures. Custom Writing School! In math class the teacher could ask non-native speakers how they have learned to an argumentative research College do a particular operation, e.g. the division of one fraction by another.
How do cooperative activities benefit ESL students? An excellent way of integrating ESL students into your class is via cooperative activities. Custom Reviews School! Researchers have found that language learning takes place most effectively when learners are engaged in interesting tasks that allow plenty of writing service ACS Cobham International School, meaningful interaction with sympathetic native speakers. However, it is writing reviews Caterham School, not enough to just put the ESL student with 2 or 3 others and hope for the best. If this happens, there is articles School of Business & Management, a danger that the ESL student will take on reviews Caterham School a peripheral role - or have it forced on her. Therefore, it is most beneficial if the group activity is so structured that the outcome is dependent on the contributions of ALL the group members.
As an example, consider the critical Queen Ethelburga’s College, topic of pollution. First each member of each group chooses or is allocated a sub-topic. Those having the same sub-topic, say river pollution, meet together to discuss and research that sub-topic. The students then return to their original groups where they report on custom writing reviews School what they learned in the sub-topic groups. Group members then discuss how to include this information in their final report or presentation. Using this method, the contribution of each group member is critical to the final outcome. To provide extra support to ESL students, you could arrange it so that they are given an easier sub-topic or task, or that the sub-topic group they go to service toronto ACS Cobham International contains a same nationality peer. In summary, it can be said that pair or group work is important for writing reviews, ESL students because it gives them the chance to express their ideas and opinions or ask questions (of the teacher or other group members) on a smaller stage than in front of the whole class. It also gives the teacher a much better chance to offer individual and unobtrusive help.
There is a more extensive discussion in research Bishopstrow College the following article, which also contains a wealth of writing reviews School, other useful information: Strategies for Involving LEP Students in the Mainstream Classroom. [Further information about cooperative grouping can be found in: Second Language Students in Mainstream Classrooms , Sears, C. (1998) Multilingual Matters. I have a copy of this book in my room if you would like to borrow it.] Where can I find information about the who to write High, language, culture and history of the countries of my ESL students? In my room I have a comprehensive set of materials called Culturegrams. These contain information about every country in the world on topics such as: history, language, customs, food, holidays, education system, lifestyle, recreation, and custom essay writing Caterham many more. There is a further set of these materials in the library. [Dr. Who To Anthony’s High! Else Hamayan has devised an interesting graphic that makes it clear there is custom essay reviews, more to culture difference than the obvious elements of music, food and dress.] I have a student in my class who never says a word.
Should I make him speak? It is rarely productive to try and cajole a reluctant beginner into answering questions in class. There is a well-attested silent period that some ESL students go through in which they are not prepared to essay writing toronto International School volunteer any spoken information. Custom Essay Writing Caterham School! In most cases however these students are learning and will emerge from write a history Ritz Сolleges Switzerland their silent cocoon some time later with a surprising ability to custom writing Caterham express themselves orally. Here is what Professor Krashen has to say about the silent period: Very typically, children in a new country, faced with a new language, are silent for a long period of time, their output being limited to a set number of memorized phrases and sentences that they hear frequently and whose meaning they do not understand completely. [. ] The child, during this time, is simply building up competence by listening, via comprehensible input.
His first words in the second language are not the beginning of his second-language acquisition; rather, they are the toronto ACS Cobham School, result of the comprehensible input he has received over the previous months. Krashen states that adults are not usually allowed a silent period in language classes, a condition that makes many language students very anxious about foreign-language study. Krashen, S. 1985 The Input Hypothesis: Issues and writing reviews Implications (Longman) The issue is opinion essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO), more complicated for silent students who are in their second or subsequent years at the school. Writing Reviews School! They may in fact desire the opportunity to write essay Anthony’s participate orally, but do not yet have the language processing skills to quickly understand the question and formulate their answer in English. They are disadvantaged therefore in custom reviews Caterham School classes with rapid teacher-student interchanges, particularly where the academic School, students are not called on writing reviews Caterham School but allowed to respond at who to write essay School, will. If teachers allow sufficient processing time, then ESL students may feel comfortable in raising their hand to answer. If they still remain silent, it may be reasonable for essay writing Caterham, the teacher to call on how to a history essay Cesar Сolleges the student directly - particularly if it is a closed question with a short answer†.
But in general this should be done only if it is believed that the essay writing Caterham School, student will have a correct answer, and not if he or she is generally shy or lacking in confidence. So, there is not one rule that fits all students. Shy students will feel very stressed in class if they believe that the Anthony’s High, teacher may call on custom writing School them at any time. Conversely, some students may feel the teacher has no confidence in them if they are never called on. A final point: if the course includes opportunities for who to write essay School, cooperative activities then the student will be able to communicate orally in a setting much less threatening than in custom essay School front of the whole class. † There is more about question techniques in these two video I made for FIS students preparing to writing ACS Cobham International teach ESL students in the Kalahari: questions in theory - questions in practice. * Teachers wishing to review the custom writing Caterham School, research on the issue of silent students are recommended to read the following article: Priviliging of Speech in EAP and Mainstream University Classrooms: A Critical Evaluation of Participation Ellwood, C. and Nakane, I. TESOL Quarterly 43/2 2009. How should I assess the content knowledge, understanding and writing School of Business & Management skills of my ESL students?
There is custom writing Caterham School, a detailed answer to articles IUBH of Business this question elsewhere on this site. In short, assessments, both formative and custom reviews School summative, will often need modifying in write opinion University (INTO) order to essay Caterham School make them fair and reliable ways for ESL students to demonstrate knowledge and skills in your subject. Other accommodations, such as allowing extra time to complete the assessment, may be necessary. Students whose English proficiency is as yet limited may need different assessments altogether than the rest of the class. ESL teachers can advise on opinion (INTO) the language demands of essay reviews, a given task, and suggest modifications and accommodations to make it a fairer and more accessible way for ESL students to demonstrate content knowledge and articles School skills. How should I grade my ESL students? This is a complex issue, and closely related to the previous question: How should I assess my ESL students? In general, students who have reached a certain level of English proficiency (at FIS this means students in ESL2, Advanced or Transitional classes) should be assessed and graded according to the same criteria as the other students in the class.
This may mean that for some students their grades are low at first, but nevertheless it is important that ESL students, together with their parents and their ESL teacher get accurate feedback on the standards they are reaching in their mainstream classes. Such a grading policy also helps the ESL teacher to custom essay writing reviews Caterham determine at the end of the year if the student is in who to write essay Anthony’s need of further support in the following year. (It can be difficult to recommend that a child continues in ESL if his grades in the other subjects have been artificially inflated. ) Within the custom, above guidelines, however, it is still possible to treat ESL students in a way that is appropriate to who to essay Anthony’s School their particular status and essay Caterham needs. Essay Writing Service Toronto School! Sympathetic is a useful term to describe this special treatment of ESL students in terms of custom essay writing reviews Caterham, grading and assessment. It means for example that students are given credit for who to essay Anthony’s, demonstrating understanding even if their ability to express their understanding in clear and accurate English is essay Caterham, limited. It means that they are not graded down for grammar and essay writing service ACS Cobham International spelling mistakes (unless these are an integral and clearly stated part of the assignment.) It means further that students have the chance to custom School give an write essay Cesar Switzerland oral explanation of answers that they were not able to write down very clearly. It also means that they may be allowed the chance to redo homework or retake tests. Some FIS students of very limited English proficiency (this means students in ESL1 or Intermediate classes) should be graded according to the policy set out in the document Report card grades for ESL students. My class contains a high proportion of ESL students - will this have a negative effect? It need not, since many of the strategies which are good for writing School, ESL students are good for the others, too. This is who to essay Saint Anthony’s, a situation where the reviews School, internal grouping of opinion essay of Gloucestershire, students takes on greater importance.
It is generally helpful if ESL students can be paired or grouped with others from a different language background, although it can be useful if beginners can also have the chance to be helped in custom writing reviews School their own language. An Argumentative Research College! In general, the advice is to teach to the native speakers in the class so that the cognitive demand on students is not compromised. There is an interesting discussion of the dangers of reducing the cognitive level in the classroom in Vol. 47/1 of the writing Caterham, English Language Teaching (ELT) Journal. (Embarrassment and hygiene in the classroom Mackay, R.) The ESL department holds a copy of this article if you wish to read it. You may also wish to read my answer to parents who ask a similar question. How should I adapt the work I give to the ESL students in my class? Much of the work that is thinking Queen College, set in essay writing Caterham School the mainstream (whether to an argumentative paper Bishopstrow College do in class or at home) takes the ESL students much longer to accomplish than the native-English speakers. Of course, mainstream teachers are aware of this and may attempt to adapt the tasks that the ESL students have to do. This concern for ESL students is admirable, but it carries with it two dangers. The first danger is that the cognitive demands of the task may be reduced, or that the task may be replaced by different, simpler task. ESL students can certainly be helped by making the language of tasks easier to understand, but they have the essay reviews Caterham School, same cognitive abilities as the other students and should be required to use them in the completion of the same assignments.
The second danger is that the teacher ends up spending so long on regular adaptation of materials for ESL students that he or she does not have the time or energy to devote to preparing engaging and instructive lessons for the class as a whole. A solution to how to write essay Сolleges Switzerland the dilemma of writing reviews School, ensuring that ESL students are cognitively challenged but do not end up working twice or three times as long on an assignment as a native-speaker is to write Saint High reduce the amount of work they have to do. For example, instead of requiring them to do 20 word problems in essay reviews Caterham School mathematics unit, permit them to do 12. Consider a mainstream English assignment as a further example - book review. Instead of requiring a 500 word report, allow the less proficient ESL students to write 400 words. Do not, on the other hand, permit them to write only about plot and academic articles IUBH & Management not about theme or mood, since this reduces the cognitive challenge of the task. The ESL department is very happy to advise on the modification of materials to make them linguistically more accessible to custom writing ESL students. What is the writing service toronto International School, best way to keep in contact with the ESL teacher? How the liaison takes place is writing reviews Caterham School, a matter for each subject teacher to determine in consultation with the ESL teacher.
Some prefer to opinion essay of Gloucestershire have a brief regular meeting to essay writing reviews Caterham School discuss work in progress and students of concern; while other find it easier to keep in contact by e-mail. See the sheet of general information about how ESL teachers can help, containing a list of times that they are free to discuss with you or visit one of your classes. How are ESL students placed at essay Saint Anthony’s, FIS? The decision about the initial placement of a student is made after the student has been interviewed by an ESL teacher who assesses the linguistic competence of the student in custom writing reviews the major language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. (The reading test generally consists of a short story taken from the appropriate grade level literature anthology.) The student's educational and language background is how to write a history Ritz, also taken into Caterham School, account. In cases where a student falls between two levels, the wishes of the parents and/or the student are taken into account.
Subsequent placement depends on the student's progress in English as assessed against critical thinking institute, the ESL objectives. Custom Essay School! Placement changes can take place at any time, although they are generally not considered desirable in the last two months of the writing service ACS Cobham, school year. A majority of changes take place between one school year and custom reviews School the next. The placement decision does not only depend on the child's linguistic proficiency, as measured against writing toronto International School, ESL course objectives, but on such factors as the custom writing reviews School, child's nationality, motivation and ability to work independently. An essential part of the decision-making process is the continuing discussion with the child's subject teachers about her progress in those subjects, including the level and quality of her participation in all of the how to, class activities, her results in tests, the custom School, quality of her homework etc. The child's longer-term academic plans are often also taken into consideration after discussions with the parents. How can I identify an essay University of Gloucestershire ESL child who has learning difficulties?
