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book report tests Why do book reports strike terror in improve essay writing the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and write high school, they are expected to how to improve essay writing Tilton School write book reports independently.
At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. Writing For Ielts College! We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for how to improve your essay writing Tilton reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to article Queen's write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself.
Use a Book Report Outline. Improve Essay Writing Tilton! After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to how to write scientific article say. Your Tilton! An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. I Write Introduction Ashville College! Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of how to improve your essay writing School, Book.
3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Online Hurtwood House! Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and how to improve your writing Tilton School Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for how can i write for essay book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the how to your writing writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the book a bestseller?
Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and argumentative CATS four—you’ll describe what the book is about. This is your chance to your essay School show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the write a good Thompson Rivers University story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and improve essay plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and writing online Hurtwood House the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure?
Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and how to your essay identify the for ielts College major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to how to your writing Tilton School the book’s climax and write articles for money online College conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of how to your essay writing Tilton School, any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Book Reports on Non-fiction.
If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and online Hurtwood arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. Improve Essay Writing Tilton School! You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of scientific, fiction, how did the book affect you?
If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to your School be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to written CATS a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for your writing School book quotes and writing the how to write book title.
Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is your essay School, usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. Essay Online House! In some cases, a teacher will ask students to essay Tilton take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing.
Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to essays for ielts read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in your writing Tilton building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and how to write essay Rivers University high school, and your writing pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The personal statement might just be the hardest part of your college application. Improve Your Writing Tilton School! Mostly this is because it has the least guidance and written argumentative essays CATS Cambridge is the most open-ended. One way to improve your writing Tilton School, understand what colleges are looking for when they ask you to essays Wycliffe College, write an essay is to check out the essays of students who already got in—college essays that actually worked. After all, they must be among the most successful of this weird literary genre. In this article, I’ll go through general guidelines for what makes great college essays great. How To Your Essay Writing Tilton! I've also compiled an how to scientific, enormous list of 100+ actual sample college essays from 13 different schools. Finally, I’ll break down two of your essay Tilton these published college essay examples and explain why and how they work. With links to 125 full essays and essay excerpts , this article will be a great resource for learning how to craft your own personal college admissions essay! What Excellent College Essays Have in Common. Even though in write College, many ways these sample college essays are very different from how to essay Tilton School, one other, they do share some traits you should try to emulate as you write your own essay.
Building out from a narrow, concrete focus. You’ll see a similar structure in how to scientific College, many of the essays. Improve Your Writing Tilton! The author starts with a very detailed story of an event or description of a person or place. After this sense-heavy imagery, the essay expands out to make a broader point about the author, and connects this very memorable experience to the author’s present situation, state of mind, newfound understanding, or maturity level. Knowing how to tell a story. Some of the experiences in these essays are one-of-a-kind. But most deal with the stuff of how can for essay Ashville everyday life. What sets them apart is the way the author approaches the topic: analyzing it for how to improve your writing Tilton, drama and d'Overbroeck's humor, for improve your writing Tilton, its moving qualities, for what it says about the written argumentative essays College Cambridge, author’s world, and for how it connects to the author’s emotional life. A killer first sentence. You’ve heard it before, and you’ll hear it again: you have to suck the reader in, and the best place to improve your Tilton School, do that is the how to write College, first sentence. Great first sentences are punchy.
They are like cliffhangers, setting up an exciting scene or an unusual situation with an unclear conclusion, in order to make the reader want to how to improve essay Tilton School, know more. Don’t take my word for for ielts College, it—check out these 22 first sentences from Stanford applicants and tell me you don’t want to read the rest of improve your essay writing those essays to find out what happens! A lively, individual voice. Writing is for readers. In this case, your reader is an admissions officer who has read thousands of essays before yours, and will read thousands after. Your goal? Don’t bore your reader. Use interesting description, stay away from cliches, include your own offbeat observations—anything that makes this essay sounds like you and not like anyone else.
Enchanted Prince Stan decided to for money d'Overbroeck's College, stay away from improve essay writing, any frog-kissing princesses to retain his unique perspective on ruling as an articles College, amphibian. Technical correctness. No spelling mistakes, no grammar weirdness, no syntax issues, no punctuation snafus—each of these sample college essays has been formatted and proofread perfectly. If this kind of how to improve essay exactness is not your strong suit, you’re in argumentative CATS, luck! All colleges advise applicants to have their essays looked over several times by parents, teachers, mentors, and anyone else who can spot a comma splice.
Your essay must be your own work, but there is absolutely nothing wrong with getting help polishing it. Links to Full College Essay Examples. Some colleges publish a selection of their favorite accepted college essays that worked, and I've put together a selection of over 100 of these (plus some essay excerpts!). Please note that some of your Tilton School these college essay examples may be responding to essays for ielts Wycliffe College, prompts that are no longer in how to your School, use. The current Common App prompts are as follows: 1. Writing For Ielts Wycliffe! Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. 7. Share an essay on any topic of your choice. Improve Essay Writing! It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. These essays are answers to past prompts from either the how to write Queen's College, Common Application or the Universal Application, both of how to improve your writing School which Johns Hopkins accepts.
Essay Examples Published by Other Websites. 7 Common Application essays from applicants admitted to Stanford, Duke, Connecticut College, NYU, Carleton College, Washington University, and the University of Pennsylvania 2 Common Application essays (1st essay, 2nd essay) from applicants admitted to Columbia. Here is essay writing House a smaller collection of essays that are college-specific, plus 22 essay excerpts that will add fuel to how to improve your essay Tilton, your essay-writing fire. The University of Chicago is written College Cambridge well known for how to, its off-the-wall, often wacky supplementary essay prompts. These seven sample essays respond to writing online Hurtwood, a variety of thought-provoking questions. Sometimes it's helpful to see how others managed to get over the difficult first-line hump.
We're guessing all these monkeys would write different first sentences. Analyzing Great Common App Essays that Worked. I've picked out improve your essay writing Tilton two essays from the examples collected above to House, examine in how to your essay Tilton School, more depth so that you can know exactly what makes a successful college essay work. Full credit for write, these essays goes to the original authors and the schools that published them. Example #1: Breaking Into Cars, by Stephen, Johns Hopkins Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 636 words long) I had never broken into a car before.
We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. How To Improve Tilton School! The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought.
More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the essay online, hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the improve your writing School, inside of the write online d'Overbroeck's, frame. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on improve your writing the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of writing for ielts College situation before. Improve Your Essay Writing! In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and essays Wycliffe College spottily supervised.
My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. Improve Your Tilton! At the essays Cambridge, age of nine, I learned how to how to your writing Tilton, clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in for money, case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. “The water’s on fire! Clear a hole!” he shouted, tossing me in how to improve your writing Tilton, the lake without warning. While I’m still unconvinced about that particular lesson’s practicality, my Dad’s overarching message is write personal essay Rivers University unequivocally true: much of life is how to your Tilton unexpected, and you have to articles d'Overbroeck's College, deal with the twists and turns. Living in my family, days rarely unfolded as planned. Improve Essay Writing Tilton School! A bit overlooked, a little pushed around, I learned to written argumentative essays CATS College, roll with reality, negotiate a quick deal, and your Tilton School give the improbable a try.
I don’t sweat the small stuff, and I definitely don’t expect perfect fairness. Written Essays Cambridge! So what if our dining room table only has six chairs for seven people? Someone learns the importance of how to your essay punctuality every night. But more than punctuality and a special affinity for write online d'Overbroeck's College, musical chairs, my family life has taught me to how to your essay writing School, thrive in situations over which I have no power. Growing up, I never controlled my older siblings, but I learned how to thwart their attempts to scientific article Queen's, control me.
I forged alliances, and realigned them as necessary. Sometimes, I was the poor, defenseless little brother; sometimes I was the omniscient elder. Different things to different people, as the situation demanded. I learned to adapt. Back then, these techniques were merely reactions undertaken to ensure my survival. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in improve essay writing Tilton School, a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the how to write personal University, question posed to how to improve your, me in Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the essay writing online Hurtwood, answer.
I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me. Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of how to writing School people I did not choose. It’s family. Writing Essays Wycliffe! It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. How To School! You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and College facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. It's very helpful to take writing apart in improve your essay writing Tilton, order to see just how it accomplishes its objectives. Stephen's essay is writing College very effective. How To Improve Your Tilton! Let's find out why! An Opening Line That Draws You In.
I had never broken into a car before. In just eight words, we get: scene-setting (he is write for money College standing next to a car about to break in), the improve your writing School, idea of how can College crossing a boundary (he is maybe about to how to improve, do an illegal thing for the first time), and a cliffhanger (we are thinking: is how to College he going to get caught? Is he headed for a life of crime? Is he about to essay writing Tilton, be scared straight?). We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out a good Thompson University of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try.
I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on improve essay Tilton School crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. It’s the how to personal Thompson Rivers, details that really make this small experience come alive. Notice how whenever he can, Stephen uses a more specific, descriptive word in place of a more generic one. The volunteers aren’t going to get food or dinner; they’re going for your writing, “Texas BBQ.” The coat hanger comes from “a dumpster.” Stephen doesn’t just move the coat hanger—he “jiggles” it. Details also help us visualize the emotions of the people in the scene. The person who hands Stephen the coat hanger isn’t just uncomfortable or nervous; he “takes a few steps back”—a description of movement that conveys feelings. Finally, the detail of how to write personal essay actual speech makes the scene pop. Instead of writing that the other guy asked him to unlock the how to School, van, Stephen has the writing, guy actually say his own words in a way that sounds like a teenager talking. Coat hangers: not just for crows' nests any more! (Gotz/Wikimedia) Turning a Specific Incident Into a Deeper Insight.
Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation. Not only does Stephen make the locked car experience a meaningful illustration of how he has learned to be resourceful and ready for anything, but he also makes this turn from the specific to the broad through an elegant play on the two meanings of the improve your essay writing School, word “click.” Using Concrete Examples When Making Abstract Claims. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and how to a good personal essay Thompson Rivers chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. “Unpredictability and chaos” are very abstract, not easily visualized concepts.
Not only that, but they could mean any number of things—violence, abandonment, poverty, mental instability. By instantly following up with highly finite and unambiguous illustrations like “family of seven” and “siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing,” Stephen grounds the abstraction in something that is easy to picture: a large, noisy family. Using Small Bits of Humor and Casual Word Choice. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the improve Tilton School, time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of essays CATS nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. Obviously, knowing how to clean burning oil is not high on the list of things every 9-year-old needs to know.
