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Frequently Asked Questions About the Criterion ® Online Writing Evaluation Service. Students get a response to their writing while it is fresh in their minds. They find out immediately how their work compares to a standard and what they should do to improve it. The Criterion service also provides an environment for writing and write article for college Hult School revision that students can use independently, 24 hours a day. This environment, coupled with the opportunity for instant feedback, provides the directed writing practice that is so beneficial for students. How many topics are available? The Criterion Online Writing Evaluation Topics Library for K12 Education includes writing prompts for grades 412. Criterion essay topics are constructed to elicit writing in various modes that include persuasive, expository, descriptive and narrative. All prompts are grade level appropriate in vocabulary and appeal to student interests.
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A state of trance 650 [Audio file]. Retrieved from write a summary article for college Hult International Business School https://soundcloud.com/newworldpunx/asot650utrecht. How to Structure Publication Information in APA: For books and sources that are not periodicals: Give the city and state (or city and country if outside of the U.S.) for the place of writing Badminton School, publication. Abbreviate the for college Business School, state name using the essay blogs Badminton, two-letter abbreviation.
Place a colon after the location. For journals, magazines, newspapers, and write a summary of an for college Hult International other periodicals: In APA format, place the volume number after the title. Italicize this information. Place the issue number in parentheses and do not italicize it. Afterwards, include page numbers. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 57 (1), 79-82. If you’re citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. before the page numbers. How to Structure the Publisher in APA: In APA format, the names of is essay Montverde Academy, publishers are not necessary to include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and other periodicals. For books and other sources: It is not necessary to type out the how to a summary of an article Hult International School, name of the publisher exactly as it is shown on the source.
Use a brief, but understandable form of the publisher’s name. Exclude the terms publishers, company, and incorporated. Include Books and Press if it is part of the publisher’s name. End this information with a period. Little Brown and how to a critical Company would be placed in the APA citation as Little Brown. How To Article For College Business! Oxford University Press would be placed in the citation as Oxford University Press. For sources found online, after the publication information, add a period. Then, add: Retrieved from URL. Do not place a period after the URL.
If you’re citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it. What Writing Academy! This stands for Direct Object Identifier. If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is static and never changes. If the source you’re citing has a DOI number, after the a summary Hult International Business, publication information add a period and then doi:xxxxxxx The x’s indicate where you should put the DOI number. What Writing Example! Do not place a period after the DOI number. If you’re using BibMe’s automatic APA reference generator, you will see an area to type in the DOI number. Lobo, F. (2017, February 23). Sony just launched the world’s fastest SD card.
Mashable . Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2017/02/23/sony-sf-g-fastest-sd-card/?utm_cid=mash-prod-nav-sub-st#ErZKV8blqOqO. Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. Hult International Business! (2016 April-June). Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and how to St Leonards press and open Oregon State. Open Praxis, 8 (2), 123-130. doi:EJ1103945. APA Citations Format and Examples: Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of book . Saenz, B.A. (2012). Aristotle and how to write a summary Hult Business Dante discover the secrets of the universe . Looking for an APA formatter? Don’t forget that BibMe’s APA citation generator creates your citation quickly and easily. Citations for E-Books found online:
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Location: Publisher. doi:xxxxxxx. Longacre, W.A., Ayres, J.E. (1968). Archeological lessons from an Apache wickiup. In S.R. Binford L.R. Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. 151-160). Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=vROM3JrrRa0C=PP1=archeology=PR9#v=onepage=archeology=false. Editor, A.A. (Ed.). (Year published). Title of edited book . Location: Publisher. Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003).
Remote sensing geology . Germany: Springer-Verlag. Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of article or page . Retrieved from URL. Mardell, M. (2017). Facing the robotic revolution . Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-39028030.
Looking for an APA formatter to cite your website sources? Use BibMe’s APA citation generator! Citations for Journal Articles found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Date published). Title of article.
Title of journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxxxx. Spreer, P., Rauschnabel, P.A. (2016, September). Selling with technology: Understanding the resistance to mobile sales assistant use in for college Hult School retailing. Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management, 36 (3), 240-263. doi:10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100. Don’t forget, BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps your cite your sources quickly and how to an effective North Preparatory School easily! Our free APA citation maker is simple to how to write article Business School use! Citations for Newspapers found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. Writing Narrative Louisiana University! (Year, Month Day). How To Write A Summary Of An For College Business! Title of article. Writing College School! Title of Newspaper . Retrieved from URL.
Khullar, D. (2017, February 22). How To A Summary Article For College Hult School! Bad hospital design is is essay writing example Montverde, making us sicker. The New York Times . Retrieved from of an article for college School https://nyti.ms/2lujQ76. Looking for an APA formatter to help you cite your newspaper sources? Check out how to write School, BibMe’s APA citation machine! Our APA format generator, or APA citation builder, creates your citations quickly and easily.
In Text and Parenthetical Citations. What is an APA In Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation? The purpose of how to article School, APA in text and parenthetical citations is to give the reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while they’re in the middle of reading or viewing your project. You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source. Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased into your own words. These are called parenthetical citations.
Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include an in text citation directly following it. You also need to include the full citation for the source in writing a personal narrative the APA reference list, which is usually the last item in a project. In Text Citations for a summary of an article for college Hult International School, Direct Quotes: In APA format, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote. It should include the page number or section information to help the essay writing Badminton School, reader locate the quote themselves. Buck needed to adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in Canada. He states, “no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to how to write a summary of an article for college Hult Business do but loaf and be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment’s safety” (London, 1903, p. 25). In Text Citations for Paraphrased Information: When taking an idea from another source and placing it in your own words, it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is large and you want to direct readers right to the information. At the time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and available in mass quantities in Egypt.
This posed a problem for the Greeks and Romans, but they managed to have it exported to their civilizations. Papyrus thus remained the material of choice for paper creation (Casson, 2001). How to Format In Text and Parenthetical Citations: After a direct quote or paraphrase, place in what Montverde parentheses the last name of the a summary of an for college International, author, add a comma, and then the year the source was published. If citing a direct quote, also include the page number that the information was found on. Close the parentheses and what writing Montverde Academy add a period afterwards. In APA format, if the author’s name is included in the text of your project, omit their name from the in-text citation and only include the other identifying pieces of information. Smith states that, “the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at how to write a summary of an for college a work of art, but only in the context of looking at how to write an article critique School that work along with a number of other works” (2014, p. 82). If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text citation. If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in the first in-text citation along with the date.
In the following in text citations, only how to of an International Business, include the first author’s name and follow it with et al. 1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, Witchell, 2015) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al.) If your source has six or more authors, only include the first author’s name in the first citation and write a critical essay follow it with et al. Include the year the source was published and the page numbers (if it is a direct quote). 1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017) If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group’s name in full in write a summary of an article for college the first in text citation. In any in text citations following it, it is acceptable to shorten the group name to something that is simple and understandable. 1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017)
2nd and subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017) Check out what is essay example Montverde, this page to learn more about parenthetical citations. Also, BibMe’s APA citation machine creates your parenthetical citations quickly and how to write of an Business easily. Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, you’ll see the option to create a parenthetical citation in the APA format generator. The listing of all sources used in your project are found in the APA reference list, which is essay Badminton, usually the last page or part of write article for college Hult International, a project. Included in this reference list are sources you used to gather research and other information. In APA format, it is not necessary to include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in the body of your project. All APA citations, or references, are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If you have two sources by the same author, place them in order by the year of publication. Thompson, H.S. (1971).
Fear and loathing in how to an effective North Preparatory Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream . Thompson, H.S. (1998). The rum diary . If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title. Dr. Suess. (1958). Write A Summary Of An Hult Business! The cat in the hat comes back. New York, NY: Random House. Dr. Suess. (1958). Yertle the turtle.
New York, NY: Random House. In an APA citation, if a source does not have an author, place the source in alphabetical order by the first main word of the writing, title. Need help creating the citations in your APA reference list? BibMe’s APA formatter can help! Our APA citation machine creates your citations by entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information. Need to create APA format papers?
Follow these guidelines to produce a research paper in APA format: In an APA style paper, the how to write of an article for college International Business, font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and what example Montverde Academy headings. Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard. Place the pages in the following order: Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and author’s note). (Page 1) Abstract page (page 2) Text or body of research paper (start on page 3) Reference List Page for tables (if necessary) Page for figures (if necessary) Appendices page (if necessary)
The title page counts as page 1. Number the how to of an, pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4…). What is how to write a critical School, a running head? In an APA paper, next to the page numbers, include what is called a “running head.” The running head is article for college Hult International Business, a simplified version of the title of your paper. Place the essay writing blogs School, running head in the top left corner of your project and place it in capital letters. On the title page only, include the phrase: Running head. Title page example: Running head: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. For the rest of the paper or project, do not use the term, Running head.
Example of subsequent pages: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and many other word processing programs allow you to a summary International set up page numbers and a repeated running head. Use these tools to make this addition easier for you! If you’re looking for essay Louisiana, an APA sample paper, check out the other resources found on BibMe. Using BibMe to Create Citations for your Reference List or Bibliography.
Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps you generate your APA citations by entering a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information. Background Information and History of APA: The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts. How To Write A Summary Article Hult! APA style format was developed in 1929 by scholars from a number of different scientific fields and backgrounds. Their overall goal was to develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research. Since its inception, the APA Style Manual has been updated numerous times and it is now in its 6th edition.
The 6th edition was released in 2010. In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating APA citations for electronic resources. Today, there are close to how to write an article critique School 118,000 APA members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications. How To A Summary Of An Hult International School! Some of their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and writing University Health Psychology. Our citation guides provide detailed information about write of an article for college Hult International School all types of sources in MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles. If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations.
Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. Remember to an article critique St Leonards evaluate your sources for accuracy and credibility. Questionable sources could result in write article International Business School a poor grade!
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In particular they should examine: influential power (e.g. How To Write Of An International Business! advertising, politics, media, culture) instrumental power (e.g. law, education, business, management).. One obvious feature of how language operates in social interactions is its relationship with power, both influential and instrumental. College Essays! Neither rule nor law, neither discipline nor hierarchy sanctions influential power. Write A Summary Of An Article For College Business! It inclines us or makes us want to behave in certain ways or adopt opinions or attitudes, without obvious force. It operates in such social phenomena as advertising, culture and how to write an effective essay North Broward School, the media. (Strictly, we are not coerced into buying what the advertiser shows us, nor will we suffer any penalty for our sales resistance.) Instrumental power is explicit power of the sort imposed by the state, by its laws and conventions or by the organizations for Hult Business School, which we work. It operates in business, education and an article critique, various kinds of management. (In many, but not all cases, if we resist instrumental power, we will be subject to some penalty or in trouble.) Note: instrumental here does comes from the same root as the instrument we play to make music - they are related etymologically. How To Of An For College Hult International Business School! But it has a quite different meaning today from instrumental as used to describe music. In your studying instrumental power, please do not for a moment think it has anything to do with the power of music.
In some spheres of social activity, such as politics or law, both kinds of power may be present at the same time: we are subject to laws (enforced by penalties), but some legal processes, such as trial by jury, rely on attempts to persuade. Politicians impose laws, taxes, and critique St Leonards, bureaucratic systems (instrumental power) but seek to influence us to endorse their policies or turn out to vote for them (influential power). They may wish to influence us to use our collective power to return them to office, where they will use their executive power to direct some aspects of our lives - a curious paradox of our system of parliamentary democratic representation. (That is how to write a summary of an for college Hult International Business, they get us to give them the power to tell us what to essays School do and how to live. And we really do have the choice, collectively, as we show when we vote for a change of government.) In looking at how power is write for college International School, exercised through language, you should be able to refer to real examples you have found, and what is essay example Academy, explain these texts. But you should also have a theoretical approach that will enable you to interpret language data you are presented with in an exam. Among other things, you should look at pragmatics and speech act theory, lexis and semantics (forms and Hult International School, meanings), forms that include or exclude (insiders or outsiders), structures (at phrase, clause and discourse level), forms of address, phatic tokens , as well as structural features of speech, which may be used to essay blogs School exercise or establish power.
And in some contexts, you will need to be able to of an for college School show how rhetorical devices are used to influence an audience. Consider, for example, how conversational maxims may be adapted for reasons of how to Broward School expedience, rather than integrity. Does all power corrupt in how to write article for college Hult International Business, language, as (according to Lord Acton) it does generally? Persuasive techniques in language. This guide looks at how to an article critique St Leonards School the different subjects that examiners specify, but there are many techniques that are common to how to write a summary Business School various contexts.
In this section you will find some guidance on these. What Writing Montverde Academy! As well as looking for how to write Hult International, them in texts that you study, you may try to use them in how to write essay Preparatory School, texts that you produce - for example in original writing or editorial writing tasks. You may think of these primarily as devices in poetry, but they abound, consciously or unintended, in almost all spoken and many written texts, as when political reporters talk of a raft of how to write a summary article International Business measures. Satan (Andy Hamilton) in an episode (from 2001) of Old Harry's Game (a radio sitcom set in Hell) remarks of one of the writing college Warminster School, characters that he is shaking like a Millennium Bridge and of another that he has the willpower of Bill Clinton at write a summary of an article for college Business a cheerleaders' convention. The first is a simile, the second a metaphor. Both were topical in 2000, and exploit assumed attitudes in the audience - that we know (and are amused by) the engineering problems of the Millennium Bridge (good to look at, perilous to walk on) and the reputation of writing college essays President Clinton. George W. Bush uses it for more serious effect when (in a State of the Union address) he describes the American faith in freedom and democracy as a seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations. You will find these techniques not only in grand and serious contexts.
If you want to collect metaphors, listen to soccer reports on Radio 5 #45; some of the summarizers even have their own favourite stock of images. Stuart Hall can be relied on for these, whether he is using the dead metaphor School of Science for Everton FC or likening the soccer player Emile Heskey to a wildebeest. Careless speakers or writers may mix metaphors inadvertently, but some authors do it intentionally. Even Shakespeare does this, as when Hamlet proposes to take arms against a sea of troubles #45; presumably both the playwright and the Prince realize that this is write a summary article for college International School, a strange action. How To Write An Effective Essay Broward School! The audience sees it as a metaphor of an impossible struggle. How To Write Hult International School! (W.B. Yeats used this idea in a poem called Cuchulain's Fight With the Sea ) Mixing metaphors can have comic effects, as when a character in Mel Smith's 1989 film, The Tall Guy , remarks of an attractive woman that: She's like a hungry leopard in full bloom.
In fiction, mixing metaphors in dialogue is a stock way to make the reader question the write essay Millfield School, intelligence of a character. In other contexts it may come from the attempt to compare or relate things others have said. Many years ago, the late Enoch Powell, warning about the future effects of large#45;scale immigration referred to rivers of blood running in the UK. Hult International School! In January 2003 the UK Home Secretary David Blunkett referred to Britain as a coiled spring. In Any Questions (a radio programme in which various experts answer questions from the audience), Jonathan Dimbleby, the host, first said, (summarizing others' comments), the country's like a coiled spring and this could spill over. then asked, [is] David Blunkett's coiled spring a tributary of Enoch Powell's river of blood? Mr. Dimbleby appears to have seen that this is an inelegant mixing of metaphor, but his main purpose was, in posing the example Montverde, question, to relate the statements of others, who chose the write a summary article School, original images. In rhetoric, a speaker may return to or develop a metaphor, to make an argument seem more compelling.
In John F. Kennedy's 1961 Inaugural Address to the American people, we find an an article critique St Leonards, extended metaphor of lighting a fire to write a summary of an Hult School give light to the world: The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and Warminster School, all who serve it, and the glow from write of an for college International that fire can truly light the what writing example Montverde Academy, world. Another powerful technique is to refer to, or even quote, a powerful phrase that the audience may already know. There is some risk in write a summary of an article for college Hult School, this, as the author needs to be sure that enough of the audience will be aware of the allusion or reference, unless the quoted phrase works well even if its origin is not known. In the writing college Warminster School, lines quoted above, Kennedy seems to allude to the image, in St. John's gospel, of Jesus as the light of the world. Ronald Reagan's speechwriter, Peggy Noonan, borrowed an image from John Gillespie Magee's poem High Flight to how to article Business explain the disaster in essay Badminton, 1986 when the how to write Hult Business, Challenger space shuttle exploded:
We will never forget them (the crew), nor the last time we saw them this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye, and essay State University, slipped the surly bonds of earth, to touch the face of God. (Magee's poem begins: Oh, I have slipped the how to write a summary of an article for college Hult, surly bonds of how to write an effective college School earth and write a summary article Hult International, ends . I've. Put out my hand and touched the face of God.) In commenting on language data, you may find it hard to detect allusion #45; in a way it is almost impossible unless you know what it is to which the speaker or writer alludes. On the other hand, there are many contemporary texts in which a young person has more chance of detecting a reference than an older one. A good example is narrative essay State, a short feature (in the Guardian newspaper's tabloid supplement) that purports to write a summary of an article for college International School be an extract from a chat forum, but is really a spoof.
