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Look at it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in yourself, in your unique mix of skills, education, and abilities, why should a prospective employer? Be confident in yourself and what you can offer employers. How to articles for websites Moreton Hall School describe this skill on your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is committed to how to a summary of a research achieving excellence. Business Press. 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to Work Without Supervision. While teamwork is always mentioned as an important skill, so is the ability to work independently, with minimal supervision. How to describe this skill on write article Monkton, your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision. No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to learn a new skill or technique. Jobs are constantly changing and evolving, and you must show an openness to grow and learn with that change.
How to describe this skill on your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to meet challenges and quickly assimilate new concepts. While there is argumentative television International Community, some debate about whether leadership is of a research Combe School, something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to take charge and manage your co-workers. How to write introduction for essay University of East Anglia (INTO) describe this skill on how to write Monkton Combe, your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and coaches employees to University Anglia (INTO) meet high-performance standards. Write Of A Research Article. 12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is possibly no bigger issue in the workplace than diversity, and jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and awareness to other people and cultures. How to describe this skill on your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and an ability to argumentative essay television build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings. Deals with your ability to design, plan, organize, and write of a research School implement projects and tasks within an allotted timeframe. Also, involves goal-setting. How to describe this skill on argumentative television, your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and organizational skills, along with a high degree of detail orientation. Because so many jobs involve working in one or more work-groups, you must have the ability to work with others in a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal.
How to describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at building trusting relationships with customers and colleagues. Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Values. Employability skills and personal values are the how to a summary article Monkton School critical tools and traits you need to television ICS — International Community School succeed in the workplace? and they are all elements that you can learn, cultivate, develop, and maintain over your lifetime. Once you have identified the sought-after skills and values and assessed the degree to which you possess them, begin to market them by building them into your resume, cover letter, and interview answers) for job-search success. See also our Transferable Job Skills for Jobseekers.Click here to begin building your own resume! More Information about Employability Skills: Skills Employers Seek, reporting on annual results from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of a summary Combe School employers to why do we have to write essays International determine the top 10 personal qualities/skills employers seek. From the Career Development Center at Binghamton University. A Summary Of A Research Article Monkton. Skills Employers Seek, from Loughborough University. Skills Employers Seek, from Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in harvard press, Demand, from LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from LiveCareer. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills.
Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to write research article Combe School help land the job you want. Dr. Journal Review Articles Management College. Randall S. A Summary Of A Research Monkton School. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com.
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Hansen on articles School, GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. A Summary Of A Article Monkton Combe School. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and write for websites Moreton Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for write of a Monkton Combe School job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to to write an evaluation on Polimoda go straight to the career and employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to how to write a summary research Monkton School go straight to the career and employment section of the 
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Biodiversity and Its Conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem (Gopal and how to of a Combe Chauhan, 2006) © Eawag, Dubendorf, 2006. Biodiversity and how to write introduction for essay (INTO) its conservation in the Sundarban. Brij Gopal* and Malavika Chauhan. Abstract. The Sundarban, covering about one million ha darban has been extensively exploited for timber, ?sh, in the delta of the rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and Megh- prawns and how to write a summary School fodder. The regulation of river ?ows by essay Community a se- na is shared between Bangladesh ( 60 %) and how to of a research India ries of dams, barrages and embankments for diverting. 40 %), and is the world’s largest coastal wetland. Harvard Business Bodwell School. The water upstream for various human needs and for ?ood. area experiences a subtropical monsoonal climate with control has caused large reduction in freshwater in?ow.
an annual rainfall of 1,600–1,800 mm and severe cy- and seriously affected the a summary of a research article Monkton School, biodiversity because of an in- clonic storms. Enormous amounts of sediments carried crease in salinity and changes in how to introduction for essay University of East, sedimentation. Heritiera. by the rivers contribute to its expansion and dynamics. fomes (locally called Sundari, from which Sundarban. Salinity gradients change over a wide range of spatial and derives its name), Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. temporal scales. The biodiversity includes about 350 spe- are declining rapidly.
During the past three decades, large. cies of vascular plants, 250 ?shes and 300 birds, besides parts of the a summary article Monkton, remaining Sundarban have been protected for. numerous species of phytoplankton, fungi, bacteria, zoo- wildlife, particularly tiger, through the creation of several. plankton, benthic invertebrates, molluscs, reptiles, am- sanctuaries and a biosphere reserve. Parts of the Sundar- phibians and mammals. Species composition and com- ban in both India and Bangladesh have been declared. munity structure vary east to business press Bodwell west, and along the World Heritage sites. However, its biodiversity continues.
hydrological and salinity gradients. Sundarban is the to be threatened by write of a article School a growing human population that not. habitat of many rare and endangered animals (Batagur only places pressure on its biological resources, but also. baska, Pelochelys bibroni, Chelonia mydas), especially impacts on the freshwater in?ows from upstream areas. the Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris). Javan rhino, Oil exploration in coastal areas is why do International, also emerging as a new. wild buffalo, hog deer, and barking deer are now extinct threat. Further threats arise from global climate change, from the area.
Large areas of the Sundarban mangroves especially sea level rise. The future of the Sundarban will. have been converted into paddy ?elds over the past two depend upon the management of freshwater resources as. centuries, and more recently into shrimp farms. The Sun- much as on the conservation of its biological resources. Key words. How To Article Combe School. Mangrove; hydrology; salinity; sea level rise; conversion to agriculture; aquaculture; climate change; conservation; endangered wildlife.
* Corresponding author e-mail: email@example.com. Published Online First: September 4, 2006. Aquat. Sci. Vol. Why Do We Have Essays School. 68, 2006 339. Introduction area lies in Brazil, Australia and Nigeria (Spalding et al., 1997). How To Research Article Monkton Combe School. While practically all mangroves occur in small. Mangroves1 are intertidal forested wetlands con?ned to patches that develop in deltaic habitats, the mangroves in. the tropical and subtropical regions (Tomlinson, 1986). the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, shared between.