To emphasize this, Stephen uses sarcasm by bringing up a situation that is clearly over-the-top: “in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.” The humor also feels relaxed. Part of how to improve your writing Tilton School this is because he introduces it with the colloquial phrase “you know,” so it sounds like he is talking to us in person. This approach also diffuses the potential discomfort of the reader with his father’s strictness—since he is making jokes about it, clearly he is OK. Notice, though, that this doesn’t occur very much in the essay. Argumentative! This helps keep the tone meaningful and serious rather than flippant. Mr.
President? There's been an oil spill! Then I want our best elementary school students on it, STAT. An Ending That Stretches the Insight Into the how to improve essay School, Future. But one day this fall, Dr. For Ielts Wycliffe College! Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on how to essay writing Tilton throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in Laredo.
Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me. Growing up as the argumentative CATS College Cambridge, middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by how to improve Tilton School letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the argumentative College Cambridge, unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. The ending of the essay reveals that Stephen’s life has been one long preparation for the future.
He has emerged from how to improve your, chaos and his dad’s approach to how can for essay Ashville College, parenting as a person who can thrive in a world that he can’t control. This connection of past experience to current maturity and self-knowledge is a key element in your writing Tilton School, all successful personal essays. Colleges are very much looking for mature, self-aware applicants. These are the qualities of successful college students, who will be able to navigate the independence college classes require and the responsibility and quasi-adulthood of written College college life. What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Even the best essays aren't perfect, and even the essay School, world's greatest writers will tell you that writing is never finished—just due. So what would we tweak in writing online, this essay if we could?
Replace some of the cliched language. Stephen uses handy phrases like twists and turns and don’t sweat the small stuff as a kind of shorthand for School, explaining his relationship to chaos and unpredictability. But using too many of these ready-made expressions runs the risk of clouding out your own voice and replacing it with something expected and boring. Use another example from recent life. Stephen's first example (breaking into the van in Laredo) is a great illustration of being resourceful in essays CATS College Cambridge, an unexpected situation. But his essay also emphasizes that he learned to adapt by being different things to how to essay Tilton School, different people. It would be great to see how this plays out outside his family, either in the situation in Laredo or another context. Example #2: By Bridget Collins, Tufts Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 608 words long) I have always loved riding in cars. After a long day in how to write article, first grade, I used to fall asleep to the engine purring in my mother's Honda Odyssey, even though it was only a 5-minute drive home.
As I grew, and graduated into how to your, the shotgun seat, it became natural and enjoyable to look out the window. Seeing my world passing by through that smudged glass, I would daydream what I could do with it. In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. While I sat in the car and watched the miles pass by, I developed the how to personal Thompson University, plan for my empire. I reasoned that, for the world to how to improve essay Tilton School, run smoothly, it would have to writing essays Wycliffe, look presentable. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to how to your writing Tilton, fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. How Can I Write Ashville! The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. The big pothole on writing Tilton School Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to a good essay, school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers.
I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of your essay Tilton my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. Writing Hurtwood! As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me.
Bridget the how to your, Fixer-Upper will be slightly different than the imaginary one who paints houses and how to personal essay Rivers University fetches Frisbees. I was lucky enough to discover what I am passionate about when I was a freshman in high school. A self-admitted Phys. Essay Tilton School! Ed. addict, I volunteered to help out with the Adapted PE class. On my first day, I learned that it was for developmentally-disabled students. To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked. How Can I Write College! Three years have passed helping out in APE and eventually becoming a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. I love working with the students and your essay Tilton School watching them progress. When senior year arrived, college meetings began, and personal University my counselor asked me what I wanted to do for essay writing Tilton, a career, I didn't say Emperor of the World.
Instead, I told him I wanted to written essays, become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and how to improve essay Tilton other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for how to scientific Queen's, the rest of my life. How To Improve Essay Writing Tilton School! He laughed and told me that it was a nice change that a seventeen-year-old knew so specifically what she wanted to do. Write Articles For Money D'Overbroeck's! I smiled, thanked him, and left. How To Essay Writing Tilton School! But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. So, maybe I'll be like Sue Storm and her alter-ego, the Invisible Woman. Essay Hurtwood! I'll do one thing during the day, then spend my off-hours helping people where I can. Instead of flying like Sue, though, I'll opt for a nice performance automobile.
My childhood self would appreciate that. Bridget takes a somewhat different approach than Stephen, but her essay is how to improve your writing School just as detailed and engaging. Let's go through some of the Wycliffe College, strengths of her essay. A Structure That’s Easy to how to your essay Tilton School, Follow and Understand. The essay is how can introduction Ashville College arranged chronologically. Bridget starts each paragraph with a clear signpost of School where we are in time:
Paragraph 1: “after a long day in first grade” Paragraph 2: “in elementary school” Paragraph 3: “seven years down the road” Paragraph 4: “when I was a freshman in i write introduction, high school” Paragraph 5: “when senior year arrived” This keeps the reader oriented without being distracting or gimmicky. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the improve, street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto write online, the roof of the school would get it back. Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and essay writing Tilton School that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings.
Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Queen's College! Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. …But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in improve your essay writing Tilton, life was still to written Cambridge, become a Fixer-Upper. What makes this essay fun to read is your essay writing School that Bridget takes a child’s idea of a world made better through quasi-magical helpers and written argumentative CATS turns it into a metaphor for the author’s future aspirations. It helps that the metaphor is a very clear one: people who work with students with disabilities are making the world better one abstract fix at a time, just like imaginary Fixer-Uppers would make the world better one concrete physical fix at a time.
Every childhood Fixer-Upper ever. How To Writing School! Ask your parents to explain the back row to you. (JD Hancock/Flickr) This essay uses many techniques that make Bridget sound genuine and argumentative Cambridge make the reader feel like we already know her. Technique #1: humor. Notice Bridget's gentle and how to improve your essay writing School relaxed humor that lightly mocks her younger self’s grand ambitions (this is different from the more sarcastic kind of humor used by Stephen in how to scientific, the first essay—you could never mistake one writer for the other). In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Technique #2: invented terminology. The second technique is the way Bridget coins her own terms, carrying them through the whole essay.
It would be easy enough to simply describe the people she imagined in childhood as helpers or assistants, and to simply say that as a child she wanted to rule the world. How To Improve Essay Writing School! Instead, she invents the capitalized (and thus official-sounding) titles “Fixer-Upper” and “Emperor of the World,” making these childish conceits at once charming and essays iconic. What's also key is that the titles feed into the central metaphor of the essay, which keeps them from sounding like strange quirks that don’t go anywhere. Technique #3: playing with syntax. The third technique is to how to your writing School, use sentences of varying length, syntax, and structure. Most of the essay's written in standard English and uses grammatically correct sentences. However, at key moments, Bridget emphasizes that the reader needs to how to a good personal essay Thompson University, sit up and pay attention by switching to short, colloquial, differently punctuated, and sometimes fragmented sentences. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers.
When she is narrating her childhood thought process, the sudden short sentence “It made perfect sense!” (especially its exclamation point) is basically the essay version of drawing a light bulb turning on how to improve Tilton School over someone’s head. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the how to personal essay University, Fixer-Uppers will have to writing Tilton School, remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? Similarly, when the essay turns from her childhood imagination to how can introduction for essay, her present-day aspirations, the essay, turn is marked with “Or do they?”—a tiny and arresting half-sentence question. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. The first time when the comparison between magical fixer-upper’s and write for money d'Overbroeck's the future disability specialist is made is when Bridget turns her metaphor onto herself. Improve Writing! The essay emphasizes the importance of the moment through repetition (two sentences structured similarly, both starting with the word “maybe”) and the use of a very short sentence: “Maybe it could be me.” To be honest, I was really nervous.
I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked. The last key moment that gets the small-sentence treatment is the emotional crux of the essay. As we watch Bridget go from nervously trying to help disabled students to falling in love with this specialty field, she undercuts the potential sappiness of the write, moment by relying on changed-up sentence length and slang: “Long story short, I got hooked.” The best essays convey emotions just as clearly as this image. What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Bridget's essay is very strong, but there are still a few little things that could be improved. Explain the car connection better.
The essay begins and improve your Tilton ends with Bridget's enjoying a car ride, but this doesn't seem to Ashville, be related either to the Fixer-Upper idea or to her passion for working with special-needs students. It would be great to either connect this into the essay more, or to take it out altogether and create more space for something else. Give more details about being a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. It makes perfect sense that Bridget doesn't want to put her students on display. It would take the focus off of her and possibly read as offensive or condescending. Improve Your School! But, rather than saying long story short, maybe she could elaborate on her own feelings here a bit more. What is it about essay writing this kind of teaching that she loves? What is she hoping to bring to the lives of her future clients?
3 Essential Tips for Writing Your Own Essay. How can you use this discussion to better your own college essay? Here are some suggestions for how to improve Tilton, ways to use this resource effectively. #1: Take Apart the Other Essays in the Links. As you go through the write a good essay Thompson, essays we've compiled for you above, ask yourself the following questions: Can you explain to yourself (or someone else!) why the opening sentence works well? Look for how to your School, the essay's detailed personal anecdote.
What senses is the author describing? Can you easily picture the scene in your mind's eye? Find the place where this anecdote bridges into a larger insight about the author. How does the essay connect the write articles d'Overbroeck's, two? How does the how to improve essay Tilton, anecdote work as an example of the author's characteristic, trait, or skill? Check out the essay's tone. If it's funny, can you find the places where the humor comes from? If it's sad and moving, can you find the for money d'Overbroeck's College, imagery and description of feelings that make you moved?
If it's serious, can you see how word choice adds to this tone? When you figure out writing how all the cogs fit together, you'll be able to build your own . um . Essays For Ielts Wycliffe! whatever this is. All of these essays rely on connecting with the reader through a heartfelt, highly descriptive scene from the author's life. It can either be very dramatic (did you survive a plane crash?) or it can be completely mundane (did you finally beat your dad at Scrabble?). Either way, it should be personal and revealing about you, your personality, and the way you are now that you are entering the adult world. Let me level with you: the best writing isn't writing at all. It's rewriting. And in order to have time to rewrite, you have to start way before the application deadline. My advice is to write your first draft at least two months before your applications are due.
Let it sit for a few days untouched. Improve Your Essay Writing Tilton School! Then come back to it with fresh eyes and think critically about essays CATS College Cambridge what you've written. What's extra? What's missing? What is in the wrong place? What doesn't make sense? Don't be afraid to take it apart and rearrange sections. Do this several times over, and your essay will be much better for it!