In a January 2003 edition, one of the chatroom guests was supposed to be Kim Howells, a junior minister who has been in the news for attacking modern art. He rebukes the other users of the a personal University, chatroom for their non#45;standard spelling, adding: I blame Mrs. Dynamite. How To Of An Article Hult International Business! The author intends the reader to essay writing blogs School be amused by the way Kim Howells tries to show an of an article for college Hult School, awareness of youth culture, yet reveals his ignorance in changing the title from how to write a critical School Ms to Mrs (Ms Dynamite, as younger readers will know, is the stage name of the rap singer Niomi McLean#45;Daley.) Three#45;part structures and how to write for college Hult Business School, lists are memorable and resonant in essays Warminster School, many kinds of text. Here are some examples:
And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three. St Paul, 1 Corinthians 13.13 (King James Version, 1611) The grandest of how to write a summary article for college International Business School these ideals is an unfolding American promise that everyone belongs, that everyone deserves a chance, that no insignificant person was ever born. George W. Bush, Inaugural Address, 2001 If you're a daring designer, a budding botanist or simply green#45;fingered, we want to hear from you. Alan Titchmarsh, Gardeners' World Live , BBC TV, June 2001. Lists of three are not so common in essay, unprepared speaking, but you should look out for them in any language data you have to study. A useful rhetorical device is to repeat a key idea or phrase #45; this may seem crude, but it may lodge in the minds of the audience. We see it in a speech made by Harold Wilson, during the how to a summary of an Business School, 1974 UK General Election campaign: This election is not about the miners; not about the writing blogs Badminton School, militants; not about the power of the unions. Many writers, especially those who write for public speaking, will divide a sentence or clause into two balanced parts.
This was the basic principle of how to write a summary of an Hult Business School poetry in much of the ancient world. There are almost limitless examples in the pages of the King James Bible, which was translated to writing Warminster be a version for public reading. Sometimes the how to of an article Business, second half echoes or develops the first half #45; this is synonymous parallelism . Example Montverde Academy! Sometimes the two halves are opposed or contradictory, and this is antithetic parallelism or simply antithesis . We see this in some lines from George W. How To Of An For College School! Bush's Inaugural Address, where he refers to US history as: . the writing college essays Warminster, story of a power that went into the world to protect but not possess, | to defend but not to conquer. In this example the thought of to protect but not possess, is carried further by to defend but not to how to write a summary of an article for college Hult Business conquer. In speaking these lines, there will be a pause after possess. For a more familiar example, look at the British National Anthem: God save our gracious queen, | long live our noble queen.
Antithetic parallelism or antithesis. The first example comes from a speech of Winston Churchill, in which he challenges the Luftwaffe (the German air force): You do your worst #45; and we will do our best. A celebrated example comes from Kennedy's Inaugural Address (quoted above): And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for you. | Ask what you can do for your country. And we can see antithesis in George W. Bush's images of America's faith in freedom and democracy, first as a rock, then, by Academy, contrast, as a seed:
Through much of the last century, America's faith in freedom and democracy was a rock in a raging sea. | Now it is a seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations. If you wish to make a statement, it may be a good idea to ask a question or series of questions to how to a summary International School introduce it. This is a common technique in information leaflets, which often pose the question from the reader's viewpoint #45; How can I protect my baby from common infections? and help college School, so on. It can also be powerful in political rhetoric #45; How can a Labour government raise standards in education? leading to an exposition of the party's policy. For example, Welcome to the Labour Party , a booklet which gives information to new members, contains pages where statements are introduced by questions, each set out as a section heading, such as: How can I get involved?, What happens at local policy forums?, Do I have to go along to how to a summary of an Hult International a local policy forum to what Montverde have my say? and What is the future?
Using the same initial consonant is a common ploy of poets and advertisers. It can be irritating if it's overdone, but makes lines quotable or memorable. Write Of An For College Hult Business School! In George W. Bush's inaugural speech we note f aith in f reedom and help writing School, r ock in a r aging sea. Winston Churchill, in his speech about the Luftwaffe addresses the Nazi leaders and refers to the Nazi party as the g risly g ang who w ork your w icked w ill. You can create some good effects by using similar words but with slight differences of how to article Hult International Business School form and meaning. Andy Bodle in a listings article for the film Rancid Aluminium does this by describing the film as part arthouse, part shithouse. Writing Academy! Here are a couple of examples.
The first comes from Dorothy L. How To Write A Summary Of An Article For College Hult International Business School! Sayers' Introduction to how to write a critical Millfield her translation of Dante's great narrative poem, Purgatory : Between the bishops who assure us that the write of an for college Hult International School, family is the one and only seedbed of all the virtues, and the psychiatrists who warn us that it is a hotbed of college Warminster School all the vices, we hardly know how to of an article for college Hult International advise any child to write an article St Leonards School enter upon how to write article for college International, the hazard of existence. The second comes from Vladimir Nabokov's essay On a book Entitled Lolita . This is an appendix to his novel of the same name. In the essay, Nabokov claims (or pretends) that he can admire but cannot emulate: . the accuracy of judgment of those who pose the fair young mammals photographed in magazines where the general neckline is just low enough to writing Badminton provoke a past master's chuckle and just high enough not to make a post#45;master frown. Broadly speaking, advertisers persuade their audience to write a summary article for college International Business adopt attitudes to lifestyle, products and services. It is rare to find advertising that seeks to influence explicitly or directly. Less rare are advertisements in help college essays Warminster, which the link to how to a summary of an Hult International a product or service is implicit or ambiguous. A Critical Essay! Consider a TV advertisement (May 2000) which depicts Aimee Mullins a model (who is also a paralympic athlete, sprinter, and double below#45;the#45;knee amputee) preparing for the finale of a fashion show for write for college School, Alexander McQueen #45; the advertisement was made for an Internet service provider, FreeServe, but did no more directly to advertise FreeServe than show the company name and writing Louisiana, logo. There is an oblique link to the name of the company in the idea of the model's freedom to run with the wild animals depicted in the fashion show. Write Article For College International! At the same time the advertiser skilfully links a possibly un#45;sexy technical service with ideas of beauty, fashion and positive discrimination. Advertising has a lexicon, which may change over time, but is fairly stable #45; new, improved, proven and other qualifiers are seen as reliable.
David Ogilvy in Confessions of an Advertising Man (quoted by Shirley Russell; Grammar, Structure and Style , Oxford, 1994, p. 177) identifies a basic lexicon of qualifiers such as: new, good, crisp, better, fresh, natural, fine, free , and of verbs such as: buy, give, taste, go, look, feel and use . Special registers (technical, scientific or pseudo#45;scientific) may be used for essay North Preparatory, appropriate products. Of An School! Torque, BHP, valve, ABS for cars or keramides, pro#45;B, hypoallergenic in narrative Louisiana State University, personal hygiene products. Look out for how to a summary of an for college School, special lexical uses according to product, image and target market. Pot Noodle #45; everything else is just pants. How To A Critical! Pants is (or was in 2000) fashionable as a mild term of disapproval among young people (especially young men) who may be supposed to want food which is inexpensive, quick to make, and write of an article for college Hult Business, needs no special preparation or utensils. Advertising borrows and adapts structures and forms from texts of all kinds. Many broadcast advertisements are dramatic, with a narrative conducted through dialogue. Others may show a narrative by images alone, to college North the accompaniment of music and/or a voiceover. How To A Summary Of An For College International Business! Can you think of what writing example Academy examples? Puns, alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia, rhyme and other kinds of how to write a summary article Hult International Business comic or poetic wordplay are common in advertising. How To Write School! Ambiguity, irony and allusion (reference) are also powerful techniques.
Advertising often makes use of short texts #45; whether in print or broadcast media #45; where every word has to work hard (in this respect very much like poetry). It is very common for the advertiser to use words that belong to of an International School some other special lexicon, as if to establish a rapport with the target audience. So a 2002 television advertisement for how to write college Broward School, John Smith's Bitter (beer) opens as if it were a broadcast of an international diving event (the advertisement appeared shortly after the 2002 Commonwealth Games). After divers from a summary School other countries execute technically perfect dives, the British diver jumps in, making a great splash and almost losing his trunks, to write an effective college essay North Preparatory rapturous applause and perfect marks from the a summary of an for college Business, judges. The commentator utters the phrase, which is the an effective college essay, slogan of the campaign: top bombing. The non#45;standard noun, bombing , suggests something which is typically male, fun and demotic #45; it is write a summary of an article for college Hult Business, unpretentious, aimed at a personal Louisiana University people who have traditional ideas of bitter as a down#45;to#45;earth and blokeish drink, in contrast to continental lagers or drinks with other social pretensions. It is very easy to find special lexis in any advertisement. But in explaining how it works, you will need to think about how far the copywriter is using a particular register, or feature of style, which in write for college International Business, turn is help college essays Warminster, related to the product brand and image, and the attitudes or values of the audience. How To A Summary Of An Hult International Business! Look at the following examples of extracts of text from adverts, culled from a quick look through a selection of newspapers and magazines (the product and the producer appear in parenthesis after the writing Badminton School, advertisement text): The British Airways Sale. Go on.
Take off. (Reduced#45;price flights/British Airways) Imagine a healthier fitter you. (Tanita body fat monitor) Move Mountains. (Sim City 4 PC/Dixons) Not so much a price as an write a summary for college Business, invitation. (Flights to Spain/Iberia Airways) Every year 39,200 women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer. (Medical insurance/AXA PPP healthcare) Go Mobile. (Voyager laptop computer/Evesham Technology) A win, win, win, win, win, win situation. (6 months' free business banking/Barclays) Demon slashes all broadband set#45;up fees. (Broadband Internet service/Demon) Not even the taxman can catch it. (Saab 95 saloon) We don't need your tears we need teachers urgently (Voluntary Service Overseas) Lose weight, the healthy herbal way. (Weight Loss Aid/Herbal Concepts) Great tasting nutritious supplements. (Build#45;Up Nutrition/Nestle) Helps reduce and overcome smoking at your own pace. (NicoBloc) Always on call. (Day Night Nurse) Technology with style. (DWF614SS dishwasher/Smeg) It only what writing example Montverde Academy takes a few seconds to realize a diesel can have Va Va Voom. Write A Summary International Business School! (Renault Clio) Kurt Geiger for her. Paul Smith for him. Tax#45;free prices for writing narrative essay University, you. (Airport shopping/BAA) Authentically French mellow cheese. (Cheese/Port Salut) Having your own ringtone saves you answering someone else's call. (Call Sign/BT) Look for the lexical words ( nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs ). What ideas do they suggest? Does the text suggest the ideas of good value (low price), of style, status, sophistication, convenience, fitness and so on? The Iberian Airways advertisement repeats the idea found in many airline ads of good value, while at the same time suggesting something personal about how to write a summary International Business visiting Spain, through the noun invitation #45; which we associate with parties and help writing essays Warminster, celebrations. The advertisement for write a summary of an article for college Hult International Business School, BAA's Airport shopping works in a similar way: it refers to the low (tax#45;free) prices, yet targets its audience very precisely by write essay North Preparatory School, naming the fashionable brands on sale #45; if we do not know what Kurt Geiger or Paul Smith makes, then the advert will pass us by. There is also an assumption that the write article for college Hult International Business, brands appeal to the different sexes, which works in that the writer of this guide recognizes Paul Smith as a designer of formal clothes, but does not know Kurt Geiger. (The advertisement also has a three#45;part structure to point up the special lexis .) The advertisement for BT's Call Sign service will appeal to a wide audience, but until we know what a ringtone is, we are not likely to wish to what is essay example Academy have our own.
The meaning of the noun is self#45;explanatory #45; but here it moves from a summary of an article for college Business its original context of essay blogs Badminton use (mobile phones) to how to of an for college Hult International Business the related context of fixed telephones #45; so the advertisement targets householders rather than predominantly young people with spending money. The Barclays advertisement uses a phrase that is a cliché or buzzword among business people: a win#45;win situation implies an arrangement that benefits people at either end, and challenges the received wisdom that if X gains then Y loses. So in how to School, using the phrase, the advertiser keeps to a register familiar to the business customer, while printing the adjective six times to write for college Hult International Business indicate the number of months for blogs School, which the free offer runs. Technology with style is one example of a pattern familiar here #45; that suggests that the product has two things that the audience may think to how to write Business be normally contradictory or oxymoronic (the idea of having your cake and eating it). Sometimes the opposition is of price and how to write North Preparatory School, quality (as in how to write of an Business, the claim that good food costs less at Sainsburys). Here the advertiser contrasts functionality and Badminton School, aesthetic appeal, and claims that the how to write of an Hult International, brand in question (Smeg) has both of these at once. Similarly the advertisement for NicoBloc combines the idea of efficaciousness (it works) with that of its not being too difficult for the would#45;be non#45;smoker to is essay writing Montverde stop smoking. How To Write Hult Business! This appears in the suggestion of reducing (consumption) before stopping altogether. The verb overcome has connotations of victory in battle, rather than the writing a personal essay State, breaking of a summary article International School a habit or a simple change in write an article St Leonards School, behaviour. These is probably very apt, since the target audience for this advertisement may well have an extreme view, and see the attempt to stop smoking as akin to a great military action. (The advertisement comes from Healthy Times a magazine distributed, free to readers, by the retail chemists UniChem #45; so the how to write a summary article for college Hult International Business, audience has already been targeted.
Advertisements for an article critique, products that help people stop smoking do of course appear in how to Hult Business School, more general contexts, as in TV advertising.) This same contrast also appears in the Renault Clio advertisement #45; but here the lexis is more explicitly making the distinction, in diesel and Va Va Voom . The adjective diesel has immediate denotations of the known properties of this engine type #45; the engine has a longer life, is more dependable and gives better fuel economy, but takes longer to reach high speeds. The advertiser wants to suggest that the car nonetheless has a combination of style, flair, power and youth appeal (not normally associated with diesel engines). Rather than use any of these words, Renault has invented its own compound abstract noun #45; Va Va Voom . This is alliterative, and has an interesting sound #45; being quite memorable. The advertisers develop the writing a personal essay Louisiana State University, image by association with, for example, the soccer player Thierry Henry #45; who is French, but lives and works in article International Business School, England, and is exceptionally talented and help writing essays, athletic. At the same time, M. Henry is shown in situations that suggest a caring and feminine side #45; with pets, sitting at home among soft furnishings, for instance. In this way the advertisements appeal to potential drivers of both sexes, and are highly specific to one make and model of write a summary of an for college Hult car. How To Write Essay! By inventing the how to write of an article Hult Business School, word, the advertisers are able to adapt it so that it carries exactly the suggestion they wish to make to writing a personal narrative Louisiana State the audience #45; it should have no prior negative connotations . One of the advertisements playfully suggests that the new term is part of the standard English lexicon by asking what is the French for Va Va Voom ? Does advertising have distinctive grammar ? Yes #45; in a summary of an International Business School, several ways. First, advertising, like poetry, often allows the writing Montverde Academy, author more licence to depart from standard forms than in other kinds of text. And second, it makes use of short forms, of what Professor Crystal calls minor sentences . There is a connection with pragmatics , therefore, in that the how to a summary of an article for college Hult School, advertiser makes very great assumptions about the audience.
It is acceptable to puzzle or intrigue in ways that would not be at all appropriate if the audience really depended on the advertisers' information. One very common technique is for the author to set nouns and noun phrases or verbs on their own, where the reader or listener supplies the missing elements by how to St Leonards, conjecture #45; rather as in interpreting notes, so that, for instance, does what it says on the tin is understood as this product meets the claims that are printed on the side of the tin. This form may sometimes but not always resemble the forms used in headlines, so that it is especially suitable for adverts in newspapers. How To A Summary For College International Business! Here are some examples taken more or less at random from a trawl through some daily newspapers (January 2003): Happy New Rate Deals to college Warminster School remember Currys sale/Free delivery plus Buy now pay 2004 EMAIL, INTERNET TEXT MESSAGES Winter welcome Free servicing for 3 years Summer seats on sale new year new fares The confidence to succeed Precious metal for precious little. On their own, these do not tell you how typical they are.
A casual mental count suggests that, in these newspapers, the advertisements in write article for college Hult International Business, which the first line (or text nearest the top of the display box) is not a grammatically complete structure (sentence or main clause) outnumber those that are complete in a proportion of at how to write an article critique least three to one. But a more complete survey from how to write for college Hult School a bigger sample would be a suitable task for research. Among the few complete structures are: i want extra MONEY Apply now How do you see yourself? Look at the clues Travel with Eurotunnel from just £5. In the 1960s advertisers would often use grammatical conversion , taking a brand name (a noun) and is essay writing example Montverde Academy, using it as adjective, adverb or verb . This tendency has recently returned as in these examples: There is no attempt to alter the form of the word to correspond to its grammatical category, such as by adding an a summary of an Hult International Business, affix like #45;ish, #45;ic or #45;esque , nor of using an extra word: that's so like Suzuki how like Heineken. In the how to an effective Preparatory, UK, there are some state controls on what advertisers may or may not claim about their products.
Advertisers, therefore, often exploit the possibilities of connotation (suggested meaning) rather than strict denotation (stated meaning) and imply that products have various merits, without saying so explicitly. One common way of doing so is to use pseudo#45;technical lexis or scientific names for everyday things. However, this is not desirable in all contexts. In cosmetic and pharmacological products, most advertisers will use scientific lexis to suggest efficacy, as in these examples: Perle de Caviar draws the essential elements of write article for college School long#45;lasting beauty and a youthful complexion from the depths of the ocean. An Effective College Essay Broward School! trace elements, amino acids, mineral salts, iodine and how to of an for college Business, plankton. Combining a perfect balance of write a critical Millfield School these precious elements, each Perle de Caviar product provides an intense thalassotherapy treatment designed to how to a summary article for college Hult hydrate and regenerate. Regime elevates the use of how to write critique School cosmetics to something complex, while the ® symbol suggests that there is something technically sophisticated in the product. It may really simply denote the registration of the trade name to protect against misuse. This pseudo science is not simply found in the advertisements proper but in the joined#45;up marketing, so that people who apply and write a summary article International, demonstrate the products are beauty therapists #45; which may imply similar learning, academic qualifications and status to, for example, speech therapists or physiotherapists.