The total global area of the mangroves is estimated at argumentative essay ICS — School, India and Bangladesh, are the only contiguous and larg- only 18.1 million ha (Spalding et al., 1997), against over est coastal wetland system in how to write research article Monkton School, the world. Popularly known. as Sundarban2, they currently cover about one million ha. 570 million ha of freshwater wetlands including peat- lands globally (but excluding paddy ?elds; Spiers, 1999). area, greater than the combined area of Wadden Sea wet- Although mangroves have been exploited for International, many cen- lands that are shared between Denmark, Germany and. turies, our scienti?c understanding of how to write Monkton School, these wetland for- the Netherlands.
ests remained poor until the 1970s (Lugo and Snedaker, Exploration of the Sundarban mangroves dates back. to the 16th century (Rollet, 1981). Review Les Roches International College. A large bulk of pub- 1974; Blasco, 1975; Chapman, 1976). During the past. three decades or so, these wetland forests have received lished literature exists on the Sundarbans of both India. increasingly greater attention which is re?ected in an (Naskar and Guha Bakshi, 1987; Chaudhuri and Choud- exponential increase in the number of publications (Elli- hury, 1994; Guha Bakshi et al., 1999) and Bangladesh. son, 2002). Several recent publications have examined (Seidensticker et al., 1991; Hussain and Acharya, 1994; issues concerning ecology, management and conserva- IUCN-BD 2002, Islam and how to of a research Combe School Wahab, 2005) covering many.
tion of mangroves (Robertson and Alongi, 1992; Ricklefs aspects of their habitat characteristics, ?ora, fauna (par- and Latham, 1993; Ellison et al., 1999; Kathiresan and ticularly ?sheries), utilization and management, yet very. Bingham, 2001; Macintosh and Ashton, 2002; Ellison, little is known about the functional aspects of this ecosys- 2002; Linneweber and de Lacerda, 2002; Vannucci, tem. In this review, we examine the current state of our. 2003; Saenger, 2003). knowledge of Sundarban’s biodiversity, various factors. The biodiversity of mangroves has also been of in- threatening it, and the recent conservation measures. This. creasingly greater interest, ?rstly because of the Conven- is preceded by harvard business a brief overview of the geology, climate, tion on Biological Diversity, and secondly, because the soils and hydrology which are the major driving variables. mangrove ecosystems are among the most threatened by of mangrove biodiversity in this region. It may be noted. the global climate changes, particularly the sea level rise here that since 1947 the Sundarban mangroves are di- (Macintosh and Ashton, 2002, 2004).
Mangroves are vided between India and Bangladesh (formerly East Pa- relatively well known for their ?oral diversity which is Monkton Combe School, kistan), and the two parts differ considerably in the nature. comprised of only 65–69 species of vascular plants and extent of investigations, conservation and manage- which have several speci?c adaptations to the dynamic ment. They also differ substantially in the level of human. coastal environment (see Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001) exploitation over write University Anglia more than a century. This makes it dif- and among the fauna, their ?sheries (both ?shes and research article Combe crus- ?cult to integrate the information of the entire Sundar- taceans) resources are better understood. The global pat- ban. Therefore, we frequently refer to the Indian and. terns of biodiversity in mangroves also present an inter- Bangladesh parts of the Sundarban separately. esting picture. Whereas the latitudinal pattern of. mangrove ?ora is normal in as much as the highest spe-
The Sundarban mangroves. cies richness of plants occurs around the Equator and. declines at higher latitudes – both north and south (Duke. et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999), the longitudinal distri- The Sundarban (21? 30? to why do we have to write Les Roches 22? 40? N, 88? 05? to 89? 55? E) bution is quite ‘anomalous’ with high concentrations in comprises essentially of numerous islands formed by the. the Eastern Hemisphere between 90? E and 135? E (Rick- sediments deposited by three major rivers, the Ganga, lefs and Latham, 1993; Ellison and Farnsworth, 2001). Brahmaputra and the Meghna, and a dense network of. Interestingly, the mangrove-inhabiting molluscs follow a smaller rivers, channels and creeks. How To Research Combe School. The maximum eleva- similar pattern (Ellison et al., 1999). Journal Les Roches Jin Jiang International. tion within the Sundarban is how to article School, only 10 m above the mean. More than 41 % of the world’s mangroves occur in journal review articles Les Roches Hotel College, sea level. How To Write Article Monkton Combe School. The western and we have essays International eastern limits of the Sundar-
South and Southeast Asia of which Indonesia alone ac- ban are de?ned by the course of the River Hooghly (a. counts for how to write article Combe, 23 %. A further 20 % of the total mangrove distributary of River Ganga) and River Baleshwar respec- tively (Fig. Business Bodwell. 1). The River Harinbhanga (known as. Ichamati or Raimongal in Bangladesh) demarcates the. The term ‘mangrove’ is used variously referring to plants (Macnae, 1968; Unesco, 1973), their communities (Blasco, 1975; Hamilton and Snedaker, 1984) and research article the whole ecosystem. Macnae (1968) reserved the term.
‘mangal’ to describe the mangrove plant communities. Moreton School. In this paper, we Often referred to in plural as ‘Sundarbans’ because the forest comprises. follow Arroyo (1979, 1997) who used the term mangrove for the entire of write research article Combe School, hundreds of islands separated by rivers and creeks, or to mean both the. ecosystem, its plant communities as well as the plants inhabiting them. Indian and Bangladesh parts together. 340 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem.
border between India and Bangladesh. About 60 % of the ban in essay television ICS — Community School, the two countries often differ considerably. Ac- mangrove forests lie in the Khulna District of Bangla- cording to recent estimates, the area of the Sundarban in. desh and the rest in the 24-Paragnas District of how to a summary article Combe, West Bangladesh is 599,330 ha (1978 Landsat data; Rahman et. Bengal (India). The estimates of the total area of Sundar- al., 1979) and in India it is 426,300 ha (Sanyal, 1983). The geological formation of the Sundarban is of com- paratively recent origin.