Some of the indicators of a learning disability that are exhibited by an English native speaker are also shown by ESL students in the first stage of custom essay writing Caterham School, their English language development. These indicators include difficulty in critical thinking institute Queen following oral instructions, poor eye tracking when reading, inconsistent spelling, limited attention span, avoidance of eye contact, etc. The crucial difference is that the problems experienced by the learning-disabled native speaker are for custom writing reviews Caterham, the most part permanent, whereas ESL students display such behaviours for a temporary period only. There are significant variations in the duration of this temporary period for ESL students. It is important, therefore, that mainstream teachers are aware that a normal (i.e. non-learning disabled) ESL student may continue to who to write High School exhibit 'learning-disabled behaviours' for a long initial period. Such students should not be prematurely labelled as having a learning problem when in fact they simply have a temporary language or acculturation problem. Nevertheless, every so often we have an ESL student who doesn't make the essay writing School, progress expected of him or her, even allowing for the large variations in the speed at thinking institute, which English language proficiency develops. In most cases such a student will have been identified by custom reviews Caterham, an ESL teacher, and write Saint School the 'learning-disabled specialist' will have been contacted in order to undertake a joint diagnosis. This diagnosis will usually include testing in the child's mother tongue.
If the child does indeed turn out to have learning problems, then some kind of additional support is offered. This may, at Frankfurt International School, involve the replacement of the child's German class with lessons in custom Caterham Learning Support/Academic Workshop. If you suspect that an ESL student's difficulties in your class are the result of more than a simple lack of English language proficiency, please collect evidence and contact the child's ESL teacher. It is helpful for the ESL teacher to know, specifically, the types of write Anthony’s School, task that cause the custom essay writing reviews School, student problems and the kinds of atypical behaviour that the student exhibits. The ESL program manual of the US Department of Defence contains excellent, detailed information and advice on academic writing School of Business how to diagnose and respond to the learning disabilities of ESL students. For a further detailed discussion of the issue, refer to the following article, a copy of which is available in room 289: Special Education Needs of Second Language Learners Cloud, Nancy. (1994). In F. Essay Writing Caterham! Genesee (Ed), Educating Second Language Children (pp.243-277). New York: Cambridge University Press.
The topic is given comprehensive coverage in this more recent work by Hamayan: Special Education Considerations for English Language Learners: Delivering a Continuum of Services. Essay! (Caslon, 2007). How can I communicate effectively with ESL parents? There may be many occasions in the school year when you will have contact with ESL parents; for custom essay writing Caterham, example at the International Meal or during Back to School Night or Open House. How To Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland! In particular you may need to talk to them on the phone or during parent conferences to discuss their child's progress. In all of the custom writing reviews Caterham, dealings with parents, it is important to modulate your language in such a way that it can be more easily understood.
Of course this does mean not patronising them by speaking more loudly or excessively slowly, or using baby language. What it does mean is that you may have to repeat or rephrase the an argumentative Bishopstrow College, important parts of your message. You should also try to custom essay writing Caterham avoid most of the idioms and colloquialisms that are typical of natural everyday language between native speakers. Telling a parent that her daughter takes a long time to cotton on and that she needs to pull her socks up is likely to write essay Saint Anthony’s High be met by essay writing reviews Caterham, a confused stare! You should be aware too that much of the school jargon that we use without thinking about it will be inaccessible to an argumentative research Bishopstrow College ESL parents. For example, it is unrealistic to expect them to know what you mean when you talk about authentic assessment or Learning Center . (More on school jargon.) You also need to be careful with euphemisms. While they may be appropriate and expected by native-English speaking parents, your message may not be understood by ESL parents. To tell a Korean mother that her son does not take full advantage of the custom essay writing, learning opportunities offered to him will probably not communicate effectively what you are trying to telling her. It is often better to say gently something like: Your son is a little bit lazy in lessons , and then give specific examples of academic writing articles IUBH of Business & Management, how he could participate more. (More on euphemisms) You need be a little careful, however, since some parents may regard the difficulties their child is having as reflecting poorly on themselves and essay Caterham School their family as a whole. You should also know that many ESL parents will feel very uncomfortable if they think that other parents or students can hear what you are saying about their child.
For this reason, you are strongly recommended to Bishopstrow close the door of the room in which you are having the meeting or conference with the parents. In general it is writing, important that parents are not left feeling frustrated, confused or embarrassed after meeting with you. Making ESL parents feel valued and welcomed in our school and involving them in paper College the education of their child is an essential aspect of helping the child to reviews Caterham School fulfil his or her potential. What do I need to know about ESL students and culture shock? Some ESL students at FIS suffer from physical, emotional or behavioural complaints that are caused by culture shock. The shock can be caused by difficulties in adjusting to Germany and German culture. It is more likely however to be the result of trying to cope with the demands of a very different school system from the one they have left behind. The effects of culture shock - or to be more precise, school shock - are described in some detail in my article to parents elsewhere on this site.
My intention here is to make mainstream teachers aware of some of the teaching practices at write essay School, FIS that may be unfamiliar and stressful to ESL students. Of course it is not suggested that colleagues change their teaching methodologies to avoid all possibility of discomfiting ESL students. But an awareness of the points below will often be sufficient to essay reviews Caterham prevent teachers drawing the wrong conclusions about the behaviour and attitude of the ESL students in their classes. It can help to alleviate stress if ESL students feel that the teacher is write essay Anthony’s High School, knowledgeable about and sympathetic to their difficulties. Teachers can also help adjustment to the new culture by reinforcing the student's pride in essay writing reviews Caterham School his own culture. A History Cesar Switzerland! (More on custom essay reviews Caterham School this)
Students may be used to acquiring a large number of facts by rote; and unused to discovery learning, analysis or critical thinking as practised at FIS. Students may feel threatened by how to a history Ritz Сolleges Switzerland, the amount of participation expected of them in class, preferring to remain silent for fear of essay reviews Caterham School, ?showing off? or losing face by giving the wrong answer. They may also perceive a wrong answer as causing the teacher to how to write a history essay Cesar Ritz lose face and, for the same reason, feel uncomfortable with the idea of asking questions or for help. Custom Writing Caterham School! Students may not wish to share opinions or beliefs, regarding them as private. Students may be severely embarrassed if reprimanded or excessively praised in front of others. Opinion University (INTO)! Students may be unused to mixed classes or being taught by teachers of the opposite sex. Students may find it difficult to come to terms with the open and essay Caterham School friendly relations between teachers and students. They may be uncomfortable with the amount of noise in the classroom. Students may be uncomfortable with some expectations regarding teacher-student behaviour (e.g. looking the teacher in the eye when being spoken to).
Students may be from a very competitive school system and unused to working co-operatively with other students. Conversely, they may come from an educational background in which grades do not have the importance to students, parents and teachers that they do at Saint Anthony’s High School, our school. Students may believe that having fun in the classroom is incompatible with learning. Students may feel uncomfortable at being involved in essay writing reviews School deciding on learning goals and how they are to be assessed, considering it to be the teacher?s job. Of course not all ESL students come from countries whose educational culture is different in the ways listed above.
And most of those who do will not experience more than a temporary discomfort on joining our school. Write Opinion! What is common to custom essay reviews School all ESL students, however, and probably the an argumentative Bishopstrow College, main cause of writing Caterham School, school shock, is the huge mental effort required to work for IUBH School of Business, more than 8 hours a day learning new content in a foreign language. For this reason it is clear that students will benefit directly from any efforts by teachers to make the classroom language and custom writing School homework tasks as comprehensible as possible. Writing IUBH & Management! Ways to do this are described in the following articles: How should I reply if a student or her parents asks me how she can improve her English? Many ESL students are very motivated to learn English as quickly as possible. They spend a lot of Caterham School, extra time at home doing language work of one type or another, and often their parents pay for private tuition. Unfortunately, in more than a few cases, this time and money could be better spent.
The single best thing that students can do at home to improve their English is to read extensively in the language. It is the best thing because it allows students to engage in an activity that most enjoy - particularly if they are able to choose their own reading material . And it is the best thing because it has been shown* that extensive reading not only improves students' reading skills - as is to be expected - but also has a marked effect on critical thinking Queen College other aspects of their language too, in particular on their writing ability. There is essay writing Caterham, also plenty of research evidence to show that learners of write essay, English who simultaneously maintain and develop their proficiency in the mother tongue do better in school. For this reason parents can be advised on the benefits of their child reading good literature or non-fiction in their native language too. So if you are asked the question above, please advise students and parents on the considerable benefits of reading in custom essay writing both languages.
At the same time, however, it would be good to suggest that they contact the ESL teacher for more specific advice on the kinds and levels of reading in English that the child should be doing, because this will play a significant part in the success of any such program. * See: Extensive reading and the development of language skills , Hafiz, F. Tudor, I. Thinking Queen Ethelburga’s! (1989) in ELT Journal 43/1. What do students do in ESL lessons? As ESL teachers at FIS we have two concerns; one immediate and daily, and the other long-term. The immediate concern is to help students do assignments that will satisfy them and their subject teachers. The long-term concern is to help the students learn enough English that they can function successfully in the mainstream without ESL support.
The amount of time that is devoted to each of these concerns depends on reviews the particular group of (INTO), students and the time of year. So, for example, more time is spent on other subject work with beginning students than with more advanced students. Students generally become more independent as the year progresses, so more time is devoted to general language and skills development towards the end of the year than at custom, the beginning. Beginning ESL students tend to lose their voice and their personality when they enter the mainstream classroom in the first few months at FIS. They may believe themselves to be or even be made to feel stupid.
For this reason we incorporate into our teaching activities that allow students to demonstrate their intelligence, their imagination and creativity, their linguistic knowledge (of their own language) and their personality. An Argumentative Research Paper Bishopstrow! Cummins (ECIS-ESL Rome 2005 conference presentation) has spoken convincingly of how the above can be done via cooperative work on what he calls identity texts . There are examples of identity texts in writing the Dual Language Showcase. Can you recommend another website for mainstream teachers of ESL students? Yes! The ESOL Online website of the New Zealand Ministry of Education contains a wealth of information, advice and useful links for teachers of ESL students of all ages.
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Why your PDF resume might be killing you. My allergies are absolutely killing me. The battle of my body versus my environment has now reached an annoying three weeks. What’s worse is that this is the custom writing reviews Caterham, first year I’ve ever experienced an allergic catastrophe like I’m dealing with now. Seriously, it just came out of no where.
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Most businesses should have a version of Word thats capable of opening a DOCX, as it's over writing toronto International 8 years old. XPDF, a FREE and open source PDF text extractor has been around since 1995. There's zero excuse for these software packages to custom not extract text out of a PDF. This just absolutely upsets me in so many ways. Why are you recruiters depended on a system that refuses to adapt?
I have been spending hours on my resume to opinion essay of Gloucestershire (INTO) stick out and just to find out that it simply doesn't matter what efforts I have made. Yes, I do use these key word in my resume because I was aware of the ATF searches but I had no idea about the writing reviews Caterham School, PDF issue. I had preferred to submit my resume in write essay of Gloucestershire, PDF because I created my resume on InDesign to highlight my tech and design skills. and plus I figured recruiter would have issues with layout if it was in a doc format. I am sooo upset right now. Some digital age we are in.
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I have sent over 1000 resumes under pdf not one response. only in america lol. What about research Bishopstrow sending a simple version of the PDF resume, WITH the PDF resume? The simple version would have all formating removed, and would be the machine readable version, while the PDF itself would be the version the essay writing School, HR person would refer to. What about an argumentative research sending a simple version of the writing reviews Caterham, PDF resume, WITH the PDF resume? The simple version would have all formating removed, and write Saint School would be the machine readable version, while the PDF itself would be the version the HR person would refer to. Seriously? PDF text extraction is easy, there are a million open source tools for this with MIT license.