The beauty therapist wears a white garment like a lab coat, implying some kind of likeness to a pharmacist. Compare the examples above with one designed for a scientifically qualified readership. This is an advertisement for Xalatan a 0.00#37;5 eye drop solution of latanoprost, licensed for use in March 2002, and a personal essay, advertised in The Pharmaceutical Journal of write a summary article Hult International School November 2002. Essay Writing! The advertisement includes details of nine references to the product in published scientific sources, followed by detailed prescribing information, divided under standard headings such as Presentation, Indication, Dosage and Administration, Contra#45;indications, Precautions, Side Effects, Interactions, and information about the drug's effects in Pregnancy, Lactation and for how to write of an article School, Driving, Overdosage, Pharmaceutical Precautions, Legal Category, Packaging Quantities and Basic NHS price and details of the help writing college essays School, Product Licence Number and how to article Business, Holder . This degree of information distinguishes licensed pharmaceutical products from beauty treatments. Essay Blogs Badminton School! In the latter case, the advertisers might wish us to believe that Laboratoires Garnier and the Ponds Institute are comparable to medical research institutions. In the west, Ponds appears to have dropped references to of an article Business School the fictitious institute #45; a search on the Web leads to some amusing spoofs, though the Ponds Institute is still used in how to write an effective North Broward Preparatory, advertisements in the developing world. Write Business School! A register of pharmaceutical laboratories in France (at www.pharmaxie.com) does not show Laboratoires Garnier under entries for the letter g. In relation to food and write a critical essay Millfield School, drink, however, advertisers are usually keen to stress its naturalness. So while the how to write article for college School, product packaging will list all additives, flavourings and colourings, advertisements will identify the brand and writing blogs Badminton School, basic food content, as in Filippo Berio/The World's Finest Olive Oil/Filippo Berio/Olive Oil/Pure Genius #45; the brand name and the principal ingredient appear twice, along with the adjective pure, to suggest the idea that there is a summary of an for college, nothing but the natural oil in the bottle that the advertisement depicts.
A full#45;page advertisement for Cobra beer, in Sainsburys Magazine for January 2003, shows lots of blank space, a small photograph of help writing two bottles of Cobra, the how to write a summary of an article International Business School, Web site address, and this text: If you like Cobra,/drink Cobra and The less gassy bottled beer that puts you under no pressure. There are some exceptions to this rule of writing blogs School thumb, however #45; vitamins and mono#45;unsaturated fats, for example #45; which advertisers do sometimes mention. Advertisers occupy the how to of an for college International Business School, spaces where we are typically attending to other things #45; watching television, reading or browsing a magazine on is essay Montverde the way to work, looking at posters on an underground train, platform or escalator, or from a car, bus or bicycle. How To For College International Business! They will try to how to write critique appeal to all our senses and different language processing faculties at the same time. It is quite common for a TV advertisement to write a summary of an article for college Hult feature any or all of these at the same time: musical track, sound FX, voiceover, dialogue spoken by character or celebrity in or out of role, static text, moving text or text spelling out letter by letter on screen, with or without extra graphic embellishment . What we do, if anything with these, may vary from person to an effective college Broward person #45; but is something one can research. You can do this, for example, by showing advertisements to people (categorizing the people by whether they have seen the write a summary of an for college School, advertisement before, and how often, as well as by write a critical essay, other things like sex and age), then asking them whether they think the advert contains an how to a summary of an article Hult School, example of each of the kinds of text that the researcher has identified. (It is possible to write college essay School add some that are not there, as distractor questions, to eliminate some kinds of respondent.) A very good pragmatic approach is to consider the position and how to write a summary article School, viewpoint that the audience is being asked to adopt. Help Writing Warminster! This can be something very simple, as in an assumption that we all want to how to a summary article for college Hult International Business School save money. This assumption is very widespread among advertisers and marketers.
Regularly someone telephones me to ask if I would like to save a given figure on my utility bills. What Is Essay Writing Academy! My stock response is to say that I do not wish to save this amount (or even a lot more) to change something with which I am currently content, thinking it a fair price for a reliable service. This often leads the caller to question whether I really mean what I say, and to revert to a script that stresses this potential saving. By no means all advertisements make this assumption. Others assume that the reader or listener has anxieties about his or her self#45;image, and that he or she can become more attractive by wearing the watch or clothes advertised, or driving a different car. An extreme (and offensive) example was a TV advert that featured a young man mounting a supermarket trolley and racing it around a supermarket. A female voiceover spoke the phrase: Inadequate car. (The advert is offensive in suggesting that the write a summary of an article Business, choice or ownership of a marque of car is the measure of a human being.) Various advertisers of mobile phones try to persuade existing owners that they need to replace a model that is not stylish and a likely cause of writing ridicule, as in an advertisement series (shown on UK television) for Phones4U. In these adverts the write for college International School, comedian Paul Merton speaks a voiceover: We'll find the right phone for you. Does the advertiser consider how far the State, audience may resist the notion that there is a right phone for us? A more objective approach to pragmatics might be to consider what grammatical person or form of address advertisers use, if they try to speak directly to us.
Do they use imperatives (Look at how to write a summary International Business School the clues), do they make statements (We don't serve lobster in write college School, the directors' dining room) or do they plant noun#45;phrases (Free servicing for 3 years) and leave us to work out what to do about these? Discourse structures in advertising. Advertising is highly derivative and imitative (if not parasitic or plagiarizing) in the genres, text types and structures it uses. In effect, any kind of text that exists for any other purpose may be the blueprint for how to of an International School, an advertisement. Help Writing College Warminster! (This is not a one#45;way relationship: dramatic narratives and how to write a summary of an article for college Hult International Business, comic animations often borrow structures and writing Badminton School, techniques that first appeared in advertising. And there are many examples of how to write of an International School television or print fiction that started life as advertisements #45; the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles in is essay writing Academy, the 1990s or Torchie the Battery Boy in how to article Hult International Business, the 1960s.) A very common general approach (for any broadcast medium and cinema) is to create narratives #45; which may be self#45;contained or episodic. While the an article St Leonards School, advertiser may not wish to point out write article, that these are narratives, this is not always the how to write an article critique St Leonards, case.
A series of advertisements for write a summary of an for college International Business School, the BMW Mini car uses the write an effective college North Broward, format of write of an article for college Hult stories with a plot consisting of three or four statements, read as voiceover with accompanying action #45; the subject of essay writing blogs each sentence is usually New Mini, and each example ends with: The end. For College Hult International Business School! It's a Mini adventure. At the opposite extreme would be a series of advertisements produced by the agency McCann Erickson for Nescafe's Gold Blend brand of instant coffee. This campaign ran from help essays School November 1987 to 1993, containing twelve episodes released at the rate of one or two a year. The agency produced a compilation of the first eleven episodes before screening the article for college International School, conclusion. The story was adapted as a romantic novel, entitled Love Over Gold . An even longer#45;running series featured the OXO couple Katie and writing example Academy, Philip, in a series of domestic scenes. How To Of An! The Gold Blend series may have prompted the advertisers of the Renault Clio to make a series of advertisements featuring a French father and daughter (Papa and Nicole) into a more coherent narrative, ending with a wedding, which sends up the classic film The Graduate . In this advertisement, two entertainers, then at the height of their popularity (Vic Reeves and blogs Badminton School, Bob Mortimer) played the jilted groom and the successful old flame who runs off with the girl. A Channel 4 poll showed this series to be the most popular of all UK TV adverts, while other studies have claimed that the series was the how to a summary Hult School, most successful in terms of the audience's ability to identify the product advertised. As styles of is essay example TV broadcast have developed (say lifestyle programmes or reality shows), so advertisements have moved to emulate them. So we see the home makeover and DIY show mirrored by advertisements for a summary article Hult International School, Homebase, in which Neil Morrissey and Lesley Ash appear as a couple (loosely resembling the characters they played in the sitcom Men Behaving Badly ) while post#45;watershed documentaries about sexual behaviour clearly have inspired the campaign (starting in 2002) for Pot Noodle (It's dirty but you want it) in which a young man visits various clubs and asks young women in underwear or bondage gear whether they do Pot Noodle, or in which a young woman (seemingly a girlfriend) accuses the young man of indulging in his Pot Noodle habit. You can find many advertisements by write an article School, going to the Web sites of the various agencies, or looking for named directors of commercials.
But two big portals worth visiting are: As a critique of advertising, you should look at Adbusters , at adbusters.org/home. The features of political language vary, as do its purposes. Where politicians interact with society generally, their purposes may be, to persuade voters with a party loyalty to turn out to a summary of an for college International vote; to move a floating voter's party allegiance, or to make us adopt general political or social attitudes, so we support a given policy. Politicians may also use particular language forms when answering journalists' questions. Where politicians engage in language interactions with other politicians, they may use other particular forms #45; either loosely or under the rule of an arbiter, such as the Speakers in the UK House of Commons and the US House of Representatives. How To Write An Article St Leonards School! And finally, a contemporary feature of of an article Hult International School political language use is what is known as spin #45; providing information to the media in such a way as to favour a desired interpretation, not explicitly stated. Persuasive language techniques, especially in speech, take their name from the essay writing blogs, Greek noun for a professional speaker, rhetor (the Latin equivalent is orator ). Many of how to write of an for college International Business these techniques are found in written records of speeches in the ancient world #45; such as Jesus' use, in Matthew's and Luke's gospels of parable, antithesis and patterned speech which even survive translation into English: Blessed are those who mourn, | for they shall be comforted.
Blessed are the pure in heart, | for how to write critique St Leonards School, they shall see God. We have similarly ancient records of political speeches, such as those of Business School Demosthenes, that show the use of techniques that are as effective today, as they were in the past. Writing Example Montverde Academy! Max Atkinson, of Oxford University, suggests that political speechwriters consistently rely on a range of powerful techniques: alliteration, allusion, antithesis (inversion), asking questions and suggesting answers, lists (especially of three items), metaphor (especially extended metaphor), parallelism, parenthesis, repetition and redundant questioning. To see these in action, you should look at examples of speeches written for how to write of an International Business School, politicians, and find out how these work. School! Obtaining example data for this purpose is very easy. You can use the official record of the UK House of Commons. (This is how to a summary for college Hult, called Hansard after Thomas Curson Hansard, who began producing reports unofficially, and put his name to the record in writing narrative Louisiana State University, 1829.
Hansard's reports were so accurate that they became the standard record on merit. At the how to a summary article Hult International Business, start of the 20th century the UK government established an Official Report. It dropped the an article critique, Hansard name, but popular usage preserved it, and in 1943 the name was officially reinstated, even though the report now has no connection with the Hansard family.) Hansard 's reports are available in print and on the World Wide Web, as are records of proceedings in the parliaments of many other countries (which also use the name Hansard ). In the UK, the BBC has a digital television channel ( BBC Parliament ) that broadcasts debates and meetings of select committees #45; from which you can make recordings and transcripts. Write A Summary Of An Hult Business School! The federal government and state governments in the USA also publish the text of speeches, such as the President's Inaugural Address and State of the write an effective essay Preparatory School, Union speeches. Once you have found your transcript, what can you do with it? One exercise is to how to a summary article for college Hult International School look for rhetorical techniques in action. Consider this extract from a speech made by the late Harold Wilson, the Labour leader, before the 1974 UK General Election: This election is how to write an article critique, not about the write a summary of an article International, miners; not about the militants; not about the what writing example Academy, power of the of an article for college Hult International School, unions: it's about the disastrous failure of three and a half years of Conservative government which has turned Britain from the path of prosperity to the road of ruin. What is Mr.
Wilson doing here? We find. repetition of the formula not about, and antithesis between is not about and it's about. Path of prosperity and road of ruin repeat the same form, use alliteration and are related metaphors. In John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address from January 20, 1961, we find an extended metaphor (of lighting a fire to give light to essay blogs the world) and a concluding antithesis: The energy, the faith, the how to write of an International Business School, devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it, and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for writing a personal narrative Louisiana State University, you. Ask what you can do for your country.
The last two sentences use many of the how to article Hult International Business School, same lexemes , but transpose (switch) the subject and the indirect object. (You can find the Millfield, whole text of the speech and a summary article for college International, an audio recording [Real Audio] to download at the JFK Library and Museum, hosted by help Warminster, the University of Massachusetts Department of Computer Science at: For a humorous allusion, consider Margaret Thatcher's: To those waiting with bated breath for write a summary of an for college Hult School, that favourite modern catchphrase the 'U#45; turn', I have only one thing to write an effective college North Preparatory say: You turn, if you like; the how to write article School, lady's not for turning! There is wordplay on a personal essay Louisiana University the homophones U#45;turn/you turn, and a reference to Mrs. A Summary Article International! Thatcher's Iron Lady nickname, while the final phrase is a painful pun on the title of Christopher Fry's play (about a witch): The Lady's Not for Burning . Ronald Reagan's speechwriter, Peggy Noonan, borrowed an write Millfield School, image from John Gillespie Magee's poem High Flight to explain the disaster in 1986 when the Challenger space shuttle exploded: We will never forget them (the crew), nor the last time we saw them this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye, and slipped the surly bonds of earth, to touch the face of God. Now look at these longer extracts (from which some of the examples above come), and see if you can find other ways in which the writer (not the same person as the a summary of an article for college, speaker, usually) uses specific techniques to achieve particular effects. In the long history of the world only a few generations have been granted the rle of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility; I welcome it.
I do not believe that any of writing Badminton School us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it, and write of an article for college Hult Business School, the glow from that fire can truly light the world. And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country. I'll tell you what happens with impossible promises: you start with far#45;fetched resolutions; they are then pickled into a rigid dogma cold. And you go through the years, sticking to that: outdated, misplaced, irrelevant to the real needs. Write St Leonards School! And you end in the grotesque chaos of write a summary Hult International Business School a Labour council #45; a Labour council #45; hiring taxis to scuttle round a city, handing out redundancy notices to its own workers. I'm telling you now: no matter how entertaining, how fulfilling to short#45;term egos #45; I'll tell you and you'll listen #45; I'm telling you, I'm telling you #45; you can't play politics with people's jobs and people's services. Parliamentary and unparliamentary language. In the UK Parliament, a range of special language features marks proceedings.
These include: a special lexicon and forms of address, disallowing personally abusive epithets use of special structures Parliamentary privilege #45; freedom from is essay writing Academy liability for how to write a summary for college International Business, slander rules for how to write essay North Preparatory, taking and holding turns procedures for supportive and explicatory interventions submission to how to of an Business School the arbitration of the chairman or woman, the Speaker and Deputy Speakers. David Crystal ( Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language , p. 378) suggests also that maxims of conversational theory do not apply to parliamentary dialogue. Other participants or commentators do not assume that speakers are telling the truth, are speaking clearly or with relevance. This may need some clarification. In some ways, debate is like social conversation #45; people speak in sequence, respond to each other and develop ideas. And outside of a personal Louisiana University occasions when MPs adopt ritual enmities (Prime Minister's Question Time or the presenting of article for college International School a new draft bill, say), the speakers may follow cooperative rules and observe conversational maxims. But they have other motivations than the success of the conversation #45; and (in pragmatic terms) may want the exchange not to be successful, that is in coming to Louisiana University an accommodation. For an exhaustive discussion of write of an article Hult International Business School how different theoretical models usefully explain parliamentary discourse, have a look at Chris Christie's Politeness and the Linguistic Construction of Gender in Parliament: An Analysis of Transgressions and Apology Behaviour at www.shu.ac.uk/wpw/politeness. In this article, Chris Christie effectively qualifies Professor Crystal's assertion, as she does see what happens if one uses models from Pragmatics (specifically politeness theory) to explain Parliamentary exchanges. The UK parliament has a s pecial lexicon #45; something you will find in the political systems of many states. This includes terms denoting the institutions, practices and officials of the parliament #45; things like bench (back bench, cross bench, front bench), Black Rod, speaker, under#45;secretary, whip (noun and verb).
This lexicon is very extensive (there are many guides available to explain the meanings of terms). Some are descriptive and more or less self#45;explanatory, such as: Committee of Selection, Disclaiming a Peerage and Prime Minister's Questions (though here we need to know that the questions are asked of write essay or to, but not by, the Prime Minister, who gives the answers). A Summary For College Hult International Business! Others are opaque #45; we need to School know more information in order to understand the how to a summary of an for college Hult School, meaning, as with: 1922 Committee, Another Place, Chiltern Hundreds, Hansard and help Warminster School, I Spy Strangers . You can find explanations of these and other terms on various A to Z guides, but if you want to know the meaning of these particular terms they are as follows ( Hansard is explained above): Below is a list of further words and phrases which have a special meaning in the context of Parliament. How many do you know? Check the BBC's, or Parliament's own, A to how to write article Hult School Z guide to find out essays Warminster, what they mean. Go to: Any hours motion. Below the gangway.
Cabinet Office Secretariat. Chairman of Ways and Means. Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Chancellor of the exchequer. Chief whip (government) Clerk of the Parliaments. Contempt of Parliament. Crossing the Floor.
Disclaiming a peerage. Early Day Motion. Father of the a summary of an for college, House. I Spy Strangers. Journal of the Commons. Leader of the write an effective college Broward, House. Early Day Motion. Father of the House. I Spy Strangers. Journal of the Commons.
Leader of the House. Lord Privy Seal. Orders in Council. Orders of the Day. Parliamentary Private Secretaries (PPSs) Points Of Order. Prime Minister's Questions. Printed Paper Office. Private Bill Office. Private Member's Bills. Private Notice Question.
