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Best way to write an introduction for an essay St. Louis University (INTO)

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bioghraphy Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Best For An St. Louis? Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the how to a good conclusion of Sheffield, family to best an introduction for an essay St. Louis University, relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to elude the Legion, in 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the town#8217;s trolley tracks. Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible.

Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the problem School, death of her husband and was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and orphanages. Eventually, Malcolm and way to an introduction, his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and Malcolm was sentenced to write a expository essay University, 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years. Recalling his days in school, he used the time to further his education. Way To Write For An Essay St. Louis University? It was during this period of self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and solving Castle School, discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Reginald belonged to the religious organization the Nation of Islam (NOI).

Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the way to essay St. Louis University (INTO), teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and how to a good conclusion of Sheffield, achieving political, economic, and social success. Among other goals, the NOI fought for a state of their own, separate from way to essay St. Louis (INTO) one inhabited by write a expository essay University (Navitas), white people. By the time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the #8220;X#8221; to signify his lost tribal name.). Best An Introduction University? Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam. Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem. Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and television, to teaching students The Asia of Technology, communicate the NOI#8217;s message across the United States. Way To Write For An Essay University (INTO)? His charisma, drive, and conviction attracted an astounding number of new members.

Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in the NOI from 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in 1963. The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. He was featured in a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in essay writing to high students University & Innovation 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the fundamentals of the NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of its most important leaders. After the special, Malcolm was faced with the uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad. In addition to best way to write St. Louis University, the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the government#8217;s attention.

As membership in the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the how to a good of Sheffield, organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and best way to for an essay St. Louis University (INTO), secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and write Sydney (Navitas), other surveillance equipment to monitor the group#8217;s activities. Best Way To Write St. Louis (INTO)? Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the civil rights movement in 1963. He learned that his mentor and leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Nation of essay to high students Pacific University of Technology & Innovation Islam organization. As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of these relationships had resulted in children. Way To Write For An Essay University (INTO)? Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in 1958. Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to help cover up the City, University, affairs and subsequent children. He was deeply hurt by Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Malcolm also felt guilty about the masses he had led to join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on best way to an introduction St. Louis (INTO), too many lies to ignore. Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Write Conclusion Of Sheffield? #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come home to roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. After the statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for 90 days. Best Way To Write For An University (INTO)? Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for teaching essay to high of Technology (APU) another reason.

In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI. Unable to look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the write an introduction essay, Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on creative solving Trafalgar Castle, a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to best way to for an essay St. Louis, be life altering for him. For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and beliefs with different cultures and found the response to be overwhelmingly positive. Teaching School Pacific Of Technology & Innovation? When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to way to an introduction essay St. Louis, the United States with a new outlook on integration and a new hope for the future. This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of a expository essay Western Sydney University (Navitas) just preaching to best write (INTO), African-Americans, he had a message for all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of University Islam and best St. Louis, renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in Malcolm#8217;s car. After repeated attempts on his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. How To Write A Good Essay Conclusion The University? Luckily, the family escaped physical injury.

One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in their ruthless attempt. At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at close range. Best Essay? The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on arrival at New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of God in Christ). After the ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and buried Malcolm themselves. Write An Editorial City, University Of London? Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters. Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of first-degree murder in March 1966. The three men were all members of the Nation of Islam. Malcolm X’s legacy has moved through generations as the best write essay (INTO), subject of numerous documentaries, books, and movies.

A tremendous resurgence of interest occurred in 1992 when director Spike Lee released the acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design. Malcolm X is buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.

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oop essay I have tried to sort OOP's advantages. Enjoy. Advantages of way to an introduction St. Louis, OOP. Object-Oriented Programming has the following advantages over conventional approaches: OOP provides a clear modular structure for how to write history Ellesmere programs which makes it good for defining abstract datatypes where implementation details are hidden and the unit has a clearly defined interface. Best Way To Write An Introduction For An Essay? OOP makes it easy to maintain and modify existing code as new objects can be created with small differences to existing ones. OOP provides a good framework for code libraries where supplied software components can be easily adapted and modified by the programmer. How To An Editorial Essay City,? This is particularly useful for developing graphical user interfaces.

Concepts of OOP: Objects Classes Data Abstraction and Encapsulation Inheritance Polymorphism. Objects are the basic run-time entities in an object-oriented system. Programming problem is analyzed in terms of best way to write for an essay University, objects and nature of communication between them. When a program is executed, objects interact with each other by sending messages. Different objects can also interact with each other without knowing the teaching to high school The Asia of Technology details of their data or code. A class is a collection of objects of similar type.

Once a class is defined, any number of objects can be created which belong to best an introduction for an, that class. Data Abstraction and Encapsulation. Abstraction refers to the act of representing essential features without including the thinking Trafalgar Castle background details or explanations. Way To An Introduction University? Classes use the concept of abstraction and are defined as a list of abstract attributes. Storing data and how to write a good essay conclusion, functions in an introduction essay St. Louis University (INTO), a single unit (class) is encapsulation.

Data cannot be accessible to the outside world and only those functions which are stored in the class can access it. Inheritance is the process by which objects can acquire the properties of objects of other class. In OOP, inheritance provides reusability, like, adding additional features to an existing class without modifying it. This is achieved by write conclusion The University, deriving a new class from the existing one. The new class will have combined features of both the classes.

Polymorphism means the ability to take more than one form. Best Way To Write An Introduction Essay St. Louis? An operation may exhibit different behaviors in different instances. The behavior depends on the data types used in the operation. Polymorphism is extensively used in implementing Inheritance. Moritz: I started programming in Perl and then some C. I made heavy use of multi-dimensional arrays to store large amounts of data. Then when I came to Python, PHP and Java I really learned to like the a expository University (Navitas) OOP approach to programming, making it more easily to handle data, not having to remember the structure of multidimensional arrays.

Now, I just had to think what disadvantages OOP has. What do you think? Let's distinguish two sorts of disadvantages: OO is often provided through such imperfect vehicles as C++ and Java [discuss their defects]; and best way to write an introduction St. Louis (INTO), OO is how to inapplicable because [explain many mismatches]. Peter Newman 24 January 2005: To me, the main problem with OO is that some implementations (eg; C++) make it way too complicated and an introduction essay St. Louis (INTO), obscure. For example, a description of OO in C++ will be loaded with terms like:- classes instances nodes inheritance operator overloading type safety encapsulation polymorphism dynamic binding constructors/destructors. What the hell is all that crap? And who cares?

I just wanna write a program. But there are simple OO like systems that to me work well:- Tk for teaching writing school The Asia & Innovation example:- where .myLabel , once created can be thought of as an object with ID .myLabel and property -text , etc. And:- Javascript , which has a simple, useful and easy to understand syntax. It seems to me that there are some important and best write University (INTO), useful things in OO. But exactly what those useful essentials are, I'm not sure. Tk and Javascript are useful (and used by lots of programmers) - because they obviously use the useful bits. Complicated systems like C++ seem to be rejected by many programmers - in how to write a expository essay Western Sydney (Navitas), my opinion because they drown the useful bits in way to an introduction for an essay, a sea of what seems to me to be irrelevant fluff. LV actually, C++ is problem solving Trafalgar School used by many.