Any program that is designed to scan text out of essay reviews School, files that cannot read PDFs has some lazy ass programmers. We should not prepare the resumes format in essay toronto School, the PDF's style.The recruiters won't allow this type of custom essay writing, format. free pdf (lol) resume hosting at Queen College http://fresu.me. Hey this is a nice one. Custom Essay Reviews. Thanks for explaining it so brief. How to transfer car loan to my name? We don't scan for key words so in write a history Сolleges Switzerland, our system it doesn't matter if it's a word doc. or pdf resume you upload. www.ikrut.com = recruitment just got free. Regarding PDF files. Disclosure: I have NEVER seen the recruiter side of an ATS tool.
There seems to be two ways to create a PDF: 1) print, scan, save 2) direct from essay software Option 1 would require OCR technology to thinking Queen Ethelburga’s College convert the scanned picture to text. While this improved over Caterham the years it is not perfect and formatting will drive OCR nuts. Option 2 usually embeds the raw text as well. These are the how to write a history Cesar, PDF files you can use the search function of the custom essay writing School, reader with. My assumption, I know how that can turn out, is that the ATS systems should be able to thinking institute Queen Ethelburga’s pull the raw text from the computer generated file where Option 1 would cause issues. Regardless, why buck the system? Use the .doc or .txt format when applying and avoid the writing, issue. If you want to publish your resume online and are concerned with someone modifying it then use the critical thinking Queen Ethelburga’s, PDF format there or set the essay writing reviews School, .doc file to read only. Just a thought.
Rich, First, I really enjoy your site and your posts . Who To Essay Anthony’s High. eh, most of which I agree with. :-) Second, this PDF-v-DOC discussion is one that I have had with with many people over the last several years as I lecture on resume writing and online job searching here in the Atlanta area. I wrote a entry for my blog (http://wp.me/puGHZ-c8) about a year ago and discussed this very issue. But, like in my post, let me extend your warning comments to include the .ODT format as well as the .PDF format. Both are a challenge to current-day ATS platforms. For those of you not familiar with .ODT, it's the default file format for Open Documents created with a variety of Open word processing packages, such as Sun's Open Office suite. While it is custom writing reviews School, a standard format (ISO/IEC), it's not broadly accepted on write a history Switzerland ATS platforms yet without additional (sometimes costly) add-on packages. So, as Rich (and others) has pointed out effectively, when applying on-line, the essay writing reviews, de facto standard for thinking Queen Ethelburga’s College, resume file formats continues to be .DOC (.DOCX is essay writing, almost on-par with .DOC .. give it another year) -- stick with it for research paper, now. Custom Essay Writing Reviews. Keep the great posts coming along! Pardon my ignorance (I'm a job seeker, not a recruiter) but what do you mean by keywords of an argumentative research Bishopstrow, your industry? How can someone describe their experience and skills without using the same words as you may use to search for custom essay writing, candidates? Are seekers and recruiters using such different language?
How can I get a list of keywords for my industry, so I make sure my resume is written in the language of recruiters? Many thanks. Use a word cloud tool like wordle.net or tagcloud.com to build a visual of the job descriptions. 1) find a job description that interests you 2) copy text 3) go to word cloud tool, paste text 4) look at writing service toronto ACS Cobham visual representation of the words on the cloud. The keywords should be in a larger font Just a thought. Rich, Great column!
Just one question regarding, My allergies are absolutely killing me. Couldn't be allergic to corn, could you?! AMEN! It is one of my biggest pet peeves, is havinbg PDF resumes. The only thinkg that drives me over the edge is people who send the resume with the title of resume.doc. These people do not think anyone else use that defualt title. I used to rename them to custom writing School be a nice recruiter, but when i have volumes of resumes coming in, in is easier to critical reject it since my ATS will not process it since there is ALWAYS one already in the database!
Hi Michael - Thanks for essay reviews Caterham, the comment and stopping by! YES, I hate generally titled resumes as well. How To Essay Ritz. I may need to write a post simply on that. Thanks! I have also found that it is good to place a list of key words at the bottom in very small type and white characters that do not show up when printed however, many ATSs still pick up those key words when searching resumes.
Just make sure those key words are relevant to the job and the industry otherwise they are of no use. Hey RBC - thanks for writing School, commenting. Excellent point about research College keywords. Very important to note that ATS look for keywords and that's how people are found in the systme. Thanks. @rbc, if you are thoughtful in developing accomplishment-based bullets that include the crucial keywords of your industry, then you won't need to rely on tricks such as white font, right? Recruiters and employers will quickly lose respect (and the contact info) of custom essay writing Caterham School, candidates who can't play straight. You can also introduce keywords in Bishopstrow College, your Summary Statement (not objective statement). Don't spend your energy playing games, but rather, spend your energy creating useful and Caterham School unique content. Thinking Institute Queen. We have a saying here at writing Caterham ResuMAYDAY and that's, give yourself the best resume that you've EARNED. Nothing more, nothing less.
With a bit of wordsmithing and strategy, you won't have to resort to an argumentative Bishopstrow College trickery. Great comment, ResuMAYDAY! Trickery is certainly not ideal. Thanks for stopping by! Hi Rich - I always knew that job seekers should definitely have multiple formats of their resume, but I didn't realize that submitting .PDFs could be such a problem. If a job seeker is essay reviews Caterham, emailing their resume, what do you think of attaching all the formats they have (or at least both a .Doc and .PDF)? Whenever there's an online system, the .Doc submission always works better, even if .PDF can be submitted. In those instances, it seems like the .Doc just translates better into the system. Thanks for the tips! - Corey Career Blogger at Urban Interns. Hey Corey - thanks for the comment. Attaching all of the formats may work if it's just through email.
That's a good way to how to a history essay Ritz go about it if they know for sure it's going to essay writing reviews Caterham a recruiters inbox. The .doc is always best for online submissions and online systems. These systems are the ATS which basically shred up the service International School, PDF format. Thanks again! Rich, Great tip on .docx vs. .doc. It's something I suspected, but wasn't entirely sure. Thanks for the heads up.
Lee. Hey Lee - thanks for the comment. I'll give Sarah White the nod for that tip! That was from custom essay writing Caterham her brain! Thanks! Geez . just when I'd decided (based on who to essay Saint Anthony’s other articles) that I was going to start sending out .pdf versions of my resume, I read this! Frankly, I have a jam-packed resume, reflecting 30+ years of experience in four or five (depending how one wants to slice-and-dice it) areas of the Communications field, and it has a nasty habit of trying very hard to push the last few items off the second page when left to custom essay writing reviews School the variables of how different systems display a .doc file. Obviously, having a .pdf version keeps all the info where it's supposed to be . Who To Saint Anthony’s School. however, if nobody is essay writing, actually READING these (either on-screen or in writing & Management, a print-out), I guess it doesn't matter. Heck, from reading the custom essay writing, above I'm wondering if the no more than two pages rule is still active . if it's a computer scanning my resume for keywords, I can spew out a 10-page EPIC of critical thinking institute College, my professional life and stuff it to the gills with likely keywords.
Eh . anyway . you've convinced me to keep attaching the .doc version for the time being! - B.T. Hey BTRIPP - I'm sorry to custom essay writing School have made you start over on critical Queen this! It may be a hassle, but it MIGHT Be your best option to switch to custom essay writing reviews School the word resume. KEEP both formats, but only send the PDF to smaller companies. College. Good luck! Excellent advice, Rich. First off, I completely, absolutely, 100 percent agree with everything you've written so don't take anything below as being at all contradictory but instead just additional to custom essay writing what you've written: 1. Bishopstrow College. Erin's comment from custom writing reviews Caterham School a few minutes ago is one that we hear a lot. If she could only see what employers see when they're looking at their ATS then she'd understand. Who To Essay High. Most of the ATS software vendors seem to think that formatting is for wimps and what recruiters really want is a page of unformatted, straight text with no discernible columns, bullet points, numbering, etc. Essay. So all that nice formatting like putting your dates of employment in one column and your job title and critical thinking Queen Ethelburga’s description in another so employers can read at a glance where you've been and what you've done? Forget about custom essay School it.
It all mashes together. So any benefit that she or other job seekers perceive being there from critical thinking institute Queen College a PDF versus a Word document quickly vanishes as soon as that PDF is sucked into reviews School, a typical ATS. 2. An Argumentative Paper College. In the 20 years since I founded this business, I've never talked with a recruiter who speaks highly of their ATS. Never. Reviews School. 3. I don't recall the exact percentage but it is something like 60 percent of resumes in ATS are essentially invisible to the recruiters using their ATS. The percentage was given to articles IUBH School of Business me by the folks at Preptel, which have created a system which will convert the resume you post at a job board or other web site into a format that is compatible with each of the major ATS and then posts your resume for essay writing reviews Caterham School, you. Incredibly, putting dates in one column and job titles and descriptions in another -- like most resumes seem to be -- is one of the biggest problems for the ATS. These resumes often end up with all of the information from the research Bishopstrow, first column (the dates) being lumped together in one paragraph and then all of the information from the second column (job titles and descriptions) appearing at custom essay writing School the bottom of the essay Saint School, resume so the recruiter has no easy way of determining which dates go with which jobs.
These ATS have only been around for writing, 15 years. You'd think they'd care more about the candidates and their clients. If they did, you'd never see a problem like this. By the way, we'll be implementing a partnership with Preptel this fall so candidates who apply to jobs on our site will have their resumes properly posted to the employer's ATS. How To A History Essay Cesar Ritz Сolleges. 4. If the employer's system allows you to do so, upload your resume as a PDF, Word document, AND a plain text document. Look long and hard at that last one. If you can read it on your screen, then the employer should be able to read it in their ATS. Plain text documents force you to reviews Caterham School trash all of those columns, bullets, etc. so what you end up with is a 1993-looking document that should be perfectly compatible with just about every ATS out there and that will greatly increase your chances of the employer being able to of Gloucestershire (INTO) find you. 5. Employers using ATS find candidates who have applied to jobs not by reading through a stack of essay School, resumes like so many candidates think but instead by keyword searching. Critical Thinking. An employer might receive hundreds or even thousands of writing School, resumes per day and many of them tell me that at least 90 percent are unqualified. Rather than wasting time reading through the 90 percent, the employers try to find the 10 percent by critical thinking Queen Ethelburga’s College, running keyword searches just like we all do when we go to Google, Bing, or Yahoo.
But just like those searches, you often end up missing what you're searching for because you didn't use the right keyword phrase or the page that has the information you want didn't include the keyword phrase that you used when you were searching for it. So think about what keyword phrases the essay writing, employer would use -- even if there's an idiot on their end -- and then use those same phrases in your resume. Keep up the good work, Rich! What is the best thing to do if i have pdf resume? im not getting any response. Hey Steven - Anything you say I listen to. Disagreeing with me or not. Not blowing smoke up your ass here, but I do tend to learn a thing or two from you when you speak (or type). I agree with you on your points. Specifically, ATS programs need to how to write Cesar Switzerland get better.
I didn't like the one we had, but I'll tell you that when we didn't have it, things were worse. It didn't complete solve the essay writing reviews, problem, but it helped me reach more people. Essay Writing Service ACS Cobham International School. I was more efficient in my job, and as the only recruiter for my company, I felt more in custom essay writing Caterham School, control. Essay University (INTO). In regards to #3, I think recruiters are constantly trying to do their job better. In our field, what slows us down is what we usually think about. If something slows us down, we are to blame. For that reason, the ATS is critical. Custom Essay Writing Reviews. When it fails (which does happen), it hurts us.
I think that's why many don't like their ATS, or at least want something better. Great points in #4. Regards to #5, completely forgot to mention keywords in the post. Excellent! I shouldn't have wrote it at 3am!
If recruiters aren't trained on key word searching, then they are missing out. But if they don't know what key words to search, then they probably have larger issues. Thanks again for the kind words and your thoughts! Seriously, WTF? It sounds like ATS systems are the dumbest thing on the planet, HR people hate them, and who to write High School yet they keep using them because . . Essay Writing Caterham. . why? Why hasn't sheer demand forced the companies that make these systems create something acceptable? And yet job seekers are still expected to sift through endless conflicting sources of write Saint High School, advice despite the custom writing, fact that almost nothing they will do can give them a reasonable chance of not being rejected by an idiotic system? I suppose I am lucky that I am in an industry (architecture) where most firms are far too small to who to High use such systems.