Several geomorphological. changes since the Tertiary period that included tectonic. movements in how to write for essay University Anglia (INTO), northwestern Punjab and write a summary the southeastern. ?ow of the an evaluation essay on Polimoda, River Ganga, resulted in the deposition of. sediments in the Bengal Basin and development of the. Sundarban Delta (Wadia, 1961). It is noteworthy that the. Ganga and Brahmaputra together carry the world’s larg- est sediment load to the oceans (Coleman, 1969; Milli- man and Meade, 1983; Milliman et al., 1995). Neotec- tonic movements in the Bengal Basin between the 12th.
and 15th century AD further resulted in an easterly tilt. (Morgan and McIntire, 1959). During the 16th century, the R. Ganga changed its course to shift eastwards and. join the Brahmaputra (Deb, 1956; Blasco, 1975; Snedak- er, 1991). How To Combe School. Later, in why do we have to write Les Roches of Hotel Management, the mid 18th century, the combined. Ganga (now called Padma) and how to article Brahmaputra again tilted. eastwards to empty into the R. Meghna (Williams, 1919; Snedaker, 1991). This continuing tectonic activity greatly. in?uenced the hydrology of the deltaic region because of.
Figure 1a. Location of the Sundarban in the Ganga Brahmaputra. changes in the sedimentation patterns and the reduction. Figure 1b. The Sundarban mangroves are shared between India and Bangladesh. Topics An Evaluation. Mangroves once extended up to write a summary of a research article School the Dampier-Hodges line.
– the inward limit of tidal in?uence. Dark hatched parts are reclained areas and the stippled areas are reserved forests. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 341. in freshwater in?ows. Most rivers (distributaries) other sands, which form sand dunes, occur mainly along the.
than the Hooghly, that contributed to the formation of the coast. Ganga Delta (from west to east: Muriganga, Saptamukhi, Similarly in the Bangladesh Sundarban, the soil is a. Thakuran, Matla, Gosaba and Bidya), have lost their silty clay loam with alternate layers of clay, silt and how to introduction (INTO) sand. original connections with the Ganga because of siltation The surface is clay except on how to write the seaward side of islands. (Fig.
1b), and their estuarine character is now maintained along the coast , where sandy beaches occur. In the east- by the why do we have to write essays Les Roches International, monsoonal runoff alone (Cole and Vaidyaraman, ern part, the surface soil is write a summary research Monkton Combe, soft and fertile whereas it is. 1966). Thus the delta-building process has nearly ceased harder and to write essay less suitable for tree growth in how to write Monkton Combe School, the west. in the west, but has accelerated in the eastern part. The (Choudhury, 1968). The soil pH averages 8.0 (Chris- high rate of harvard business Bodwell High School, sediment deposition in the Sundarban may be tensen, 1984).
understood from the estimated increase in the land area. by more than 800 km2 in how to write a summary of a research School, 80 years between 1793 and television Community School 1870. (Richards, 1990). Recent studies by how to research Monkton Chakrabarti (1995), Climate. however, show that the mangroves are the dominant geo- The climate of the area is characterized by write articles for websites Moreton relatively high. morphic agent in the evolution of tidal shoals and their temperature and write a summary of a article Monkton School humidity (80 %) throughout the year, accretion to the main landmass. and well distributed rainfall during the monsoon season. Temperatures rise from write articles for websites Moreton School, a daily minima of how to write of a Combe School, 2–4 °C in win- ter to a maximum of Moreton School, about 43 °C in March and may ex- Soils ceed 32 °C during the monsoon.
Recent reports suggest. The land is how to a summary of a research School, moulded predominantly by tidal action. An that the air temperature over the Sundarban and harvard business Bodwell High adjacent. intricate network of waterways, of how to write a summary research article Monkton School, which the larger chan- parts of the for essay University of East Anglia (INTO), Bay of Bengal are gradually increasing (Huq. nels (often 1.5 to write a summary research Monkton Combe School 2.0 km wide), run in a generally north- et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). Write For Essay University Of East Anglia. The cold season lasts. south direction, intersect the whole area. Innumerable from how to a summary research Monkton Combe, about the middle of November to the end of Febru- small khals (= creeks) drain the land at each ebb tide. ary and is followed by the summer from March to May. Rivers tend to be long and straight, a consequence of the There is a six-month dry season during which evapotran- strong tidal forces and the clay and silt deposits which spiration exceeds precipitation.
resist erosion. Easily eroded sands collect at the river The rainfall over harvard business the Ganga-Brahmaputra deltaic re- mouths and form banks and chars, which are blown into gion decreases from east to west and from south to the. dunes above the high-water mark by the strong southwest north. In the Bangladesh region, mean annual rainfall. monsoon. Finer silts are washed out into the Bay of Ben- varies from about 1,800 mm in Khulna, north of the Sun- gal, but mud ?ats are formed on the leeward side of the darban, to 2,790 mm on the coast. A Summary Article. The average annual. dunes where they are protected from wave action. Why Do We Have To Write Essays Les Roches International Of Hotel. These rainfall in write a summary of a research article School, the Indian region is only 1,661.6 mm. It de- mud?ats become overlain with sand from the dunes, and creases from write University Anglia (INTO), 1,805 mm in the south on Sagar Island to- develop into grassy meadows. This process of island- wards Kolkata in the north.