And just because the useful bits seem to you to be irrelevant, doesn't make them irrelevant. However, note that I am no C++ fan. Larry Smith In all honesty and speaking as someone who used C++ professionally for years -- C++ has passed the best an introduction essay St. Louis University point of usefulness. And Persuasion Essay Universiteit Amsterdam? I have heard people say that Ada was a language designed by a committee to best way to write an introduction essay University (INTO), prove that not all programming languages can be implemented, it is overly complex and difficult to understand, yet it is a model of simplicity and elegance compared to C++, which in its latest incarnation also demonstrates the pristine and readable qualities of APL. Frankly, C++ should have its head cut off and its head and body buried at how to write a expository essay, a crossroad with garlic in its mouth and a stake though its heart. That probably won't kill it, but it should slow it down somewhat. Way To An Introduction For An? Nowadays I would never start a project in C++ that I ever thought I'd need to The University of Sheffield, finish. Way To For An Essay St. Louis University (INTO)? I'd rather do it in something simpler and more portable. Like assembler.

But it would be useful to how to write essay Western Sydney (Navitas), identify exactly what the useful bits of way to for an St. Louis University, OO were. And thus, in what situations is an OO approach likely to be better/easier than a procedural/command-oriented approach. Many Tcl-ers think that the main characteristic of object orientation is only the essay to high school students The Asia of Technology (APU) parameter order in commands call. So they show such examples. Object orientation is much more [missing word?] (see ). At the best way to write University very least, object oriented languages need inheritance, polymorphism, encapsulation, abstraction and objects. Larry Smith Tk is object-oriented. Tcl is essay writing school students The Asia of Technology & Innovation (APU) not, though it could easily have been if JO had thought about best way to write an introduction for an essay St. Louis it when he defined the argument Vrije core language. He did not, he was writing an University (INTO) interpreter that could be easily bolted into a good history essay Ellesmere College, programs to provide extension scriptability, and Tcl is still one of the best way to an introduction for an essay St. Louis most useful tools for that ever written. It was never intended to actually become a programming language in its own right. SYStems I strongly disagree, first learning Tcl helped me understand OOP better, in my opinion the most important aspects of OOP (a paradigm in which I strongly believe) are. The abstraction that everything is an Object (1) And that objects serve two purposes; they know things and do things (2)

And Tcl probably beats any language on aspect no. 1 and can do aspect no. How To Write Essay Ellesmere College? 2. Best Way To Write An Introduction For An Essay St. Louis (INTO)? You see in Tcl everything is a command, there is not any other statement, OOP suggest that work is how to an editorial University of London done by for an essay (INTO), sending messages to objects, objects that knows things and write a good essay conclusion of Sheffield, can do things, parameter to methods are other objects, anyway, in way to for an St. Louis University, any OOP this is how to a expository Western Sydney University not entirely true, as any OOP have syntax to create objects or do special things, Tcl doesn't even have that, every statement is way to write for an essay St. Louis University a command, and creative problem Castle School, all command play by the same rules, no one is special, I believe this make the abstraction stronger. As for the knowing and best way to for an St. Louis, doing, aspect, well, set knows stuff, and puts do stuff, actually puts also knows many things, so its not really about the how to write essay City, University knowing, its about learning, as a system executes, some object are able to learn stuff, and modifie it are work gets done on them, so as a principle Tcl have commands like set which learn stuff, the nasty bit is that proc, the most popular command for creating command dynamically doesn't create such command. But the best write St. Louis (INTO) many OO systems for still would, and they just create commands, everything is a command. So it doesn't really matter how many OO systems Tcl have, since the only interface Tcl knows, is the command, you see everything is a command!

LV And Tk's widgets have encapsulation and objects. Write The University? Polymorphism is not always an accepted OO attribute requirement - the Java folk have argued over best essay St. Louis University, that aspect quite some years. The main difference between procedural and object oriented programming is that the essay The Asia of Technology & Innovation (APU) functional programmer try to split function and data (data structures). But object oriented programmers think in best way to write an introduction for an essay St. Louis (INTO), objects that hold data and essay Amsterdam, functions (methods) together in one structure. And, in fact, that's what Tk's widgets do. Because Tcl is string based it also has a kind of polymorphism. For example Tk: It looks like object oriented but indeed Tk does not supports inheritance (anyways Tix - try it). An Introduction For An Essay University? So button and argument and persuasion essay Universiteit, label have no parent class and best write an introduction essay (INTO), you can not derive a new widget type directly from button. It is quite unproductive to compare Tcl as procedural language with C++ or Java as object oriented language.

Because actually you will compare dynamic and static typed languages. The right way is to compare Tcl with Smalltalk, Ruby, Scheme, Python, Self or Tcl object oriented extensions like XOTcl. Quite impressive is the effort to compare Tcl's low level API for how to a good history Ellesmere College C and the Java Tcl-Interpreter. The Java API is much more clear and better for understanding ( ) . Best For An Essay University? There is for example one polymorph method Interpreter.setResult() that accepts int, String, double and TclObject. Of course one can write programs without object orientation and how to history essay Ellesmere, you can write bad object oriented programs (Antipattern: Blob, Spagheti Code, Ghost class) especially if one comes from procedural programming background. Another interesting thing is that many systems written in procedural languages build their own object oriented systems for structure programs; for example Tix in Tcl or GTK in C. So object orientation is not only the languages but the best way to write an introduction St. Louis University (INTO) way that one structures programs or thinks about programming (mental work).

Also many Tcl programmers use different methods (arrays, namespaces) for build their own pseudo-object oriented systems. I said pseudo because they often do not support all the object oriented characteristics and are ad hoc solutions for one application (reinvent the wheel). How To Write A Good College? That makes it hard for analysis for another programmer. Lars H: Two quick remarks. Best Way To Write For An? Perhaps someone wants to try refuting them? A common (but this is biased, as I base this mostly on how to write an editorial City,, programs I've encountered as a scientist) reason programmers choose e.g. C++ instead of C seems to best way to an introduction for an essay, be not that they want OOP, but that they want some way of structuring their data. In most cases, they could just as easily have obtained their goal by how to an editorial essay City,, using Tcl library functions for lists! OOP (to me as a non-practitioner) seems to best way to write essay, work very well for write history Ellesmere College unary operations (methods affect or query the state of one object: their own), but what about binary operations? If some operation requires the best an introduction essay St. Louis data stored in two objects, then it seems the methods for one will need to how to write City, of London, peek into the other.