At least if I am rejected, it's most often by a human being who has actually at least glanced at custom writing School my resume, instead of a computer system that doesn't properly do the job it was designed to do even half the time. Sheesh. Hey there, Rich, I'm interested in hearing more about Steve's #4 and your original point #3: If you send a PDF resume and receive an automatic response, it might be in your best interest to apply again, this time with Word formatted resume. Critical Thinking Ethelburga’s. I've thought about applying multiple times with different formats, but hesitated on the grounds that it would be redundant, annoying and perceived as unprofessional. Reviews. You've changed my mind! I still have questions though: Steve's answer was limited to one application with multiple file formats, but it didn't exclude the multiple applications idea. What do you think of this idea, Steve?
Also, Rich, your original point #3 is not be a popular alternative in the comments, and opinion I'm not sure why, since it appears to custom writing solve the file format problem nicely and increase visibility in the ATS. Thinking Institute Queen College. Could you expound on this more, and maybe take a stab at the reasons why someone might not use multiple applications? Also, do you have any resources about the various ATS systems in essay writing reviews School, use? Where and how can I find information about the capabilities of each system? I understand the the rules of the job hunt are not determined by me. I must humbly conform to the needs of write essay Cesar Ritz Сolleges, HR representatives, and custom writing School I do. That being said, I can still grumble grumble a little at this. As a mac user (like many others), I save my resumes as PDFs before submitting. I can save as a Word doc, but I have had issues in the past with formatting not saving properly.
I find it hard to imagine that these HR professionals aren't aware that they are missing out on a number of write essay Anthony’s, candidates because of a PDF submission. Unless they are looking to filter out custom essay, as many candidates as possible, why would they intentionally use a software that completely ignores a number of candidates that may be the perfect fit for a position? Is it just that they don't understand the institute, software or does it make their job easier by cutting the number of candidates? Can't say I like it, but I understand your point and will take your advice to submit .doc's going forward. Hi Erin - thanks for your comment! Perfectly understand your grumbling, and you aren't alone. It's not something that I love about the system. It's just how it is. But I'll say this. As a resume reviewer, I care LESS about the format, than I do about the content. Custom Reviews Caterham School. The purpose of the ATS is to organize your information once you're in the system.
If your content is solid, I'll probably find you in there and review your information. If the format is messed up, I'll still consider you if the write Saint Anthony’s, information is good. Format is custom writing Caterham, less important than content and grammar. That's key to understand. But. if you do have the service toronto, PDF and it doesn't come through, then I'm not even able to custom essay writing reviews School read your content.
Why do people use it? A large company may receive 500 resumes per day. Write Opinion Essay University Of Gloucestershire. They simply can not open each one in an email. It would clog their email and they'd miss many people. It's not that recruiters don't understand the essay reviews, software, it's that the software doesn't understand PDF's. That needs to critical institute change, and I'm sure in the next couple years that will absolutely change.
Thanks again for custom essay writing reviews School, your thoughts! […] Medicare fee schedule in effect for Calendar Years 2013 and IUBH School & Management 2014, or the writing reviews Caterham, fee schedule … Why your PDF resume might be killing you | Corn on the Job Aug 18, 2011 … This post explains why you should use a word format for your resume. … […]
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2017 MBA Essay Questions: Cornell Johnson. Cornell Johnson 2017 Two-Year MBA Essay Questions Class of 2020. Custom Essay Writing Reviews Caterham. Here are the academic writing, Class of Caterham School 2020 Full-Time essays for Johnson. A goals statement, plus two formal essays and an optional essay: At Cornell, we value students who create impact. Write A History Ritz Switzerland. Please indicate the opportunities for impact that you’ve identified through engagement with our community and describe how what you learned has influenced your decision to apply to Johnson. 500 words You are the custom essay, author of your Life Story. An Argumentative Paper Bishopstrow College. Please create the Table of Contents for custom reviews the book in the space provided or upload it as an attachment. We value creativity and an argumentative paper Bishopstrow, authenticity and encourage you to approach this essay with your unique style.
Alternative submission formats may include a slide presentation, links to pre-existing media (personal website, digital portfolio, YouTube etc.), as well as visually enhanced written submissions. 500 words or under 5 minutes for a multimedia (audio/video). The Life Story essay has been a staple for Caterham School the Johnson app for many years now. Critical Thinking College. It#8217;s different enough that you won#8217;t be able to re-use what you produce for Booth or MIT or NYU, but similar chunks of content may work across some of those others. For the Impact Essay, a post we wrote specifically for Wharton may also be useful to help you stay on track.
The Cornell optional essay is a standard optional essay #8212; meaning, it#8217;s truly optional and reviews School, only should be submitted if you have important information to explain such as gaps in employment or low GPA (where you have a REASON and not an EXCUSE). Reapplicants who tried last year also need to how to a history essay Cesar Ritz Сolleges, use the optional essay to writing reviews Caterham, explain how they have improved since last time. Academic Writing Articles IUBH School Of Business. (We have a Reapplicant Guide if you#8217;re in that boat!). Our The EssaySnark Cornell essay guide is the essay writing reviews Caterham, 2016 version but it#8217;s still valid for 2017! Not sure when we#8217;ll be able to do a refresh on this one. You will get access to any updates if/when we do provided it#8217;s within your original 90-day subscription term. All the info in the existing version should still be quite helpful for you today! Cornell has been VERY welcoming to write Switzerland, the military candidate lately. Military students went from 2% of the Class of 2013, to an incredible 11% of the Class of 2018. We don#8217;t know of any other school that#8217;s admitted such a high proportion. If you#8217;re active duty or a vet of the U.S. Essay Caterham School. armed services, we offer some special opportunities to help with your MBA apps.
Cornell MBA Letters of Recommendations. Cornell Johnson Full-Time 2-Year MBA Application Deadlines. October Round: October 5, 2017 this is advantageous compared to other schools#8217; first rounds because you#8217;ll get your decision really early! In November, in fact. That would be nice, eh? November Round: November 15, 2017 this can be a great date to try for, especially if you#8217;re in the U.S.: It#8217;s after the crush of Round 1 but before the Thanksgiving holiday, so you have a lull in essay writing ACS Cobham International School, the cycle. Custom Essay Reviews School. (We#8217;re not trying to write opinion essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), imply that international applicants would not benefit from essay Caterham Round 2 at Cornell, but Americans may appreciate getting another app out of the way before the end of November, just for personal and family reasons!) January Round: January 10, 2018 This is one of the later January deadlines, so THANK YOU, Cornell! They also have a final fourth round in March, and paper, they#8217;ll even accept applications once that date has passed but it#8217;s getting into the trickier stages to be applying to any school at that point on the calendar. Try for custom reviews Caterham School one of the IUBH School & Management, first three rounds identified above for your best chances.
Note, too, that the deadlines for the Cornell 1-Year MBA may be different. Please see the Johnson website to custom essay reviews, confirm. With most schools we suggest targeting any round through a January deadline and that applies here, too, except that they have four rounds which gives you more milestones to research paper College, try for. There typically are more options with Cornell in fact, they#8217;ll even keep accepting applications after their final round in March #8212; but it#8217;s certainly better to stick with Rounds 1, 2 or 3. Custom Essay Caterham. Past Cornell MBA Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said about previous years#8217; Johnson applications, in case you want to see where this school is coming from. Academic IUBH & Management. Click to reviews, view 2016 questions. Two questions plus an optional essay: At Cornell, we value students who create impact. Please indicate the opportunities for impact that you have identified through engagement with our community and describe how these interactions have influenced your decision to Anthony’s High School, apply to Johnson. 500 words You are the reviews, author of your Life Story. Please create the Table of thinking institute Contents for custom writing reviews Caterham School the book in the space provided or upload it as an attachment. We value creativity and authenticity and encourage you to writing, approach this essay with your unique style.
Alternative submission formats may include a slide presentation, links to pre-existing media (personal website, digital portfolio, YouTube etc.), as well as visually enhanced written submissions. They haven#8217;t had a formal written essay in some time, so that first question is new in 2016. It#8217;s reminiscent of custom essay reviews School what Wharton is asking, with their #8220;contribution#8221; essay (we issued some warnings on academic articles of Business & Management writing for that before). Additional random comments: 6/29/16 They#8217;re not numbering their rounds anymore; they#8217;ve gone back to custom reviews School, October Round, November Round, etc. Not sure if that makes things more confusing, or less! 7/31/16 It appears that Cornell is adopting the newly-standardized 4-question Letters of Сolleges Recommendation requirements that other schools are using. [End last year#8217;s questions section.] Click to view 2015 questions. 7/24/15 It appears that Johnson is using the identical essays to last year, they#8217;ve just been very kind to you and increased the limits. Table of Contents You are the author for reviews Caterham the book of Your Life Story.
In 500 words or less, please create the table of contents for School of Business & Management the book in the space provided or upload it as an writing Caterham School, attachment. We value creativity and authenticity and opinion essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), encourage you to approach this essay with your unique style. Alternative submission formats may include a slide presentation, links to pre-existing media (personal website, digital portfolio, YouTube etc.), as well as visually enhanced written submissions. What are your short and custom essay reviews Caterham, long term goals and how do you see the Cornell MBA enabling you to achieve both? (500 words) There#8217;s also a whole bunch of critical thinking Queen Ethelburga’s other questions in their online application, plus the standard optional essay (reapplicants should use that to explain how they#8217;ve improved since originally applying). We go into these details in our new-this-year Cornell MBA Application Guide , to give you all that you need to do a bang-up job on your essays for this school. In terms of deadlines: Cornell keeps messing with the system! #128512; They retained their three rounds this year but those dates are very different than any other school. Up through the custom essay writing Caterham School, 2012-#8217;13 app season, Cornell had four rounds. In 2014 they switched to how to write a history essay Cesar Сolleges, the traditional three rounds with standardized deadlines like every other top school has. Now they#8217;ve gone back to four rounds for custom essay writing reviews Caterham School 2015, and they also will accept late apps even after their final deadline in March. [End 2015 questions section.] These questions are not much different from 2013 except that #8220;300 words#8221; has turned into #8220;1,000 characters#8221; and they have categorized a bunch of short-answer responses as #8220;essays#8221; which is a little confusing. The first question is the only one that allows you to upload a file; the IUBH of Business & Management, others must be entered into the text field in their form, which means you can#8217;t submit more than they ask for.
Creative Submission Required for All Applicants: You are the essay reviews Caterham School, author for the book of Your Life Story. In 1000 characters or less, please write the institute Ethelburga’s College, table of contents for the book in the space provided or upload it as an attachment. Note: approach this essay with your unique style. Custom Writing Caterham School. We value creativity and authenticity. Targeted Job Type: What is the job that you would like to have immediately upon graduating with your MBA? (1000 characters) Post-Collegiate Activities: List community activities (clubs, church, civic, etc.) and professional associations you contributed to since graduation from college.
Please include the service toronto ACS Cobham International School, organization name, your role, hours dedicated, elected offices held, and dates of custom essay writing reviews Caterham School participation (1000 character limit). List your extracurricular activities while in college in order of importance to essay writing service International, you. You may include details about your positions and the time commitment, honors or awards received, and custom reviews Caterham, dates of participation. The list may also include part-time and summer employment held while in college. Essay Writing Service Toronto ACS Cobham. Please list your employer, job title, responsibilities, hours per week, and the dates for reviews Caterham each position (1000 character limit). Collegiate Activities and Employment: Please describe any hobbies or activities that hold special significance for you (1000 character limit). Optional Essay: Complete this essay if you would like to add additional details regarding your candidacy.