Most of the how to write a summary of a research Monkton, rainfall (about. building continues for as long as the area on the wind- 74 % of the total) occurs during the to write an evaluation on Polimoda, southwest monsoon. ward side is exposed to wave action. With the formation period (June–September). Some precipitation is received. of the next island further out, silt begins to accumulate in the latter half of the hot season and in October. along the shore of the island and sand is blown or washed There is relatively little variation in the rainfall be- tween years. During the ?rst half of the 20th century, the.
away (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). Most of the soils derived from alluvial deposits are highest and lowest annual rainfalls were only 142 % (in. azonal with little or no pro?le development (Chaudhuri 1933) and 62 % (in 1935) of the a summary research Monkton Combe School, normal respectively. and Choudhury, 1994; Sarkar et al., 1999). Clay loam is Only rarely have two or three consecutive years experi- the predominating soil type in the Sundarban, though enced below normal (80 % of average) rainfall. On an. silty and sandy loams also occur in many areas. Clays average there are 80 rainy days (2.5 mm rainfall) in a. with or without muck occur in swamps and alluvial lakes. year. Alluvial soils along the coast, and especially in business press Bodwell High, the Sun- Winds are generally light to how to of a article Combe moderate with a slight in- darban area, show a white ef?orescence of sodium chlo- crease in force during the summer and monsoons, but in. ride, as they are impregnated with salts by tidal estuaries. the southern Sundarban area, particularly near the coast, These soils have been formed from deposits brought by winds are stronger.
Winds blow mostly from directions. tidal currents. Numerous tidal ?ats have been formed af- between the south-east and south-west during May to Sep- ter the headwater ?ow through the for websites Moreton Hall School, deltaic distributaries tember. In October, winds vary in direction. During the. of the R. Ganga were silted up. The parent deposits are winter, winds blow mainly from the north-west.
In March. either rich in calcium or magnesium, or consist of half- and April they blow from the south and south-west. decomposed organic matter. The coastal soils are usually Thunderstorms are common during summer after- classi?ed as saline, non-saline and alkali soils. Pure noons.
These may be in association with severe squalls. 342 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. and occasional hail. These are commonly known as. nor’westers (because the associated squalls usually come. from the north-west) or Kalbaisakhi (the disastrous.
winds of Baisakh, the ?rst month of the Bengali calen- dar). Storms result in heavy rain and a sharp drop in. The storms often develop into cyclones that are usu- ally accompanied by tidal waves up to 7.5 m high (Sei- densticker and Hai, 1983). Available long-term records. show that cyclones over the Bay of Bengal adjoining the. Sundarban are increasing in their intensity, but decreas- ing in their frequency of occurrence. This correlates with. the rising trend in temperatures mentioned earlier and has. a signi?cant bearing on the extent of coastal ?ooding, erosion and saline water intrusion due to storm surges. (Huq et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). Hydrology and salinity regimes.
The hydrology of the Sundarban is dominated by the. freshwater ?ows from Rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and. Meghna, which exhibit very high seasonal variation in. Figure 2. Salinity zones in the Bangladesh Sundarban. their discharge, and the tides which range in height from.
2 to 5.94 m. Tidal in?uence extends to more than 50 km. inland from the shoreline and surges increase considera- bly during the cyclonic storms. blanks which may check the penetration of high tides to. The freshwater ?ows from the rivers and the tidal in- the interior of the islands. Irregular ?ooding of these. gress result in a gradient of salinity that varies both spa- blanks by high tides, coupled with the capillary action of. tially and how to write of a temporally. In general, the salinity is higher the clayey soil and journal review articles Jin Jiang International Hotel Management excessive heat during dry periods, nearer the coast and the water is nearly fresh on the inland results in how to Combe School, the deposition of journal review International Management College, a salt crust on the soil surface, side limit of the write a summary Combe, Sundarban. Similarly, the salinity de- converting them into saline blanks.
Lands on the sea. creases from west to east. The eastern part of the Sundar- faces are continually denuded by tidal waves. Towards. ban in Bangladesh is oligohaline (5 ‰ salinity) whereas the west, new land formation occurs because of heavy. most of the Indian Sundarban is polyhaline (Fig. 2). silt deposition from the Hooghly River and its distribu- During the past few decades, however, the sources of tary, the Muriganga at their con?uence with the business School, Bay of. all rivers in the western part of the Indian Sundarban Bengal.
Thus, the habitat is characterized by a continu- have progressively silted up, disconnecting the in?ow of ing erosion of banks, the formation of how to write a summary of a article Monkton Combe, new islands, and. fresh water into the mangrove delta. Freshwater ?ows ever-changing soil texture and essay International School salinity of water under the. are much larger from Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers in?uence of tides. on the Bangladesh side particularly in the Baleshwar In recent years, the Farakka Barrage, built in 1974 on. River on the eastern side of the Sunarban (Seidensticker the River Ganga within India, has also affected freshwa- and Hai, 1983).
The reduced freshwater ?ows in western ter ?ows into the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban. parts of the Sundarban have resulted in increased salinity Similarly, the construction of several dams and how to write of a research School barrages. of the river waters, and has made the rivers shallower in the Damodar River catchment area and on review articles Les Roches International Hotel the Ganga. over the years. At the same time, during ebb tides, the have resulted in a summary of a research article Monkton School, a decreased silt load and less deposition.
receding water level causes scouring of top soil and cre- of detritus in the estuaries downstream. ates an review International College, innumerable number of small creeks, which. normally originate from the centre of the islands. The. ebb tide eroding action is how to School, stronger in some islands than. others within the Sundarban. The receding water carries. large volumes of silt which is deposited along the banks The large spatial and temporal variability in hydrological. of rivers and creeks during high tides. This results in in- regimes (both freshwater in?ows and the tides), topogra- creasing the height of the banks as compared to the inte- phy and texture of the substratum, the salinity, and their. riors of the islands.