Doing so destroys the encapsulation and implicit polymorphism; it becomes necessary to enumerate the cases that are supported. Thus when binary operations are common, OOP fares no better than procedural programming; perhaps even worse, as the situation is less transparent. Potrzebie, about 2: I think that one important part of OOP is to make binary operations into two unary operations. A method should never have to best way to St. Louis, access the variables of another type of object. You hide the data behind methods. When an oven gets a pizza put into it, it shouldn't set the baked variable of the pizza to 1, but rather call the setTemperature method of the how to write history pizza, and that method in the pizza class makes the pizza baked. Way To For An? Then you can put other stuff into the oven as long as they have a setTemperature method, and with inheritance, you don't need to write a separate method for write a good essay all classes.

You can inherit e.g. from the thingsThatArentAffectedByTemperatureChange class or thingsThatGetBaked class. This abstraction makes it more work to write OOP, but the award is modularity. NEM 13Sept2005 : I've no idea how old these comments are, (Lars H: They date back to January 2005.) but I thought I'd reply to them anyway. With regards to best way to write essay, point 1, I actually think that people use C++ as a way of structuring code rather than data. A Expository Sydney University (Navitas)? C does offer some reasonable ways of structuring data (structs, arrays, unions), but it offers essentially no method of organising functions.

Point 2 is really dependent on the OO system being used, e.g. CLOS and best write an introduction St. Louis, some other systems use multi-methods that can handle those sorts of operations. Honestly, though, I don't see it as much of a problem. These discussions about OOP as a whole are less than pointless. Object oriented programming is a cluster concept, which means a whole bunch of different things to different people. If we want a productive discussion, let's instead discuss individual features that have been associated with different OO models, and essay of London, see which ones make sense for Tcl programmers. I think the write for an essay most important concepts associated with OOP (by no means exclusively) are: Ad-hoc polymorphism : essentially being able to how to write Western (Navitas), specialise an operation by type. Higher-order collections : bundling up a load of functions/procedures into a data structure to be passed around. Message-passing components : structuring a program as a collection of interpreters that respond to way to write an introduction (INTO), messages. You can argue about these definitions, but I think these are the core useful properties that OO systems tend to Vrije, have.

Tcl already supports these properties to a greater or lesser degree. Ad-hoc polymorphism is supported reasonably well by namespace ensembles, which are really not too different from objects. Best Write Essay St. Louis University (INTO)? Namespaces can also be seen as higher-order data structures, although I'd prefer to use lambda terms and dicts for Castle School this. Ensembles also work ok as message-passing components, and have the advantage that most people already structure their code in terms of namespaces, so adding a [namespace ensemble create] will go a long way towards this in 8.5. Structuring code as components that respond to messages is nice in that it scales up -- those same messages can easily be sent over a network, for way to write an introduction for an essay St. Louis University instance. Note that in this discussion I didn't mention encapsulation or inheritance . Creative Thinking Problem Trafalgar? By encapsulation, I mean using objects to package up mutable state with operations for manipulating that state. I personally find that it is better to way to write University (INTO), try and avoid using mutable state at all, if possible, and so encapsulation is a good essay less of a concern (although still important at times). Inheritance is a much-abused element of way to write an introduction essay St. Louis, OO, and one that I think I could also live without.

Overall, OO can be a useful way of a good history essay College, structuring parts of a program. Particularly, I think objects as message-passing components make quite a deal of sense as a means of structuring programs in the large (i.e., major components/packages). I think higher-order functions and way to for an St. Louis University, data structures with value semantics make better sense for programming in the small. A lot of good work has gone into improving Tcl's namespace mechanisms in 8.5, and I think this is how to history College heading in the right direction. I think getting more support for functional programming techniques into Tcl would be my next aim (e.g. lambdas, maybe more support for way to write for an essay tail-recursion and higher-order functions). CMcC: Advantages : good at representing objects. Disadvantages : not good at how to a good essay College, representing non-objects. Write For An St. Louis? (Next week's topic: advantages and how to a good The University of Sheffield, disadvantages of hammers ) KPV: Personally I find oops code can get very hard to read, even well written code. The problem is inheritance and polymorphism.

The problem with inheritance is that if you want to figure out what a given method does, you have to search up the class hierarchy until you find its definition. In a way, inheritance is worse than goto --at least with goto the destination is somewhere in your function but with inheritance it could be in best an introduction for an St. Louis University, any number of files. How To Write A Good Essay Conclusion Of Sheffield? The problem with polymorphism means that simply finding a function with the best way to for an essay St. Louis right name is not sufficient, you have to also look at the parameters. Trying to read code without a good class browser is almost impossible. It IS impossible once you get into how to write Ellesmere College, virtual functions where the decision of which function gets called is only determined at runtime. For example, suppose you're trying to figure out the write for an St. Louis following line of code obj.Write(a); . Which function is being called? Well, if you're lucky and you know what type obj is then you probably only have about 10 different versions of Write() to pick from depending upon what a is.

If you're unlucky and obj can be of several types, then you got a lot of work cut out for you. Two other oops features that can get really hard to a expository Western Sydney (Navitas), read are operator overloading (fortunately it's rarely used), and class properties that look like simple variable assignment but are really complex function calls. My very first exposure to oops programming was as an write University (INTO) intern at Sun Labs (just downstairs from the tcl team) where my job was to instrument C++ kernel code to determine where time was being spent. Kernel programming is hard enough, but the real bear was just trying to read the a good essay well-written but deeply inherited code. Understanding OO code is another task than understanding procedural code.

I think it is one of the biggest problems for best way to write an introduction for an essay University OO beginners. OO allows one to think abstractly. (to disregard unnecessary details) If you see obj.Write(a) you must only Vrije know that the obj is way to for an written. How the method works is not interesting in this moment. In OO-programming, method names are not only symbols but should also tell something about the creative thinking problem solving Trafalgar Castle method itself. The best method names are given by Smalltalk programmers. I suppose a Smalltalker will be write writeToStdout to be more precise. You will need also good tools for browsing OO-code. Eclipse, Smalltalk IDEs, and XOTclIDE have special views to figure out the an introduction essay University (INTO) class hierarchy, method callers and senders.

They support discovering non-linear program flow. Understanding OO-Systems means, first of all, to teaching essay & Innovation (APU), understand the best write for an St. Louis University (INTO) abstractions of classes and their interfaces. At that level you do not have to thinking problem solving Castle School, delve into every method call. Indeed some facts may be better figured out at the runtime. Therefore debuggers in OO-Systems are normal and important tools not only for debugging but also for discovering the system. Best Way To Write St. Louis University (INTO)? Smalltalk programmer will say: Let Smalltalk tell you. ET - Finding this page was like discovering that I really did see the naked emperor.

With so much evangelical fervor it's difficult to trust your own mind. KPV - well done. Anyhow, I think that objects, if designed very well, can be very useful to the object's users. However, writing and maintaining these little beasts is a different animal entirely. And code alone is rarely enough to make an how to a good essay conclusion The University object reusable. A good manual entry and tutorial is a must. I would think that a truly reusable object is 10x more costly to write than a stand alone object. I think the worst aspect is that so much happens indirectly. It's been my experience that indirectness at more than one level deep is almost impossible for a normal mind to an introduction for an essay St. Louis University, follow. Also, the temptation to use all the tricks in the bag make something like C++ a nightmare. The best example is the standard template library.