For instance, if you believe one or more aspects of your application (e.g., undergraduate record or test scores) do not accurately reflect your potential for success at the Johnson School. (1000 character limit) The optional essay really is articles School & Management optional; you should only use it to explain oddities in your profile that you#8217;re not covering elsewhere. Don#8217;t feel like you should tell them about this great leadership example from essay writing Caterham School work as a way to fill the space. Put that example in write essay Cesar Сolleges, your Book of custom Life if you feel it#8217;s important enough to include, or just rely on your resume to tell the academic writing articles IUBH of Business & Management, story. The other questions are no different than what other schools ask, so again, a little strange that the custom essay School, app has them categorized as #8220;essays.#8221; They#8217;re definitely not long enough to be considered as such. How To A History Cesar Сolleges Switzerland. The 1,000-character limit means you get about two standard-sized paragraphs, though the essay writing reviews Caterham, fields do allow formatting and how to a history Cesar, many of the custom essay reviews School, questions lend themselves to a bulleted list answer instead of a block of text. Just so you can gauge it, this paragraph is just about how to write a history essay Cesar Сolleges, 535 characters; the paragraph above about the custom essay, optional essay is 375. This is the first school we#8217;ve seen to use Salesforce to deploy its MBA application. Who To Write Saint Anthony’s School. They#8217;re touting this feature where you can pull in essay reviews Caterham, your LinkedIn profile to populate the employment and education sections.
This is optional; you don#8217;t have to click that button if you don#8217;t want to. We don#8217;t see any disadvantage in doing that, so go ahead if you#8217;re on LinkedIn and want to save some data entry. How To Write A History Essay. Honestly that seems like the biggest benefit though, and even that may be a little overhyped; the system says that not all fields will be populated so you#8217;ll still need to go through and fill in the gaps. Still, kudos to Johnson for embracing technology it#8217;s certainly not something we see the bschools doing much of! They are saying that it#8217;s their Johnson Tech MBA that provided the impetus for this (Johnson is partnering with Google on essay writing some stuff so it#8217;s clear they#8217;re embracing the convergence of writing ACS Cobham tech and business again, not something we see too often from custom reviews School MBA programs). The strategy for putting together your Johnson essay needs to be the same as it#8217;s always been: Communicate who you are through this structured exercise of the #8220;story of your life#8221; and share some of the real you in that way. Сolleges. And oh yeah, communicate your goals concisely, too. [End 2014 questions section.] Here#8217;s the 2013 Cornell essay questions: Essay 1: Who You Are. You are the writing, author for write School the book of custom essay School Your Life Story. In 300 words or less please write the of Business & Management, table of contents for custom essay the book.
Note: approach this essay with your unique style. We value creativity and authenticity. Essay 2: Who You Turn Out to Be. (150 words for each part, uploaded as a single document) When did you decide that business school was the next step for write a history Cesar Сolleges you? (Was this an epiphany or an evolutionary process? What was the catalyst that caused you to consider this next step?) Johnson values people that make things happen for themselves. Reviews School. Give an example of how you have initiated this for yourself. Please describe your immediate post MBA career goals. On 7/26/13 Cornell updated their Deadlines page to opinion University, clarify that they will still accept #8220;late#8221; applications through April. This basically moves them back to a 4-round admissions season all over again!
It#8217;s good to see this flexibility but it#8217;s a little baffling why they#8217;re doing it this way. Why not just keep four rounds? Maybe it#8217;s because they#8217;re trying to accommodate all their admissions under the same schedule, and the One-Year MBA starts in May so they can#8217;t have a round hit that late in the season and still get people in there. Writing Reviews School. [End 2013 questions section.] How would you characterize your career since college? Tell us about your short and long term career goals. Choose one: You are the Bishopstrow College, author for the book of Your Life Story. Please write the table of contents for the book. Note: Approach this essay with your unique style. Writing. We value creativity and authenticity. Describe a situation taken from your personal or professional life where you failed and how to write Ritz Сolleges Switzerland, tell us what you learned. What does diversity mean to you and how will you contribute to the diversity of custom essay writing School our community at Johnson? [End 2012 questions section.] Another school we#8217;re tracking with interest (March 2016) Schools where Round 3 is critical thinking College viable (January 2013) one-year MBA options (April 2012) The one less traveled by: CORNELL (January 2012) We don#8217;t have a lot of custom writing reviews Caterham Cornell essays reviewed on write opinion of Gloucestershire (INTO) the blahg (feel free to essay writing reviews Caterham, send us yours this season!).
However you can reference essay reviews from several other schools to get a feel for service School how to handle Cornell. There are obvious differences between these programs but some strong similarities, too, so these are worth studying as you work on your Johnson application: The Cornell Application Guide walks you through the important elements of this application and how to position yourself effectively. 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. Writing. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the essay toronto International, 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of custom essay writing reviews 2020 app. Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. Research Paper Bishopstrow. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . Essay Writing Caterham. As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to my pitch in order to maximize my . Thanks so much for the additional feedback ES.
I really appreciate it. I just submitted my HBS app, . What were we snarking about at IUBH, this time in past years? 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to tell the adcom? 2016 : Good luck for writing Caterham HBS applicants! 2016 : No, you don't have to actually do the how to write essay Сolleges, thing you say you will do in custom writing reviews, the career goals essay. 2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark? 2013 : Success Story! A Journey to the Center of America: A Saga (Part 2: The First Year) 2013 : More on visiting schools 2012 : ($) What about write essay University of Gloucestershire, a lower-ranked program? (No, lower than that) 2012 : ($) Duke's main essay: What do you tell your family, friends, and colleagues? 2011 : essay critique: Columbia essay 2 life experience 2011 : Battle of the Blogs! EssaySnark® is a registered trademark.
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co directed thesis By Laura Ann Kamienski. That's how I like to see all women; on their knees. A well-known kickboxing champion made this comment during a seminar that he was giving to custom Caterham School a large group of male and essay writing toronto ACS Cobham International, female martial artists. It was the catalyst to finding a new approach to my martial arts training, and to my role as a women's self-defense instructor. I was fairly new black belt in essay writing reviews School, Tae Kwon Do when I attended that seminar with a friend who is a high ranking (third degree) female black belt. Despite our physical training, neither one of us had the capacity or the skills to opinion essay of Gloucestershire stop the custom, assault, which continued from that first comment. It was through that experience I realized that something was missing from my training and I began to look for answers.
The following document is an accumulation of my research, personal discussions with martial arts colleagues, and training with my Chimera mentor. It also includes my experience training in domestic violence advocacy and teaching women's self-defense courses over the past few years. Many of the following comments were guided by the direct interaction I've had with my students and who to write School, with survivors of sexual assault. In the custom writing reviews School, past twenty years, there has been an explosion of available information and critical thinking Queen College, data about violence against women. In reviewing both this data and the content of martial arts based women's self-defense courses, I discovered an alarming disconnection between what is being taught and the reality of assaults women and girls experience. Survivors of sexual assault are stepping up more than ever to tell their stories. Most self-defense courses for women I reviewed did not reflect the data or the custom essay, actual experiences of these women and girls.
This included those courses that claimed to essay University consider current statistics and information about violence against custom Caterham women. Characteristics of Effective Self Defense for Women. Based on Knowledge of Actual Attacks. To be most effective, women's self-defense programs should be based on several things. The first of these is knowledge of actual attacks.
1 Women take self-defense courses for a variety of how to a history essay Ritz Switzerland reasons, but underlying all of them is the reality of specific kinds of violence. Sexual assault and domestic violence are, by far, the most common types of violence women experience. According to reviews a 1995 study on violence against women conducted by the United States Department of Justice: Women age 12 or older annually sustained almost 5 million violent victimizations in 1992 and 1993. Academic Articles School Of Business? About three-quarters of all lone-offender violence against women and 45% of violence involving multiple-offenders was perpetrated by essay Caterham, offenders whom the victim knew. In 29% of all violence against women by a lone offender, the perpetrator was an intimate (husband, ex-husband, boyfriend or ex-boyfriend). Women were about write essay Anthony’s School, 6 times more likely than men to experience violence committed by an intimate. Women annually reported about 500,000 rapes and sexual assaults to interviewers. Custom Reviews Caterham School? Friends or acquaintances of the victims committed over half of opinion of Gloucestershire (INTO) these rapes or sexual assaults.
Strangers were responsible for about 1 in 5. 2. Our culture promulgates and perpetuates massive and completely unnecessary ignorance about the violence women face. Essay Writing Reviews Caterham School? From advertising to articles School of Business news reporting, movies to television, violence against women (and how women respond to that violence) is flagrantly misrepresented. Rapists are most often portrayed as dirty, smelly, psychotic strangers who jump, unannounced, from behind bushes. Reviews School? Their physical features are sometimes exaggerated to the point of becoming huge ape like monsters with big teeth and hairy bodies. Very rarely are attackers depicted as friends or family members of their victims.
In many instances it is either directly or indirectly implied that the victim secretly wanted to be raped. 3 Women are rarely seen fighting back against their attacker and when they do they are usually ineffectual and are ultimately rescued by another male character. Sometimes the rapist himself turns out to be the writing service ACS Cobham, hero.* While stranger attacks do happen, the effects of which are nothing short of devastating and traumatic, the overwhelming majority of sexual assaults do not happen on the street or in an alley. Furthermore, assailants are usually not strangers. Custom Reviews School? The overwhelming majority of critical thinking Ethelburga’s assailants know their victims -84% of all sexual assaults are committed by someone the victim knows. 4 Furthermore, victims of sexual assault are very often young girls as indicated by a study reported in writing, Body Politics by Nancy Henley: Florence Rush, a social worker who has worked for the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, has been concerned with sexual abuse in children, and has written papers on this topic. In one, presenting a survey of studies covering 2,152 cases of sexual offenses against critical institute Queen Ethelburga’s College children, she observes that the overwhelming majority of sexual offenses involving children (about 90%) are those committed by older males on young girls, and about 75 percent of these offenses are committed not by strangers, but by persons known to the victims-by fathers and other relatives, or by visitors and family friends. The pattern of such abuses, she concludes, shows an early manifestation of male power and oppression on the female. 5.
According to the American Medical Association (AMA), over writing Caterham School, 61 percent of female victims of assault are under age 18. 6 The AMA also reports that three-quarters of sexual assaults are committed by a friend, acquaintance, intimate partner or family member of the victim. Violence against women is primarily partner violence: 76 percent of the women who were raped and/or physically assaulted since age 18 were assaulted by a current or former husband, cohabiting partner, or date. 7. Domestic violence is the leading cause of Bishopstrow injuries to women ages 15 - 44, more common than automobile accidents, muggings, and cancer deaths combined (Surgeon General, US. Public Health Services, (Journal of the American Medical Association, 276:23, 31-32, June 17, 1992). 22-35% of women who visit emergency rooms are there for custom writing, injuries related to ongoing abuse (Journal of American Medical Association, 1990).
Although more than one million women seek medical treatment each year for write Saint High, injuries caused by their husbands or partners, doctors correctly identify the injuries as resulting from battering only 4% of the custom reviews Caterham School, time (E. Stark A. Flitcraft, Medical Therapy as Repression: The Case of the write Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland, Battered Woman, 1982). 8. The picture drawn by these statistics is one in which there is typically some sort of emotional connection between the victim and the assailant. Custom Reviews Caterham School? It thereby suggests that sexual assault is a much more complicated issue than can be confronted merely by learning physical technique. Yet, in most cases, courses in self-defense for women focus almost exclusively on physical technique. The reality that women are usually assaulted by who to write essay Saint Anthony’s School, a known assailant means that self-defense skills for women should primarily include learning skills to recognize and defend against assaults committed by a trusted friend, neighbor or intimate partner. In other words, classes should begin to account for the emotional and writing School, psychological dynamics of the Bishopstrow College, common relationships between victim and perpetrator. Some martial artists teaching self-defense for custom essay writing reviews Caterham School, women, even while acknowledging that assailants are typically not strangers, tend to ignore the relationships and emotional dynamics that exist between victim and perpetrator. Second, in order to be most effective, self-defense classes for women should promote a woman's self-worth and self-esteem.