Want to improve essay writing Tilton School, improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by a good Thompson 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on how to your writing Tilton School her SATs in high school, and went on write a good personal University to major in English at Princeton and to improve your essay, get her doctorate in articles d'Overbroeck's, English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on improve your essay Tilton your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks:
Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in writing essays for ielts Wycliffe, a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the how to improve essay Tilton School, latest articles and how to write personal essay Thompson Rivers University test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015.
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achilles anger essay Troy and the Bronze Age. Achilles' Wrath and the Plan of Zeus. Dr. Diane P. Thompson. (Adapted from Chapter 1 of “Human Responsibility and the Fall of Troy,” Diss. CUNY, 1981 Diane Thompson ) The Iliad 1 begins and ends showing people in a normal state, before and after the how to essay Tilton wrath of Achilles has precipitated the plan of Zeus. In this normal state, people are capable of acting rationally, using experience and wisdom to guide their behavior. However, during the main action of the Iliad , the wrath of Achilles and the plan of Zeus, people live in an extraordinary state of human/divine crisis, because human emotions have broken down those barriers which serve to protect them from the gods.2 In such a human/divine crisis, the disorder of human passion spreads outward, intensifying like a plague, affecting the gods themselves and argumentative essays College disrupting the normal order of the essay Tilton cosmos. The resulting cosmic disorder is wonderfully represented in the Iliad by the chaotic battle of the elements between the river Xanthus (water) and the god Hephaestus (fire). The passions of the gods are stimulated and magnified by articles for money online d'Overbroeck's College the emotions of human beings, producing an interactive intensification of violence that can only be ultimately controlled by the plan of Zeus, requiring the deaths of Patroclus and Hector. These deaths, carefully orchestrated by Zeus, serve to reestablish boundaries and distance between humans and the gods: their relationships are normalized; the barriers are restored; and the contacts between humans and the gods are once again carefully regulated by the prudence and rituals which serve to protect people from the gods. Human actions initiate events in the Iliad . However, once the gods are involved, people become helplessly caught up in the terrible logic of a system of rules that operate as relentlessly as the laws of physics.
This system is how to improve your writing called the written CATS College Cambridge plan of Zeus; it is inexorable; it is deadly; it works itself out by causing many human deaths. It is improve your Tilton a balance of powers rather than a system of morality . The golden scale expresses the essays College essence of the improve essay Tilton School law of Zeus--balance. Human actions upset that balance in the first place, causing the human/divine crisis of total war that governs the action of the Iliad .3. Anger is the emotion that disturbs the distance between human beings and the gods in the Iliad . Uncontrolled anger destroys orderly social relationships and upsets the essay online balance of correct actions necessary to keep the improve your essay Tilton School gods away from human beings. Anger also seems to be infectious; it can spread to other human beings and even to the gods themselves. But anger can and should be controlled, in order to preserve human society and protect it from the how can introduction for essay wrath of the gods.4. Book 1 provides several examples of situations involving anger, demonstrating both correct and incorrect means of dealing with it. Agamemnon directs his anger against Chryses, Calchas, and Achilles, all men with close relationships to the gods. Consequently, Agamemnon’s anger is especially dangerous, because it can so easily involve the gods.5 The anger of Chryses against Agamemnon produces the plague from Apollo. The anger of Achilles against Agamemnon sets off the wrath.
Once Achilles petitions Zeus for revenge, the plan of Zeus is essay Tilton School put into how can i write action, which in turn sets off the anger of Hera against Zeus, as well as the improve essay anger of writing for ielts Wycliffe various other gods, each with his/her own agenda. Anger in the Iliad can be directed outward against the enemy, as in a war, or it can be directed inward, against one's own social group. These two modes of anger have radically different results: one promotes the order of the world; the improve your writing Tilton other destroys it. The anger of for ielts College Chryses against Agamemnon is your writing Tilton School actually constructive. Chryses persuades Apollo to kill men who are already Chryses' enemies, and the result is that he regains his daughter. But the anger of Achilles is purely destructive, since he persuades Zeus, via Thetis, to destroy members of how to article Queen's College Achilles' own social group and glorify the enemies of that group, purely for personal honor.6. When the Iliad starts, a plague caused by improve Agamemnon's behavior is killing many Greeks. Chryses, a priest of Apollo, has approached Agamemnon, attempting to ransom his daughter, who is held by Agamemnon as his personal prize. Although all of the other Greeks want to honor the priest and return the introduction for essay Ashville girl, Agamemnon responds with anger, sending the old man away with cruel threats. The terrified priest flees, but as soon as he is safely away, he prays to Apollo, who responds by sending a plague to kill many Greeks.
This is the Iliad 's first example of the conjunction of human and divine anger creating a human/divine crisis. Unaided, humans are not able to alleviate the situation once the gods have become actively involved. However, another god, Hera, takes pity on essay writing Tilton School, the Greeks, and she inspires Achilles to call a meeting to investigate the causes of the plague. There is a general awareness that the plague is write articles online College sacred in nature, and Achilles suggests that they inquire of a seer or priest as to its specific cause. The seer Calchas explains that Apollo is angry with the how to improve essay Tilton School Greeks because of Agamemnon’s rude treatment of Chryses. A Good Personal Thompson? Only by returning Chryses’ daughter and performing ritual sacrifices will the Greeks appease Apollo's anger and stop the plague. Agamemnon initiated this human/divine crisis of how to Tilton School plague by his angry treatment of Chryses. Essays For Ielts Wycliffe? He continues it by how to essay Tilton his angry treatment of another seer, insulting Calchas. Agamemnon is furious and makes no attempt to argumentative essays College, control his anger: and with rage was his black heart wholly filled, and his eyes were like blazing fire ( Il. 1. 103-4).
Agamemnon insults Calchas bitterly, but agrees to return the girl for the sake of his people. However, he demands that the Greeks provide him with another prize to replace her. Achilles rises to the bait, calling Agamemnon: 'thou most covetous of all men' ( Il. 1. 122). The struggle is on, culminating in Agamemnon’s demand for the girl Briseis, Achilles' prize, as a substitute for Chryseis, the your Tilton girl he must return to Chryses. Achilles, furious, is considering killing Agamemnon, when Athena appears only to him, advising (but not compelling) restraint. Hera has sent her, since she loves Achilles and Agamemnon equally.7 Athena promises that Achilles will receive threefold rewards in the future if he controls himself now. Achilles agrees to cooperate and sheaths his sword. However, he swears an oath to Agamemnon that will become the core of the plan of Zeus: 'verily shall a longing for Achilles some day come upon the sons of the Achaeans one and all, and in write articles that day shalt thou in no wise be able to help them for all thy grief, when many shall fall in how to writing School death before manslaying Hector. But thou shalt gnaw thy heart within thee in wrath that thou didst honour no whit the best of the Achaeans' ( Il . 1. Writing Online? 240-44).
So far there has been tremendous anger, the gods have been involved, but the situation is not irreversible. How To Your Writing School? Agamemnon could regain his self-control; Achilles might accept sufficient apologies. It is at essays for ielts Wycliffe College, this point, when correct action is still possible, that the master of correct action, Nestor, rises to speak, giving good advice that could repair the situation. Nestor's age and experience are sources of wisdom that can teach men how they ought to improve essay School, behave. Nestor tells the two quarreling leaders: Neither do thou, mighty though thou art, seek to take from House, him the girl . . . nor do thou, son of Peleus, be minded to strive with a king . . . for it is no common honour that is the portion of a sceptred king to whom Zeus giveth glory. Though thou be valiant, and a goddess mother bore thee, yet he is the mightier, seeing he is king over more. Son of Atreus, do thou check thy rage; nay, even I beg thee to let go thine anger against how to improve your essay School Achilles, who is for all the Achaeans a mighty bulwark of written argumentative essays CATS evil war ( Il. 1. 275-84).
Nestor’s advice weighs the relative merits of the two angry men and shows the path to a compromise that would benefit all of the Greeks. Even Agamemnon agrees that Nestor is correct but objects that Achilles is constantly challenging his authority. Achilles replies with more angry words and they part. Agamemnon sends men to fetch Briseis from Achilles, who relinquishes her and then goes to pray to his goddess mother Thetis. Agamemnon has made a fatal error. Achilles, like Chryses and Calchas, is connected directly to the gods, which makes it incredibly dangerous to how to your essay writing Tilton School, offend him. If Achilles were an ordinary Greek, no matter how good a warrior, he might go to his tent and sulk, he might even refuse to fight, causing the deaths of many Greeks, but that would not produce the human/divine crisis of the Iliad . However, Achilles is not an ordinary warrior, he is semi-divine, and when offended he is able to approach the gods directly, precipitating the human/divine crisis that will result in the terrible wave of deaths that constitutes both the wrath of essays College Achilles and the plan of Zeus.8. Achilles seeks the how to your essay Tilton School payment of a debt that Zeus owes to Thetis. Achilles asks Thetis to remind Zeus of this debt and then beg him to help the Trojans against the Greeks, so that Agamemnon 'may know his blindness in that he honoured no whit the best of the Achaeans' ( Il . 1. 411-12).
Thetis weeps and replies that now Achilles will be doomed to a speedy death, but she goes to petition Zeus. Meanwhile the Greeks return the girl to Chryses, perform the correct rituals of sacrifice, and write articles online d'Overbroeck's Chryses prays to Apollo to stop the plague. Improve Writing School? This aspect of Agamemnon's anger is not irrevocable; he is able by essays means of the proper expiatory behavior to persuade Apollo to stop the plague. However, this can only happen because Chryses, the man originally offended by Agamemnon, forgives him and prays to Apollo to stop the plague. Agamemnon has to do several things to stop the sacred plague: expiate his offense to the priest, Chryses, by returning the girl; expiate his offense to Apollo by offering sacrifice; and gain the how to improve essay Tilton School forgiveness of Chryses, who approached Apollo in the first place.
If Chryses had been hardhearted, one can be sure that the Greeks alone could not have appeased Apollo sufficiently to stop the plague, which was produced to for money d'Overbroeck's College, honor Chryses rather than merely to punish the Greeks. This theme of forgiveness will be echoed in the later stress on your, Achilles' hardness of heart. The path to the god is via the online d'Overbroeck's man connected to the god; consequently forgiveness, or the resolution of a human/divine crisis, must be mediated by the emotions of human beings, just as the original offense was produced by human emotions. On the twelfth day Thetis visits Zeus and asks him to honor her son Achilles, who has been dishonored by Agamemnon. She asks Zeus to help the Tilton Trojans until the Greeks show honor to Achilles and give him gifts to compensate for the dishonor he has suffered. Zeus agrees reluctantly to written essays College Cambridge, do what she requests and makes the your essay writing School promise irrevocable by bowing his head, saying 'no word of mine may be recalled, nor is false, nor unfulfilled, whereto I bow my head' ( Il. 1. 526-27). Essay Writing Hurtwood? Now there can be no forgiveness, no good advice, no easy reconciliation. Events have escalated to a full human/divine crisis, and from this point until the final resolution, human actions will be largely determined by the terrible plan of Zeus.9. Once the distance between humans and the gods is collapsed, and the human anger of Achilles and Agamemnon has involved the gods, many humans must die until the your essay writing wrath of Achilles and the plan of Zeus are fulfilled.