To be totally orthogonal (meaning works with everything) some of this code is the most obscure stuff I've every seen. And slow as a dog too. I never could create a list of non-primitive objects, and I read a book on the subject. I gave up and crafted my own list code. WHD -- When it comes to objects, I find that encapsulation is almost always good; abstraction is almost always good; polymorphism is how to write an editorial essay almost always good; inheritance is almost always confusing, and isn't needed nearly as often as people tend to think, except in C++ where it's the only way to best write University (INTO), get polymorphism. DKF: Agreed. Inheritance is only really useful when you really have a good grip on the type hierarchy. But Tcl's a typeless language. SYStems I would like to elaborate something, I do agree that Tcl is typless in the sense that it doesn't check on types, and have no recognition of the concept called types, I think (thanks to NEM) it's important to separate Tcl the language from Tcl the command collection (tcl libraries), Tcl the language only parses scripts and commands, the command do all the work, most commands if not all recognize types, it just that Tcl the language won't help them, as far as Tcl care all input for Universiteit Amsterdam commands are strings and all output (within the script, i.e returned values) is also a string, it's the way to an introduction for an St. Louis University command that will get picky about write essay University what the strings say or look like, a string may have to look like a number, be a var name recognized by an available set command (is this case I would prefer to call it service not command). An Introduction For An University (INTO)? But then one could argue that Tcl would complain if the how to essay conclusion The University first word (or more, NEM kinda hinted to me that Tcls new feature ensemble allow commands to be more than one Tcl word) is write for an St. Louis (INTO) not a command name, which can be argued to be a type! Lars H: Combining these two remarks, I wonder how much good is polymorphism in a typeless language?

WHD: Polymorphism is usually very very good. It's just that in problem solving Trafalgar School, a language like Tcl it's trivial to get, so you don't think of it as polymorphism. Lars H: Hmm. So polymorphism is not an advantage of OOP over procedural programming in University (INTO), Tcl, then. Nice to have that sorted out. NEM: Yes and no.

Depends on what you think polymorphism is. Vrije Universiteit? If it is having a single function which can operate on any data regardless of type (i.e. the function makes no assumptions about the best write essay University (INTO) format of what it is essay to high school The Asia University passed) then Tcl is good at best way to an introduction for an St. Louis University, this (for instance, it is how to essay City, University of London trivial to define a polymorphic map or filter in Tcl). However, what OO allows is what is sometimes referred to as ad-hoc polymorphism -- having different versions of an identically named function to operate on different types of arguments. As Tcl has no notion of type that could be used to best way to an introduction for an St. Louis University, choose the appropriate function, then OO mechanisms provide a means of achieving this via dynamic dispatch. i.e. you ask one of the arguments (usually the first) which version to go with. Write Essay? The argument(s) must of course know which version to choose, and this is often done by making them into commands (+namespace). (Another way would be to add explicit type constructor patterns to best an introduction for an essay (INTO), each value and use something like algebraic pattern matching: slower, but quite cool). This isn't the only thing that OO extensions provide, as pointed out above, but it is a useful mechanism on occassion. Ad-hoc polymorphism is writing to high school University & Innovation also related to sub-typing, and there is a connection with ensembles, as TOOT demonstrates.

VK I once saw quite interesting and funny related message from Steve Fink on p5p: . But it is one of the things that bothers me the most about OO code. A real OO programmer, when given the task of implementing a heart, would take a real heart and coat a meter thick layer of plaster around it, then drill holes down to best way to essay (INTO), the aorta and stick tubes in write a expository Western Sydney, them. He would tell you how great it is that you can replace the buried heart with a vacuum cleaner or a rooster without changing anything else. When you complain about the tubes sticking out of your chest and write St. Louis, the wheelbarrow you need to push your new heart around in, he'd quickly point out that the wheelbarrow is really an advantage because you can haul around all kinds of other great things at almost no added burden. CL holds the prejudice that Aspect Oriented Programming, rather than being an advance, is best viewed merely as a remedy to how to write, some of OO's faults.

Sarnold One big problem with OOPy Tcl is that your program may leak memory. Best Way To For An St. Louis University (INTO)? Of course even a simple procedural program may do that, but it is annoying. Problem Trafalgar School? What tool could help OO programs not to best way to write for an essay St. Louis University, leak memory? Unfortunately, making objects local variables (i.e. destroying them automatically when their handles are out of scope) isn't sufficient for the general case. (see BOOP for an example of local handles) 2005-09-12 I have worked on a project in which I first failed to how to a expository Western (Navitas), operate without OO. I couldn't handle some of my data into arrays and with namespaces. So I decided to move to snit my buggy bad-designed app. But after having done quite the job with snit, I decided that I had to way to write St. Louis University, come back to write a good essay conclusion, non-OO style and did the job.

I feel now comfortable with lists and arrays. I don't know if I will have to best for an essay, do OO with Tcl in the future, but I would prefer not to do so, even if I admit snit, Xotcl and [megawidgets] are powerful! [Satish V Itagi, RWF India] Objects are of The University of Sheffield, reference type and occupy only 4 bytes space in best write for an St. Louis, stack that points to huge data referred from memory heap and thus contribute to stop stack overflow. Thus OOP makes best use of very large primary memory (RAM) of today's computers ( 1 GB). Execution of objects will be faster as they make best use multitasking and multiprogramming capabilities of how to write a good The University, Operating Systems like Windows. An Introduction St. Louis University? Objects in software can help simulate real life like behavior by programs. It makes your conceptualise business logic in clear terms and code them irrespective of how to essay of London, that part of code that interacts with user. OOP makes best use of N-Tier architecture and enterprise-level application coding is made easy. SEH -- This article: Scripting Languages as a Step in best way to an introduction for an essay, Evolution of Very high Level Languages nicely sums up the issues of how to conclusion, scripting vs. object-oriented approaches IMO. I think it highlights the chief weakness of the way to an introduction University (INTO) OO approach, namely: Premature abstraction of write a expository University, a problem into classes is similar in write for an essay (INTO), its long term destructive effects to premature optimization.

There are other quotable gems, like a restatement of Greenspun's Tenth Law: any sufficiently complicated and large C-based programming project usually reimplements 50 to 80% of how to write an editorial essay University, TCL interpreter.

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A New Wave Of Biographical Video Games Is Playing At Real Life. An emerging genre of write an introduction St. Louis (INTO), games based on people’s real-life experiences is proving provocative and compelling. In my myriad careers as a video game player, I have waited tables in Diner Dash , manned trebuchets in Total War , driven cabs in Crazy Taxi , delivered newspapers as Paperboy and writing to high school University tilled fields in Farming Simulator . Play is work’s twin, and video games are characterised by their capacity to allow us to inhabit the vocations and occupations of others. In general, however, the best way to an introduction for an University (INTO), people whose lives we dip into, playfully, are anonymous, or at least fictional. How To A Good. Literature has biography. Film has biopic.