9. Most forms of oppression have a corresponding form of violence. For women, that violence has historically been manifested as rape. Who To Write Essay High? Patriarchal culture defines women as second-class, having less value than men. Sexual assault and rape have been an accepted part of our culture for centuries. For example, the Bible endorses the rape of haughty women in the following passage found in the book of Isaiah: Moreover the LORD saith, Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, and walk with stretched forth necks and custom, wonton eyes, walking and mincing as they to, and making a tinkling with their feet: Therefore the Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion and write Saint, the LORD will discover their secret parts. 10. During the middle ages sexual property rights reduced women to chattel. The 'droit du seigneur,' the right of the first night, gave each medieval lord the custom essay reviews School, right to take first sexual access to School any female serf who married on reviews Caterham School his land holdings.
11 These laws made raping new brides legal during the middle ages. Our own legal system still favors the perpetrator in many instances. Academic Articles School & Management? One of the most telling examples of our culture's tolerance of sexual assault was the episode of Caterham attacks in Central Park, New York City, during and after the annual Puerto Rican Day Parade in June of 2000. The fact that there was, and still is, question about who was to blame and whether or not the victims brought it on themselves reminds us too well that sexual assault is still condoned by academic School of Business, our culture and its institutions. As Tavris points out in The Mismeasure of Women : The law expects a raped woman, like a battered wife, to essay School behave like a man when threatened: to try and defend herself even at the risk of death. The law demands that a woman behave like a reasonable man and fight back. It does not demand that a man behave like a reasonable woman and understand the difference between consent and coercion, between the words yes and no. 12. Even as effective as violence committed against of Gloucestershire (INTO) women, is the form of oppressive violence by which women learn to devalue themselves.
Patriarchal culture defines the female role as one of passivity, gentleness, weakness, compliance, concern for others, and writing reviews Caterham School, dependency. Women are socialized through every institution to live up to these roles which make them vulnerable. Tavris illustrates: The person who has these problems is familiar, all right; she is… the stereotypic woman. The qualities of the codependent person are most of the hallmarks of the essay service toronto, female role, writ large. They represent a blueprint of the custom writing reviews Caterham, obligations a good woman is taught to value and writing articles School of Business & Management, enjoy, the most basic of which is caring for others. They consist of custom essay School expectations for proper female behavior that form the basis of most women's self-esteem. 13. In a male-dominated society, women are not encouraged to value their own unique qualities.
Instead we are defined as good or bad according to male norms and an argumentative research paper Bishopstrow College, standards. Of course, the habit of seeing women's behavior as something to be explained in custom essay School, relation to the male norm makes sense in a world that takes the male norm for write opinion University (INTO), granted. 14 These norms divide women into good and bad. So it becomes an custom School accepted idea that only writing ACS Cobham International School, bad women are assaulted. Not only is this an outright example of victim-blaming, but it also makes women feel that they are somehow to blame for custom essay Caterham, being assaulted because they are bad. It should be recognized that some behaviors are riskier than others, but assault is assault no matter where a woman is how to Ritz Сolleges Switzerland or what she was doing at the time of her attack. 15 Socialization happens in many ways, but the end result of this kind of socialization usually includes feelings of low self-worth in women. For women, low self-worth often includes self-blame and self-hatred. In order to defend the custom essay writing Caterham, self, a woman must perceive herself as having value over and beyond that of an attacker. This notion goes against the very grain of essay Anthony’s High School women's role in society.
Women's other orientation leaves them vulnerable because it devalues them and leaves them with feelings of writing reviews low self-esteem and essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), low self-worth. Women must first feel entitled to be safe and respected. This is a pre-requisite for effective self-defense. According to Bart in Stopping Rape: It will be recalled that one of the custom reviews Caterham School, factors that is associated with rape avoidance is a feeling of anger by writing service toronto ACS Cobham, the woman that anyone would try to rape her, to intrude on her space as a person. Thus anything that enhances a woman's self-esteem so that she believes she is worth defending and that no one has the right to custom essay writing Caterham attack her should be associated with rape avoidance. Because there is some evidence that taking women's studies and self-defense courses has this effect, such courses should be available, and thinking institute Ethelburga’s College, women should be encouraged to take them. 16. So self-worth and self-value are integral components of a woman's capacity to defend herself. Self-defense for custom essay reviews School, women should include activities that promote and increase a woman's self-esteem and self-worth.
While overemphasizing physical technique is detrimental to women's self-defense, it is important to interject that learning physical technique should be an IUBH School of Business integral part of training. Writing Caterham School? A woman must believe that she is capable of defending herself. Learning physical technique is empowering, and academic writing articles IUBH School of Business & Management, is an invaluable tool for essay writing Caterham School, increasing women's self-esteem and self-worth. Women are routinely discouraged from any sorts of aggressive behavior. Write High School? As children we are denied opportunities to learn to custom essay writing School use our bodies in ways which are self-protective. In Beauty Bites Beast, Ellen Snortland describes how it would be useful for girls to essay writing toronto ACS Cobham School be raised more like puppies: A dog breeder would be considered insane if they separated puppies by sex, allowing only male puppies to play and learn adult survival techniques as they tumbled around hunting a ball. We would consider it absurd to train the females not to growl, roll around, get dirty, or fight back if attacked.
Notice how dogs behave when they're playing. Their play is a gentle form of fighting, veritable rehearsal for the real thing should the need ever arise. The female pups do not sit on the sidelines watching or cheering the males; they are just as actively entangled in the pile of fighting dogs. A bitch that never used her ability to protect herself wouldn't be good for her litter. 17. Next, effective programs should be based on what women already do, 18 and essay, provide women with opportunities to practice their skills. Self-defense training programs against rape typically focus on teaching women physical defense skills. 19 By defining self-defense as primarily techniques of physical force, martial arts instructors have historically minimized the successful and creative actions women already use to defend themselves, often ignoring women's own strategies completely.
Anthologies like Her Wits About Her - Self-defense Success Stories by Women (editors Denise Caignon and Gail Groves) document an existing wealth of essay of Gloucestershire collective knowledge but are rarely considered a valuable women's self-defense resource by martial artists. Tapping into the resources and custom essay Caterham School, skills women already use is an writing articles essential part of teaching successful defense strategies. Women have been successfully defending themselves for centuries using combinations of verbal and essay writing reviews Caterham School, physical strategies. Women's collective experience is one of the most effective teaching resources available to instructors. As a group, women have been forced to become true masters of self-defense.
Experience is the best teacher and women have a surplus of it. With proper training, development and research, instructors can begin to essay Saint Anthony’s High School help women see that they already know, and custom essay writing reviews School, often use, the a history Cesar Сolleges Switzerland, most common and Caterham School, effective forms of a history essay Ritz Сolleges Switzerland self-defense. In Sexual Coercion - A Sourcebook on Its Nature, Grauerholz, and essay writing reviews Caterham, Koralewski assert: Building on existing strengths, inclinations, and abilities requires that instructors and students acknowledge the many ways in which women and an argumentative research paper Bishopstrow, children already resist sexual coercion and not narrowly define self-defense as physically stopping an attack. 20.
Provides Supportive Environment. Finally, in order to Caterham School be effective, women's self-defense courses should create an research paper College environment of essay writing reviews Caterham School feedback and support. Many survivors of who to write essay Saint Anthony’s High School sexual assault feel isolated and ashamed. An environment of support, encouragement and community can help restore self-esteem and custom essay Caterham School, confidence. An [anonymous] woman described the importance of this support to her: If you had said to me that within 24 hours I would be telling my story of incest and write essay Saint Anthony’s School, feeling comfortable with 14 total strangers, I would have thought you were crazy.
My class supported me emotionally more than any one person in my life. 21. As a self-defense instructor, I've had a remarkable number of women disclose information about their own experiences with assault. These reports have some significant common elements. None reported that a stranger had jumped them.
The most common scenarios I hear are about cases of child molestation (usually incestuous), date rape and stories of domestic violence. Many of those who were raped reported that little, if any, physical force was involved. My own sexual assault story is one in which fear of disapproval put me at risk and the unspoken threat of custom essay School violence was enough to compel compliance. As Telsey succinctly points out in her self-defense workbook: We may worry so much about the possibility of hurting someone else's feelings that we don't speak or act, even when the consequences of that inaction can be serious.
At the same time, we may give the benefit of the doubt to the other person, frequently despite clear indications that they are disrespectful of our needs or wishes or are downright dangerous. 22. On many occasions, I have had the an argumentative research paper College, good fortune to discuss this topic, in detail, with women who are professional rape crisis advocates. Advocacy workers are one of the best sources of knowledge about the custom essay School, kinds of assault women experience, as well as what kinds of self-defense strategies are most effective because they work with survivors on an argumentative research a regular basis. All of the information that has been reported to custom writing reviews Caterham me confirms that, when assaulted, women are usually assaulted by men they know. They are usually very young women or girls and thinking institute Queen, are assaulted by custom writing reviews Caterham School, men who are significantly older than they are. Also, all those who successfully avoided being raped used a combination of both verbal and physical strategies. According to Bart: The fact that it is possible to avoid rape when attacked should be widely disseminated, particularly in Cesar Сolleges Switzerland, the mass media. Custom Essay Writing Reviews Caterham? News magazines and write opinion essay (INTO), television should report in detail instances of rape avoidance so women can learn what works.
Women should be told about how to maximize the probability of avoiding rape when attacked and about the custom writing Caterham School, effectiveness of multiple strategies. 23. Factors Resulting in the Combative Model. So, an effective self-defense program for women should include four key elements. It should be based on the kinds of assault women most experience. It should be developed to promote assertiveness, confidence and self-worth. Service School? The curriculum should emphasize the skills women already use and include activities to writing Caterham School build new skills based on write Anthony’s High School them. Finally, instructors should be able to custom Caterham provide a caring environment where women feel safe to write essay Saint School train. 24 Courses based on stranger danger fail to meet these criteria and are problematic in at least two other important ways. First, they perpetuate the myths and legitimize false information. Essay Reviews? This only serves to frighten women needlessly.
But more important is that combative classes reinforce the notion that it is best to retaliate only when there is an argumentative research paper Bishopstrow no doubt that a threat exists. They give permission only to fight back. In other words, it is only okay to writing Caterham fight when very clear cut lines are drawn and a victim is sure there is going to be a physical confrontation, or after the physical assault has begun-too late to prevent it. But sexual assault is overrun with ambiguity and attempts by an assailant to confuse the write High, victim. By focussing on scenarios with clear-cut lines of custom Caterham aggression, combative self-defense also serves to strengthen women's socially prescribed role as victim. These types of scenarios reject learning to rely on how to Switzerland one's own sense of endangerment. As Telsey states, Even though the world has been proven to be dangerous for us, we often demand of ourselves that we be 100% right before taking an action that will ensure our safety. Custom School? 25. Many assailants along the continuum employ tricks to gain access to us [the potential victim] and to move us to an isolated location. 26 Assailants use tricks and ploys in write University of Gloucestershire, many different forms.
From an offer of help or apologies and reassurances to intimidation and put-downs, a sexual assailant both intentionally and unintentionally tries to manipulate his victim. The majority of assaults begin with conversation that is writing reviews directed by an assailant. This conversation is directed to manipulate, coerce, and confuse the targeted victim. It should be noted that these conversations also involve non-violent physical behavior with the same intent.* Classes based on stranger assault present students with scenarios that have a clear cut beginning, middle and essay (INTO), end. These scenarios take a student from point A (initial contact) to essay reviews School point C (verbal or physical confrontation) in a predictable pattern. The mock situations presented are overwhelmingly ones in which the assailants are strangers meeting their victims for the first times. Another factor is essay toronto International ignorance on the part of instructors. Some martial arts instructors are unaware of the statistics about custom writing reviews, violence against women. They develop self-defense classes merely as an extension, or added feature, of their physical skills and school curriculum without any further preparation or research.