Public Accounts Committee. Public Bill Office. Readings of Bills. Recesses and write of an International Business School, Recalls. Serjeant at critique St Leonards School Arms. Ten Minute Rule Bill. Forms of address may confuse the outsider. Simple forms include my honourable Friend, the honourable Gentleman/Lady or the how to write a summary article for college Hult School, honourable Member for Finchley . These denote an an effective Broward School, MP simply #45; other members are supposed to know who represents each constituency (electoral area). A friend is usually of the same parliamentary party as the person who uses this epithet.
If the MP is a Privy Councillor (usually a former minister), then he or she is the right honourable Lady or Gentleman . If the MP is a barrister (as many are) he or she may be a learned Lady or Gentleman . The Speaker and Deputy Speaker chair debates. Of An Article International School! Remarks should be primarily addressed to write a critical essay School them, using the formula Madam/Mr. Speaker or Madam/Mr. Deputy Speaker. For example, here is a comment from Hansard for 21 January 2003, in which Mike O'Brien (Parliamentary Under#45;Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs) refers to Ann Clwyd: I pay tribute to the work of my hon. Friend the Member for Cynon Valley. Write Article For College Hult International Business School! (In Hansard hon. What Writing! is the standard abbreviation for honourable.) Directly addressing another person with the a summary for college Business, second person pronoun (You) is disallowed and may earn a rebuke from the Speaker, as in this exchange: Mr. How To St Leonards! Prescott: You might be #45; perhaps that is new new Conservatism #45; but you should have a chat to how to a summary article International School your mate on Badminton School the Front Bench. Mr.
Deputy Speaker: Order. I am sorry to stop the Secretary of State's speech, but I would be grateful if he would use the correct parliamentary language. In this case the Speaker signals his disapproval and calls Mr. Prescott to attention with the call: Order. This is technically a command , even though on occasions a rowdy House ignores it initially. Interestingly, he says nothing about the mate on of an article the Front Bench #45; so Mr. Prescott might have escaped rebuke, had he said, the honourable member for North Wiltshire should have a chat with his mate on the Front Bench, the [right] honourable member for Louisiana University, X. How To Write For College Hult School! Mr. Prescott's error is to use second person you, and how to write critique St Leonards School, speak directly to Mr.
Gray. However, in choosing among possible alternative forms in a given context, speakers may illustrate pragmatic rules or principles #45; perhaps using a polite formula to write article Hult International School cover hostility or aggression, while in writing, a naturally friendly exchange a less explicitly courteous form may be acceptable. Also, even when a speaker refers to his or her honourable friend, he or she is technically addressing the Speaker, while the honourable friend is in the third person. In the how to a summary of an article School, House of Commons speakers may assert things which elsewhere would allow others to sue them for libel #45; this is Parliamentary Privilege . An Article! On the other hand swearing (of almost any degree) and calling other speakers liars are formally disallowed. The Speaker asks any Member who breaches these rules to withdraw the write of an for college Hult School, remark. If he or she persists, the Speaker may ban the is essay writing example Montverde Academy, offender from the House for a given period. The Commons has other rules defining contempts, such as giving false evidence to a Select Committee, threatening MPs about of an article for college Hult School how they vote , and write an article St Leonards School, offering bribes . To vote, members go through a lobby. If they support a motion, they go through the Aye (yes) lobby ; to oppose it, they enter the No lobby . To give the result, the Speaker states the number of how to of an article for college School votes for Aye and writing college Warminster, No , and says that either the Ayes or the Noes have it. In a debate, the how to write of an Hult International Business School, Speaker of the writing narrative essay University, House calls MPs to take a turn . The holder of the write a summary of an for college Hult International Business School, turn may allow another speaker to writing a personal narrative essay interrupt his or her speaking. The new would#45;be speaker may ask, Will you give way? The MP who is speaking may agree to how to write a summary this, using the form: I will give way.
Etiquette dictates that the new speaker should make a brief contribution before allowing the write an effective North Broward, first speaker back. This is a highly formalized version of turn taking. Of course, on many occasions, the person who has the floor will refuse to allow the interruption, for reasons of how to article for college International School time or policy. MPs may not read aloud written speeches during debate, though they may use notes. They are not allowed to read newspapers, magazines and letters.
They may not make use of visual aids, such as diagrams and maps. Short slogans, like those in advertisements, often mark the write a critical School, speech of politicians answering questions from journalists (or their opponents). These are repeated in such a way as to persuade the listener of how to write a summary of an article International their truth or reason. For example, in defending policies which apparently increased unemployment in the UK but raised the value of the currency, Mrs. Thatcher coined the phrase: There is no alternative. There obviously were alternative suggested policies but denying their existence made them seem impractical.
Whether or not they were really impractical is not the linguist's concern: we are interested in the linguistic means by which Mrs. Thatcher justified her dismissal of School them. A very simple but effective sound bite is the name New Labour . New is well known as an effective qualifier in advertising, and the UK Labour Party in the 1990s was keen to distance itself from the (supposedly unelectable) Labour Party of the 1980s. Constant repetition of the name made it stick. The Conservative Party, then in government, attacked New Labour in the 1997 election campaign with the slogan New Labour, New Danger. Arguably, this reinforced the idea that Labour had changed and helped the party win the election. (broadcast, print, new technologies) While any text may be influenced by the maker's preconceptions and world view, many media texts arise from an explicit intention of promoting given values or attitudes, whether sincerely, because the author believes in them, or cynically, to attract an audience. As students of language, you have no interest in write of an article Hult International Business School, this #45; your concern is the language features in which these attitudes are embodied or expressed . It may be helpful not to think of these preconceptions as bias, since this implies disapproval. They are, rather, the speaker's or writer's outlook, assumptions or editorial stance . You should be aware that certain media texts proclaim and admit these underlying attitudes #45; opinion columns or current affairs broadcasts explicitly adopt such a stance.
But others, such as reporting, may aspire to neutrality, yet display the author's value systems by choices of help writing college essays lexis or current metaphors . For example: Do we read of how to a summary of an article International Business refugees, economic migrants or asylum seekers ? Are they bogus , and are they passing through open (or about#45;to#45;be#45;open) floodgates ? (How often do you meet floodgates in a literal, rather than metaphorical sense?) Are those who resist the state guerrillas, freedom fighters or terrorists ? Does a writer introduce ideas of legality to confer (dis)approval, so legal intoxicants (alcohol, tobacco) are distinguished from those that are illegal, and so referred to as drugs . New media texts may reveal very different attitudes, but in what writing example Montverde Academy, similar ways #45; they, too, have distinctive lexis and metaphors. Individual expression rather than central editorial control may permit greater language diversity. Perhaps influential power is less monolithic, but appears in trends and fashions. How To Article Business School! There is plenty of space for writing School, critics #45; the World Wide Web abounds with sites that proclaim why X sucks , where X is a powerful business corporation.
Lexical choices reflect shifts in subjective meaning or connotation or contemporary attitudes, so that they carry a sense of approval (approbation) or disapproval (pejoration). They may also be euphemistic , appearing as an how to of an Business, acceptable substitute for some word or phrase that the writer or speaker thinks too strong or direct #45; as when the inadvertent killing of soldiers by their own allies or compatriots is help writing essays School, friendly fire, and the killing of civilians is how to write a summary of an for college Hult International Business School, collateral damage. Political correctness (as a linguistic rather than social attitude) represents an write an effective college essay North Broward School, attempt to find neutral terms. While PC language is often a subject for ridicule, it arises from a sensitivity to the connotations or implications of more common forms. It is worth paying attention to recurring forms #45; how often does anyone talk about addressing the issues (in the loose sense of talking about things or sorting them out). Context is very important #45; some areas of the media will use traditional and quite literary forms to suggest seriousness and dignity, as, say, on Alistair Cooke's Letter from America , broadcast on BBC Radio 4. Presenters of children's programmes on BBC1, BBC2 and CBBC will use forms closer to those of everyday speech among young people #45; or will they? Perhaps this is generally true, but they will have their own taboos #45; so they will not normally refer to how to a summary of an article for college International sex, violence, gambling and alcohol, or swear and blaspheme. We can apply the theories of pragmatics to language use in the media #45; but should note some special features of how they work. A simple example might be a political interview, broadcast on radio or television.
What the how to write critique St Leonards, listener or viewer might miss is an understanding of how far the speakers are aware of the wider audience , and how far the questions and a summary of an for college Business, answers are, or are not, spontaneous, as the interviewee may have seen them before the interview is help college essays Warminster School, recorded. Another complicating factor is the effect of editing , where an a summary of an article for college Hult International Business, interview is recorded for School, later broadcast #45; this can remove the write of an article for college Hult International Business, sense of two or more people observing the cooperative principle or exhibiting politeness . In the case of broadcast texts generally, one should consider the relationship between the author or the publisher and the audience. Take news broadcasts, for writing a personal narrative essay Louisiana State, example. We are familiar with the convention of a newsreader's sitting down at or behind a desk, but not all newsreaders do this. Some newsreaders greet the audience: Good evening, here is the news, while others say This is [name of news organization] news or simply: The six o'clock news from the BBC. Even things like the write a summary of an School, newsreaders' clothes may be important #45; suits and how to St Leonards School, ties are common (for men) in the west and in the developing world, but in some countries newsreaders wear traditional or culturally significant clothes. This is something very easy to study: record a series of how to of an article for college Hult Business broadcasts on radio and TV over writing a personal essay University a day or two #45; if you have digital TV and radio, you can record bulletins from a much wider range. Then study each and note down how they do certain things.
For example: How many are there #45; one, two, more and of what sex? What do they wear? Do they sit, stand, move, stay still and so on? Do they acknowledge each other? How do they introduce reports from a summary article Hult Business other correspondents? How do they address the how to write an article critique St Leonards School, unseen audience? Do we see filmed footage (on TV news)?
Do we see any graphic images or captions? Do we see text giving people's names? These are just a few ideas #45; you should be able to think of many more. Once you have noted down the information, you might like to arrange it, say in a table. Now you can consider what, if anything, this tells you about the kinds of how to write a summary of an for college Business interaction going on. To take one example Channel 4's seven o'clock (p.m.) news bulletin on Saturday February 8th, 2003 carried a report on the pay rise awarded to the Lord Chancellor, Derry Irvine. Example Montverde! To show the value of write of an Hult Business School this rise (£22,000), the broadcaster used on#45;screen graphics showing what this amount would buy (a teacher's salary, so many bottles of claret and other things), while displaying an animated image of a fruit#45;machine bearing the name: Derry's Jackpot. Leaving aside the question of how the an article critique School, viewer may feel about the news story here, we may consider how the write a summary article for college Hult Business School, use of these techniques affects that view.
The image of the fruit machine may be significant to some parts of the audience, but may give offence to others, who disapprove of gambling. We may ask whether the broadcaster should use any images or animations to suggest the idea of an unmerited benefit and how to critique School, whether the fruit machine animation makes the story clearer. Should the how to write article for college Hult International, story be left to speak for itself? Or is some kind of editorial slant inevitable? We can apply similar considerations to other spoken media texts #45; say the way in which a programme host talks to a guest on a phone#45;in quiz or similar activity. On a TV game show, for example, we may see the writing narrative essay University, host's supporting the participants to avoid their being unduly humiliated or, worse, not keeping to write a summary article Hult Business the programme's format and structure. Recent broadcasts, of the what writing Montverde, so#45;called Reality TV genre, are quite different #45; in many of these, there is how to a summary of an article International School, no such protection or nurturing of the participants. Instead they are subject to insult by the hosts or other participants. It is relatively easy to study grammar , by writing blogs Badminton, looking at write article Hult International Business School very specific features of language data such as verb tenses and pronoun choices #45; these can become conventional in certain forms or genres, and harden into a kind of style.
So, with broadcast news, we will be familiar with the forms in: Fifty#45;three people died when their bus collided with a train in central China early this morning. St Leonards School! The clause structure is subject + verb (past imperfect tense) + adverbial . This is an effective model or structure because the grammatical subject also signals the subject of the story (the victims of the crash), then says what happened, then gives information about how and why it happened, or further information about the circumstances of the event. If we look at. The Prime Minister flew to write a summary of an article France this afternoon for a meeting with President Chirac. we can see that this is more or less the same structure. Some kinds of text, like reportage, use formulas like this, because the writers work at speed and are meant to how to write an effective Broward School publish the story rather than create literary work. Do persuasive media texts have distinctive grammatical forms that reinforce their tendency to persuade? Perhaps.
What might these be? Well, I have just used one in the two previous sentences #45; taking what might be declarative sentences and how to write a summary for college Business, recasting them as questions and answers . Qualifiers can be used, as their name implies to qualify the meaning of verbs and nouns #45; so that our view is affected #45; which really takes us back into semantics and stylistics . Are there distinctive structures for persuasive texts in the media? First, we may want to identify what such persuasive media texts might be. Writing Blogs School! Some are easy to name, as they are explicitly intended to write of an for college Hult Business School alter our view #45; as with party election or political broadcasts, editorials in newspapers and campaigns, such as the campaign in 2001 by the News of the World (a UK Sunday newspaper) to introduce Sarah's Law (the equivalent of the US Megan's Law, here named after murder victim Sarah Payne), such that families could know the identities of convicted paedophiles living near them. Other texts may have less obviously persuasive qualities #45; such as a documentary broadcast that leads the audience to some kind of essay writing blogs position or view. Sometimes the text will seek to persuade through ridicule, using the structure and style of some other kind of text, but subverting it. What are the how to for college Hult Business, structures for essay blogs Badminton School, these texts?
Editorials may be a few hundred words in length #45; a headline, a simple introduction, an elaboration of argument with examples, leading to a simple conclusion. While the lexicon and style may vary according to article for college Hult the target readership of the newspaper, the structure is a personal narrative essay Louisiana, more or less the same for how to write a summary of an article for college Hult, different kinds of newspaper. The party election or political broadcast in the UK is limited in time to a few minutes #45; so the writers have developed structures like extended advertisements. The extract below comes from a personal essay University a 1994 party political broadcast for the Labour Party, which had a running time of 4 minutes 40 seconds: [Opening shot: Time#45;lapse photography of the sun rising over the Palace of Westminster] TONY BLAIR: [voice#45;over] It is an honour to lead this party. I accept it with excitement.. [cut to shots of Blair reviewing papers in how to write for college Business School, the back seat of write a critical School a car] .. but also with humility, and with a profound sense of the responsibility that is placed upon me. [cut to how to a summary of an article International School someone adjusting the rear#45;view mirror to show Blair] [Cut to Radio Two studio] VOICE#45;OVER: [station identifier] Radio Two #45; Jimmy Young.
JIMMY YOUNG: And in the studio with me now, the new Leader of the Labour Party, Tony Blair. Good Morning Tony. TONY BLAIR: Good Morning Jim. [Cut to vox pops] VOX POP 1: Tony Blair has a sense of writing essays Warminster vision. VOX POP 2: You know what they say about politicians, they never look you in the eye. Of An Article International! He certainly does. VOX POP 3: I feel I can trust him. [Cut to Blair talking to camera; caption The Rt.Hon. Tony Blair MP Leader of the Labour Party]
This is a personal State University, more complex than a newspaper editorial. The editorial has a common theme, but also may have a reasonably clear argument, using examples to illustrate it. Write For College Business! In the broadcast, there is Millfield School, still the common theme, but there is not a simple or clear line of argument, rather a series of elements that are assembled loosely. The writer relies on the audience to supply the connections, so that we do not have an how to write a summary article for college International, obvious sense of writing narrative someone's telling us what to think. The image of the of an article for college Hult International Business, sunrise and how to essay Millfield, the recording of Tony Blair's accepting the leadership of the party both suggest the write of an for college International Business School, idea of change #45; in 1994 the Labour Party was trying to persuade the British electorate to return Labour to writing essays Warminster School power.
We can see how the writer first shows Tony Blair or has him speaking on a voice#45;over, but does not have him speaking straight to camera until some way into the broadcast. The party political broadcast must have quite a distinctive style, since it lends itself to comic treatment. A search on the World Wide Web will turn up many spoof broadcasts, including several Monty Python Sketches. How To A Summary Article For College Hult International Business! The extract below comes from a broadcast (November 2001) of the ruling People's Action Party of Singapore and how to an effective college essay North Broward, published on the party's Web site at www.pap.org.sg. Write Of An Article For College Business! It is far simpler than the Labour broadcast above: In two days' time, you will be casting your votes. Before you vote, ask yourself this question: in this economic downturn, who can help you find jobs? Nobody can say when our economy will recover. The US is help Warminster, fighting a war against terrorism #45; in Afghanistan and in the US itself.
If the war goes badly, the global recession could drag on. Write Of An For College International School! Singapore could then take one and a half to two years to recover. This is how to write a critical School, why I have called for elections now, as I want your strong mandate for our programme to save and create jobs for you. JOBS TODAY, JOBS TOMORROW. I am especially concerned for older Singaporeans. How To A Summary Of An Article For College! They have families to look after. They find it harder to find and what is essay writing example, fit into new jobs. How To Write Of An Article For College International Business! This is true of most older workers, factory workers, office workers, professionals too. How do we help you? First, let us try to save existing jobs.
Next, let us help retrenched workers find new jobs. Thirdly, for the longer term, we must create more jobs. This broadcast is no more than a speech #45; we do not (on the Web document) have an indication of what might be shown on TV or if it is a radio broadcast only, but it seems to be the text of a speech by narrative essay, the leader. In the Labour broadcast, Tony Blair eventually speaks about the economy and jobs #45; but here the write of an for college Hult International Business, speaker moves straight to these subjects, without any real preliminaries. There is no suggestion of how to create jobs, but the noun is repeated many times. The notion of a canon of classic works of art has not gone away, but is in creative tension with alternative contemporary visions. We cannot readily call these modern since this label has been appropriated for works from the early 20th century, and post#45;modern smacks of the 1980s. Millfield! Some works, hailed in the moment of write a summary Hult International Business School publication or exhibition as masterpieces, are quickly forgotten. Nevertheless, most developed societies allow space for vigorous public debate about art and culture.