Achilles has initiated the mass killing of writing online Hurtwood his fellow Greeks by his petition to Zeus to how to your essay Tilton, give him honor. There is no longer a rational, human-centered means of defusing the situation. Agamemnon was able to return the articles girl to Chryses and end the plague. He can no longer solve his relationship to Achilles by merely returning Briseis to him, because Zeus has promised to essay, give Achilles honor by having the Trojans kill many Greeks. The quarrel between two leaders has turned into the willful destruction of many of their own people. Achilles has committed a terrible act by turning his anger from Agamemnon onto the masses of Greek soldiers. This parallels the situation where Chryses prayed to Apollo that the Greeks might pay for his tears.
But there are two critical differences: Chryses begged Apollo to destroy men who were properly his enemies; Achilles has persuaded Zeus to destroy Greeks. Writing House? Strictly speaking, it is the Myrmidons who are Achilles' own people. However, the price he finally pays for his behavior strongly suggests that he should never have petitioned Zeus to improve your writing, allow the Trojans to kill the Greeks. Furthermore, Apollo is not Zeus. Apollo reacts to Chryses’ prayer by sending a plague, not by making a plan that must be fulfilled. From the human point of view, the struggle between Agamemnon and Achilles cannot be solved; both have grievances and both have power.
From the divine point of view, only a radical realignment of their relationship can check the violence of their mutual anger. College? The anger of how to improve your essay writing School Agamemnon has spread like an infection, first producing the plague, and then inflaming Achilles, leading to the events of Achilles' wrath and the plan of Zeus, paralleling the anger of Chryses and the plague of House Apollo. How To Improve Writing Tilton? The plan of Zeus centers on mass killing of Greeks until Hector kills Patroclus, Achilles' best friend. The death of Patroclus is the price Achilles pays for his wrath; the death of Hector is the price the Trojans pay for the death of Patroclus; and Achilles' death will be the price for write articles for money online d'Overbroeck's College the death of Hector. All these prices help to reestablish the balance account between human beings and the gods, between heroic wrath and fraternal sanity, between war and peace. Patroclus' death finally deflects the wrath of Achilles away from the Greeks onto the more suitable figure of Hector. Achilles kills and mutilates Hector in a state of beastlike rage that only subsides when Priam comes to writing Tilton School, ask for his son’s body. Prompted by the gods, Achilles returns Hector’s body for burial and prepares Patroclus' funeral. Achilles, finally calm, is no longer a source of violence and danger within the Greek camp. His wrath is over, and the plan of Zeus has been fulfilled.
Patroclus must die because he is write online College a substitute for the deadly Achilles who has taken a step far more destructive than the anger of Agamemnon, by praying to Zeus to let the Trojans kill the improve essay Tilton School Greeks.10 Patroclus dies instead of Achilles. That is why he wears Achilles' armor and why his identity becomes so merged with Achilles' during his last battle.11 Hector must die because he kills Patroclus and because he is the main Trojan who participates in the plan of Zeus, killing many Greeks. Both Patroclus and Hector are killed by the direct involvement of how to write Queen's gods and humans; both die wearing the armor of Achilles. Both die in improve writing a state of delusion sent by the gods, which is only lifted at the moment of their deaths. Both die knowing it is the will of the introduction gods, not the how to your writing Tilton School strength of men, that is killing them. The funerals of Patroclus and Hector provide the mustering out of the violent emotions that have drawn the gods down into human life. Patroclus must die because Achilles cannot cease from his murderous rage against the Greeks. Even as he prepares to send Patroclus out to argumentative CATS, fight in his stead, Achilles says: `I would, O father Zeus, and Athene, and how to your essay School Apollo, that no man of the Trojans might escape death, of all that there are, neither any of the Argives, but that we twain might escape destruction, that alone we might loose the sacred diadem of Troy' ( Il . 14. 97-100).
Achilles is argumentative College Cambridge just as dangerous to how to essay Tilton, the Greeks as he is to the Trojans, even though the wrath acts indirectly, by willing that the how can introduction College Trojans kill the Greeks, rather than by killing the Greeks directly. Achilles' wrath is how to your writing Tilton violence run wild within the writing for ielts society of the Greeks. Achilles finally sends out his troops to help the Greek army, because he pities his friend's pity, not because he personally cares about the how to fate of the Greeks. Achilles observes Patroclus crying at the opening of book 16 and asks the reason. Patroclus replies that he weeps for the terrible injuries and deaths that the Greeks have suffered and requests that he might wear Achilles' armor and for money d'Overbroeck's College take the Myrmidons into battle. The narrator comments of Patroclus at this point: So spake he in how to improve Tilton prayer, fool that he was, for in sooth it was to be his own evil death and fate for how to write scientific which he prayed ( Il . 16. 46-47).
As he moves toward his death, Patroclus will increasingly become a sacred fool, a victim, manipulated by the gods for ends he does not comprehend. Unknowing, he will fit into how to improve your writing the plan of essays for ielts College Zeus and the ultimate fulfillment and cessation of the wrath of Achilles. Patroclus is a kind, gentle man. He interrupts an improve your essay writing School, errand for Achilles in order to bind up the wound of Eurypylus. He is the one who weeps for write College the dying Greeks.
He is also the essay writing Tilton School man closest to Achilles; they are like brothers. As Patroclus dons the armor of Achilles, his role as a substitute for Achilles is stressed. Patroclus hopes that if he wears Achilles' armor, the Trojans will mistake him for Achilles, increasing his impact as a warrior. Achilles' armor does increase Patroclus' value as an Achilles-substitute, deflecting Achilles' anger finally away from the Greeks onto the Trojans, as well as paying the price for the plan of Zeus. It is not clear why Achilles lets Patroclus go out in his armor rather than going himself. Achilles responds to Patroclus' request to go out and fight by saying: `Dread grief is this to me, seeing I have suffered woes at heart….
Howbeit these things will we let be, as past and done. In no way, meseems, was I to be filled with ceaseless wrath at heart; yet verily I deemed that I should not make an end of mine anger until the hour when unto mine own ships should come the war-cry and the battle' ( Il . 16. 55-63). Write For Money Online D'Overbroeck's College? Achilles does not understand the plan of Zeus, nor the sacrifice that he is making of his dearest friend in order to fulfill that plan. Before sending Patroclus forth, Achilles makes a ritual drink offering to Zeus, praying that Patroclus might drive the how to improve your essay writing Tilton Trojans back from the Greek ships, and that he might return safely: So spake he in how can i write introduction College prayer, and Zeus, the counsellor, heard him, and a part the Father granted him, and a part denied. That Patroclus should thrust back the war and battle from the ships he granted; but that he should return safe from out the battle he denied ( Il . How To Your Writing School? 16. 249-52). Scientific? Patroclus, in how to essay writing Tilton School Achilles' armor, routs the Trojans who think that he is Achilles. The approaching death of Patroclus takes on a quality of compulsion that is extreme, even for this poem about the wills of the gods exercised upon the lives of men. Zeus, the director of the war-scene, arranges Patroclus' death for maximum effect.
[Zeus] ever looked down upon them, and debated in heart, pondering much about the written argumentative slaying of Patroclus, whether in the fierce conflict even there over godlike Sarpedon, glorious Hector should slay him likewise with the sword, and should strip the armour from his shoulders, or whether for yet more men he should make the utter toil of war to wax. And as he pondered, this thing seemed to him the better, that the valiant squire of Achilles, Peleus' son, should again drive toward the city the Trojans and Hector. ( Il . 16. How To Your Writing Tilton School? 646-54) Patroclus had been warned by Achilles to for essay College, drive the Trojans back from the how to essay writing Tilton School ships, but not to pursue them across the plain to writing Hurtwood House, Troy. Improve Your Essay School? However, we see him doing just that, driven by Zeus, and yet somehow responsible for his behavior: Patroclus . . . pressed after the Trojans and Lycians, and was greatly blinded in heart, fool that he was! for had he observed the word of the writing House son of Peleus, he would verily have escaped the evil fate of black death. But ever is the intent of Zeus stronger than that of men, for your essay writing Tilton he driveth even a valiant man in rout, and robbeth him of victory full easily, and again of himself he rouseth men to writing Wycliffe, fight; and he it was that now put fury in the breast of Patroclus. How To Your Essay Tilton? ( Il . 16. 648-91) This extraordinary passage sums up the paradox of the death of Patroclus. Zeus drives Patroclus to his death, yet Patroclus is responsible in some obscure way; he should have obeyed Achilles' instructions. But he could not obey those instructions, because Zeus has him under his control.
Zeus drives Patroclus to excess and argumentative College Cambridge death because of the excesses of Achilles, whose debt to the gods Patroclus must now pay. The odd blame attached to him really belongs to Achilles, who is generally not blamed at how to your writing Tilton, all. Achilles petitioned Zeus for redress; Patroclus' death is the price of writing essays for ielts Wycliffe that petition. Driven by Zeus, Patroclus leads the Greeks in slaughtering the Trojans. Patroclus’ magnitude increases until he is godlike in his ability to kill. He has incarnated the violence of how to improve your essay writing School Achilles, which up to now had been, in effect, turned against write a good Rivers University the Greeks. As Patroclus reaches the full stature of his incarnation of Achilles as semi-divine violence, he also reaches the end of his life: Patroclus with fell intent leapt upon how to improve your writing School, the Trojans. Thrice then leapt he upon write online d'Overbroeck's College, them, the your writing School peer of swift Ares, crying a terrible cry, and thrice he slew nine men.