These classes offer instruction only in physical techniques, sometimes with no mention of statistics. They usually offer no activities in boundary setting or verbal skills outside of stranger based scenarios. When they do offer verbal skill building activities, they most often construct exercises with the critical thinking Queen Ethelburga’s College, underlying presupposition of combative situations. The following description from the EZDefense program, developed by essay, the National Association of Professional Martial Artists, reflects much of the same experiences I have had with many local martial arts studios offering women's self-defense courses. The EZDefense course curriculum, drills and activities are all stranger based, street scenarios in which a student meets up with an assailant woofer and service toronto School, practices a series of custom essay reviews Caterham School combative physical and verbal boundary setting drills and strikes against him. For example the instructor-training manual details how to handle a timid student in write essay, the Portal of custom writing Caterham School Safety Drill.
This student is leaning [referring to write University of Gloucestershire (INTO) a photo] away and thus being too passive. The student must be made to realize that their body signalsthe predator and thus either encourages or discourages the Caterham, assailant from continuing his aggressiveness. The student's body language either tells the aggressor I am afraid and a safe victim or stay back, this dog may bite. Here the student discourages the woofer by raising a hand up and shouting a clear verbal boundary such as Stop right there! However, the student still does not provoke the woofer through any type of threat or name-calling. 27. This drill, as do all the others in this program, assumes that the how to, assailant is a stranger and begins his assault at a distance from the intended victim.
Most assailants (who are not strangers) have already achieved close proximity to their victims long before they become aggressive. Denial is also a contributing factor to stranger based self-defense courses. Many martial artists acknowledge and report about the statistics and data but don't believe them. Writing Caterham? It is in many ways much easier to deny the academic writing articles IUBH of Business, reality of how sexual assaults happen, to whom they are happening, and who is writing reviews Caterham committing them. It's easier for both men and women. For women it's easier because disbelief enables them to believe, THAT wouldn't, won't, couldn't, EVER happen to me. Write Opinion University Of Gloucestershire? For men it's easier to writing reviews Caterham School accept a psychotic demonized attacker who is unlike him. Telsey gives this example: [W]omen are blamed for assaults against them or for staying in abusive situations; other women then participate in the blaming, partly in an effort to convince themselves that the assaults would not happen to them because they would not behave that way. 28.
For most martial artists, teaching physical technique is much easier. In practical terms, teaching physical technique is attractive because it is what martial artists are most familiar with. Martial artists don't need to do any extensive research or additional training to develop a self-defense course for women based on physical technique. It should be noted that another compelling reason to critical Ethelburga’s create a combative course is marketability. Essay Caterham? Combative courses prey on the fears women have.
These fears are based on the myths of stranger attacks generated by the media and our culture. Combative courses then provide (sell) a product, which addresses those fears. It seems in most cases, however, that well-intentioned martial artists simply do not know how to build a self-defense class for Anthony’s School, women that integrates this information. But, for essay writing reviews Caterham, whatever reason, many martial artists teaching self-defense for academic writing articles School of Business, women do accept the myths of stranger attacks and construct courses around them. Essay Writing? Even those that report about statistics of opinion (INTO) known assailants offer little in terms of building skills that women need to confront the custom Caterham, reality of violence against them. The skills and information necessary for women to opinion essay University of Gloucestershire learn effective self-defense strategies are not being offered in combative classes. Examination of Current Combative Class Models. In order to arrive at the best method for building a self-defense course for women, it is useful to look at custom essay reviews some of the existing models. Anthony’s? Women's self-defense courses can be found in a variety of locations from community centers, high schools, martial arts studios and hunting clubs to custom essay Caterham School elaborate permanent facilities which provide regular training camps. In all, there are three general types of unarmed self-defense courses aimed at women.
They are padded attacker classes, martial arts programs and fitness oriented classes. These range in time and financial commitments from free one-hour seminars to several year courses costing hundreds of dollars. 29. Padded Attacker Classes. The padded attacker class was developed by Matt Thomas in 1971 to research Bishopstrow help train SWAT teams. Some of the more well-known padded-attacker classes include: IMPACT/Model Mugging, Rape Aggression Defense (RAD) and Rocky Mountain Combat Applications Training (RMCAT). All of these courses are characterized by students learning striking and verbal boundary setting skills in essay writing reviews Caterham School, an established progression. Eventually students graduate to academic articles IUBH of Business & Management fight with a mock attacker dressed in multiple layers of padding designed to protect him/her from full contact strikes. Essay Writing Caterham School? Most (about 90%) of the curriculum of these courses focuses on learning physical technique.
Like all women's self-defense courses, they vary in time and financial commitment as well as philosophy and approach. Traditional Martial Arts. Many women interested in self-defense enter some sort of martial arts program. These programs vary widely in style, philosophy and approach. For the purposes of this paper a discussion of martial art styles and their subsequent strengths and weaknesses in relationship to women's self defense would be an inordinate undertaking. However, a brief discussion of sexism in Switzerland, martial arts is warranted.
Women have been excluded from martial arts education either directly or indirectly for most of its history. Exclusively female educational institutions have a long and proud tradition. Some research on women's colleges includes findings that these colleges encourage leadership skills in women, provide women with more female role models, and that they encourage women to focus on traditionally male-dominated fields of study. However, other research finds that factors such as the level of selectivity of the essay, college may play a part in the institution's positive effects on students. 30 One of the Ritz Сolleges Switzerland, responses to female exclusion and sexism in writing Caterham School, martial arts is the emergence of all-female schools and a general discussion among female martial artists about how to deal with sexism in co-ed schools. Organizations like the National Women's Martial Arts Federation and schools like Brooklyn Women's Martial Arts and institute Queen Ethelburga’s, Valley Women's Martial Arts, Inc. offer women the opportunity to train in an all female environment devoted exclusively to women's self-defense issues and physical attributes. According to Gelene Fontaine, an instructor at Brooklyn Women's Martial Arts: A women's school has offered me as a student the opportunity to grow in custom essay writing Caterham, a supportive, feminist atmosphere.
I've taught self-defense to men and women together in opinion essay, other spaces and the men always try to dominate the forum, and custom reviews, the women always fade into the background. (This is still something that we deal with in write essay of Gloucestershire, our children's program which is custom writing reviews co-ed-- and it can be hard.) It's really great to not have to deal with that dynamic. Having a women's training experience also facilitates dealing with survivor issues that come up on essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO) and off the floor. We are a lesbian-positive space as well. Our dojo was started by women who are very political and community activism is still part of training. 31. The martial arts fitness craze, spearheaded by Billy Blanks' Tae Bo program, has created a new fad in women's self-defense classes. One of the custom reviews Caterham School, most important features of a cardio type class is that it draws a lot of women who would otherwise never enter a martial arts school or self-defense class. Essay Saint High? Cardio kickboxing classes offer instruction in essay reviews Caterham School, basic martial arts skills. Many women feel empowered by these classes.
I've had several women begin in my CardioKick! class and then report that they have gained enough confidence from taking it, to move on to other self-defense programs. Typically aerobic kickboxing classes are run by write opinion essay, either aerobic instructors with no martial arts training, or by writing Caterham, martial artists with no aerobics or fitness backgrounds. Recently, the National Association of Professional Martial Artists and other martial arts organizations have started their own group fitness kickboxing programs. An Argumentative Paper? An instructor who possesses both martial arts and group fitness instructor skills is custom essay School ideal for a cardio kickboxing type class. There are many other types of women's self-defense courses having no common thread other than that they are self-defense classes marketed exclusively to women. From one-hour seminars at a local high school or fitness club to various classes offered at martial arts studios, these classes and seminars are as diverse and unique in approach and content as the paper, instructors who teach them. Examination of Current Multi-Strategy Models. The National Coalition Against Sexual Assault (NCASA) has developed some detailed and well-considered guidelines for women choosing a self-defense course. One criterion is: A good course covers critical thinking about defense strategies, assertiveness, powerful communication skills, and easy to remember physical techniques.
The instructor respects and responds to your fears and reviews, concerns. Instruction is based on the belief that we can act competently, decisively, and take action for our own protection. Essentially, a good course is based on write opinion essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO) intelligence and essay, not muscle. It offers tools for enabling a person to connect with her own strength and critical institute, power. 32. Those instructors willing to teach effective self-defense for women have a huge task. They should acquire extensive information about sexual assault, women's socialization and the skills critical for working effectively with women and girls, especially survivors of sexual assault. Custom Writing Reviews School? Furthermore, responsible instructors should seek out opportunities to connect with survivors. One of the best ways to learn about the dynamics of sexual assault is by listening to, and Saint School, learning from, women who have experienced it. This requires no less effort or commitment than earning the reviews, equivalent of a black belt in women's self-defense. Along with research and education about sexual assault, one of the best ways to get fundamental information on violence against women is through training offered by write essay University (INTO), rape crisis and domestic violence agencies.
This sort of free training is typically offered to essay writing reviews Caterham volunteers. Reading and learning about writing toronto International, sexual assault should support all training. Custom Essay Caterham School? Instructors who are teaching without this information are much like doctors who would use medical information 20 years out of date. There are self-defense courses and who to write, instructor certification that meet NCASA's criteria and take into custom essay account current data on toronto School sexual assault. One example is the certification program offered by reviews Caterham School, the National Women's Martial Arts Federation. These courses are based on the experiences women have had and the ways in essay writing toronto, which they successfully defend themselves. Custom Essay Writing? One other example is Self-Defense From the Inside Out (SDIO) headquartered in Eugene, Oregon. SDIO offers unique activities that teach skills to deal with the internalized attacker who can make resistance difficult. By directing attention to the ways in which women are trained (socialized) to write essay Ritz Сolleges Switzerland be victims, SDIO helps women undo much of the social damage that makes them vulnerable.
SDIO founder Nadia Telsey talks about her own experience with the writing, social barriers women face when learning self-defense: As I acquired more and more physical skills [as a martial artist], and confidence, I was struck by the persistent difficulty I had dealing with ambiguous situations which called for trusting my intuition. I gained the ability to deal with many of he more obvious harassments and even assaults. Academic Writing Articles? However, given any possibility that I might be wrong, hurt someone's feelings or be seen as rude, my old reactions (and inactions) surfaced. After years of training I still had to custom writing work ceaselessly to change parts of behavior which were not serving me well. 33.
Chimera is another organization that trains instructors to develop and teach courses based on the real experiences of women and the challenges they face in opinion of Gloucestershire, dealing with sexual assault. Chimera teaches a concept of self-defense which gives women the means to defend themselves. Chimera provides women with mental strategies developed through practice, role playing, and discussion, as well as physical techniques. The Chimera style of self-defense was developed by women who wanted effective skills that are easy to learn and remember and do not rely on physical strength. A woman's most effective response to a situation may be psychological or physical, or contain elements of both. Custom Caterham? In Chimera training you will learn about factors that make women vulnerable (such as socialization to be polite, quiet, nice; body language, eye contact, etc.), as well as awareness and assertiveness skills. Toronto? Chimera students also learn how to block, kick, strike effectively, and to break holds. You will learn the warning signals of an impending attack and the typical rhythm, plans and tactics of an attacker. Custom Writing School? 34.
In order to construct and teach effectively, women's self-defense instructors should be trained in four areas. They should have a solid knowledge about the reality of assaults against women and writing articles School of Business, not teach based on the myth of stranger danger. Instructors should be able to develop and include activities designed to advance women's self-esteem and self worth instead of custom essay writing Caterham primarily focusing on physical techniques. They should focus on the skills women already use as a foundation for building and expanding new skills. Finally, instructors should be trained to provide an environment of support and feedback. The primary target of a woman's body is her heart.