Over time, such eroded channels interactions, result in very high habitat heterogeneity in. extend further inwards into the islands and we have essays International School of Hotel Management form muddy the mangrove ecosystems, and how to School thereby ensure an equally. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 343. Table 1. Introduction For Essay Of East Anglia (INTO). Total biodiversity recorded to date from the write a summary of a research article Combe, Indian Sunda- diverse biodiversity. There has been some discussion. about the Les Roches Hotel College, characteristic mangrove plants and a distinction. is usually made between the “true mangrove” and “man- Group of Organisms No. of Reference. grove associate” species.
However, following the de?ni- species. tion of wetland species by Gopal and Junk (2000, 2001), Flowering Plants 105 Naskar and how to a summary of a article Mandal (1999) here we consider all those species which depend directly Pteridophytes. or indirectly upon the mangrove habitats, or on any other (Ferns Fern allies) organism living in the mangrove as mangrove organ- Algae 150 Sen et al. (2000) Lichens 32 Santra (1999)
An assessment of the total biodiversity in Indian Sun- Vertebrates 445 Das and essay ICS — International Nandi (1999) darban is given in Table 1. Overall, there are relatively Chondrichthyes 22. Osteichthyes (Fishes) 154. small differences between the species composition of the. Indian and Bangladesh parts, largely because the deve- lopment of the how to research Monkton School, mangrove system has been dictated by Birds 163. similar processes. However, the overarching gradients of Mammals 40. salinity and freshwater that occur across the Sundarban Phylum- Das and Nandi (1999) from west to the east, are clearly re?ected in the distribu- Sarcomastigophora 45.
Aplicom plexa 24. tion of biota. The Sundarban in the two countries differs. also in the extent of management interventions. It must Ciliophora 31. also be emphasised that the Sundarban mangrove in India. has been explored frequently and in greater detail, par- Porifera 1 Mukherjee (1975) ticularly ?oristically, whereas the mangroves within Cnidaria 33 Mandal and Nandi (1969)
Bangladesh were poorly investigated until recently Ctenophora 2 Nandi et al. Argumentative Essay Television ICS — International School. (1993) Platyhelminthes 41 Chaudhuri and Chaudhury. (Chaffey et al., 1985). Recent surveys provide consider- able information on several groups of plants, ?shes, rep- Turbellaria 1 Anon (1995) tiles, amphibians and birds (Ismail, 1990; Hussain and Monogenera 21. Acharya, 1994; Seidensticker, 1991; IUCN-BD, 2002a, Trematoda 13.
b, c). Differences in the nomenclature followed in a summary research Monkton, the. two countries also sometimes make comparisons dif?- Acanthocephala 3. cult. The following account is based largely on the Indian Nemertinea 2. part of the Sundarban, with frequent comparisons with. the information available from essay television ICS — Community, Bangladesh. Floristic diversity. Mangrove plants are usually divided Hirudinea 3. into ‘true mangrove’ and ‘mangrove associate’ species.
Arthropoda 476. Globally, Duke (1992) recognised 69 species (belonging. to 26 genera and 20 families) of true mangroves (major. and minor, sensu Tomlinson, 1986) though recently Merostomata 2. Kathiresan and Bingham (2001) recognized only 65 spe- Entoprocta 1. cies (22 genera and 16 families). Of these, at least 30 true. mangroves occur in the Indian Sundarban. Debnath and Chaetognatha 4. Naskar (1999) identi?ed 36 species as true mangroves. Echinodermata 20. The Bangladesh part of the write article Monkton School, Sundarban differs mainly in Hemichordata 1. the relative abundance of various species.
Whereas mem- bers of the Rhizophoraceae and Avicenniaceae generally. dominate most other mangrove areas, the Bangladesh. part of the Sundarban has the greatest abundance of Ster- only one species of harvard business, Bruguiera (B. parvi?ora), whereas. culiaceae (Heritiera) and a summary research article Combe School Euphorbiaceae (Excoecaria). Lumnitzera racemosa and Barringtonia sp. are quite re- Rhizophoraceae is the largest family with 11 species; stricted in occurrence. Interestingly, the write introduction for essay of East (INTO), Sundarban sup- four genera (Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Avicennia and Son- ports fewer species than other mangrove areas in India. neratia) are represented by four species each and 5 gen- and Southeast Asia. For example, there are 45 mangrove. era (Xylocarpus, Excoecaria, Thespesia, Derris and species recorded from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tamarix) have three species each.
In Bangladesh there is in the Bay of Bengal (Deshmukh et al., 1991a) and write a summary 55. 344 B. Gopal and M. Harvard Bodwell. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Table 2. Rare, threatened and endangered ?ora of the Indian Sunda- species from how to write article, Bhitarkanika in business Bodwell School, the delta of the Brahmani. and Baitarni rivers in Orissa on the east coast of India. (WWF-I, 2001). Family Species Status. The total ?ora of the Sundarban has also been esti- Rhizophoraceae 1. Rhizophora apiculata Occasional. mated differently in India and Bangladesh. In India, the.
2. Bruguiera parvi?ora Occasional. total vascular ?ora (including mangrove associates) is Occasional. 3. Ceriops decandra. estimated at 100 species representing 34 families and 57 Occasional. 4. Kandelia candel. genera. comprises of 30 species of write research article Monkton Combe School, trees, 32 shrubs, and Meliaceae 5. Aglaia cucullata Rare. the rest are herbs, grasses, sedges and two ferns.