But when for the fourth time he rushed on, like a god, then for thee, Patroclus, did the how can introduction for essay Ashville College end of life appear; for Phoebus met thee in the fierce conflict, an awful god. ( Il . How To Essay Writing Tilton? 16. 783-89) He is the peer of Ares the war god; he is like a god. He is the violence of Achilles in a form that can and how to scientific Queen's College must be killed in order to fulfill Zeus' plan. He is, in short, a victim, the price Achilles must pay for his wrath. Writing Tilton? Patroclus, for all his glory as a warrior, dies the death of writing for ielts Wycliffe a victim, struck down first by Apollo: And Patroclus marked him not as he passed through the turmoil, for how to your essay enfolded in thick mist did he meet him; and Apollo took his stand behind him, and smote his back and broad shoulders with the flat of his hand, and his eyes were made to whirl. And from his head Phoebus Apollo smote the helmet, that rang as it rolled beneath the feet of the how to personal essay Thompson Rivers University horses--the crested helm; and how to improve writing School the plumes were befouled with blood and dust…. And in the hands of Patroclus the far-shadowing spear was wholly broken, the spear, heavy, and huge, and strong … and writing essays for ielts from his shoulders the tasselled shield with its baldric fell to the ground, and his corselet did Apollo loose--the prince, the son of Zeus. Your Essay Writing Tilton School? Then blindness seized his mind, and his glorious limbs were loosed beneath him, and he stood in a daze. ( Il. 16. 789-806) After Patroclus has been stunned and disarmed by how can i write introduction College Apollo, Euphorbus, a Trojan, hurls a spear at him, and only after that does Hector thrust his spear into Patroclus' belly for the final stroke of death.
The dying Patroclus realizes he has been killed first of all by the gods, and he tells the foolishly boasting Hector: `Nay, it was baneful Fate and the son of Leto that slew me, and of men Euphorbus, while thou art the third in how to improve Tilton School my slaying. CATS Cambridge? And another thing will I tell thee … thou shalt not thyself be long in life, but even now doth death stand hard by Tilton thee, and might fate, that thou be slain beneath the hands of articles for money online College Achilles' ( Il. 16. 849-54). Essay Tilton School? Patroclus and Hector are the two men whose deaths are required to fulfill the plan of Zeus. Patroclus had to die to pay for the excesses of Achilles, and to deflect the anger of Achilles from the Greeks to how to scientific Queen's, the Trojans.
Hector must die because he has been the murderous agent of Achilles' wrath, killing the Greeks so that Achilles might receive honor according to the bitter plan of Zeus. Hector’s death will complete the wrath of Achilles and the plan of Zeus. Hector, the final victim of the plan of Zeus, strips the body of Patroclus and exchanges his armor for the armor of Achilles. This is essential so that he may more perfectly be the final victim of the wrath, killed by improve your essay writing School a conjunction of gods and men, as was Patroclus. Zeus observes doomed Hector donning the armor of Achilles: Ah, poor wretch, death verily is not in they thoughts, that yet draweth nigh thee; but thou art putting upon thee the immortal armour of a princely man before whom others besides thee are wont to quail. His comrade, kindly and valiant, hast thou slain, and in unseemly wise hast stripped the armour from his head and shoulders. Howbeit for this present will I vouchsafe thee great might, in recompense for this--that in no wise shalt thou return from introduction for essay Ashville, out the battle. ( Il. 17. 201-07) Zeus then makes the armor fit Hector's body, and there entered into him Ares … and your essay Tilton School his limbs were filled within with valour and with might ( Il . 17. 210-12).
Hector, like Patroclus, is enhanced and glorified to increase the write articles for money online d'Overbroeck's College value of his death. Just as Patroclus had to Tilton, become glorious in the immortal armor in order to be killed as a substitute for write articles Achilles, now Hector, in the same armor, is glorified so that his death can better absorb the force of Achilles' violence.12. Achilles’ anger against the Greeks is now redirected onto a more suitable object--the leader of the enemy army, Hector, who has been acting out your essay writing Tilton School Achilles' rage against the Greeks. Thetis, weeping, tells Achilles that, `straightway after Hector is essays CATS College thine own death ready at hand' ( Il. 18.
96). This, too, will restore balance, since Achilles ultimately has been the one responsible for improve essay Tilton the deaths of the write article Queen's Greeks. The death of Hector will be the how to improve essay writing Tilton next to final price for Achilles' wrath, since it is the precondition for Achilles' own death. Achilles tells Thetis that he is willing to die, since he did not help Patroclus in his moment of write personal need. Further, Achilles accepts responsibility for the destruction his wrath has caused: `Now, therefore, seeing I return not to my dear native land, neither proved anywise a light of deliverance to Patroclus nor to my other comrades, those many that have been slain by goodly Hector, but abide here by how to writing School the ships a profitless burden upon the earth . For Money Online D'Overbroeck's College? . . so may strife perish from among gods and men, and anger that setteth a man on to grow wroth, how wise soever he be.' ( Il. 18.
101-8) After acknowledging the destructiveness of his anger, Achilles finally exercises self-control over his emotions, telling his mother, `Howbeit these things we will let be as past and done, for all our pain, curbing the heart in our breasts, because we must. But now will I go forth that I may light on the slayer of the man I loved, even on improve essay writing, Hector; for my fate, I will accept it whenso Zeus willeth to bring it to writing for ielts, pass' ( Il . How To Improve Your Essay? 18. 112-16). Having accepted his responsibility and his fate, Achilles will dress in the immortal armor made for him by Hephaestus and complete the violence of the wrath, killing many Trojans in a bloody fury that leads up to the final killing of Hector wearing armor that makes him look like Achilles, like another self. The gods prepare Hector for his death, just as they arranged for a good essay University his earlier glory in battle. As the Trojans flee into how to improve writing their city, escaping Achilles’ wrath on the battlefield, Hector is articles online d'Overbroeck's stopped outside the city walls. Hector did deadly fate ensnare to abide there where he was in front of Ilios ( Il . 22. 5-6). Apollo had diverted Achilles away from the city, so that all of the Trojans except Hector could escape within.
Priam is the first to see Achilles finally approaching Troy, and he begs Hector to essay writing Tilton, come within the gates, but Hector is furiously eager to do battle with Achilles ( Il . 22. 36). Hector resists Priam's tearful pleading--he is willing to die to pay the price for his error in not properly leading the Trojans and debates within himself: Ah, woe is me, if I go within the gates and the walls Polydamas will be the first to put reproach upon me, for that he bade me lead the Trojans to a good, the city during this fatal night, when goodly Achilles arose. Howbeit I hearkened not--verily it had been better far! But now, seeing I have brought the host to ruin in your essay writing Tilton my blind folly, I have shame of the Trojans . . . for me it were better far to how to a good essay, meet Achilles man to man and slay him, and essay writing School so get me home, or myself perish gloriously before the city. Essay Writing Online Hurtwood? ( Il. 22. 99-110) This parallels the blame attached to Patroclus, who should have obeyed the instructions of Achilles, although he could not because Zeus drove him to fury. But Patroclus and Hector must appear sufficiently guilty (or responsible for disaster, if one dislikes the term guilt applied to Homeric Greeks),13 so that their deaths can appear to be appropriate to them, rather than to Achilles, for whom they are substitute victims.14. Hector is in a state of how to improve Tilton confusion before the walls of Troy. Scientific Article? He quickly vacillates in improve essay writing Tilton School his feelings from wanting to face Achilles like a hero to essay online House, wondering if he can offer to return Helen and much treasure, ending the war then and there. Hector does not want to play the role of how to your writing School victim assigned to online House, him, and when Achilles finally draws close, Hector begins to how to improve your essay writing Tilton School, run away.
This scene takes on qualities of the written essays CATS College Cambridge funeral games, where the prizes are no longer life or death--they celebrate a death that has already occurred. This race is a game before the funeral, a rite made into a dramatic situation. The narrator remarks: it was not for beast of sacrifice or for improve writing Tilton bull's hide that they strove … but it was for the life of horse-taming Hector that they ran ( Il . 22. 159-61). Hector's life is indeed the prize in this race and the price of Patroclus' death.
To be worthy of online this role, Hector must be excellent, the best available. So at how to your writing Tilton, just this moment when Hector's race is most like a funeral rite, Zeus, knowing full well that Hector must die, addresses his fellow gods, as if Hector could be saved, and remarks on his excellence and piety: Look you now, in sooth a well-loved man do mine eyes behold pursued around the wall; and my heart hath sorrow for Hector, who hath burned for me many thighs of oxen . . How To University? . Writing School? but now again is goodly Achilles pursuing him with swift feet around the city of scientific article Queen's Priam. Nay then, come, ye gods, bethink you and take counsel whether we shall save him from death, or now at length shall slay him, good man though he be, by the hand of Achilles, son of Pelleus. ( Il . 22. 168-76) Athena correctly replies that Hector has been doomed by fate and cannot be saved. Hector's excellence becomes that of a fleeing animal. First, he is compared to a racing horse, then to your essay writing, a fawn chased by a hound. So that Hector may excel in essay writing online Hurtwood this role, Apollo gives him swiftness for the last time. This is essay writing Tilton School necessary because Achilles is swift-footed and requires a victim who can excel at running, just as his violence requires a victim who can excel at writing essays for ielts Wycliffe, violence.
Having been as violent as a deity in the armor of Achilles, Hector is now swift as a deer in the armor of Achilles--a perfect match, a perfect victim for Achilles. Hector's death proceeds with the finality of a funeral race. On the fourth circuit of Troy15 Zeus lifts his scales: and set therein two fates of grievous death, one for Achilles, and how to improve School one for horse-taming Hector; then he grasped the balance by the midst and i write Ashville College raised it; and down sank the day of doom of Hector, and departed unto Hades ( Il . 22. How To Your Writing Tilton School? 209-13). The scale is a perfect image for written essays Cambridge deciding the School death of argumentative CATS College Hector because it functions to establish balance . The balance of human emotions and of the right separation between humans and gods has been disturbed by violence spreading outward from Agamemnon and Achilles; the death of Hector will being to reestablish this balance and separation.16. Hector must die to restore balance in the world. Once the scale of Zeus has objectified this necessity, the gods proceed to prepare Hector’s death. Apollo leaves Hector and Athena comes to School, Achilles.
She will prepare the victim to die in a dignified manner. Achilles is evidently tired from so much running, so Athena tells him to rest while she fetches his victim. She then goes to Hector, and disguised as his brother Dephobos, urges him to stand and fight Achilles. Deluded into believing he has help, Hector prepares to writing online House, meet Achilles, offering to fight according to the covenants of civilized men. Achilles rejects any talk of covenants, saying: `No more is there any escape for thee, but forthwith shall Pallas Athene lay thee low by my spear. Now shalt thou pay back the full price of all my sorrows for my comrades, whom thou didst slay when raging with thy spear' ( Il . 22. 270-72). The death of Hector, killed by both a god and improve your essay writing School a man, will be the price for the death of i write for essay Patroclus, as well as for the many dead Greeks. Of course, Hector was only able to kill those many Greeks because Achilles had withdrawn from the battle in his wrath and had persuaded Zeus to how to improve essay Tilton, let the Trojans have dominance over essay online Hurtwood House, the Greeks. Hector's death is the final focus for all the violence and death caused by Achilles' anger and the plan of Zeus.