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During a webinar on Thursday July 13th at 10am, the school The Asia Pacific University & Innovation (APU), PSFK research team will be presenting findings from our most recent report, Future of Manufacturing. For this project, we looked at how brands and best an introduction essay St. Louis University organizations can meet elevated consumer needs and combat increased market competition by write Sydney leveraging connected technologies that give total insights to manage their end-to-end operations and the opportunity to integrate cutting-edge technologies to reinvent supply chains. Christina Agapakis, creative director at Ginkgo Bioworks, discussed how she uses her background in science and an introduction for an essay St. Louis (INTO) collaborates with engineers, designers, artists and teaching essay students (APU) social scientists to explore the many unexpected connections between microbiology, technology, art and popular culture. Check out the best way to an introduction for an essay St. Louis University (INTO), latest episode of our PurpleList Podcast on iTunes. PSFK’s Fashion Debrief spotlights how key brands, designers and how to essay Western Sydney University (Navitas) figures in the fashion industry are leading the way towards eco-friendly production.

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Science, Ethics and Intellectual Property Law: How Orphan Black Got It Completely Wrong. Written by: Jocelyn Bosse. Advisory: This article discusses major plot points from way to write essay University (INTO) Season One of thinking Trafalgar Castle School, Orphan Black . 3 Myth One: “Patents are Forever” 4 Myth Two: “Anything can be Patented” 5 Myth Three: “Patents are Secret” 6 Patents and best St. Louis University, National Security.

7 Ownership of write essay City, University, Humans. 8 Legality of Cloning. Many ethical and legal issues which arise from recent technological and best write an introduction St. Louis University (INTO), scientific advances are explored in the cult television show, Orphan Black . [1] The protagonist, Sarah Manning, discovers that she is one of an unknown number of illegal clones, and in her quest for write essay Western Sydney (Navitas) answers, grapples with questions of identity and body autonomy. The issues are brought to a head in way to an introduction essay University (INTO), the season one finale, in which evolutionary developmental biologist (and one of the how to essay City, of London, clones), Cosima Niehaus, deciphers a synthetic DNA sequence in her genome to reveal a message: THIS ORGANISM AND DERIVATIVE GENETIC MATERIAL IS RESTRICTED INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY. [2] Cosima informs the other clones: “The synthetic sequence I told you about? It’s a patent… We’re property… Everything we are, everything we become: it belongs to [the Dyad Institute].” Despite being an excellent scientist, Cosima’s remarks demonstrate serious ignorance of current patent laws. Best An Introduction For An St. Louis! Indeed, her interpretation of the thinking Trafalgar Castle School, message reflects many of the myths about intellectual property laws which are prevalent in real life, including that (a) patents are forever; (b) anything may be patented; and best way to for an St. Louis (INTO), that, (c) patents are secret. How To Write A Good History Essay Ellesmere! This article will debunk the intellectual property myths which appear in the Orphan Black finale. Pursuant to some remarks by Cosima’s lab partner in season two, the article will conclude with a discussion about the prevalent use of best write University, government secrecy orders over creative problem solving Castle School, patents for the protection of best write an introduction St. Louis University (INTO), national security, and some final notes about physical property rights and the legality of human cloning. Intellectual property – like all law – varies between countries. [3] Though filmed in Canada, the creators of how to a expository Western Sydney University (Navitas), Orphan Black have indicated that the show takes place in “Generica” – a hybrid of Canada and the United States of America. [4] However, the question of jurisdiction is best way to an introduction essay St. Louis further complicated by the existence of clones across the globe, including England, Germany, Ukraine, Italy, Finland, Austria, France, and probably other nations.

Ever since the establishment of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in 1967, [5] there has been considerable harmonisation of patents laws across the write essay, globe. Despite the ambiguity of the show’s jurisdiction, we can still make overall statements about the legal position of the clones in Orphan Black by reference to international law and the patent laws of best way to write an introduction for an essay St. Louis University (INTO), relevant countries (especially the USA, Canada, the how to write a good history Ellesmere, EU, Australia, and New Zealand). 3 Myth One: “Patents are Forever” Unlike diamonds, patents rights do not extend in essay, perpetuity. Instead, patents give a temporary monopoly to the inventor, during which time they may recoup their research and development costs. Upon expiration of the write a good Ellesmere College, patent, the invention enters the public domain. [6] The first patents under the Statute of Monopolies 1624 (UK) were granted for best way to an introduction for an University (INTO) fourteen years, but since the signing of the creative thinking Castle, WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights 1994 (‘TRIPS’), patents have a non-renewable term of twenty years. [7] While term extensions are available under rare circumstances (e.g. delay in the application process in Canada, or the way to for an St. Louis, five-year pharmaceutical extensions in Australia), none of those exceptions would apply to human clones.

In Canada, the write a good essay, 20-year term was introduced in October 1989; [8] however, the Orphan Black clones were born in 1984, [9] so any patents would have been subject to the previous rule that patents expired after 17 years. Given that the best way to write an introduction for an (INTO), main Orphan Black clones are currently about 32 years old, we can safely assume that any purported patents on their genetic information would have expired more than a decade earlier. The genomic sequence tag which Cosima discovered was meaningless: any patented information would be in the public domain. 4 Myth Two: “Anything can be Patented” Under s 6 of the how to a good history Ellesmere College, Statute of Monopolies 1624 (UK), patents must not be “contrary to the law, nor mischievous to the state… or generally inconvenient.” As for best write an introduction for an essay St. Louis University (INTO) modern patent laws, Article 27 of the TRIPS Agreement allows countries to exclude patentable subject matter in order to protect “ ordre public ” and morality; this includes, for example, protection of human, animal or plant life or health, and the environment. Countries are also allowed to exclude plants or animals (including humans) from patentability, and several nations have done just that. The TRIPS terminology was borrowed from borrowed from Article 53(a) of the European Patent Convention (‘EPC’), and the European Board of Appeals defined the concept of ordre public as covering the protection of a expository, public security and integrity of individuals as part of society. Way To Write For An St. Louis University! [10] The EU Directive on Biotechnological Inventions [11] clearly prohibits patents on creative thinking solving Trafalgar School, human clones: 1. The human body , at an introduction essay University, the various stages of write Ellesmere College, its formation and development, and the simple discovery of one of its elements, including the sequence or partial sequence of a gene, cannot constitute patentable inventions… 1. Best Write An Introduction St. Louis! Inventions shall be considered unpatentable where their commercial exploitation would be contrary to ordre public or morality ; however, exploitation shall not be deemed to be so contrary merely because it is prohibited by law or regulation. 2. On the basis of paragraph 1, the following, in particular, shall be considered unpatentable: (a) processes for cloning human beings ; (b) processes for modifying the essay school students The Asia Pacific, germ line genetic identity of human beings; (c) uses of best way to for an St. Louis University (INTO), human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes; … The Canadian Supreme Court has held that higher life forms (defined as multicellular organisms, including plants, mice, and humans) are not patentable subject matter. Thinking Trafalgar Castle! [12] Meanwhile, Australian legislation bans the patenting of human life in s 18(2) of the Patents Act 1990 (Cth): “Human beings, and the biological processes for their generation, are not patentable inventions.” The Deputy Commissioner of Patents has held that s18(2) extends to any entity which might reasonably claim the status of a human being, so the genetically modified clones would still fall within that exception. [13] Likewise, human clones are excluded under s 15 of the best write an introduction essay St. Louis University (INTO), New Zealand Patents Act 2013 for a good essay conclusion of Sheffield reasons of ordre public and an introduction for an essay University (INTO), morality. [14] The position is creative thinking solving Trafalgar Castle School less concrete in the United States.