Many 6. Xylocarpus mekongensis Threatened. 7. Xylocarpus granatum Threatened. terrestrial upland plants within the Sundarban area have. Sterculiaceae 8. Heritiera fomes Threatened. apparently not been included because Seidensticker and. Rubiaceae 9. Scyphiphora hydrphyllacea Very Rare. Hai (1983) recorded 334 plant species representing 245. 10. Hydrophyllax maritime Very Rare. genera from the Bangladesh Sundarban.
This record lists. Tiliaceae 11. Brownlowia lanceolata Occasional. numerous epiphytes and climbers, which include 13 or- Arecaceae 12. Nypa fruticans Occasional. chids and several ferns.
Several species in the Indian. Acanthaceae 13. Acanthus volubilis Very Rare. Sundarban do not occur in for websites Moreton Hall School, Bangladesh part, whereas. Papilionaceae 14. Cynometra rami?ora Rare. many other species have been reported from Bangladesh. 15. Dalbergia spinosa Rare. alone (Choudhury, 1968; Ismail, 1990). Interestingly,
Sapotaceae 16. Manilkara hexandra Rare. some species listed earlier from Bangladesh by Prain. Rutaceae 17. Atalantia correa Very Rare. (1903) and Choudhury (1968), such as Bruguiera sexan- gula, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba, were. not recorded by article Chaffey et al. Articles. (1985) and it is feared that. these species may have disappeared from the eastern part Botrychia, Catenella and Caloglossa form a turfy cover- of the Sundarban. Heritiera fomes (locally known as ing on mangrove tree trunks and pneumatophores. At a. Sundari, the most important timber species from which lower level on the same trees, species of Caloglossa occur.
Sundarban derives its name),which is abundant on the along with Chaetomorpha and Rhizoclonium. Species of. Bangladesh side, is not common on write article Monkton School the Indian side where Lyngbya, Oscillatoria and Microcoleus are common on. it is considered endangered. Nypa fruticans also has a pneumatophores and on the mud (Mandal and Naskar, limited occurrence within the Indian Sundarban; it is for websites Moreton School, 1994). rapidly disappearing because of extensive exploitation. Based on their present status, Aegiceras corniculatum, Micro-organisms. The diversity of bacteria and how to a summary of a research article Combe fungi in. Kandelia candel, Rhizophora sp., Sonneratia acida, Son- the Sundarban has not been examined in detail, although. neratia apetala and topics an evaluation Sonneratia caseolaris also require some reports mention various microorganisms in the.
conservation measures (Table 2). soils and on decomposing litter, besides pathogens in- festing mangrove leaves (Pal and a summary research article Monkton Purkayastha, 1992), Algae. The algal ?ora of the Sundarban is very poorly ?sh, prawns and mammals (Das, 1999). To Write An Evaluation. Bacteria play a. known, but the available information suggests that the signi?cant role in a summary research Monkton, the mangrove environments and the. Sundarban has a highly diverse algal ?ora comprised of Sundarban is School, expected to harbour a diverse bacterial. both benthic and planktonic forms ranging from the how to of a article Monkton Combe School, fresh- community which is yet to be explored, unlike other In- water to marine environments.
In the only study in Bang- dian mangroves that are better known (Balasubramanian. ladesh, Islam (1973) reported 34 species of planktonic and Ajmal Khan, 2002). Furthermore, 32 species of li- and benthic algae. Various published reports on ICS — Community School the algal chens have also been recorded from the Indian Sundar- ?ora provide only a patchy picture as they are based on ban (Santra, 1998). short-term surveys of small isolated areas (see Pal et al., 1988; Santra et al., 1988, 1991). Sen et al. (1999) record- Faunal diversity. The fauna of the Sundarban has at- ed 80 species of write of a article Monkton Combe, algae (32 Cyanophyceae and 27 Chloro- tracted much attention because of the huge economic. phyceae) from different parts of the Indian Sundarban. importance of many species. Crustaceans account for the. These included only 7 species of diatoms, whereas Baner- largest proportion of journal review Les Roches Jin Jiang International Hotel College, animal biomass, with an estimated.
jee and Santra (1999) listed 48 species of diatoms from annual harvest of 40 million kilograms of ?ddler crabs. the Hooghly-Matla estuary alone. In a recent report, and 100 million kilograms of mud crabs (Hendrichs, Naskar et al. (2004), however, list 150 species including 1975), besides a considerable harvest of shrimps, prawns. 15 species of Rhodophyceae and 2 species of Phaeophyc- and lobsters. The Sundarban supports very rich estuarine. eae. Another study recorded 12 genera and 16 species of and coastal marine ?sheries.
Among the diversity of in- benthic algae belonging to the Cyanophyceae, Chloro- sects, honeybees hold an important position for write research article Monkton Combe, the pro- phyceae, Chrysophyceae and Rhodophyceae. Species of duction of large quantities of honey and beeswax. Also, Aquat. Sci.
Vol. 68, 2006 345. Table 3. Articles Les Roches Jin Jiang International College. Threatened fauna of Sundarbans. the Sundarban is the only mangrove forest with a species. of the tiger – the Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris). Scienti?c Name Common Name. The total faunal diversity of the Sundarban in listed in. Muntjanus muntjack Barking Deer. Panthera tigris tigris Royal Bengal Tiger.
Fish. The ?sh fauna of the Bangladesh Sundarban in- Felis bengalensis Leopard Cat. cludes 53 pelagic and 124 demersal species (Sarker, Felis viverrina Fishing Cat. Platinista gangetica Gangetic Dolphin. 1989; Rainboth, 1991). Of these, over 120 species have. Orcaela brevirostris Irrawady Dolphin. been recorded in commercial catches (Seidensticker and Neophocaena phocaenoides Little Indian Porpoise. Hai, 1983). The Indian Sundarban supports a similar Manis pentadactyla Chinese Pangolin. number of species (165 species; Sanyal, 1999).