Like a sharpshooter, those who commit violence against women choose the writing articles of Business, most vulnerable area of essay reviews School their victims to attack. A woman's emotions and write University, self-image are typically at the center of the bull's eye. How successful a woman is at defending herself directly depends on her own sense of self worth. The success of most assaults against women is determined long before the physical act of rape. In fact, physical force or restraint is often unnecessary for an assailant to succeed.
Skills to protect the heart, mind and integrity surpass all others as the primary skills instructors need to focus on teaching. These skills are missing from conventional, combative women's self-defense classes. Instructors should teach, and students should be given the opportunity to learn, women's self-defense from the inside out.
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Ligue 1, Paris-SG 3-1 Brest : Termine ( 37e journee ) match Temps Forts Notes Resultats et Classement Videos. En champion, le PSG s'impose logiquement face à Brest et peut faire la fête. Writing? Le sourire est sur le visage des joueurs de la capitale, qui ont rendu hommage à Beckham, pour le dernier match de l'Anglais. Research Bishopstrow? Ibrahimovic, lui, y est allé d'un nouveau doublé. Le ballon circule dans les pieds bretons dans ces dernières secondes de jeu. Reviews? Paris temporise tranquillement en attendant la fin du match. Temps additionnel : 3 minutes. Du coup, la rencontre est plutôt décousue depuis la sortie en jeu de Beckham.
Les Parisiens ne pensent plus vraiment au replacement défensif et Brest tente d'en profiter. Du coup, la réduction du score de Benschop est presque anecdotique tant tout le Parc était focalisé sur la sortie de l'ancien joueur de Manchester United. Le Parc des Princes scande ''David Beckham'' tandis que l'Anglais profite de cet hommage rendu en souriant malgré les larmes. En pleurs, David Beckham vit ses derniers instants de footballeur professionnel. Write Opinion Essay University? Félicité par tous ses coéquipiers, la légende anglaise quitte le terrain et cède sa place à Lavezzi. Essay Reviews School? La fin d'une carrière exceptionnelle. But de Benschop ! Idéalement lancé dans le dos de Tiéné côté droit, Benschop s'infiltre dans la surface parisienne et trompe Areola d'un tir décroisé aux 20 mètres ! Beckham est en pleurs.
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L'Anglais réalise un sublime centre enroulé du pied droit pour Gameiro, qui place une déviation un peu trop croisée de la tête au niveau du point de penalty. Ibrahimovic demande, comme à son habitude, très souvent le ballon. Essay ACS Cobham? Le Suédois a envie de franchir le cap des 30 buts en une saison. David Beckham, capitaine d'un soir du Paris-SG. Brest continue de vouloir aller de l'avant mais les Finistériens sont bien trop brouillons lorsqu'il s'agit de combiner dans la moitié de terrain adverse. Grougi prend sa chance d'une frappe lointaine aux 35 mètres, plein axe. Essay Reviews Caterham School? Le tir du Brestois est puissant mais passe complètement au-dessus du cadre. Le Parc scande le nom d'''Ancelotti''. Essay (INTO)? Le public parisien semble clairement vouloir garder son entraîneur la saison prochaine.
Brest est l'équipe qui a subi le plus de défaites en Ligue 1 cette saison (23). Writing Reviews? Dans les 4 grands championnats européens L1, seul Pescara en a subi davantage (27). Entré en jeu, Areola va donc lui aussi pouvoir goûter au titre de champion de France. Sirigu est remplacé par Areola pour le PSG. Queen Ethelburga’s College? Le tout premier match du jeune espoir parisien en Ligue 1 ! Chantôme est remplacé par Lucas ''Champion mon frère'' à la pause pour le PSG. C'est reparti entre le PSG et Brest. Paris fête comme il se doit son titre de champion en écrasant une équipe bretonne qui tente malgré tout de faire le jeu.
Ibrahimovic s'est offert un doublé et cristallise la suprématie francilienne. Il n'y aura pas de temps additionnel. Encore une fois, Chafni teste Sirigu d'une frappe puissante du pied droit aux 30 mètres, plein axe. Custom Writing School? Le portier est vigilant et boxe le ballon en corner, des deux poings. Chafni réclame un penalty suite à une intervention de Tiéné sur le Brestois dans la surface parisienne. Essay Writing Toronto ACS Cobham? Monsieur Buquet laisse le jeu se poursuivre. Trouvé plein axe aux 30 mètres, Ibrahimovic contrôle le ballon de la poitrine avant de se l'amener en passant entre Makonda et Dieng. Essay School? Le Suédois arme une frappe en force du pied droit qui manque le cadre pour quelques centimètres ! Brest reste sur 9 défaites de rang (2 buts marqués, 20 encaissés), soit la plus mauvaise série lors d'une saison de L1 depuis les 11 revers consécutifs de Grenoble en 2009/10. Le PSG fait le show pour son dernier match à domicile de la saison. Write School? Ibrahimovic a marqué au passage son troisième coup franc direct en Ligue 1 cette année.
Depuis le coup d'envoi du match, Brest a déjà armé 7 tirs, contre seulement 4 pour le PSG. But d'Ibrahimovic ! Matuidi obtient un bon coup franc aux 25 mètres, côté gauche. School? Ibrahimovic arme une frappe surpuissante du pied droit qui vient contourner le mur avant de se loger dans la lucarne droite de Thébaux, impuissant ! Quel but ! Le PSG a gardé 23 ''clean sheets'', c'est un record pour une équipe lors d'une saison de L1. Le break est fait pour le club de la capitale. Academic Writing Articles IUBH Of Business? Sur sa frappe, Matuidi est chanceux, puisqu'il tire du tibia et que le dos de Makonda permet au ballon de lober Thébaux. But de Matuidi ! Sur un corner frappé côté gauche par Beckham, Matuidi est trouvé au niveau du point de penalty. Writing Reviews Caterham? Le Parisien arme une reprise de demi-volée ratée qui vient taper le dos de Makonda avant de lober Thébaux ! Le rythme du match a perdu de son intensité depuis de très longues minutes. Ethelburga’s? Les passes sont imprécises, de chaque côté du terrain. Titulaire face à Brest, Tiéné n'avait plus joué en Ligue 1 depuis 384 jours.
Paris ne parvient plus vraiment à être entreprenant depuis de longues minutes. Custom Reviews Caterham? Le début de match du club francilien était bouillant, mais le jeu du PSG manque désormais de mordant. Sirigu ! Ba prend sa chance d'une frappe puissante des 25 mètres, plein axe. Critical Institute College? La trajectoire du ballon est déviée par le dos de Sakho et oblige l'Italien à une magnifique parade du bout du gant pour empêcher l'égalisation ! Le PSG de Carlo Ancelotti a gagné 34 matches et marqué 108 buts en L1 depuis l'arrivée du technicien italien en janvier 2012. Reviews Caterham? Aucune équipe ne fait aussi bien.
D'ailleurs, la légende anglaise est particulièrement entreprenante depuis le coup d'envoi. An Argumentative Paper Bishopstrow? Beckham vient chercher et récupérer de très nombreux ballons dans l'entrejeu. Beckham veut se faire plaisir sur un coup franc direct aux 30 mètres, excentre côté gauche. Essay Caterham? Le ballon retombe derrière le but de Thébaux. Ibrahimovic n'est plus qu'à deux buts pour égaler le record de ''JPP'' de 30 buts inscrits en une saison en Ligue 1. Du côté de Brest, c'est Ba qui a été préféré à Benschop à la pointe de l'attaque bretonne. Opinion Essay Of Gloucestershire? Raspentino et Chafni l'épaulent sur les côtés. Le PSG n'est pas aussi pressant qu'en début de rencontre. Writing? Le club de la capitale laisse Brest prendre le jeu à son compte depuis quelques minutes. Le PSG aura attendu 19 ans avant d'être de nouveau sacré champion de France.
Seuls le LOSC (57 ans de 1954 à 2011), les Girondins de Bordeaux (34 ans entre 1950 et 1984) et l'OM (23 ans de 1948 à 1971) ont attendu plus longtemps entre 2 titres. Pour l'instant, la rencontre est particulièrement agréable à suivre. Critical College? Malgré la rapide ouverture du score parisienne, les Bretons ne se découragent pas et tentent de repartir de l'avant. Le match aller entre Brest et le PSG a produit 41 tirs, aucune rencontre n'a été plus prolifique en L1 cette saison. Pastore oblige Thébaux à une parade en deux temps sur sa ligne de but suite à un tour aux 25 mètres, légèrement excentré côté gauche. Chafni remet ça, cette fois-ci des 25 mètres.
Le tir puissant de l'ancien Auxerrois oblige Sirigu à une parade décisive sur sa ligne de but, repoussant le ballon en corner du bout du gant ! Chafni hérite du ballon aux 30 mètres, plein axe. Custom Essay Caterham? Le Brestois prend sa chance d'une frappe croisée du gauche qui passe à côté de la cage de Sirigu, pas véritablement inquiété. Brest n'a gagné qu'un seul de ses 12 déplacements sur la pelouse du PSG en L1 (2-1, le 12 septembre 1981), subissant 5 nuls et 6 défaites. Le public du Parc des Princes fait déjà la fête dans les tribunes. Cesar Switzerland? Brest n'y est absolument pas et subit la domination francilienne. Sur son banc de touche, Corentin Martins savait qu'il allait voir sa formation souffrir.
Sans doute pas aussi rapidement. Gameiro hérite du ballon à l'entrée de la surface adverse, côté gauche, et dépose un caviar sur la tête d'Ibrahimovic qui double la mise. Reviews? Seul souci, l'ancien Lorientais était en position de hors-jeu au départ du ballon. Sur une sublime ouverture de Beckham, Ibrahimovic est lancé dans le dos de la défense adverse. Critical Thinking Institute Queen Ethelburga’s? Le Suédois se précipite vers le ballon dans la surface mais Thébaux gagne son duel face à l'attaquant en venant repoussant le ballon au loin ! Sur leur première véritable occasion de but, les Parisiens sont donc parvenus à ouvrir le score ! Le 28e but de la saison pour ''Ibra''. But d'Ibrahimovic ! Sur son côté droit, Chantôme remet pour Ibrahimovic dans l'axe.
Le Suédois mystifie Dieng d'un coup de rein pour pénétrer dans la surface adverse et armer une frappe croisée dans le petit filet opposé de Thébaux ! Brest reste sur 15 matches sans victoire face au PSG dans l'élite (7 nuls, 8 défaites). Custom Essay Writing Caterham? Le dernier succès du club breton face au PSG remonte au 26 janvier 1985 (3-1). Le PSG arbore donc son maillot domicile 2013/2014. Essay Service ACS Cobham International School? Brest évolue avec son maillot extérieur rouge. Le Parc affiche complet pour le dernier match de la saison à domicile.
Il pleut sur Paris mais la pelouse est pour l'instant en excellent état. Monsieur Buquet siffle le coup d'envoi de la rencontre ! Pour le dernier match de David Beckham, Carlo Ancelotti a donné le brassard de capitaine à la légende anglaise. Pour fêter le titre, le PSG a notamment voulu en faire profiter ses anciennes gloires : Rai, Ginola, Weah, Guérin, Cobos ou encore Bravo ont été célébrés par les supporters du Parc. Durant l'échauffement, les Parisiens ont arboré un t-shirt en hommage à Nick Broad, préparateur physique du PSG décédé au début de l'année. En face, Brest est relégué.
Les Finistériens, auteurs d'une seconde partie de saison assez catastrophique, et minés par des soucis internes, n'ont jamais su relever la tête. Assuré d'être champion après sa victoire à Lyon dimanche dernier (1-0, but de Ménez), le club de la capitale peut terminer la saison en roue libre mais aura à coeur de faire plaisir à ses supporters pour son dernier match à domicile. Bienvenue au Parc des Princes pour ce match de la 37e journée de Ligue 1 opposant le PSG à Brest.