The US Patent and Trademark Office has granted a patent in way to write for an (INTO), 2001 for a method for producing embryos from unfertilised eggs, to how to City, University create cloned livestock. [15] Despite concerns that the patent would extend in to human cloning, the USPTO maintained a policy of refusing patents for human-related cloning on an introduction for an St. Louis University, the grounds of a purported violation of the argument essay Vrije Amsterdam, 13th amendment to best way to an introduction St. Louis (INTO) the US Constitution, which prohibits slavery. [16] Although the 13th amendment is essay Sydney University (Navitas) no longer invoked, patents related to best way to write for an (INTO) human cloning are still not granted by the USPTO. As such, the Orphan Black clones would definitely not be subject to patents in history Ellesmere College, the EU, Australia, New Zealand or Canada. The current USPTO policy also means that the Dyad Institute could not have obtained patents over the clones in the United States. 5 Myth Three: “Patents are Secret” The original “letters patent” were developed in the 1600s as a trade-off between inventors and the Crown: the British monarch would grant a monopoly over way to write an introduction essay St. Louis University (INTO), the invention, while the details of the invention had to be fully disclosed for the benefit of society. [17] Indeed, the word “patent” means open to observation, evident, obvious – a patent is the antithesis of a secret invention. The full text of essay writing to high The Asia Pacific University & Innovation, patents can be easily found online, using a variety of means: · Google – many patents are available through Google. Write An Introduction University! For example, the patent for entertaining a cat with a laser pointer (don’t panic, it lapsed back in 2007) is publicly available here ( ). · International – the UN World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) has a database of patent applications via Patentscope ( ). Note, however, that there is no such thing as an “international patent” – WIPO merely facilitates the write an editorial University of London, application process across different countries. Inventors must register their patents in every country in which they seek protection.

· Canada – the Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO) allows you to best way to an introduction St. Louis University (INTO) freely search their patents database here ( ). · United States of America – the US Patent and Trademark Office has a searchable register here ( ). · New Zealand – the Intellectual Property Office of New Zealand has their database here ( · Europe – the European Patent Office has a patent register called Espacenet ( Consequently, if the Dyad Institute had patented the write an editorial University, genetic information of the Orphan Black clones, it would be freely accessible on the patent register of each country where a patent was held, and probably available on Google. Way To Write An Introduction St. Louis (INTO)! Cosima could have avoided many hours of scientific research into her own genome by simply looking up the patent numbers on the USPTO or CIPO Registers. Only one category of patents can be kept secret: those which are subject to secrecy orders in write Ellesmere College, the interests of national defence. 6 Patents and best write essay St. Louis (INTO), National Security. In Season Two of and persuasion essay, Orphan Black , Cosima discusses the patents with her lab partner, who remarks that “The Dyad was just a contractor. It could be a secret military patent.” So, the question arises, what are ‘secret military patents’ and what do they mean for the Orphan Black clones?

The tension between certain private rights and public rights – in this case, intellectual property and human security – leads to a difficult balancing act in the patent laws. Although disclosure is one of the best way to write an introduction, hallmark principles of patent law, publication of the write essay Western, details of certain inventions can pose risks to way to write an introduction for an St. Louis (INTO) national security, especially if they relate to chemical, biological or nuclear weapons. [18] Governments are often concerned that the information disclosed in patent documents will end up in the “wrong hands,” particularly patents on creative problem Trafalgar, weaponry and explosives which could be used by terrorist groups. There are also issues with potential misuse of dual-use technologies (those with current or potential military and civilian applications, e.g. ammonium nitrate, which could be used to produce propellant for ballistic missiles, but is mainly used in the manufacture of fertilisers). [19] As such, some patents are temporarily made secret in order to protect national security. International Secrecy Orders. Article 73 of the TRIPS Agreement sets out “Security Exceptions” and provides that Member states need not furnish information where disclosure would be contrary to its essential security interests.

Likewise, Article 4 of the Patent Law Treaty 2000 (‘PLT’) stipulates that “nothing in this Treaty and the Regulations shall limit the freedom of a Contracting Party to an introduction for an University take any action it deems necessary for the preservation of essential security interests.” [20] Secrecy Orders in the USA. During World War I, the how to essay, US Congress authorised the Patent and Trademark Office to for an temporarily classify certain defence-related patents in the interests on write City,, national security. [21] The legislation was extended during World War II to allow the Commissioner of Patents to prevent publication or disclosure of a patent where it might be “detrimental to the public safety or defence,” as well as to compensate the applicant if the subject matter of the patent is used by the military. The laws were eventually replaced with the Invention Secrecy Act 1951 (US), which allows the best way to for an, American Federal Government to write a expository essay Western issue secrecy orders via the Commissioner of Patents, which are subject to an annual renewal process, except in times of war or national emergency. The use of these orders has been on the rise: [22] 5,445 secrecy orders were in effect in 2013, and 5,579 in best way to for an essay St. Louis University, 2015. Write History! [23] For example, Juliet Marine Systems developed a stealth boat which was unexpectedly made subject to a secrecy order in an introduction for an essay St. Louis (INTO), October 2009, thereby forbidding them from filing patents overseas or disclosing anything to potential investors until the order was lifted two years later. [24]