And we are comfortable with a distinction between popular, lowbrow or commercial music, writing and how to an effective college essay Preparatory School, so on, and how to write a summary of an article International Business, serious, classical or highbrow art. Culture, especially popular culture, exerts a massive influence on how people think and is essay writing example Montverde Academy, see the world. And this is a summary of an for college Business, reflected in a range of language forms. When we need comfort, our friends tell us that they are or will be there for how to write a critical Millfield School, us. Unless we are pedantic we do not ask where there is. Soap operas and advertisements present us with tidy versions of real life scenarios and the language forms we need to understand or endure them: a lexicon for a summary International Business School, our troubles and problems, helpful phrases and even extended discourse structures or paradigms for coping. Have a good cry we are told, because we have to an effective college Broward grieve (a metaphor of pressure which must be released before it does harm, often appears). You owe it to yourself or because I'm worth it express positively attitudes that seem far less attractive when called selfish or narcissistic. The fictional trial of how to write a summary of an article Hult International Business a character for a topical crime (rape, wife beating, road rage) may provoke intelligent reflection leading to greater understanding. But it may be so plausible and is essay writing, convincing that it replaces proper public debate. What kinds of how to write of an article for college Hult International Business persuasive texts might there be in the general category of college Warminster culture?
These would include satire, polemical writing, poetry and theatre . While some legal processes are used to enact power, others are devised to allow lawyers to persuade a judge or a jury, within an adversarial system of persuasion. This has its own distinctive language forms, and is much more constrained by rules than other kinds of how to write a summary article Hult International School persuasion #45; so much so that failure to obey the rules can overturn the decisions of a court. David Crystal ( Cambridge Encyclopedia of the an article critique, English Language , p. 374) distinguishes between the how to a summary International, language of the how to write a critical essay, legislature (Parliament) which institutes a legal text (sets down the law in written form) and write a summary of an article Hult International Business School, the language of the judiciary (law courts and college essay Preparatory School, judges) which interprets and how to, applies it. The law also has its own lexicon: this preserves archaic terms, perhaps to promote respect for its processes or intimidate. While this continues to be acceptable in how to write a critical School, criminal law, in April 1999 civil courts saw a change in how to write article, their lexicon.
A Mareva injunction (which prevents the sale of assets during litigation) became a freezing injunction , in camera became in private , a minor or infant became a child , a plaintiff became a claimant , inter partes became with notice , ex parte became without notice , while pleading was replaced by statement of case . These changes were made on the recommendation of Lord Woolf, the Master of the Rolls , whose own title reflects the archaic origin of much legal lexis. The Norman Conquest established French (which included many Latin loanwords) as the language of law and writing college essays, politics. Later, Latin was used, and English only replaced Latin as the language of English law in how to a summary for college International, the 17th century. Writing Blogs School! For this reason Latin phrases abound ( mens rea, ab initio, certiorari, ex parte ) as do French loanwords ( lien, plaintiff, tort ). To show the difference between areas where one is under obligation and those where one has some room to choose, the law makes use of modal verbs such as may, must, shall . To establish its general applicability the law uses pronouns such as all and write of an for college Hult Business, whoever or generic nouns such as vehicle or person . To simplify or modernize the language of the law seems desirable, but may be problematic. Essays Warminster! Ordinary people may have a better sense of write Hult International School understanding and therefore more respect for how to a critical essay Millfield, laws expressed simply and plainly. How To Write Of An For College Business School! But some apparently obscure terms may have been coined precisely to express subtle or unusual meanings or distinctions. And if the law uses the common register, then an updated term may itself become obsolete, as its common meaning misleads people about its legal sense. Fiona Kerr, who used to practise law, gives this example of what she calls the difference between lawyer#45;speak and normal language: The general public use murdered interchangeably with killed, no#45;one ever says he manslaughtered him.
Consider also what most people mean when they refer to personal property as compared with my understanding of it as everything which isn't land (roughly speaking). When Mrs Bloggins does her own will and leaves her personal property to the nice lady who looked after her cat whilst she was in hospital, she may intend to how to write a critical essay Millfield School leave her collection of tin ornaments and a few skirts, but is she intending to also bequeath her savings to how to a summary article Hult said nice lady or did she intend to leave them to her son, along with the house? Only a Judge can decide and by the time he has, there won't be any savings left for the winning litigant to spend #45; and the loser could be in debt. Law is often expressed in lengthy sentences marked by help essays Warminster, lists of items to ensure that nothing is article for college Hult International School, missed out is essay writing Montverde Academy, which the law should cover, so we know later whether or not it applies in a certain case. Parentheses or subordinate clauses appear frequently to clarify a preceding clause. Alternatively a number may refer to a footnote, where a phrase is more extensively or unambiguously defined. Legal documents are notorious for hyper#45;complex syntax , with several degrees of subordination of clauses . They also allow, often without clarifying punctuation, lengthy adverbial phrases , such as: And any such release settlement discharge shall as between you and the undersigned be deemed to have been given or made upon the express condition that it shall become and be wholly void and for college Hult International Business, of no effect if the assurance security or payment on the faith of which it was made or given shall be void. While literary texts (such as Dickens' or Hardy's novels) suggest that in earlier times ordinary readers could process complex syntactic structures, and understand their meaning, modern readers or listeners may find this troublesome.
Shorter and less complex syntax is easier to understand, while some features of punctuation, typography and layout can all aid comprehension. It is not so much that lawyers in the past did not know how to make themselves understood. They perhaps never intended to do so. Advocacy , as practised by barristers in how to an article critique, criminal courts, can be contrasted with advertising. In one case, there are no rules, while approaches change and are expedient #45; advertisers do whatever works. Advertisers are constrained by some standards and a code of practice. But advocates in the law courts are subject to very precise rules about evidence, kinds of argument and turn taking, among other things, in a forum (the court) over which a judge presides. As regards sequence, barristers must outline a case and then present it, with the counsel (advocate) for the prosecution going before the defence counsel. A Summary Hult International School! The prosecution must prove its case beyond reasonable doubt; the defence, as barristers and judges often remind juries, does not have to prove anything #45; it is enough to discredit the prosecution or show that the prosecution has not proved the case beyond reasonable doubt. Each side may question its own witnesses, but the other side may subsequently cross#45;examine (question) them. Each side must sum up its case, and the judge must also sum up the whole proceedings and advise the how to write a critical, jury about how to how to write a summary of an arrive at its verdict.
In asking a question of a witness, an essay School, advocate is not normally allowed to invite the witness to agree with a version of how to write of an for college International events the advocate has described #45; that is, by asking leading questions. Example Academy! In some state court systems of the USA the opposing counsel may call out Objection and write of an Hult International School, the judge may direct the jury to State disregard what they have heard. In the UK, judges make such rulings directly without the protest of Objection. In order to make the trial fair to of an Hult International School the accused, the writing narrative University, prosecution may not refer to any crimes of how to a summary article for college School which he or she has been convicted in the past, though the defendant may voluntarily disclose this information. (This is changing in English law.) And each side must disclose to essay writing blogs the other, before the trial begins, the evidence it intends to use in write Hult, the trial. Unlike everyday argument or conversational disputes, each side makes its case largely without interruptions from the other side.
Each may take as long as the evidence it presents allows #45; it is up to the judge to decide if something is not relevant and stop a line of questioning or argument. The closest thing to interruption is the chance to challenge a witness's testimony in cross#45;examination. The advocates do not at any point interrupt each other. But both sides may, in examining a witness, interrupt the witness where an answer is not forthcoming or seems open to challenge. The witness may be intimidated, but is an effective essay North Broward, not obliged to how to article Hult respond instantaneously. The judge may restrain an advocate who uses an inappropriate manner or asks questions that seem not relevant to a line of questioning. The fundamental principle of advocacy is so familiar that its strangeness is often overlooked #45; that is, that experts in argument (advocates) compete, under known rules, to how to a critical Millfield secure conviction or acquittal for another person. On occasions, in write of an for college Hult International Business, both criminal and civil trials, people do represent themselves #45; but this is very rare. Warminster! Thus David Irving (2000) presented his own (civil) case in suing another historian who had called him a Holocaust denier. (He lost the case, so anyone may now describe Mr.
Irving as a Holocaust denier, without risk of libel.) A jury has a difficult task, in write for college Hult International, attending both to the detail of Badminton a witness's evidence or an how to of an for college Hult School, advocate's interpretation, as well as to help Warminster School the whole case presented by either side. Article Hult School! Although the jury ultimately decides on matters of fact, the judge will help them by explaining matters of law. Thus, a verdict may depend not only on what the accused did or did not do, but also on essays Warminster School the offence of which he or she is accused. In England and how to write article for college Hult International School, Wales, for most criminal offences, a verdict of guilty is represented as beyond reasonable doubt. The presiding judge may help the jury with the meaning of reasonable. In Scotland, as well as verdicts of guilty or not guilty, a jury may bring in a verdict of not proven. Writing Example Montverde Academy! This allows them to indicate their uncertainty #45; the accused is not convicted, but does not walk away clear of suspicion. According to Fiona Kerr: A guilty verdict means that the conduct complained of must have matched the conduct covered by the charge and that the conduct must be proved beyond reasonable doubt. In studying the language of the law, you may think primarily of those who speak and write a summary of an article for college Hult School, write it, but be aware also of listeners or readers.
In the Louisiana, case of a jury, a very unusual kind of listening (and reading) is required. The jury is able to write a summary of an International Business School make requests of the judge, for example, to an article critique School look again at a record of some part of a trial, but its discretion is limited by what the write of an article for college International School, judge allows or thinks appropriate. Jurors may make notes, and keep these with them for the duration of a trial #45; these notes stay in court or the jury retiring room (a special room where jurors meet to consider a verdict, or in some kinds of break during a trial). College School! Once the jury reaches a verdict, these notes are destroyed. One interesting expression of courtesy is the legal fiction that every judge knows all the law. A barrister who wishes to correct a judge on a point where his or her knowledge is not complete may use a form such as, As your lordship well remembers.
Fiona Kerr notes that: the Barrister may well be supplying the Judge's ignorance but everyone pretends that every Judge has an encyclopaedic knowledge which is frankly unrealistic. Their Lordships have to deal with every aspect of write a summary of an article for college Hult Business School Law and there's no way they know that much, so Counsel tells them the arguments and the law as if they know it already, even if they don't. The barrister supplies the relevant information but effectively offers it to the judge for endorsement in a manner that signals deference. This may be the origin of a personal narrative Louisiana State University with respect. At some point in the past it may have been necessary for a speaker to exhibit real deference while correcting a superior - since discourtesy would have led to a loss of honour or reputation, as well, perhaps, as advancement that would be in the gift of the person to whom the write a summary Hult International, respect in question was due. Nowadays the write an article St Leonards, function of with respect (an implied correction by one with better information) remains, but its literal denotation (showing respect to one who deserves it) may be lost. Beneath the explicit or official rules that govern the of an article for college Business School, way barristers present a case, are some common tactics (some of which you may have observed in fictional representations as well as any real trials that you have attended). Fiona Kerr observes:
There's the day#45;to#45;day code of insults with which you are probably familiar, such as with respect (i.e. you're wrong), with great respect (i.e. you are completely wrong) and, ultimately with the greatest respect (i.e. you are an utter fool). There are power structures in write a critical School, education, from how to write Hult School nurseries to universities, but these are often concealed from those who are subject to them. Schools often produce codes or summaries or lists of rules, but these may have only critique St Leonards School a local or relative force, since the school itself is subject to laws that protect the interests of different groups. We can perhaps helpfully distinguish educational institutions (other than officer training colleges for the police and armed forces) from the armed services, which have explicit published regulations, a clear hierarchy of command, and tribunals to resolve the few disputed cases that defy this system. In recent times some UK schools and how to write for college International School, universities may have required parents or students to give assent to a code of rules or home#45;school agreement, but there is no universal model for these, and few parents or students would accept that attending a school has the same force in imposing rules, as joining the army or police service. Help School! Educational establishments have some powers of how to write of an article Hult International last resort, such as temporary or permanent exclusion but otherwise have very much to what writing example Academy derive their power from the how to write Hult, consent of those who are governed. Traditionally, schools have exerted power on their students, but we can also see how power lies with the pupils in many situations #45; at the least because most of what teachers and parents expect to write a critical School happen can do so only with some assent from the students. What happens if one adult (usually one, though in classrooms today there may be several adults present) spends an hour #45; or several hours in a primary classroom #45; in the company of between twenty and thirty young people? Experience suggests that there is a massive variety of results. In one case, the how to a summary of an for college International Business, adult imposes his or her will by various means on the students, who comply with the adult's lead or, if they defy it, find themselves excluded or subject to some kind of help writing essays Warminster School sanction. In another case, the children react to how to write of an Hult International Business the adult in subversive and confrontational ways (sometimes more actively than the essay blogs, same children would be if left unattended in a classroom).
In yet another case, the adult and children achieve a kind of equilibrium, where each takes turns, gives way or takes the lead, and how to write a summary article for college Hult School, all work productively towards an agreed set of goals, or give outward assent to the majority who wish to do so. There will be other situations, and maybe the same group will at different times approximate more to one position than another #45; so a class that meets a new teacher for how to write an article critique, the first time may do things to test his or her character; while over time, a class may come to like and of an for college Hult International, respect a teacher, so that he or she can, on occasion, appeal to how to write a critical a perceived obligation. Students can be very effective in nurturing and supporting an adult, where they judge that this is appropriate. Many of the causes of these relationships are found in the personalities of the teachers and the learners #45; but they also lie clearly in the nature of the language interactions that occur between adult and pupil. And we can study these objectively. How To Write Of An For College International Business! For example, we can investigate. the frequency with which a request takes a given form #45; direct imperative (do X) or question (would you do X?), whether the person making the request uses a name or other form of address , whether there is a please and example, thank you and so on. We could also measure objectively whether use of direct commands is more or less efficient (in the time it takes) than use of requests. We might wish to relate these things to the age, ability, prior social experience and so on, of the how to write a summary of an article International Business School, learners. Another thing we might like to observe, and possibly quantify, is the ability of a student, by speaking in certain ways, to provoke a given response from the teacher. That is, how far each (student or teacher) is ready to writing Badminton School adopt ritualised or predictable and practised rôles in an interchange: the student presses a particular button, and the teacher reacts in the expected way.
Of course, such ritual exchanges need not be confrontational or hostile. They may be playful in tone, but serious in an underlying dialogue. Or they may be very friendly interchanges, in which all parties are reinforcing an existing social relationship #45; the teacher tells a weak joke, the pupils tell him how unfunny he is, then ask about his sick cat or whether the new baby is still keeping him awake. Study of how to write of an article Hult School classroom discourse may differ from conversational analysis, in that one person is trying to establish a rapport with a complete group at some points, with sub#45;groups at other points, and individuals at other times. How To School! In any one lesson it is almost impossible to achieve this, but over a series of lessons it is possible #45; though without any objective method, even the best#45;intentioned teacher may not give a fair allocation of time to how to article for college International School all. Are there devices that, addressed to a group, can make individuals feel that the comment is for them in particular? Almost any of the methods of analysis of spoken utterances that come under the general heading of pragmatics may be fruitful when used to how to write critique St Leonards School study language exchanges in the classroom. Instrumental power #45; business and management. There are useful general approaches that we can take in write a summary of an Business, analysing and how to write North, explaining language interchanges in various social contexts, but some features are relevant to of an article for college School one social context more than another. Private enterprise (in much of the write an effective essay Preparatory, English#45;speaking world) is regulated by some laws that, for example, describe and a summary article Hult International Business School, defend the human rights and welfare of employees, but it is not organized into a universal system, so that language use can emerge rather as a fashion #45; and power may come partly from using the current or the how to Preparatory, most novel special forms. Like any social context, business and management have their own distinctive lexis . This includes both useful and necessary names for things that are peculiar to the way business works, as well as buzzwords . How To For College International School! These are neologisms and phrases that disguise more familiar things or give them a temporary sense of novelty or mystique.
In time they may become seen as cliches or otherwise ridiculous. Let's look at some real examples. How To Write A Critical! Guru , which denotes a religious teacher famed for great wisdom, has become compounded into other forms such as Internet#45;guru, management#45;guru, business#45;guru and article for college International School, so on. One such management guru is Charles Handy, who has invented a special set of names for management structures, derived from the writing essays, gods and how to, goddesses of classical Greece. He describes four cultures: the Zeus Culture , the Athena Culture , the Apollo Culture and how to Millfield School, the Dionysian Culture . Write A Summary Of An International! (It is not clear why he uses the noun form as attributive adjective for three of these, but uses an established adjectival form in Dionysian.) So what do the names mean?
Zeus Culture: an organization dominated by the personality and power of an article critique St Leonards School one person, often the founder or owner, after the ruler of the gods. Apollo Culture: an organization dominated by rules and procedures, after Apollo the God of harmony and order. Athena Culture: the project organization that dominates consultancies, advertising agencies and, increasingly, all innovative businesses, after Athena, the warrior goddess. Dionysian Culture: an organization in which the individual has the freedom to write article Business School develop his or her own ideas in the way they want #45; an artists' studio, perhaps, or a university. They are hard to manage, these Dionysian places, but increasingly necessary if you want to employ really creative people. In an interview with the BBC, Charles Handy continues: What interested me, however, was not the downsizing or the re#45;engineering itself, as others began to call it, but the consequences for our individual working lives.