The ?sh Reptilia. diversity is directly related to the salinity gradients in how to research Monkton Combe School, dif- Crocodylus porosus Estuarine Crocodile. Lepidochelys olivacea Olive Ridley Turtle. ferent parts of the Sundarban. Whereas Mukherjee. Batagur baska Batagur Turtle. (1975a) considered only brackish water and marine spe- Lissemys punctata Indian Flapshelled Turtle. cies of ?sh in the Indian Sundarban, Sanyal (1999) ex- Trionyx gangeticus Indian Softshelled Turtle. panded the write for websites Hall School, list by including 31 freshwater species.
Re- Kachuga tecta Indian Tent Turtle. Varanus bengalensis Common Indian Monitor. cently, Islam and Haque (2004), in their detailed review. Varanus ?avescens Yellow Monitor. of the ?sheries resources of Bangladesh Sundarban, have Varanus salvator Water Monitor. described the distribution of ?sh species along the salinity Python morulus Indian Rock Python. gradients. Fishes such as Harpodon nehereus, Trichiurus Aves. savala, Setipinna sp., Pampus sp., Sardinella sp. and Ardea goliath Great Goliath Heron. Pelecanus phillippensis Dalmatian Pelican. Salar sp. occur in write a summary of a research article Monkton Combe School, areas with salinity, whereas Pangasius.
Leptotilos duius Lesser Adjutant Stork. pangasius and Lates calcarifer occur in freshwater areas. or those with very low salinity. The dominant ?shes in. brackish water zones (moderate salinity) are Hilsa (Tenu- alosa) ilisha, Pomadasys hasta, Polynemus sp. and Coilia 1985a,b).
Several species of king?shers (including. sp. Several marine ?shes also often occur within the journal Les Roches Jin Jiang International College, man- brown-winged and stork-billed king?shers, Pelargopsis. groves. amauropterus and P. capensis, respectively) and the. magni?cent white-bellied sea-eagle (Haliaeetus leu- Reptiles and amphibia. The species richness of both rep- cogaster) are quite common, as are many herons, egrets, tiles and amphibia is also similar in write a summary article Monkton, the Sundarbans of the storks, sandpipers, whimbrels, curlews and articles for websites other waders. two countries: 8 and 7 amphibians and 53 and 59 reptiles There are also many species of gulls and terns, especially. in Bangladesh and India, respectively (Hussain and Ach- along the coast and the larger waterways. The grey- arya, 1994; Sanyal, 1999; Naskar et al., 2004).
Among headed ?sh eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) and Pal- snakes, the Family Boidae is the largest with 13 species, las’s ?sh-eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) are quite rare. followed by how to write research article Hydrophidae (7 species), Elapidae (4 spe- Apart from the species particularly associated with the. cies) and Typhlopidae and Viperidae (2 species each). sea and wetlands, there is also a considerable variety of. Noteworthy species are the king cobra (Ophiophagus forest birds, such as woodpeckers, barbets, shrikes, Hannah), Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian drongos, mynahs, minivets, babblers and many others. python (Python molurus). Among 14 turtles and tortois- (Salter, 1984). es, six species are nearly extinct or threatened (Table 3).
The Indian side of the Sundarban has a similar avian. Of the to write an evaluation essay on Polimoda, four marine turtles, the olive ridley turtle (Lepido- diversity (Law, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1959; Mukherjee, chelys olivacea), though endangered, is the most abun- 1972, 1975b; Naskar and Mandal, 1999). Though only. dant. The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is rare due to about 150 species were listed by Naskar (1999), Chaud- excessive ?shing, while the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) huri and Choudhury (1994) report more than 300 species.
and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) are not common of which about 100 are migratory. The list includes a. (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). The river terrapin (Bat- large number of species that remain in the reclaimed ar- agur baska) and three of the 14 species of lizards and eas adjoining the how to a summary article Combe School, mangroves. monitors are also endangered (Table 3). Mammals. Of signi?cant interest is the how to of East (INTO), fact that the. Birds. The avifauna of the Sundarban is highly varied mammalian diversity exhibits signi?cant differences. and very rich in species.
In Bangladesh, 315 species have between the Indian and Bangladesh sides of the Sun- been recorded (Sarker and Sarker, 1986; Hussain and darban: the former has only 31 species of mammals. Acharya, 1994). These include about 95 species of water- (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994, Sanyal, 1999) against. fowl (Scott, 1989) and 38 species of raptors (Sarker, 49 species in Bangladesh (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). 346 B. Gopal and M. How To Write Of A Article. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. At least ?ve species, namely the Javan rhinoceros (Rhi- and erosional processes, create a large diversity of habi- noceros sondaicus), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), tats which are occupied by different plant communities. swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli), gaur (Bos frontalis) The distribution of different communities along the ?ood- and probably the hog deer (Axis porcinus) have disap- ing gradient is journal Les Roches International Hotel, often interpreted in terms of a zonation or. peared locally during the how to a summary of a, past century (Seidensticker successional sequence (Untawale 1987; Naskar and Gu- and Hai, 1983). The one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros uni- habakshi, 1987).
Heritiera species require more freshwa- cornis), Indian bison (Bos gaurus) and Sambhar (Cer- ter and occur together with Phoenix paludosa and Nypa. vus unicolor), which were once common here, are also fruticans, generally above the tide level. These species. now locally extinct. The only primate is the rhesus may occur separately, or in association with each other, or. macaque (Macaca mulatta) which still occurs in for essay of East Anglia, good with Excoecaria agallocha or Ceriops decandra.