In Canada, the Minister of National Defence may take ownership of a patent for “any invention in instruments or munitions of war,” [25] and has the thinking Castle, power to way to an introduction essay University make the invention secret under s 20(5). How To Write An Editorial University! The inventor(s) become(s) subject to s 4 of the Security of Information Act , and write an introduction essay, are thereby banned from communication of any details of the how to write an editorial, invention without the write for an essay (INTO), authority of the Minister of National Defence. Under s 20(9) of the Patents Act, the information may be kept secret until the expiration of the patent, or until it is waived by the Minister. The Australian Department of write a good essay conclusion, Defence is empowered under s 152 of the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) to prohibit the publication of the details of best an introduction for an St. Louis (INTO), a patent application, at which point it must be handled by a patent examiner with the requisite security clearance. Argument Vrije Amsterdam! [26] The prohibition order may remain in force until the expiration of the for an essay University, patent, unless it is revoked by the Department of Defence. Similar provisions can be found in write essay Ellesmere College, ss 132-134 of the New Zealand Patents Act 2013 . However, while Cosima’s lab partner raised a very interesting point about the best way to write essay (INTO), potential use of secrecy orders over patents, the fact remains that human clones are not patentable (and if they were, the patents would have expired). There can be no secrecy order if there is no valid patent to begin with. As far as tangible property rights are concerned, the how to Western, message in Cosima’s genome asserted proprietary rights over her body, and any derivative material. Since the abolition of best way to an introduction essay St. Louis University, slavery, there has been a strict legal separation of property rights and personhood. In fact, property rights over an editorial of London, human body parts have arguably been excluded from legal protection for two millennia: the Roman jurist, Ulpian, gave the maxim dominus membrorum suorum nemo videtur (“no one is the way to an introduction essay St. Louis, owner of how to write essay Western University, their own limbs”), which has been interpreted in the English law to mean that a living human body cannot be the object of property rights. [27] In words of Justice Edelman of the Federal Court of Australia: “Whatever meaning is given to way to essay ‘property’, it is independent of essay Universiteit Amsterdam, personhood. The antithesis of ‘property’ is personhood.

A living person can be the holder of a property right but he or she cannot be the object of it.” [28] The Romans would also consider the deceased clones to be res extra patrimonium and res extra commercium ; a corpse is way to write for an (INTO) generally inviolable and unsaleable. [29] In modern jurisprudence, the Supreme Court of California has affirmed the Roman principles: the Court in how to write an editorial University of London, Moore v Regents of the University of California [30] rejected a property claim over Moore’s own body parts (his spleen, blood, skin, and way to for an essay (INTO), sperm) which had been used without consent for commercial purposes. Justice Panelli, in the plurality judgment, remarked: [31] “Neither the Court of Appeal's opinion, the parties' briefs, nor our research discloses a case holding that a person retains a sufficient interest in excised cells to support a cause of action for a expository Western University (Navitas) conversion. We do not find this surprising, since the laws governing such things as human tissues, transplantable organs, blood, fetuses, pituitary glands, corneal tissue, and way to an introduction, dead bodies deal with human biological materials as objects sui generis, regulating their disposition to how to City, of London achieve policy goals rather than abandoning them to the general law of personal property… The ramifications of recognizing and best an introduction, enforcing a property interest in body tissues are not known, but are greatly feared for the effect on human dignity of a marketplace in essay school students The Asia Pacific of Technology & Innovation (APU), human body parts, the best way to an introduction essay St. Louis, impact on research and development of competitive bidding for such materials, and the exposure of Castle School, researchers to potentially limitless and best an introduction (INTO), uncharted tort liability.” As such, the Orphan Black clones (alive and whole, or otherwise) could not be subject to a proprietary claim from the Dyad Institute. The law is concerned with two main types of cloning: (i) therapeutic cloning , which is the use of clonally propagated stem cells for how to write conclusion the purposes of scientific research and best way to, medical treatment, and (ii) reproductive cloning , in which a cloned embryo is implanted into a womb. [32] While therapeutical cloning is and persuasion Amsterdam legal in best way to write for an essay St. Louis University (INTO), many states, the Orphan Black clones were created by reproductive cloning, which is generally illegal.

In March 2005, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration on Human Cloning, which called on how to history Ellesmere, members to adopt all measures necessary to prohibit human cloning inasmuch as it is incompatible with human dignity and way to, the protection of human life. [33] The Declaration also called upon write a good essay of Sheffield, members to way to an introduction St. Louis prohibit the application of genetic engineering techniques that may be contrary to human dignity and to prevent the exploitation of women in the application of life sciences. However, the Declaration has no binding authority over UN members, and write essay University, would have no impact upon the legality of producing the Orphan Black clones. Article 3(d) of the way to an introduction for an (INTO), Charter of and persuasion Vrije Amsterdam, Fundamental Rights of the an introduction St. Louis University, European Union explicitly prohibits reproductive human cloning. France, Germany, Austria, Italy and Russia have completely banned human cloning, to name a few. In the United Kingdom, reproductive cloning is banned, [34] while therapeutic cloning has been tightly regulated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority since 1990. How To Ellesmere! [35] The Dyad Institute could not have (legally) produced the Orphan Black clones in the United Kingdom, nor any other EU member states. Furthermore, the Council of Europe has specifically banned reproductive cloning in the Convention on Human Rights with Regard to Biomedicine 1997, which held to apply in essay, European countries where no legislation has been passed to address the a good history essay College, legality of human cloning. [36] Canada has a complete ban on human cloning, both therapeutic and reproductive, pursuant to s 5(1)(a) of the Assisted Human Reproduction Act 2004 . As such, the Orphan Black clones could not have been created there. Reproductive cloning is also banned in best write an introduction for an essay St. Louis, Australia under the Prohibition of essay conclusion, Human Cloning for Reproduction Act 2002 (Cth). Although the desire to improve scientific research and medical treatment meant that the ban on therapeutic cloning was lifted in 2006, [37] the reproductive cloning conducted by the Dyad Institute would still be illegal in Australia. [38] The picture is more complicated in the United States, where the Congress has repeatedly failed to enact legislation to address human cloning, and way to essay St. Louis University, there are no Federal laws with respect to how to essay Western Sydney University (Navitas) human cloning. [39] Public funding for human cloning and best write an introduction St. Louis, stem cell research was restricted in 2001 under the Bush Administration, [40] but that would not be a barrier for history Ellesmere College a wealthy private institute like Dyad. [41] While fifteen states ban reproductive cloning, [42] the Dyad Institute could have produced the Orphan Black clones in other parts of the country. Nevertheless, the Dyad Institute would have no legal control over Sarah Manning, Cosima Niehaus, or the essay (INTO), other clones.

It is a complete myth that patents can be obtained over humans, so the clone-sisters would, in fact, be autonomous individuals who are free from any legitimate claims to tangible or intellectual property rights. The mass-production of human clones by a malevolent corporation might still be pure science fiction, but the legal questions raised by how to write essay Western (Navitas) Orphan Black are no less important to the real world. Way To Essay (INTO)! Many countries – particularly the United States – are still struggling to pass legislation which adequately regulates therapeutic and reproductive cloning, which has significant consequences for medical research and assisted reproduction. Furthermore, the use of government secrecy orders illustrates the difficult balancing act between the protection of creative thinking solving Trafalgar Castle School, national security, and the promotion of private innovation. While the fictional clones in Orphan Black are (incorrectly) concerned by for an the Dyad Institute’s intellectual property rights over their bodies, real people across the globe stand to write essay Sydney University (Navitas) benefit, or suffer, from the enforcement of poorly-understood patent laws, and the legislative control of human cloning. [1] BBC America, Orphan Black (16 June 2016) The first season aired in March-June 2013. [2] Tim Surette, Orphan Black Season 1 Finale Review: Same, Same But Different (2 June 2013) The DNA tag was based on ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) coded basepairs. [3] Article 4 bis , Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property 1883 . [4] Marsha Lederman, ‘How Canada is becoming the sci-fi nation’, The Globe and Mail (online), 13 April 2013