Organizations, it seemed to me, would increasingly dispense with our services in our mid#45;lives as they concentrated on what example Montverde fewer and a summary of an Hult School, younger people in their cores, with only how to write Millfield School a few wise heads to keep the show on track. You can find the interview at. In this short extract we see the a summary of an International, business#45;specific terms: downsizing, re#45;engineering and keep the show on track. Downsizing is now quite well established as a verb that means reducing the number of employees, and perhaps other features of the how to, organization (physical premises, costs and so on). It is self#45;explanatory but has rather odd morphology, being a compound of adverb, and noun (size) converted to verb. Re#45;engineering is article for college Hult School, a metaphor whereby the reorganization of people is likened to a change in a mechanized process #45; it is therefore rather impersonal. Keep the show on track is not confined to business, but used in many kinds of human activity #45; it is a metaphor derived from write an effective essay North Broward travelling stage shows.
More commonly people say they try to keep the show on the road. Charles Handy's use of track may come from mixing the phrase with the ending of back on track. Business terms may be more or less well assimilated into the common lexicon. You can test this by how to article for college Hult International Business School, looking for them in different dictionaries and seeing whether or not they appear as an entry, as with blue chip (a common stock that has consistently paid dividends over a long period of time); bundling (the grouping of several products and/or services into one package. It benefits buyers by write St Leonards School, condensing several purchases into one. Write Of An Hult International School! Companies benefit by reducing the ability of consumers to writing a personal Louisiana University compare individual product prices with those of competing companies.) The term is very common in relation to computer software, bundled with a machine for consumers to buy; cherry picking (purchasing products individually from a variety of companies rather than as a bundle from one company)
At a series of Hult International School presentations from blogs School bidders to supply products to the Yorkshire and Humberside Regional Broadband Project (October 2000), each presenter in turn referred to his or her product as best of breed and most described a mutually advantageous arrangement as a win#45;win situation. The former metaphor is taken from the Crufts annual dog show, but none of the presenters gave any hint of knowing this provenance, of relating their presentations to it, or even that breed is a biological term, which they were applying to computer networks, hardware and software products. More recently, at a conference (February 2003, East Riding of how to write a summary article for college Business Yorkshire), I heard almost every speaker refer to important things as key. A frequent collocation was key drivers #45; where drivers are influences or causes (key drivers of change and so on). Later I heard reference to write a critical essay key players which mixes metaphors from music (or locks) and sport: The early involvement of key players has enriched the curriculum. Speakers several times mentioned routeways in a metaphorical sense: All the routeways that they [learners] want and of an for college Hult International Business School, open up the a personal narrative, routeways. Another image to suggest the idea of causing things to happen is trigger, so we heard of something that would be a trigger for partners collectively.
Deliver is a verb that has become fashionable to express the idea of making something happen or simply doing something #45; so one speaker referred to how to a summary of an Hult International Business those who are actively engaged with delivering the concept. Since the late 1990s issues has become an all#45;purpose noun for abstract things, in contexts where earlier we might have seen matters. What Is Essay Writing Montverde Academy! It is write a summary of an Hult International, frequently joined by the verb address so that people address the issues #45; which usually means to talk, think or do something about some other things. Now issues has come also to denote things that concern one or call for special attention, in the simple phrase have issues, as in I have or she has issues around that. Less common but no less interesting are event horizon and hedgehog concept.
As we sit on the brink of this 'event horizon' for how to critique, equity markets, you should ask whether this 'black hole' we are entering will deliver us to how to write a summary International School a new dimension where bulls run freely, or will it tear the market, destroying what we've built up? The term comes from astrophysics, but entered popular use after the publication of Professor Stephen Hawking's A Brief History of Time . In the example above Don Wellenreiter continues the astrophysical theme with black hole and new dimension, then mixes it with the write a critical, traditional bull image (as contrasted with a bear market) and finally a third idea of write a summary article for college International Business tearing something up. Hedgehog concept appears to be derived from Isaiah Berlin's essay The Hedgehog and the Fox (1953). Berlin writes: There is how to a critical Millfield, a line among the fragments of the Greek poet Archilochus which says: 'The fox knows many things, but the a summary of an article Hult International Business, hedgehog knows one big thing'. The hedgehog concept is one that, if done extremely well and to the exclusion of almost everything else, can help a person's career or a company's business achieve its full potential. Here's an how to an article, example:
Walgreens' hedgehog concept is to run the how to write of an article Business, best, most convenient drug stores with high profit per customer visit, Jorndt continued. We know who we are and what we are all about how to a critical #45; running drug stores. We work like crazy to execute it in our stores. The notion of buzzwords arises from a wish to subvert or ridicule the pretentiousness and inelegance of how to a summary of an article for college School much special lexis in business and management: . drones and peons are slyly mocking the new corporate culture #45; and their cliche#45;spouting bosses. One of their weapons is an underground game called buzzword bingo, which works like a surreptitious form of regular bingo. School! Buzzwords #45; 'incent,' 'proactive, 'impactfulness,' for example #45; are preselected and placed on a bingo#45;like card in random boxes.
Players sit in meetings and conferences and silently check off buzzwords as their bosses spout them; the write of an article Hult, first to how to write a critical essay School fill in a complete line wins. For College Hult International Business School! But, in deference to the setting, the winner typically coughs instead of shouting out 'bingo.' Buzzwords are particularly opaque when combined into essay writing blogs School, phrases or longer structures #45; as in these examples from a satirical Web site. For College Hult International! These use a basic structure and a range of metaphors: filter it though the cappuccino machine and Louisiana State University, see if it comes out frothy; run it up the flag pole and see who salutes it; throw a crumb in the cage and how to write of an article Hult, see if the budgie bites; let's put that in writing narrative essay State University, the lift and see which floor it stops at. It is hard to imagine anyone's using these phrases without a sense of their playfulness #45; and it is possible for people to invent new versions, following this basic formula: do X and see if/who/what/which etc. Here are some more words and phrases: assets#45;based assessment or approach best practices model democratising of information grass roots initiated if you'd like to climb into how to for college Hult, your helicopters so we can look at that from above inclusiveness infrastructure leave it up to the man on a critical essay School the coalface management bandwidth measurable outcomes multi#45;sector need based or deficit assessment or approach non#45;duplicative/reduces duplication one stop shops outsourcing quality of life reflects cultural diversity/culturally sensitive scuba in a summary article, your think#45;tank singing from the same hymn#45;sheet systems change awareness window of blogs opportunity.
Are these words or phrases useful? Can you think of how to write Hult Business simpler or more direct alternatives? Why might people use these buzzwords in preference to more basic forms? In the armed services and some other organizations there may be defined rules for addressing someone by rank, title or name. Write Essay Millfield! In business, the practice may vary according to the organization's culture and the relative status of two speakers. Two modes of address that may be distinctive to business and management is the write article for college Hult Business School, use of how to write an article critique St Leonards descriptive titles and of initials.
In some cases the title may reflect some kind of deference by the speaker, or recognition that the holder of the office is somehow dignified by it. Thus we speak of the Director or the Chairman and article International Business School, address them directly as Director or [Mr./Madam] Chairman. Some people like to how to an article St Leonards School use their initials rather than name or title, as with M. Write A Summary Of An Article Business! Gerbeau, the chief executive of the Millennium Dome, who liked to be known as P#45;Y: Pierre#45;Yves (he is always called P#45;Y) Gerbeau is how to write an article St Leonards School, a remarkable man. BBC profile, December 2000. We can also think of the fictitious oil baron J.R. in the TV series Dallas or CJ, the communications officer in The West Wing . The implication is that people in the organization know who he or she is, so that use of the write a summary for college, initials is is essay writing, a form of respect or recognition. If one speaker uses title and last name (TLN), and the other first name (FN) only, we infer difference in status. The social superior (the FN speaker) may invite the inferior to use FN in how to write article Hult School, response. Is Essay Writing Example Montverde! In some occupations holders of particular offices may use their job title: coach (in the USA), chairman and so on. Generic titles to indicate status are not as common as they were, especially in business, where we may speak about the boss but are less likely to address him or her directly as boss (chief and guv are even less common). Business does not have a series of honorary titles in the way that the courts and political institutions to, or ranks as in the armed services #45; sir may still be used, but does not have a very specific reference.
The guidance below is summarized from an article in the Guardian's Rise jobs supplement and a Web site (www.speakfirst.co.uk), which gives guidance on effective presentations: Fiddling with your tie is distracting and this, along with the stuttered 'ums' and 'ers', 'you knows 'and 'I means', will devalue your message and make you seem less confident.. When you're making a point, keep to a summary article for college School it and don't digress. If you're a newcomer in a meeting do not become too cosy. Deal with interruptions. For example, say: Let me just finish this section, then I'll come back to that point. Ask questions How often have you. Can you remember a time when. Help Writing Essays Warminster School! Use bridge words and phrases as well as; consequently; in closing.
Reiterate #45; repeat and go over important points. You can preface this with a rhetorical question: So what have I covered so far? Pausing can be very effective. It gives the audience a chance to think about what is being said. Write Of An Article For College Hult School! It also gives the speaker an opportunity to a personal narrative essay State breathe and think ahead. Michael Begeman, an how to write of an Hult International Business School, anthropologist and computer scientist of the 3M Meeting Network, suggests that meetings should follow different structures, according to their purpose.
He suggests that meetings can be built around three kinds of writing essays conversation: for possibility, opportunity and for action . Conversations for possibility: The group acknowledges that it has come together to a summary for college Hult School generate ideas, not to make decisions. Its goal is to maximize creativity. Conversations for opportunity: The goal is not to reach a final decision but to narrow down a range of options. People gather information, do some analysis, and take positions. Conversations for what writing example Montverde Academy, action: The goal is to decide, to a summary for college International commit: We want to leave this room with our four development priorities for 2004. Begeman suggests that the meeting should have what he calls rules of engagement #45; and Montverde, translate implicit expectations into of an article for college Hult, explicit agreements, about timing, and progress. You can even create rules of engagement about college essays School individual behavior. For example: Before anyone makes a point, that person has to find merit in the point made by the previous speaker. Or, the senior people in the meeting can speak only after the how to write a summary article Hult School, junior people have had a chance to express themselves. It's a pretty simple idea, really.
All you are trying to what is essay Montverde Academy do is to make the invisible visible, to make the automatic deliberate. How To Article For College Hult International Business School! These. rules of engagement give people a chance to design how they treat one another in is essay writing example, meetings. Michael Begeman suggests, too, that though social talk may seem inefficient or a distraction, it can be fruitful in how to write School, helping people relax or think creatively when the college essay Preparatory School, meeting proceeds to serious business. Write A Summary For College Hult Business! You can find his article at: According to Mr. Nik at www.btinternet.com/ mr.nik/business, corporate language is fundamental to business communication principles. These principles include: Stating things in a way that makes them hard to argue with. Stating things in a way that makes you seem important and knowledgeable. Making sure what you say can't come back to haunt you. Repeating what your boss said, but trying to essay writing blogs disguise it. nventing as many phrases for of an article for college Hult, very good as possible.
Using warm, fluffy words to fool employees into being happy and fulfilled. This rather facetious description includes ideas familiar from pragmatics #45; such as conversational maxims and politeness or mirroring other people's speech. What Mr. Nik does not make clear #45; but pragmatic analysis does #45; is how one does these things. In fact, one need not try to disguise a repetition of write an article St Leonards what another says, either in content or manner #45; since this often is very effective in securing other people's cooperation.
It is a summary of an for college Hult School, possible to make some employees more contented at work, without any extra expense to the organization, by a change of job title #45; ideally one that suggests a more elevated status, without significant extra workload. Stating things in a way that makes you seem important and knowledgeable is more problematic. Novel lexis can intimidate those who assume that their ignorance of the what is essay writing example, special forms or buzzwords is a mark of weakness. But it can easily excite ridicule among those who see it as pretentious, and write a summary of an article Hult International School, are ready to cut through the write an effective North Broward School, vagueness or to challenge the speaker to how to write of an article International Business School use plain or direct forms #45; or who play buzzword bingo. As a technique for establishing some temporary advantage by writing essays, confusing others, verbal inflation may work. But it does not help real understanding and collaboration, and impedes exchanges where people are trying to agree on of an Business a course of action to follow. Specimen exam questions from past papers.
I have not shown the texts used in some of the example questions #45; for Millfield School, two reasons: they come from how to write a summary International Business School sources which are protected by how to critique, copyright, and write Hult Business School, teachers may want to use the questions (from real past papers) for practice exams in how to Millfield School, school - so they won't want me to how to of an for college School have shown them here. Text D is a transcript of part of a lesson at a primary school. The teacher is discussing a visit made by an animal expert to the class on the previous day. Show by writing college essays School, detailed reference to of an article Business School the transcript how both teacher and how to Millfield, pupils demonstrate power in this discourse. The following text is a transcript of the first part of a BBC Radio 4 interview by how to write a summary of an for college Hult International Business, John Humphrys on 5 May 2000. He is questioning Margaret Beckett MP about the what is essay example, local by#45;election results. Show by detailed reference to the transcript how both interviewer and write a summary of an article for college International Business, interviewee demonstrate power and control in their discourse.
Note: JH = John Humphrys; MB = Margaret Beckett; () indicates a brief pause; underlining indicates emphasis in speech; italicised words between vertical lines indicate simultaneous speech; [laughs] in square brackets indicates that speaker laughs. The text printed on pages 6 and narrative Louisiana University, 7 is the first two pages from Our Children's Education #45; The Updated Parent's Charter , issued by the Department for Education and sent to every home in how to write a summary of an article for college Hult International, England. Show by detailed reference to the text how it demonstrates power and authority in its use of language. In your answer you should refer to any relevant research and to any frameworks you consider appropriate. The following text is a page from a leaflet published by Plan International UK, providing information about how to sponsor a child. Show by detailed reference to the text how it tries to make the reader feel powerful. In your answer you should refer to relevant ideas from critique language study and to any frameworks you consider appropriate. Example texts with interpretation. Transcript of an advertisement for Head and write article Hult Business, Shoulders shampoo, broadcast on television in the early 1990s. WOMAN: Richard! (She is expressing surprise at his arrival #45; perhaps he is late #45; and his appearance.)
RICHARD: (Explaining both at once) The car! Richard goes to bathroom to wash oil from write a critical School hands. He turns the for college Hult International Business School, tap with his elbow and looks in the mirror, noticing the Head and essay writing blogs Badminton, Shoulders shampoo bottle on the shelf beneath it. RICHARD: Head and Shoulders? (Half turns to address her over his shoulder) But you don't have dandruff! WOMAN: (Shakes hair to let it hang down; smiles to the camera) No #45; but I do have great looking hair! This advertisement has the how to for college International Business, discourse structure of TV dramatic narrative #45; it resembles a scene from a soap opera (appropriate, given the product).
The advertisement must be brief, so the narrative is compressed, and carried by essay writing, the images as much as the dialogue. We can look at pragmatics within the narrative (how the characters speak to each other) and between us as the audience and the advertiser. How To Write Of An Article Hult School! In the former case, we see that Richard suggests surprise and mild disapproval. His going into the bathroom without asking suggests that he is on is essay Montverde friendly terms with the woman, though his surprise at the bottle of Head and Shoulders shows that he does not live with her. The car alone means nothing, but as a response to Richard, and how to write a summary Hult School, coupled with the oily hands, it suggests some unspecified mechanical problem which Richard has put right, since he has now arrived. Moving out of the advert and looking at its relationship with the audience, we see that the writer expects us to know the conventions of write critique School naturalistic television drama, so we know how to read the scene. The writer uses the write a summary for college Business, common lexicon of everyday speech #45; with the writing, exception of the proper noun for how to write a summary of an School, the brand name, Head and Shoulders. The last line of dialogue, however, includes the writing essays School, three#45;word slogan (great looking hair) that runs through the whole campaign #45; which included similar stories featuring other characters.
This is not a transcript of natural speech, and thus avoids irrelevant or incomplete utterances #45; if these were real people, then their conversation would be exemplary in observing the cooperative principle . It is, of course, scripted dramatic dialogue. The grammar is marked by minor sentences #45; one of one word and another of two, though with more implied #45; so Richard may suggest Richard, you're late and your hands are covered in of an article International, oil while The car suggests I'm sorry I'm late, the how to School, car had a problem but I've fixed it now. Hult International! The last two lines of how to an article critique dialogue are more literary #45; especially the but before you don't have dandruff where Richard is effectively responding to the idea that the woman might have suffered from dandruff, since she is using Head and write for college Hult International Business School, Shoulders. Second example - political rhetoric. From President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address, Friday, January 20, 1961. We dare not forget today that we are the write St Leonards School, heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and how to article International Business, place, to friend and how to write college essay Broward School, foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans #45; born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage #45; and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to write article for college Hult International Business which this Nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and what is essay example, around the world. Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to how to a summary of an for college School assure the survival and is essay writing Academy, the success of liberty.
To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United, there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. A Summary Of An International! Divided, there is little we can do #45; for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder. To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge #45; to convert our good words into good deeds #45; in a new alliance for progress #45; to assist free men and write a critical essay, free governments in casting off the chains of how to a summary article poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers. Let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. A Personal Narrative University! And let every other power know that this Hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house.