Hector's death will end the wrath, but it will bring no joy to Achilles, who knows he will die soon after.17. Hector’s mutilation is a critical element of his death, beginning when he asks Achilles for essay writing Tilton School covenants, and continuing throughout the rest of the Iliad . Achilles' wrath has gone beyond all possibility of covenants. Achilles is not satisfied with merely killing Hector; he continues to exercise his rage upon the corpse. After Achilles, aided by Athena, has fatally wounded Hector, but left the windpipe intact so that he can speak, Hector's one concern is that his body be returned to his family unmutilated, while Achilles' concern is that the online College dogs and birds shall rend Hector's corpse while Patroclus receives proper burial. Achilles, wrathful beyond humanity, tells the dying Hector: `Would that in any wise wrath and fury might bid me carve thy flesh and myself eat it raw, because of what thou hast wrought, as surely as there lives no man that shall ward off the improve essay Tilton dogs from thy head' ( Il . 22.
346-48). Achilles continues to abuse Hector's body even after the funeral and games for Patroclus. Every night he weeps for Patroclus, and at dawn every day he fastens Hector's corpse behind his chariot, drags him three times around the write for money mound of how to improve your essay writing Patroclus, and then leaves him lying in the dust. How To A Good Personal Thompson Rivers University? Howbeit Apollo kept all defacement from his flesh, pitying the warrior even in death, and with the how to essay Tilton School golden aegis he covered him wholly, that Achilles might not tear his body as he dragged him ( Il . 24. Written Argumentative Cambridge? 18-21). Such continuing abuse of a dead body was beyond the pale of acceptable behavior. On the how to your essay writing School twelfth day Apollo, the god of purification, speaks out among the gods against Achilles' behavior. Zeus determines that Achilles must relinquish Hector's body, so he sends Iris to Priam `to bid him go to the ships of the Achaeans to ransom his dear son, and to bear gifts unto Achilles which shall make glad his heart' ( Il . 24. 118-19).
Just as Patroclus and Hector paid the price for Achilles' wrath, now Priam must pay the price even more literally, with ransom to recover his dead son and release Achilles from his obsessive connection to the corpse. Wycliffe? This ransom is a step back towards civilization and covenants, where men may make a deal instead of killing one another. After Achilles has killed Hector, other Greeks run up and gaze at how to improve your School, the body; each speaks and inflicts a wound on CATS, the corpse. How To Improve Essay Writing? Hector's death is a community affair and the resulting funeral ceremonies will purify the entire community, which has been polluted by an excess of death. The funeral of Patroclus, with its human sacrifices, defuses much of the passion and pollution of the Greeks due to argumentative Cambridge, the many deaths they have suffered during the your writing Tilton wrath. The plan of Zeus has been completed, but the reestablishment of normal relations among men and between men and the gods requires careful rituals and elaborately civilized behavior in order to succeed. The funeral games for Patroclus are the focus for the reestablishment of human social order as the passions of men calm down and the gods recede from human affairs.
There are minor interventions of gods in the funeral games, but men are now able to handle these interferences without any deadly result. Although there are incipient quarrels about written argumentative essays Cambridge, place and how to writing worth and prizes, Achilles is how can i write for essay Ashville now able to graciously defuse anger and distribute prizes to keep the peace. This reintegrates Achilles back into human society from which he had withdrawn during his wrath. The plan of your essay Zeus was a response to the wrath of written College Cambridge Achilles. This plan shows a pattern of cause and effect which operates with the logic of the how to improve your essay writing Tilton sacred, and the dual (or multiple) causation of a system that describes events as occurring for not one, but for two or more reasons, such as anger being produced by a man's emotions and by the influence of a god, or the combination of god-sent delusion and human folly leading to for ielts, a disastrous action. Humans are most vulnerable to multiple or sacred causation when their passions are strong and their self-control weak. In such a state, men may offend those who are close to the gods, priests and semi-divine heroes such as Achilles, who in turn may call down the gods into human affairs. This creates a state of School imbalance in the entire cosmos, among the gods as well as among men. This imbalance not only causes human suffering, but discomfort to the gods, such as the wounding of how to article Queen's College Aphrodite and Ares and the struggle between Hephaestus and Xanthus. It is the role of Zeus to create plans to reestablish balance and the appropriate separation between gods and men. Human anger is the starting point for everything that happens in the Iliad . The anger of Agamemnon and the responsive angers of Chryses and Achilles are the events that initiate the how to improve essay writing School plague and for ielts the wrath.
The Iliad was used for centuries much as the how to improve your Tilton School Bible has been used, as a source of historical information that provides sacred and moral instruction.18 At first this is difficult for us to write article Queen's College, understand, as indeed it became difficult for some Greeks to understand by the time of Plato. Homer has been accused for a very long time of telling lies about the gods. But, considered as a sacred story, the message of the Iliad is extremely clear and deeply religious, although it expresses a religion very different from the Judeo-Christian heritage within which we are immersed. The Iliad instructs people in the profound and simple fact that if they do not control their passions, they will disrupt the balance between the human world and the gods and create a crisis, which can only improve your essay writing Tilton School, be resolved by many deaths. Despite all the confusions of multiple causations, the events of the write articles for money College Iliad happen because Agamemnon lost his temper and because Achilles, via Thetis, petitioned Zeus for revenge.19.
Both Agamemnon and Achilles learn, by means of the tragic results of their unleashed anger, that it is better for a man to exercise self-control. As early as book 9, Agamemnon recognizes his folly as Nestor points it out to him, and how to improve writing Tilton School he attempts to make amends.20 Once Patroclus is dead, Achilles realizes that he was responsible for what has happened to how to a good essay Thompson Rivers, his friend and to all of the Greeks, and he attempts to make amends ( Il . 18. 101-8). However, once the gods have been drawn in, once Zeus has made his plan, humans can no longer simply make amends. They must then act out the complex sorrows of passion and death until the how to essay School plan of Zeus is fulfilled and normal life is restored.
The Iliad not only shows the catastrophic results of unleashed passion, but also gives clear examples of men exercising self-control and of an entire complex technology of correct behavior that serves to channel the sacred by means of articles proper rituals, thus keeping the gods at a safe distance from humankind.21. Nestor and Diomedes provide models of religiously and socially correct behavior, which are much the improve your Tilton School same thing in written argumentative essays College the Iliad , since anger can draw the gods down into human affairs. Both men know exactly how to behave in order to how to your writing School, be excellent and yet not involve the gods in any improper and dangerous manner. Nestor gives correct advice to the quarreling Agamemnon and Achilles in book 1. Agamemnon acknowledges that Nestor is correct, yet he ignores his advice, as does Achilles. On the personal essay Thompson other hand, although Diomedes is able to fight almost like a god, he is always aware of improve essay Tilton exactly when to i write for essay Ashville College, stop; he commits no offenses that might draw down divine reprisals upon the human community.22. The funeral games portray the reestablishment of correct and normal human community, after the violence of Achilles has been released by the deaths of how to improve Tilton Patroclus and writing essays for ielts Wycliffe Hector. Purified of the wrath, Achilles is the ideal leader who arranges games as a form of contained and peaceful competition, where conflicts can be resolved without violence. The gods are still present, but men now can control at how to improve Tilton, least some of their own actions, using knowledge and skill. The interrelationship of human skill, passion, and the gods is set forth in the chariot race, which is an exemplum of correct behavior in a potentially dangerous situation. When Antilochus tries to claim the prize for second place in the chariot race, Menelaus angrily demands judgment from the leaders of the Greeks: `Come now, ye leaders and rulers of the Argives, judge ye aright betwixt us twain, neither have regard unto either, ( Il . 23.
583-84). The world is now sufficiently normalized that human judgment can be called for writing House and applied effectively, which was definitely not the case during the wrath, when whatever men did merely fulfilled the plan of Zeus. When Menelaus demands that Antilochus swear an oath that he did not use trickery to pass him, instead of essay pursuing the conflict, Antilochus graciously backs down, which is prudent, since he had in fact used trickery to written essays College, pass him. How To Improve Essay School? Men are now able to compromise in a spirit of social righteousness, which is also religious righteousness. After Antilochus apologizes for being young and importunate, Menelaus graciously forgives him. This is the human social order, as it ought to function and can indeed function so long as men control their passions and behave correctly and in a lawful manner. The gods are always present as a potential for disorder. Athena broke the chariot of one man in the race, and write articles for money College caused Diomedes' horses to win first place. This form of divine involvement, while important, need not be lethal. One man suffers a spill; no one dies.
However, had Antilochus and Menelaus not been able to compromise and control their anger, that escalation of anger from one to the other and back again could have built up tensions that might have again shattered the how to your writing Tilton School boundaries between men and Wycliffe the gods. The funeral games display a social order based on correct behavior, contained competitiveness and improve essay writing Tilton self-control. So long as these conditions are maintained, and they are maintained now largely because of the excellence of leadership provided by Achilles, human society will remain relatively safe from the affliction of the gods. Writing Online? 1. How To Your Essay Tilton? Homer, The Iliad , trans. A. T. Murray, 2 vols. Written Essays CATS Cambridge? Loeb Classical Library (1925; rpt. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U P, 1967). Cited as Iliad . All references are to the line numbers of the how to Greek text, although only the corresponding English translations will be quoted. 2. W. C. Greene comments that “This instinctive feeling of a barrier between man and god, this fear that any presumption on the part of man may cause the write articles d'Overbroeck's gods to take offence, lines behind not only the ethical ideas of the Homeric age but the prudential morality of the historic period.
Fear of overstepping barriers is the element common to the Homeric Aidos and the sanctity of oaths…” ( Moira: Fate, Good and Evil in Greek Thought [1942; rpt. How To Your Essay Writing Tilton? Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1968], 20). Walter Otto remarks of Homer that “There is no doubt that all excess was repellent to him, and most of all where it seemed to achieve its greatest miracle: the removal of the bounds between the finite and the infinite, between man and god” ( The Homeric Gods , trans. Moses Hadas [1954; rpt. New York: Octagon Books, 1978], 158-159). 3. There is much debate as to what are the causes of human behavior in the Iliad . Gods as well as daimons can affect, and at times control what humans perceive and do. E. R. Dodds, in The Greeks and write articles for money d'Overbroeck's College the Irrational (1951; rpt.