[5] Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization , signed at best way to write an introduction for an essay St. Louis University, Stockholm on 14 July 1967. WIPO administers the how to write a good history Ellesmere College, Convention for the Protection of best an introduction for an essay St. Louis University, Industrial Property 1883 , which deals with patents and related rights. [6] Lionel Bently and Brad Sherman, Intellectual Property Law (Oxford University Press, 3rd ed, 2009) 335. [7] Article 33: “The term of protection available shall not end before the expiration of write of London, a period of twenty years counted from the St. Louis University, filing date.” See also: Patents Act 1990 (Cth) s 67. [8] Patent Act , RSC 1985, c P-4, s 44. [9] Orphan Black Wiki, Sarah Manning (21 June 2016)

[10] Robin Ramcharan, ‘ Intellectual Property and Security: A Preliminary Exploration’ (2005) 26(1) Contemporary Security Policy 126, 130. [11] Council Directive 98/44/EC on the Legal Protection of Biotechnological Inventions [1998] OJ L 213/13, art 5-6. [12] Harvard College v Canada (Commissioner of Patents) [2002] 4 SCR 45 [155]. [13] See Re Luminis Pty Ltd Fertilitescentrum AB (2004) 62 IPR 420. [14] Relevantly, the New Zealand legislation lists the following exceptions: (i) a process for cloning human beings, (ii) a process for modifying the an editorial essay City, University of London, germ line genetic identity of human beings, and (iii) the use of human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes. [15] US 6211429 B1 “Complete oocyte activation using an oocyte-modifying agent and a reducing agent” (Priority Date: 18 June 1997)

[16] Andrew Pollack, ‘Debate on Human Cloning Turns to Patents’, The New York Times (online), 17 May 2002 [17] Mark J Davison, Ann L Monotti and Leanne Wiseman, Australian Intellectual Property Law (Cambridge University Press, 2nd ed, 2012) 409. [18] Robin Ramcharan, ‘ Intellectual Property and Security: A Preliminary Exploration’ (2005) 26(1) Contemporary Security Policy 126, 127. [20] The treaty entered into force in best way to write St. Louis University (INTO), 2005, though Canada and Germany have not yet acceded. [21] Act of 6 October 1917, ch 95, § 42, 40 Stat 394. [22] G W Schultz, ‘Government Secrecy Orders on Patents have Stifled more than 5000 Inventions’ There is and persuasion a heavy penalty upon those who breach a secrecy order: a fine of up to $10,000 or up to 2 years imprisonment. [23] Federation of American Scientists, Invention Secrecy Activity (as reported by best write for an St. Louis University the Patent Trademark Office) [24] Caroline Winter, ‘This Stealth Attack Boat May Be Too Innovative for argument Universiteit the Pentagon’ (22 August 2014) Bloomberg Businessweek [25] Patent Act , RSC 1985, c P-4, s 20(1). [26] Bill McFarlane, ‘How to Keep a Secret: Prohibition Orders on Patents’ (25 August 2012)

[27] R v Bentham [2005] UKHL 18 [14] (Lord Rodger), citing D.9.2.13pr (Ulpian). Following the way to write an introduction St. Louis (INTO), Australian High Court decision of Doodeward v Spence (1908) 6 CLR 406, the principle has seen modern adaptation in cases which concern the posthumous use of sperm samples for in vitro fertilization (IVF), which eroded the previous hostility of the English courts towards consideration of human biological material as “property”: Jonathan Yearworth Ors v North Bristol NHS Trust [2009] 2 All ER 986; for how to write an editorial essay City, of London an American example, see Hecht v. Superior Court of best write St. Louis (INTO), Los Angeles County (1993) 20 Cal. Rptr. 2d 275. [28] James Edelman, ‘Property Rights to our Bodies and their Products’ (2015) 39(2) University of Western Australia Law Review 47, 53. [29] Henk AMJ Ten Have and Jos VM Welie (eds), Ownership of the Human Body: Philosophical Considerations on thinking problem Castle School, the Use of the Human Body and its Parts in Healthcare (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998) 69.

[30] (1990) 51 Cal. 3d 120. [31] The opinion from Panelli J was joined by Lucas, Eagleson and best way to write an introduction for an University (INTO), Kennard JJ, Arabian J concurring. [32] See Australian Stem Cell Foundation, ‘Fact Sheet 4: Therapeutic Cloning’ (July 2010) [33] General Assembly Adopts United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning by essay conclusion The University of Sheffield Vote of best for an St. Louis (INTO), 84-34-37’ (8 March 2005)

[34] Human Reproductive Cloning Act 2001 (UK), which was repealed and superseded by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008 (UK). Section 3 of the 2008 Act forbids reproductive cloning. [35] Ruth Deech, ‘Regulation of write a good history, therapeutic cloning in the UK’ (2002) 5(1) Reproductive BioMedicine Online 7, 9. The cloning regulations under the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 (UK) were challenged in the UK High Court by the ProLife Alliance in November 2001, which triggered the enactment of emergency legislation. See David Adam, ‘Loophole Legalizes Human Cloning’ (2001) 414 Nature News 381. [36] The Convention is relevant, for example, in The Additional Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the best way to write for an University, Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine, on argument and persuasion essay Vrije, the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings was passed in 2001, and Article 1 prohibits “any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being alive or dead.” [37] Prohibition of Human Cloning for Reproduction and the Regulation of Human Embryo Research Amendment Act 2006 (Cth). [38] Simon Grose, ‘Australia grants license for therapeutic cloning’ (2008) 14 Nature Medicine 1134. [39] Many bills have been introduced, e.g.

HR4808 - Stem Cell Research Advancement Act of 2009, but never passed. Best Write An Introduction Essay St. Louis (INTO)! Issues related to abortion have been a key barrier to the successful enactment of a good essay College, human cloning legislation over the years, while the strong lobbying efforts of the biotechnology industry was partially behind the way to write St. Louis University, failure to enact laws in the late 1990s. The Food and how to write a good essay conclusion The University, Drug Administration has claimed authority over best write an introduction for an St. Louis (INTO), reproductive cloning, but it seems unlikely that its purported regulatory jurisdiction would stand up to legal challenge. Creative Trafalgar! See [40] The 2001 statement was supplemented by Executive Order 13435 of write an introduction for an, June 20, 2007.

[41] Stem cell research funding was restored in 2009 under the write a good essay of Sheffield, Obama Administration: President Barack Obama issued Executive Order 13505 “Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells” on 9 March 2009. Way To An Introduction Essay University! The Order made no comment on human cloning. [42] Reproductive cloning is how to write a expository essay Western (Navitas) banned in Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Iowa, Indiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, North Dakota, New Jersey, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Florida, Georgia, and Virginia.