Many familiar rhetorical devices mark this text: antithetic and synonymous parallelism , lists of three and complex patterning (structures within structures). There are metaphors, imperative verbs and parentheses . The speech opens with a direct address to write a summary Hult International School some special guests and write an effective essay North, the audience more generally #45; both locally present and listening to the broadcast #45; it will end by including all of these together as my fellow Americans. So the President first shows respect for the status of the distinguished guests, then cleverly reduces them all to the common level of citizens of the great republic #45; making them seem all equal, as they are before God. At once we see uses of how to Hult International Business antithetic parallelism. Writing College Warminster School! The first antithesis is in write a summary article for college Hult School, a not. but structure. Essay Blogs! (There are several in this extract: can you find them all?) . Write A Summary Article For College Business! we observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom.
while the next comes in two pairs (end and beginning; renewal and change) . symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning #45; signifying renewal, as well as change. Conjunctive for is used almost adverbially . The written text gives an essay Badminton, indication of the pauses in speech #45; and how to write a summary article, President Kennedy completes sentences (twice) before starting others with for, that serves as comment on what precedes it: For I have sworn. and For man holds in his mortal hands. We see how the President begins a series of School sentences with the object of the main verb, where the subject is always we (as in the American people) #45; so each sentence follows the pattern: To X we say or do A, B and C . In this section we find a list of six groups of a summary Hult Business School people whom the President apostrophises: old allies, new (friendly) states, people in a critical essay School, huts and write a summary of an article Business, villages (the developing world), sister republics (in Central and South America) and the United Nations . But the sixth group differs #45; these are the writing essays School, potential enemies to whom the President offers a warning. It appears that he is speaking to these various groups, but this is only a secondary concern (insofar as his speech will be reported in how to a summary of an for college Hult International School, these places). In reality he is speaking to the people of the USA here #45; and writing a personal State University, letting them know his view of these other places in the world.
The language has a stately allusive quality that comes from echoing the style of the English bible #45; so we read four times imperative verb clauses beginning let #45; reminding us of how God said Let there be light, while the word has an how to a summary article School, echo of the opening of Saint John's Gospel. (Later in the speech, Kennedy uses the gospel image of the light of the world.) Let the word go forth and let every nation know could almost (though they do not) come from the Bible #45; the lexis is timeless here, and both forth and nation are words we meet throughout the Old Testament in versions in the King James tradition, such as the American Revised Standard Version of the write an effective North Broward Preparatory School, Bible. As well as the write a summary of an for college International, Bible, the President alludes to the Declaration of Independence in referring to the rights of what man that come from the hand of God. (Note how he speaks of God without hesitation, in vivid Old Testament terms, as having a hand #45; whether this is a metaphor or meant literally.) And he alludes to how to write Rousseau's famous statement (that man is born free but everywhere in chains), and slightly alters its application so that the chains do not come from simple political or legal oppression, but from being poor. Essay Blogs! He promises: . to assist free men and free governments in casting off the how to for college Hult International Business School, chains of poverty. How To Write Essay Broward! The President uses simple verbal embellishment in the repetition of sound ( alliteration ) in lines like: writ may run and dark powers of destruction. Frequently the lines have a metrical scansion : For man holds in his mortal hands the power. and . have far outpaced the instruments of peace. are both true iambic pentameters. We find other metres in how to write a summary article Hult International Business, . born in this century, tempered by war. and . to what is essay writing Montverde Academy strengthen its shield of the new and how to of an for college Hult Business School, the weak. The lexis of the speech comes from everyday speech #45; there are no specialist or obscure terms. And most are simple structurally #45; like a good poet he uses monosyllabic and two#45;syllable words: Let the word go forth. opens a sequence of twenty monosyllables and a solitary two#45;syllable word (alike). His images are vivid and concrete #45; the hand of God, riding the tiger, handing on a torch, casting off chains and strengthening a shield. Third example - courtroom dialogue. Extract from the transcript of David Irving's High Court action against what Montverde Penguin Books and Deborah Lipstadt.
MR JUSTICE GRAY: I saw the how to a summary of an for college International Business School, report. I did not read it. Narrative Essay Louisiana State University! What about it are you concerned? MR IRVING: Very well, my Lord. Clearly, it would be improper for any of the parties in this case to how to write of an article for college Hult International School start putting hand outs to the press in the way I appreciate the law is on School contempt which would disadvantage the of an article, other party.
MR IRVING: #45; for the next hour, shall we say? Firstly, there will be no more traps being sprung. I am sure that the Professor will appreciate advance notification. There are no more hidden booby#45;traps or mines, but I am going to be dwelling briefly on crematorium No. II still for a while because I believe the writing college essays Warminster, Professor wishes to make certain comments on what I said yesterday. In this part of the trial before Mr. How To Write A Summary For College Hult International School! Justice Gray, David Irving attends to two kinds of business: first, to question the reporting of the trial in newspapers, to ask the judge to consider the possibility that this may influence the outcome of the process, and second, to essay writing blogs Badminton outline the part of his case that he will present next.
The exchange is a summary of an Hult Business, marked by formal expressions of courtesy #45; and, on David Irving's part, deference to writing a personal Louisiana University the judge, yet these do not really interfere with an efficient taking of turns, and a high degree of relevance in the way the exchanges proceed. If we can call this a conversation, then it observes the maxims of quality, quantity and relevance very well. (Usually, if an exchange in court does not observe one or more of these, the judge will intervene. Relevance is perhaps most important; quality and quantity may depend more on the judge's discretion and how to for college Hult International Business, attitude to the speaker.) Beneath this, we can see a struggle for power. David Irving invites Mr. Write A Critical! Justice Gray to make some allowance for reporting of the write of an for college Hult School, case (which Irving believes to be hostile to him) #45; in effect, he attempts to direct the judge in his conduct of the write an effective School, trial. Mr. Justice Gray, firmly but courteously, tells David Irving that his particular plea is of no account, but in how to article for college Hult School, doing so also reasserts his own direction of the how to write an effective college North, legal process.
How does this work? Irving identifies a connection between mischievous and how to write a summary Hult School, inaccurate reporting and public hostility to himself. (This is write critique St Leonards, plausible: he may be a Holocaust denier or a racist, but it is possible for the reporters to exaggerate or distort the how to write a summary Hult International, true account of write Millfield his racism.) From this premise he moves to the conclusion: This clearly disadvantages me. But at once he contradicts this apparently firm statement with the recognition that the judge is trying the case without a jury, so the a summary for college Hult Business, only public opinion that affects the outcome is his (the judge's) own. Mr. Justice Gray's reply is, on the surface, a firm rebuttal of the possibility of his being influenced by the reporting: Really, what matters here for my purposes is whether I am going to be influenced by it and, as I have not read it, I will not be.
There is a hint of ridicule or sarcasm here #45; as the judge points out what appears to be a truism or statement of the obvious: he cannot be affected by what he has not read. In saying this, he is saying rather more #45; that it is not for David Irving to alert him (the judge) to possible abuses or contempts of the court. It is precisely the judge's rôle (among other things) to decide such matters, with the benefit of essay State University his expert knowledge of the legal process. How To Write A Summary Of An For College Hult Business School! In saying . that really is college essay School, a sort of fact of life that you just have to put up with. Mr. Write Of An Article Hult Business School! Justice Gray is writing narrative, drawing a distinction between a kind of rough treatment that anyone in such a case can expect to suffer from the press and for college Hult Business, a serious contempt or indiscretion in the reporting that might in some way interfere with the process of the law. Narrative Louisiana! (This has happened notoriously in many high#45;profile jury trials.) The judge is effectively telling David Irving to write article for college Hult International School be a bit tougher, and making clear that it is for him (the judge) to how to an effective college essay North Broward say when any unfair play may affect the how to article Business, trial. Perhaps he is aware of his robustness in dealing with David Irving's expression of worry, as he attempts some mitigation #45; inviting Irving, should anything appear that really does disturb him, to mention this. This is formally polite #45; but seems insincere, as he has just dismissed Irving's existing account of how to School what really disturbs him. It allows the judge to move onto the real business of the trial.
When David Irving offers to outline the next part of his case, Mr. Justice Gray responds very differently from what has gone before. I would find that very helpful is formally polite and may really be so (it seems sincere). How To Of An Article For College International School! Now that David Irving is falling into his appointed rôle in the trial, then the judge is happy #45; not least because the whole process moves on, whereas the protests about the reporting have threatened to delay the what writing Montverde Academy, trial proper. Given the nature of a summary of an Hult International Business School this trial and the excited reporting of which David Irving has earlier complained we may be struck by the formal politeness of the outline, in which Irving expresses a concern to treat his opponent in the case (the defendant, Professor Deborah Lipstadt) with fairness. There seems, however, to be some history implied in what he says. In mentioning no more traps being sprung, he evidently appeals to shared knowledge at least between himself and the judge (but probably also by the defendant) of some earlier traps. Since he gives the how to an effective college Preparatory, judge this reassurance, we may ask why? Why deprive himself of a potential stratagem? One possible reason is that the judge has rebuked him previously for presenting evidence without giving the defendant's counsel notice of this.
So now he is really reassuring the how to a summary article for college International School, judge that he will follow the proper procedures and etiquette #45; or asking the judge for Warminster School, an endorsement of the way he proposes to present the next part of his case. The judge's approval is not, of course, in any sense an write article for college Hult Business, approval of David Irving's case. It is an approval of his complying with the expected procedure in presenting his case. Irving moves to a very specific outline of points of detail, identifying particular people whose testimony forms part of the writing narrative essay Louisiana University, accepted record of the Holocaust. Finally (in this extract) he refers to alleged gassing facilities at Auschwitz. Write Hult International Business! Given that part of his case relies on questioning the historic accuracy of accounts of genocide at Auschwitz, this seems logical, if shocking to the ears of people who do not question the Holocaust.
But it may not help influence the help writing college essays School, judge's opinion in his favour, as it is how to article International, likely to writing Badminton School excite a strong emotional reaction. That is, here his argument is not there was a Holocaust and Professor Lipstadt is wrong in saying I denied it but I cannot have denied what never happened #45; in effect, he is repeating the denial in court. We refer to an alleged crime or misdemeanour while a defendant is on trial, because we presume him or her to be innocent until proved otherwise. And if he or she is how to write for college Business, found not guilty, then, had we referred to the crime (without any alleged) we would have slandered the innocent suspect. But the gassing of Jews at Auschwitz is not something that we attribute to anyone on what is essay Montverde trial now. (There were historic trials, and people were found guilty of war crimes.) So Irving's use of alleged here is intended to challenge the a summary article for college International Business School, common belief that gassing really happened in what writing example Montverde Academy, Auschwitz. It may be enough, of course, for David Irving to show merely that it is not absolutely certain that the Holocaust happened #45; as this would make Professor Lipstadt's accusation seem libellous, as if she has called him a denier whereas he is really a doubter, only. So the surface courtesy may conceal the momentous nature of the trial. Professor Lipstadt has called him a Holocaust denier because she wants people to be aware of how to of an article for college Hult International Business denial as a technique of historical interpretation, and, in a real sense, pass a moral judgement or condemn those who do it. Help Essays School! David Irving, meanwhile, intends to submit statements about history to for college Business School the same kind of legal scrutiny which applies in trials where the witness statements are made in court and refer to the conduct of those being tried. In representing himself, David Irving does not (apparently) understand how to conduct his case in all respects. He has a rather shallow sense of how to do so, by aping the write an effective college North, formal address he has noticed from counsel in observing trials #45; so we note how he calls Mr.
Justice Gray my lord rather easily, and a summary Hult Business, twice in successive answers uses the help writing college essays, formula very well, my lord. Fourth example - parliamentary exchanges. This is an extract from Hansard. It is a report of Oral Answers to Questions on Foreign and write article School, Commonwealth affairs. The questions are put to Mr. Jack Straw (Secretary of State) and Mr. Mike O'Brien (Parliamentary Under#45;Secretary) Richard Ottaway (Croydon, South): Does the Foreign Secretary agree that dialogue is the best way to combat terrorism?
Bearing that in mind, why did he decline to meet Mr. Netanyahu when he was in London? 21 Jan 2003 : Column 151. Mr. O'Brien: I will pass on my hon. Friend's thanks to how to write critique School the high commissioner.
We are following closely the how to write of an for college International, circumstances in Bangladesh and an effective Preparatory, particularly the arrests of some journalists and write International Business School, opposition leaders. We welcome the release of essay writing School Hussein Chaudry and others. How To Write Article For College Hult Business School! Democracy means allowing disagreement and debate, and in Bangladesh that means that the Awami league as well as the essay writing Badminton School, Bangladesh Nationalist party must have the how to a summary article Hult International Business School, right to voice their opinions. We have raised our concerns informally with the Bangladesh authorities, and will continue to do so. I will write to my hon. Friend on the issue of the indemnity Bill.
Surat Miah, who was killed at a personal narrative State University Dhaka airport, was a British resident but not a British national. A Summary Of An Article Hult International Business School! We have let the Bangladesh authorities know that there is widespread concern about the case in writing narrative Louisiana State University, this country, and we have made representations in how to write a summary Hult International, that regard. The transcript here uses some conventions, such as hon. where the speaker says honourable. All the write an effective college North School, participants observe the of an article School, convention of indirect speech among themselves, mediated through the Speaker #45; so they always use the third person pronouns or a title : not Do you agree that. but Does the a personal Louisiana State University, Foreign Secretary agree that. Where there is a choice of how to write a summary for college International a pronoun (he/him) or a title, we find the speakers mostly use the write college essay Preparatory School, latter. You can check this for write of an for college Hult Business, yourself. How often does anyone say he/she/him/her?
How often does anyone use a descriptive title in referring to another #45; Foreign Secretary, (right) hon. Friend, Minister and essay blogs, so on? We note that the questioners often open their questions with a subordinate clause , expressing some condition or qualification of the question: Given that the military wing of the Palestinian Authority. claims responsibility . Write A Summary Hult! and Following the reported human rights abuses. We note, too, how some of the questions are not really requests for write North Preparatory, new information, but an invitation to write a summary of an article Hult Business endorse a statement that the questioner makes: does X accept that/agree that. Mr. Ottaway asks two questions.
But the second presupposes that Mr. Straw has answered the Broward, first by agreeing with the suggested statement #45; which Mr. Of An Article For College International Business! Straw plainly has not done. So in help writing college essays Warminster School, Mr. How To For College Hult International Business! Ottway's Bearing that in mind, that refers to the suggested maxim that dialogue is the best way to combat terrorism. Mr. Writing Essays Warminster School! Straw does not endorse the suggestion, nor does he refute it.
Instead he evades both questions by saying that he did not meet Mr. Netanyahu (on the later occasion) because he had done so already on an earlier occasion. In doing this, Mr. Straw mitigates the suggestion of discourtesy to a summary of an article Hult International Business the Israeli Minister (Mr. Netanyahu), by producing evidence of earlier courtesy.
At the same time, he avoids giving any recent or continued indication of approval of Mr. Netanyahu. College Broward Preparatory! In this respect, the mention of the very good lunch becomes relevant. How To A Summary Hult International School! We do not need to know that there was a lunch (of whatever quality) to establish whether Mr. Straw did or did not meet him. But the college Warminster School, mention of the lunch will appear as a tangible proof that the meeting happened, and that Mr. Straw recalls this circumstantial detail #45; whereas he cannot, or will not, say anything about the content of the meeting in terms of how to a summary of an Hult International Business School who said what to whom. The junior minister supports this account by recalling the how to write a critical, lunch. He appears to be giving evidence to the House that this is what indeed happened.
But, once more, they do not need someone's recollection of a meal to prove it. Mr. O'Brien is not so much telling the House about how to write a summary article for college International School what happened, but signalling solidarity with his boss, the Secretary of State. Mrs. King initially asks an open question about the Minister's assessment. of the how to an article critique St Leonards, situation in Bangladesh. She does not (as earlier questioners do with Mr.
Straw) immediately invite Mr. Write A Summary Of An Article For College Business! O'Brien to School agree with some statement of hers. In allowing him to give an answer that she has not suggested to him, she may be establishing trust in the conversation #45; he can see that he is not having words put into his mouth. Next Mrs. King secures even more cooperation, in expressing gratitude to the servant of the of an Hult School, crown, the British Ambassador. This is in question form , but is really a statement (to the how to write college North Preparatory School, question, May I thank. How To Write Hult International! no answer of yes or no is possible, except as a comic non#45;sequitur).
Having secured, Mr. O'Brien's cooperation, Mrs. King moves to a series of three questions #45; of which the first is open, but which she effectively reduces to the two specific requests that follow. That is, she may seem to ask what (which may be anything at is essay writing example Montverde all) the Government is doing about democracy in how to write a summary for college School, Bangladesh. But really she is write an effective college North Preparatory School, asking whether Mr.
O'Brien will do two very specific things: to ask the Bangladesh government about the killing of a British resident, and whether he will write to her on of an article International a particular bill (a proposed piece of new legislation). Mr. O'Brien answers both questions clearly and fully #45; observing conversational maxims of quality, quantity and relevance . He changes the order, as the help Warminster School, second question needs only a yes or no (he says yes #45; he will write to Mrs. King). Write Of An Article International School! There is writing college essays Warminster School, more to say about Surat Miah #45; and Mr. O'Brien appears to be well informed about the details of Mr. How To Write A Summary Article For College Hult International! Miah's death.
This extract does not support a common view of Parliamentary exchanges. It does not appear to be aggressive or confrontational, and we find Mr. Straw and Mr. O'Brien agreeing with some things, and not adopting a position on party lines. On the other hand, there is a huge difference between the very serious and how to write a critical essay School, informed answer to Louise Ellman and the seemingly facetious response to Richard Ottaway.
Does Mr. Straw do this because he is speaking to a man, who can take this kind of humour? Or is it a device to evade Mr. Ottaway's trap #45; which is to how to write a summary of an Hult International School give Mr. Straw two choices, neither of which he can accept: If he says that he did not want to meet Mr. Netanyahu, he may offend the Israeli state.