Berkeley: U of California P, 1973), 13, comments that in Homer, “all departures from normal human behavior whose causes are not immediately perceived, whether by the subject’s own consciousness or by the observation of others, are ascribed to a supernatural agency, just as is any departure from the normal behaviour of the weather or the normal behaviour of a bowstring.” According to Greene, Homer recognizes two reasons for excessive human behavior, or hybris : “…the abuse of human freedom of the will, resulting in a hardened character, which is atasthalie ; and … the heaven-sent power of improve writing Tilton evil, which is Ate …” (20-21). Since self-control is praised and rewarded, while excessive behavior precipitates disasters in the Iliad , it is reasonable to suppose that human beings were considered capable of Wycliffe College self-control, at least under normal circumstances. 4. If restraint and self-control were not deemed possible, the Iliad would be a bitter tale indeed. Helen North comments in Sophrosyne: Self-Knowledge and Self-Restraint in Greek Literature (Ithaca: Cornell U P, 1966), 6-7: “That the poet of the Iliad was himself keenly sensitive to the need for such restraint, both to improve your Tilton School, avert disaster in written argumentative essays College Cambridge the life of the individual and to prevent a society made up of how to your writing self-assertive heroes from destroying itself, is evident from the content of many individual episodes and from the very pattern of the poem, determined as it is by the sequence of cause and effect, beginning with the hybris of Agamemnon and the unbounded wrath of Achilles, and culminating in the scene where Achilles achieves a kind of tragic self-knowledge in response to Priam’s appeal to his aids ( Il. 24. 503).” 5. C. M. Bowra, in Heroic Poetry (1952; rpt. New York: St. Martin’s, 1966), 87, comments that the “… gods are regarded not as types of goodness but simply as embodiments of power who govern human affairs. There is nothing wrong in opposing them, but it is extremely dangerous.” If there is a wrong in this opposition, it lies not in a sin against the gods, but in the damages the how to a good Rivers University gods may wreak, if angered, upon ones fellow men.
6. A. W. Adkins remarks in how to improve essay writing From the Many to write articles for money d'Overbroeck's, the One, Studies in the Humanities, ed. Max Black (Ithaca: Cornell U P, 1970) that “…in Homeric society … the most powerful terms of improve your denigration are applied quite simply to failure to ensure the safety and well-being of the members of the group of which one is the head. It makes no difference to the evaluation of the situation whether the failure results from cowardice, or from mistake or force majeure: only the i write introduction for essay result is taken into account” (29). In these terms both Achilles and Agamemnon are very much to blame for the deaths that follow their anger. 7. R. Girard, in Violence and the Sacred (1972, trans. Patrick Gregory [Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U P, 1977]), commenting on the qualities of Greek tragedy, points out that the how to improve essay writing symmetrical equality of the articles for money online College protagonists is a crucial quality: “Whether the improve essay Tilton School violence is physical or verbal, the how to a good personal Thompson University suspense remains the your essay writing Tilton same.
The adversaries match blow for blow . Write Article? . . it is impossible to predict the improve your essay writing School outcome of the battle. … Tragedy is the balancing of the scale, not of justice, but of Hurtwood House violence” (44-45). One can easily imagine that if Hera had not loved Agamemnon and Achilles equally, the outcome of the quarrel would have quickly been settled by the victory of her favorite. The very equality of Agamemnon and Achilles in the eyes of the gods increases their ability to precipitate a state of sacred crisis. 8. The deaths of how to improve your essay Tilton masses of Greeks in for money College the Iliad have a sacrificial quality, as do the more important deaths of how to improve your essay writing Tilton Patroclus and Hector. This is writing Wycliffe College especially suggested by the extensive use of fire imagery in the Iliad , which has been examined by Cedric Whitman in Homer and the Heroic Tradition (1958; rpt. New York: Norton, 1965) 129-30: “…fire itself, or comparisons of things to fire, forms a remarkable pattern of association, all centering around the theme of heroic passion and death. … It begins naturally enough, with sacrifices and funeral pyres. The first fire we hear of is in the prayer of Chryses, who reminds Apollo of the sacrifices he has burned. Shortly thereafter the essay Tilton School pyres of the dead blaze in the Greek camp. …” Fire, especially the fire of funeral pyres, provides a nexus of the how to write a good personal Thompson Rivers relationship between men, death, and improve writing Tilton School the gods. 9. Essays For Ielts College? An example of this occurs in books 3 and 4 of the Iliad , when the your writing School Greeks and written essays CATS College Cambridge Trojans try to how to essay writing, end the war reasonably, by means of written College a judicial combat between Paris and Menelaus, the contending parties in the war.
But Aprhrodite snatches Paris out of danger and the council of the gods reinitiates fighting by sending Athene to provoke Pandarus, a Trojan, into shooting an arrow, thus breaking the your Tilton School truce. During the sacred crisis, men’s wisest and best efforts are liable to fail completely, because they do not fit the intentions of the gods. 10. For Essay? Heroes are extremely dangerous, in life and in death. Martin Nilsson remarks: “The hero-cult … is designed to appease the mighty dead, who are by no means slow to wrath. … It is the rule, even in historical examples, that the [dead] hero’s wrath sends disasters, plague, and famine, and that he is appeased according to the instructions of Delphi” ( A History of improve essay Greek Religion , trans. F. J. Fielden, 2nd ed [1925; rev. ed. 1952; rpt. New York: Norton, 1964], 194). 11.
According to Whitman: “There can be little doubt that the change in Patroclus’ character and characteristic epithets is not due simply to his presence in a battle scene. Essay Online Hurtwood? … Patroclus is playing the role of Achilles. How To Improve Essay Writing School? For the moment he has become Achilles, and acts much more like the written essays CATS great hero than like himself” (200). 12. R. Lattimore comments on the disparity between Hector’s glory and his actual deeds: “the reputation of Hektor continually surpasses his achievement. … his only really great victim is Patroklos; and from Patroklos he runs, and how to improve your essay must be rallied to fight him…. Much of how to personal Rivers what he does is by divine favour. Apollo picks him up when he is down, and Zeus is behind his charges” ( The Iliad of Homer , trans. and intro. by how to improve essay R. Lattimore [1951; rpt. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1961]. 35). 13.
Dodds would use the word “shame” to describe the state of having done something wrong, rather than the word “guilt.” He argues that Homer’s society was a “shame-culture,” not a “guilt-culture” (17). Whatever the term used, the negative qualities of Achilles’ wrath are partially transferred onto Patroclus and Hector, as a part of their deaths. 14. These obscure “guilts” or “shames” are the source of a long and confusing tradition of the genteel or minor faults of Hector, which are those of an article, otherwise blameless man, who yet consistently commits major errors producing woes for how to your essay Tilton the Trojans in many future Troy stories. Introduction For Essay? 15. Patroclus had advanced killing Trojans three times.
On the fourth advance, Apollo struck him ( Il . 16. 783-89). 16. Balance is a critical structural property of the entire Iliad . Whitman has shown how the Iliad is how to essay School organized according to geometric principles of opposition and balance: “Concentric circles are a universal device in Geometric art…and the principle of balance around a central point which is implied in concentric circles is far and away the dominating formal principle in the Iliad . The poem as a whole forms one large concentric pattern, within which a vast system of smaller ones … gives shape to the separate parts” (97). These principles of balance seem to extend beyond the poetics of the Iliad to its view of the cosmos as in a state of complex balance until disturbed. 17.
Agamemnon too is responsible for the deaths of many Greeks because of his sacrilege against Chryses and his uncontrolled anger against Achilles. Agamemnon, like Achilles, received no direct punishment within the context of the Iliad , but there are many stories outside of the Iliad that describe his death, rather like the slaughter of an animal, at the hands of Clytemnestra and her lover. Agamemnon was really the starting point of all the murderous wrath of the Iliad , but he was too powerful to how to write scientific article Queen's, kill, so others died for him. The same is improve essay Tilton true for essays CATS College Cambridge Achilles, the next in the chain of power and anger. Essay Writing? 18. Whitman remarks: “To the how to a good personal essay Thompson Rivers University ancient Greeks, Homer enjoyed a reputation as something between Holy Writ and an encyclopedia of universal knowledge…” (15). 19.
Greene comments that “the Hybris and still more the Atasthalie of improve writing School Homer represent the idea of sin, with the emphasis … on innate and growing proneness to mischief, no a deliberate choice of evil. They are the result of an aggravated willfulness, of a failure to observe Aidos ; and they lead to Nemesis and the punishment of the how to personal Rivers gods” (24). Cause and effect, human misconduct and divine reaction, are the how to your writing reasons why events happen in the Iliad. How To Write Essay Rivers? 20. Agamemnon tells Nestor: “’Blind I was, myself I deny it not.… Yet seeing I was blind and yielded to my miserable passion, I am minded to make amends and to how to improve essay writing School, give requital past counting’” ( Il . 9. Writing Online Hurtwood? 116-20).
There is a real question of improve essay Tilton whether Agamemnon’s excuse that he was “blind” is meant to actually excuse him of responsibility for what he did, or merely to represent his version of why he behaved as he did according to his best self-interest. Dodds calls this blindness ( ate ) “…a partial and temporary insanity…ascribed…to an external ’daemonic’ agency” (5). Greene points out “…that if Agamemnon is merely seeking to how can i write for essay Ashville, excuse himself, let it be remembered that elsewhere Zeus is improve your represented by writing essays for ielts the poet as willfully deceptive” (21). Yet Agamemnon and how to improve your Tilton School Achilles are not represented in their original quarrel as being victims of how can i write externally produced behavior, but as men unleashing their own rage, and Agamemnon does indeed learn that it is better to exercise self-control, if possible. 21.
Hugh Lloyd-Jones remarks: “If we strike a proper balance, we must acknowledge that Homer’s gods are effective and his religion real, but that his human characters are free to decide and are responsible for improve your writing Tilton their decisions” ( The Justice of Zeus , Sather Classical Lectures, Vol. 41 [1971; rpt. Berkeley: U of California P, 1973] 10). This freedom and responsibility are most critical when dealing with the write articles for money d'Overbroeck's College gods, where any error can produce catastrophic results. 22. Nilsson comments that Homer deliberately contrasted “…the self-assertion and obstinacy of Achilles with the loyalty of how to essay writing Tilton Diomedes to his suzerain and to the gods” ( Homer and Mycenae [1933; rpt.
New York: Cooper Square Publishers, 1968] 259).
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Can computers really grade essay tests? The inside track on Washington politics. *Invalid email address. New software described in this New York Times story allows teachers to leave essay grading to improve your School the computer. It was developed by EdX, the nonprofit organization that was founded jointly by Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and that will give the software to other schools for free. The story says that the software “uses artificial intelligence to grade student essays and short written answers.” Multiple-choice exams have, of course, been graded by machine for a long time, but essays are another matter. Can a computer program accurately capture the depth, beauty, structure, relevance, creativity etc., of an written argumentative essays College essay? The National Council of Teachers of English says, unequivocally, “no” in its newest position statement.
Here it is: Machine Scoring Fails the Test. [A] computer could not measure accuracy, reasoning, adequacy of improve your essay writing Tilton, evidence, good sense, ethical stance, convincing argument, meaningful organization, clarity, and veracity in your essay. If this is true I don’t believe a computer would be able to measure my full capabilities and grade me fairly. Written Argumentative Essays CATS. — Akash, student. [H]ow can the feedback a computer gives match the carefully considered comments a teacher leaves in the margins or at the end of your paper? — Pinar, student. (Responses to New York Times The Learning Network blog post, “How Would You Feel about a Computer Grading Your Essays?”, 5 April 2013) Writing is a highly complex ability developed over years of practice, across a wide range of tasks and your writing Tilton School, contexts, and with copious, meaningful feedback.
Students must have this kind of sustained experience to meet the demands of higher education, the needs of a 21st-century workforce, the challenges of civic participation, and how to scientific College, the realization of full, meaningful lives. As the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) sweep into individual classrooms, they bring with them a renewed sense of the importance of writing to essay students’ education. Writing teachers have found many aspects of the CCSS to applaud; however, we must be diligent in developing assessment systems that do not threaten the how to essay Thompson Rivers, possibilities for the rich, multifaceted approach to writing instruction advocated in the CCSS. Effective writing assessments need to account for the nature of how to your Tilton, writing, the ways students develop writing ability, and the role of the teacher in fostering that development. Research 1 on the assessment of student writing consistently shows that high-stakes writing tests alter the normal conditions of writing by denying students the opportunity to writing for ielts Wycliffe think, read, talk with others, address real audiences, develop ideas, and revise their emerging texts over time. Often, the results of such tests can affect the livelihoods of teachers, the fate of schools, or the educational opportunities for students. In such conditions, the narrowly conceived, artificial form of the tests begins to subvert attention to other purposes and varieties of improve your essay writing Tilton, writing development in the classroom. Eventually, the tests erode the foundations of write a good personal Rivers, excellence in writing instruction, resulting in students who are less prepared to meet the demands of their continued education and future occupations. Especially in the transition from high school to college, students are ill served when their writing experience has been dictated by tests that ignore the ever-more complex and varied types and uses of writing found in improve your essay writing Tilton higher education. Note : (1) All references to write online d'Overbroeck's College research are supported by the extensive work documented in the annotated bibliography attached to this report. These concerns — increasingly voiced by your essay Tilton parents, teachers, school administrators, students, and members of the general public — are intensified by the use of for ielts, machine-scoring systems to read and evaluate students’ writing.
To meet the outcomes of the Common Core State Standards, various consortia, private corporations, and testing agencies propose to your essay writing School use computerized assessments of student writing. Write Thompson Rivers University. The attraction is how to improve essay writing School, obvious: once programmed, machines might reduce the costs otherwise associated with the human labor of written argumentative essays College Cambridge, reading, interpreting, and evaluating the writing of our students. Yet when we consider what is lost because of machine scoring, the presumed savings turn into significant new costs — to students, to improve writing School our educational institutions, and to society. Here’s why: Computers are unable to recognize or judge those elements that we most associate with good writing (logic, clarity, accuracy, ideas relevant to a specific topic, innovative style, effective appeals to audience, different forms of organization, types of online d'Overbroeck's College, persuasion, quality of evidence, humor or irony, and effective uses of repetition, to name just a few). Using computers to “read” and evaluate students’ writing (1) denies students the chance to have anything but limited features recognized in their writing; and (2) compels teachers to ignore what is most important in writing instruction in order to how to Tilton School teach what is least important. Computers use different, cruder methods than human readers to judge students’ writing. Writing College. For example, some systems gauge the sophistication of vocabulary by measuring the average length of words and how often the words are used in a corpus of your writing School, texts; or they gauge the development of ideas by counting the length and number of sentences per paragraph.
Computers are programmed to score papers written to very specific prompts, reducing the incentive for teachers to develop innovative and creative occasions for writing for ielts Wycliffe writing, even for how to improve assessment. Computers get progressively worse at write personal essay Thompson University scoring as the length of the writing increases, compelling test makers to design shorter writing tasks that don’t represent the range and variety of writing assignments needed to prepare students for the more complex writing they will encounter in improve essay writing School college. Computer scoring favors the how to write personal, most objective, “surface” features of how to essay writing Tilton School, writing (grammar, spelling, punctuation), but problems in these areas are often created by the testing conditions and are the most easily rectified in normal writing conditions when there is time to revise and edit. Privileging surface features disproportionately penalizes nonnative speakers of English who may be on a developmental path that machine scoring fails to recognize. Conclusions that computers can score as well as humans are the written argumentative essays, result of humans being trained to score like the computers (for example, being told not to make judgments on the accuracy of information). Computer scoring systems can be “gamed” because they are poor at improve your writing Tilton School working with human language, further weakening the validity of writing, their assessments and how to improve Tilton School, separating students not on CATS College Cambridge, the basis of writing ability but on how to improve essay writing, whether they know and can use machine-tricking strategies. Computer scoring discriminates against students who are less familiar with using technology to write or complete tests. Further, machine scoring disadvantages school districts that lack funds to provide technology tools for every student and skews technology acquisition toward devices needed to meet testing requirements. Computer scoring removes the purpose from written communication — to how to create human interactions through a complex, socially consequential system of meaning making — and sends a message to how to improve your essay Tilton School students that writing is not worth their time because reading it is not worth the time of the people teaching and assessing them.
What Are the Alternatives? Together with other professional organizations, the National Council of Teachers of English has established research-based guidelines for effective teaching and for money College, assessment of writing, such as the Standards for the Assessment of Reading and Writing (rev. How To Your. ed., 2009), the for money online, Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing (2011), the NCTE Beliefs about the Teaching of Writing (2004), and the Framework for 21st Century Curriculum and improve essay Tilton School, Assessment (2008, 2013). In the broadest sense, these guidelines contend that good assessment supports teaching and learning. Specifically, high-quality assessment practices will. encourage students to become engaged in i write introduction Ashville literacy learning, to reflect on their own reading and writing in how to improve Tilton School productive ways, and to i write for essay Ashville College set respective literacy goals; yield high-quality, useful information to inform teachers about curriculum, instruction, and the assessment process itself; balance the need to assess summatively (make final judgments about the quality of student work) with the need to assess formatively (engage in ongoing, in-process judgments about what students know and can do, and what to teach next); recognize the complexity of literacy in how to essay today’s society and reflect that richness through holistic, authentic, and varied writing instruction; at their core, involve professionals who are experienced in teaching writing, knowledgeable about students’ literacy development, and familiar with current research in literacy education. A number of effective practices enact these research-based principles, including portfolio assessment; teacher assessment teams; balanced assessment plans that involve more localized (classroom- and district-based) assessments designed and administered by classroom teachers; and “audit” teams of teachers, teacher educators, and writing specialists who visit districts to review samples of student work and the curriculum that has yielded them.
We focus briefly here on i write for essay College, portfolios because of the your writing Tilton School, extensive scholarship that supports them and the positive experience that many educators, schools, and school districts have had with them. Engaging teams of teachers in evaluating portfolios at the building, district, or state level has the potential to honor the challenging expectations of the CCSS while also reflecting what we know about effective assessment practices. Portfolios offer the a good personal Rivers University, opportunity to. look at student writing across multiple events, capturing growth over time while avoiding the limitations of “one test on one day”; look at the range of writing across a group of students while preserving the individual character of each student’s writing; review student writing through multiple lenses, including content accuracy and use of resources; assess student writing in the context of local values and goals as well as national standards. Just as portfolios provide multiple types of data for assessment, they also allow students to learn as a result of engaging in the assessment process, something seldom associated with more traditional one-time assessments. Students gain insight about their own writing, about essay Tilton School, ways to identify and writing essays, describe its growth, and about how others — human readers — interpret their work. The process encourages reflection and goal setting that can result in further learning beyond the assessment experience. Similarly, teachers grow as a result of administering and scoring the portfolio assessments, something seldom associated with more traditional one-time assessments. This embedded professional development includes learning more about typical levels of writing skill found at a particular level of schooling along with ways to identify and describe quality writing and growth in writing.
The discussions about collections of writing samples and improve your School, criteria for assessing the essay House, writing contribute to improve Tilton School a shared investment among all participating teachers in the writing growth of all students. Further, when the portfolios include a wide range of how can i write for essay Ashville College, artifacts from learning and writing experiences, teachers assessing the improve writing, portfolios learn new ideas for write for money online d'Overbroeck's College classroom instruction as well as ways to design more sophisticated methods of assessing student work on writing, a daily basis. Several states such as Kentucky, Nebraska, Vermont, and California have experimented with the development of large-scale portfolio assessment projects that make use of teams of essay online Hurtwood House, teachers working collaboratively to assess samples of student work. Rather than investing heavily in assessment plans that cannot meet the how to School, goals of the CCSS, various legislative groups, private companies, and educational institutions could direct those funds into refining these nascent portfolio assessment systems. This investment would also support teacher professional development and House, enhance the how to essay writing School, quality of instruction in classrooms — something that machine-scored writing prompts cannot offer. In 2010, the federal government awarded $330 million to two consortia of states “to provide ongoing feedback to teachers during the course of the school year, measure annual school growth, and move beyond narrowly focused bubble tests” (United States Department of Education). Further, these assessments will need to align to the new standards for learning in English and mathematics. This has proven to be a formidable task, but it is achievable. By combining the already existing National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessment structures for evaluating school system performance with ongoing portfolio assessment of student learning by educators, we can cost-effectively assess writing without relying on flawed machine-scoring methods. By doing so, we can simultaneously deepen student and writing online Hurtwood, educator learning while promoting grass-roots innovation at the classroom level.
For a fraction of the cost in time and improve your essay writing, money of building a new generation of machine assessments, we can invest in rigorous assessment and teaching processes that enrich, rather than interrupt, high-quality instruction. Our students and their families deserve it, the research base supports it, and literacy educators and how to write College, administrators will welcome it.