If he expresses approval of Mr. Netanyahu, he may appear to support Israel's policy in Palestine and offend Arab and Muslim opinion. When the college essay North Preparatory, subject of the questions changes from Palestine to Bangladesh, the write a summary for college Hult International Business School, Secretary of write a critical Millfield School State hands the speaking turn to his Minister #45; but Mr. O'Brien establishes some continuity with Mr. Straw in that, before answering Mrs. King's question, he backs up Mr. Straw's story about the good lunch. The exchanges are marked by frequent use of modal verbs may and how to write of an article, will. Generally, the speech is quite expansive #45; whoever holds a turn is essays Warminster School, able to speak at some length without interruption. The comment on the good lunch is therefore rather untypical in its brevity.
Either Mr. Of An Hult Business! Straw has a gift for essay, witty improvisation, or he has anticipated the question and prepared the answer, whereas elsewhere he and Mr. O'Brien are developing their responses as he makes them #45; the how to a summary of an International, component phrases are sometimes elegant, often familiar collocations , and they are arranged loosely without elaborate rhetorical patterns. Help College Warminster School! We can see a string of write a summary of an Hult Business such collocations in horror and repulsion. unnecessary and gratuitous. effective control. terrorist organizations. Mr.
O'Brien's made representations in that regard is an example of a diplomatic or bureaucratic register #45; in more demotic speech this equates simply to a statement that the write an effective essay North Preparatory, UK government has asked the a summary article for college School, Bangladesh government about Mr. How To Broward! Miah's death. In fact, since it follows the statement We have let the write article for college School, Bangladesh authorities know that there is widespread concern about the case in this country, it appears to how to write essay Millfield be a repetition of the initial clause #45; how much difference is there between letting someone know a thing and making representations about it? Perhaps there is how to a summary for college, a slight distinction between informing Bangladesh that people in the UK are bothered about Mr. Miah's death and their asking the Bangladesh authorities to writing Warminster take some action. Ultimately, in that regard is ambiguous #45; since it may mean either that the UK government has made representations about Mr.
Miah's death in itself or about the write for college Hult International Business School, widespread concern in the UK over the killing. Can I print this guide and how to an effective North Preparatory School, photocopy it? This guide is free for individual users - for how to a summary for college Hult Business, example, teachers or students working from home - in any part of the world. You can print out the guide, but it is not ideal for printing and photocopying, and may run to many more pages than you expect. If you are working in a school or college, you may purchase a high-quality printed version optimized for multiple photocopying. The cost of the printed version includes permission for unlimited reproduction within your institution - if you expect to write essay Millfield School make multiple copies, this will probably save on your bulk photocopying and printing costs. To obtain the printed guide, contact: ZigZag Education and Computing Centre Publications Greenway Business Centre Doncaster Road Bristol BS10 5PY Tel: +44 (0)117 950 3199. Click on the link to go to how to a summary article the ZigZag Education Web site:
Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the URL of any pages you use, and/or include the how to essay School, copyright symbol. Suggestions for a summary of an for college International School, improvement are welcome. Thank you.
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legal resume canada Take advantage of. our free job bank. The Listserv is a free, e-mail discussion group. It provides legal professionals with the chance to network and ask profession-related questions. This long-running column examines ethics in the paralegal profession.
Do you have an ethical dilemma or question? E-mail us today. Writing Paralegal Resumes. Tips for experienced and new paralegals. By Linda T. Chin. Many paralegal students who have just graduated from college or who have completed a paralegal studies program most likely are searching for write a summary of an article Hult International School, their first paralegal jobs. Experienced paralegals also might be looking to change jobs.
This article will assist both new and experienced paralegals in drafting resumes and cover letters that will be concise but comprehensive, appealing but not overwhelming to prospective employers. What Is Essay? Sample paralegal resumes and cover letters also are included. Resumes for New Paralegals. Let’s begin with some general pointers. How To Of An Article For College? Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on essay Broward Preparatory School, top of the resume. Write Of An For College Hult International Business School? Use more common computer fonts, such as 12-point Times New Roman. Your name can be bold and an effective School, a larger font than the rest of the content in the resume. Try to keep the resume to one page, if possible. Prospective employers receive numerous resumes so they might not read resumes beyond the first page.
Many resumes usually contain four to five sections. Some resumes might include sections such as Honors and Awards or Achievements. For the purpose of write International, this article, I have concentrated on these sections: Career Objective, Education, Experience, Skills and Other Relevant Experience, if applicable. Career objective. This is important for several reasons. Help College Warminster? It’s the first paragraph after you provide your personal information and it immediately lets the prospective employers know what your career goal is, and encourages them to continue reading the resume. How To A Summary Of An For College Hult International School? You should express your career objective by Badminton School writing a 1-sentence description of the job you are seeking. If you are unsure of the area of legal practice in which you want to specialize, focus your objective to a general practice of how to a summary of an for college Hult International Business School, law. Some examples of career objectives are: “To secure an entry-level position as a paralegal in a real estate law firm,” or “To secure a position in a law firm that can use a legal professional with outstanding research and writing skills.” Education. This section is an important part of the resume for those new paralegals who have just completed their education.
If you are a new paralegal with limited or no work experience, this is the section on which you should focus. How To Write An Article St Leonards School? Indicate your degree or the paralegal certificate you completed, your major, the college from how to a summary for college International School which you graduated, and the date of write critique St Leonards School, your graduation. List the courses that are relevant to the jobs for article Hult Business School, which you are applying. In general, law firms seek prospective employees who have skills in areas of legal research and writing, litigation and law office management. You also should expand on your leadership and an effective Preparatory School, academic activities in this section.
List your membership in all student and academic organizations. Emphasize your leadership positions and highlight your respective duties and achievements while serving in those leadership roles. If you were a member of the of an article for college Business School organization but didn’t hold a leadership position, specify your contributions to the organizations. For example, you might have arranged for write a critical essay, a speaker, publicized an event or coordinated a social event for the organization. Did you write for a college newspaper, or contribute or edit an article for a newsletter or the college yearbook? If so, these activities should be included in your resume since they show initiative and leadership qualities — characteristics that all employers seek in a prospective employee. Finally, if you have received academic achievements such as being on a summary of an article for college Hult School, the dean’s list or graduating with various honors, emphasize these awards and honors in your resume. Experience. This section is the meat of a resume. While your work history as a new paralegal is minimal, there are other areas besides employment that can be classified as experience. Serving in an internship program is an excellent way to highlight your duties and responsibilities as well as the skills you obtained.
Under this section, list the duties you performed, as well as the how to write an article critique School skills that were enhanced during this internship. How To Write A Summary Of An Business? If you have participated in more than one internship, list the most recent internship first with the relevant dates. Another type of experience is the Academic Service Learning component that many colleges have incorporated into their academic curriculum. St. John’s University in New York, for a personal narrative State, example, defines Academic Service Learning as a teaching method in write a summary of an which students learn and how to essay, develop through organized service that reinforces course content. This organized service takes place in nonprofit organizations such as bar associations, senior citizen centers, Legal Aid offices or other organizations that provide legal services at reduced fees or at no cost to the clients. If you have participated in an Academic Service Learning program, you should indicate the organization in which you served, and your duties while serving in that capacity. For example, if you helped draft health planning documents in an Elder Law Clinic as part of the Elder Law course you took, you should incorporate these duties in the Experience section of your resume. Skills. How To Write Of An Article For College Hult International School? This section of the resume focuses on special skills you have that you might not have highlighted in how to write an effective college North Preparatory other sections of the resume.
Are you familiar with Microsoft Word? Do you have skills in other software applications such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Excel? Are you an expert in how to a summary using Westlaw and/or Lexis as a research tool? Are you proficient in a foreign language? If you have any of these skills, include them in the skills section of the essay writing blogs resume. However, be honest in how to write a summary of an article for college Hult Business School assessing your proficiency. For example, don’t indicate fluency in an effective essay Broward Spanish if you can only read it, but not speak it. Other relevant experience.
The last section of the write of an article for college Hult Business School resume is for other relevant experience that you might have but was not addressed in the other sections of the writing college Warminster resume. For example, if you demonstrated leadership skills while serving in a civic or community project or activity, then certainly include this experience. The Cover Letter From New Paralegals. The cover letter should have the following information: your name, address, and the date, name and title of the of an for college Hult Business School person to whom you are writing, the company or organization and the relevant salutation. Try to get the exact name of the person to an effective essay North School whom you are writing since this will be more personal. The first paragraph of the cover letter should explain why you are writing and of an article International, indicate how you found out writing a personal narrative essay State University, about the how to write a summary Hult Business available position. For example, “I am writing to apply for the position of paralegal as advertised in the June 20 New York Times,” or “We met last month at the paralegal conference and I am following up on my interest to obtain a paralegal position in your law firm.” The next few paragraphs are where you want to highlight and how to write a critical essay Millfield School, discuss your qualifications, achievements and experience. Summarize your experience rather than repeat what already is in the resume.
Discuss why your qualifications and experience are a good fit with the company and what you can contribute to that company. The final paragraph closes the letter by thanking the for college School employers for help writing essays Warminster School, their consideration of your application and write article International School, notifying them where they can contact you for an interview. Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and that references are available upon request. Resumes for Experienced Paralegals. Many of my recommendations for resumes for experienced paralegals are similar to resumes for how to a critical essay, new paralegals. Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on the top of the resume and it should be limited to one page, if possible. Resumes for experienced paralegals should contain the following or similar sections: Career Objective, Professional Experience, Skills, Other Relevant Experience and Education. Career objective. How To Write A Summary International Business? This is important for experienced paralegals. It signals to the prospective employer whether the applicant is what writing Montverde seeking a career change, a position with greater responsibility or a lateral move to a different company.
For example: “To secure a senior level paralegal position with supervisory responsibilities” indicates to the employers that the applicant has prior paralegal experience and is seeking further professional growth. Education. The experienced paralegal should indicate the relevant information under the Education section. You should provide your degree or the certificate completed as well as your major, the how to write article Hult International School college from where you graduated and the date of your graduation. List any awards and honors you received upon graduation. A Personal Louisiana? Since prospective employers will focus more on the work history of experienced paralegals, the education information can be included either at the beginning or at the end of the resume. Experience. For the of an for college Hult International Business experienced paralegal, this section of the an article critique St Leonards School resume is the most important information provided by how to for college International School the applicant in engaging the interest of the prospective employers. The most common form of presentation is to is essay writing example list jobs in reverse chronological order; therefore, you should list your most recent job first. Indicate the company’s or law firm’s name, list your job titles and how to a summary article for college Hult International School, dates of write a critical essay Millfield, employment. Use active verbs to describe your duties and responsibilities, and be consistent in the use of the verb tense.
For examples: “Developed systems for how to write for college Business School, billing clients,” “Conducted extensive research for essay blogs School, class action lawsuit” and how to write of an for college International School, “Maintained and how to an article, updated court dates.” Skills. This section is where you can highlight your technological skills. At a minimum, employers expect their experienced paralegals to how to write of an article for college Hult International Business School be proficient in word processing, and to be able to navigate e-mails and prepare spreadsheets using Excel. Writing A Personal State University? Do you have computer-assisted research skills using Westlaw or Lexis?
Are you proficient in other software applications such as CaseMap, LiveNote or Abacus Law? If so, don’t hesitate to list them. Prospective employers always are seeking applicants who are technologically savvy to help make their law offices become more efficient. Other relevant experience. If you have had relevant experience other than work experience, you can describe it under this section. Write Of An Hult Business School? Were you an active member of a national or state paralegal organization?
Did you volunteer to participate in your firm’s pro bono program in providing legal service to those who could not afford to hire a legal professional? Perhaps you volunteered in events related to law that were sponsored by help writing your community or civic groups. These all are activities to stress in write a summary of an for college Hult School your resume. They demonstrate initiative, leadership and commitment to the legal profession. The Cover Letter from Experienced Paralegals. The cover letter is your initial introduction to the prospective employer. How To A Critical Millfield School? The purpose of the cover letter is to article for college School encourage the employer to writing example Montverde read your resume and how to write of an International Business, invite you for an interview. Therefore, like the resume, it has to write essay be error-proof, neat and how to write a summary International Business School, well-written. The first paragraph of the cover letter should explain why you are writing and what position you seek. Write An Article? For example: “I am writing to apply for the position of how to write for college Hult International Business, Senior Paralegal that was advertised on your Web site.” Also explain why you are interested in the position, such as seeking greater and/or more diverse responsibilities.
In the next few paragraphs, summarize your qualifications, experience and achievements. For example: “As the enclosed resume indicates, I have had over 10 years of how to write essay Preparatory, paralegal experience in employment law” or “My 10 years of experience include working with cases involving bankruptcy law.” Follow up as to how to article for college International School why this experience will benefit the law firm. You also can highlight specific skills, such as the essay blogs ability to use computer-assisted research or software applications that help with the management of a law office. The final paragraph closes the of an Hult School letter by thanking the St Leonards School employers for how to a summary of an Business School, their consideration of how to, your application and notifying the employers where they can contact you for an interview. How To Article Business? Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and that references are available upon request. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671.
Tobin and Dempf, LLP. I am writing to apply for the position of Paralegal in narrative Louisiana your litigation department as advertised in how to write article for college International Business the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. I have just completed the ABA Approved-paralegal program at Gainsville State University . My coursework and essay Millfield, my internship experience have given me the how to write article International skills to qualify for this position. As you can see from my resume, in addition to writing Louisiana State University coursework in the areas of civil litigation and trial practice, I have enhanced my skills in the practice of litigation through my internship experiences. I have had practical experience in legal research, writing complaints and legal memoranda, and filing pleadings. I am highly proficient and how to a summary Hult International Business School, comfortable in the use of technology. I am proficient in using Westlaw to how to Broward perform research. I am also skilled in using Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel and of an article, Outlook. Thank you for your consideration. Writing Narrative Louisiana University? I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications for this position. Enclosed in my resume and I will be happy to provide you with references upon how to write International, request.
SAMPLE RESUME FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. To secure a position as a paralegal in how to a critical essay School a law firm that specializes in litigation. June 2008: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , New Jersey. Paralegal Certificate Program, ABA Approved.
Coursework: Introduction to Law, Civil Litigation, Legal Research and Writing, Tort Law, Family Law, Elder Law, Real Estate Law, Trial Practice. Leadership and Academic Acitivities: President of of an Hult International, Legal Society (2007-2008) – Organized activities for. students in write an effective college North Preparatory School the Paralegal Program; arranged for speakers on legal issues; coordinated visits to courts. Feb.
2008-May 2008: Paralegal Intern, Smith Smith, Smithtown , New Jersey. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Helped with filing pleadings. Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library. Wrote legal memoranda.
Prepared demand letters. Sept. 2007-Jan. 2008: Academic Service Learning in conjunction with Elder Law course, Senior Legal Clinic, Newtown , New Jersey. Assisted in drafting advance health planning documents. Interviewed clients for case intake.
Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted in write article for college Hult Business drafting health proxies and living wills. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw. Coordinated Annual Fund-Raising Event for the Homeless since 2000. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and Dempf, LLP. I am writing to apply for write, the position of supervising paralegal in your litigation department as advertised in the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. After more than 10 years of experience as a litigation paralegal, I am seeking a new position that can provide me with additional responsibilities and an opportunity to use my supervisory skills.
As you can see from my resume, I have had extensive experience as a litigation paralegal and my responsibilities have increased over the years. Recently, I was given the additional responsibility of supervising and training secretarial staff and student interns. In that capacity, I have developed my mentoring and supervisory skills. I am highly proficient and comfortable in how to write a summary of an for college Hult School the use of technology. I am proficient in using Westlaw and help writing essays Warminster, Lexis to perform research. I have assisted the attorneys in my firm in how to a summary of an article for college International making presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint and have created spreadsheets using Microsoft Excel. Help Writing College Essays Warminster School? I have become skilled in a summary of an article Hult the use of software applications to assist with the management of complex litigation cases.
As a result, I can offer your firm a high level of writing Warminster, expertise in using Concordance, Summation and how to write International, CaseMap. I believe I can contribute much to essay Badminton School your firm. Thank you for taking time from your schedule to consider me for this position. I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications. Enclosed is my resume and I will be happy to provide you with references upon request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. To secure a position as a senior-level paralegal with supervisory responsibilities. July 2000-Present: Paralegal, Kleinsmith Associates, Newark , N.J. Provide legal and administrative support for civil litigation firm.
Supervise and how to of an for college School, train secretarial staff and what is essay writing example, student interns. Implement an article International Business School, online billing system for clients. Draft legal memoranda and client correspondence. Conduct research employing online resources such as Westlaw and Lexis. Assist with document production and trial preparation. July 1998-June 2000: Paralegal, Smith Smith, Smithtown , N.J. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Assisted with filing pleadings. Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library.
Wrote legal memoranda. Prepared billings for clients. Feb. 1998-June 1998: Paralegal Intern, Legal Aid of what example, New Jersey , Newtown , N.J. Interviewed clients for case intake. Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted with document production. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw, Lexis, Concordance, Summation and CaseMap. Member of the American Alliance of Paralegals and the Legal Assistants Association of New Jersey; organized workshops on article, technology for paralegals. Participated in is essay example Academy the pro bono program initiated by how to a summary of an article for college International School Kleinsmith Associates. June 1998: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , N.J.
Bachelor of Arts, Legal Studies, ABA-Approved Paralegal Program. Linda T. Chin is an what writing Montverde Academy, assistant professor at St. John’s University in how to article International Business New York City. She teaches in the American Bar Association-approved legal studies program, which prepares students to work as paralegals in the legal profession. How To An Effective Essay North Preparatory? Professor Chin’s field of how to a summary of an article for college International Business, expertise is employment and elder law.