The lat- numbers, but its population is declining gradually ter species join Rhizophora and Bruguiera in relatively. (Blower, 1985; Gittins, 1981). Write A Summary Research Article Monkton School. The Sundarbans of saline and frequently inundated intertidal habitats, where- Bangladesh and India support one of the largest popula- as Sonneratia and Avicennia species occur below the. tions of tiger, Panthera tigris (estimated 350-400). mean tide level. Recent studies on mangroves (Bunt, Spotted deer (Cervus axis) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) 1999), including those in the Bangladesh Sundarban (El- occur in write for websites School, large numbers and a summary of a research article Monkton Combe School form the principal prey of how to of East Anglia, lison et al., 2000), based on large scale sampling and of a research de- the tiger. Besides three species of otters, there are wild tailed multivariate analysis, have however failed to detect.
cats (Felis bengalensis, F. chaus and F. ICS — Community School. viverrina) and how to write of a research article Monkton any zonation pattern with respect to edaphic variables that. the Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica). co-vary with elevation. Champion (1936) recognized the. Here, the notoriety of the Sundarban for its man-eat- Sundarban as a seral moist tropical forest, comprised of a. ing tigers must be mentioned. Every year a signi?cant mosaic of beach forest and tidal forests. The latter were. number of people (an average of 23 annually ) are killed divided into four types: low mangrove forests, tree man- by tigers, particularly in the southern and western parts of harvard Bodwell High School, grove forests, salt-water Heritiera forests and freshwater. the Sundarban. Hendrichs (1975) hypothesised that such Heritiera forests. Later Champion and Seth (1968) classi- killings were linked with the high salinity levels and the ?ed the wetland forests into littoral forests (freshwater) absence of freshwater for drinking purposes. However, and tidal swamp forests (mangroves).
Mandal (2003) dis- recent analyses suggest that the how to write a summary of a research article Combe School, killing of humans is at tinguished further between the vegetation of the active. least partly related to the frequency of tiger-human inter- delta (southern part of the Sundarban with dense swamp. action which makes humans available as easy prey forest), and freshwater areas (rivers, creeks, ponds) and. (Salter, 1984; Siddiqi and we have International School of Hotel Management Choudhury, 1987). agricultural ?elds of the mature delta. The Indian part of the Sundarban with higher salinity.
Invertebrates. In the Indian Sundarban, arthropods are supports sparse Excoecaria agallocha, a dense understo- the most abundant invertebrates (476 species) comprised ry of Ceriops, and dense patches of the hantal palm. almost entirely of crustaceans (240) and insects (201 (Phoenix paludosa) on drier soils. Write Of A Article School. Xylocarpus sp. and. species). Molluscs (143 aspecies), annelids (78 species) Bruguiera sp. occur sporadically throughout the area. and nematodes (68 species) are the next most common Oryza coarctata, Nypa fruticans and Imperata cylindrica. groups of why do essays Les Roches of Hotel Management, invertebrates, other than the protopzoans (104 are prevalent on mud ?ats (Khan, 1986). Large stands of. species) (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994). As men- Sonneratia apetala occur on newly accreted mud banks.
tioned earlier,the crustaceans are of research School, great economic im- Sand dunes bordering the why do we have Les Roches School, sea are primarily colonized by. portance and a large number of species of prawns and grasses such as Paspalum vaginatum, Panicum repens, shrimps are exploited commercially. A substantial pro- Aeluropus lagopoides and Phragmites karka, which are. portion of species are planktonic. Among insects, odo- followed by Sesuvium portulacastrum and Ipomoea pes- nates and dipterans have the largest representation. How To Write Of A Research Monkton Combe School. At caprae (= I. biloba) which constitute the climax dune. least 15 other phyla are represented in the invertebrate vegetation. Salicornia brachiata, Hygrophyllus asiatica. fauna of the business press Bodwell, Sundarban. Unfortunately a similar inven- and Scirpus fruticans occur occasionally.
Within Bangla- tory is not available for the Bangladesh Sundarban. desh, the salinity of the Sundarban decreases eastwards. Available reports suggest the how to a summary article Monkton Combe School, occurrence of at least 24 and, accordingly, a polyhaline, a mesohaline and an oli- species of shrimp, 7 species of crabs, 8 species of topics an evaluation, lob- gohaline zone are recognized. Within each of these. sters and 8 species of molluscs that are commercially zones, vegetation associations change with elevation. exploitable. above sea level and the distance from the seashore (Hus- sain and Acharya, 1994). Zonation and community diversity The successional sequence of mangrove communities. The hydrological (depth and frequency of ?ooding) and follows a similar pattern throughout the Sundarban. salinity gradients that develop in a geo-morphologically Small variations occur according to the salinity regimes. dynamic environment in?uenced by both depositional (Karim, 1988). Grasses such as Leersia, Porteresia and. Aquat.
Sci. How To Write A Summary Research Article Combe. Vol. 68, 2006 347. Phragmites and trees such as the harvard Bodwell School, species of Avicennia. and Sonneratia are the pioneers on newly accreted land. With an how to write a summary research article Monkton School, increase in elevation of the argumentative essay ICS — Community, land mass relative to. the tidal height, the succession proceeds to a stage where. Heritiera fomes, Ceriops decandra and how to a summary of a research article Monkton Excoecaria agal- locha constitute the climax community.
The biodiversity of wetlands is governed by a large vari- ety of topics, factors ranging from the how to write a summary research, evolutionary history and. paleoclimate to the current biophysical and anthropo- genic factors, besides the nature and intensity of interac- tions with adjacent systems. Furthermore, various socio- Figure 3. Factors affecting biodiversity in mangroves (adapted from. cultural, economic and political in?uences also affect the. biodiversity directly as well as indirectly. These factors. have been discussed elsewhere in the context of inland. freshwater wetlands by Gopal (2005, 2006) and a con- leasing, while timber extraction was allowed in write introduction for essay of East Anglia (INTO), the re- serve forests.
It is estimated that 1,570 km2 mangroves. ceptual framework is shown in Figure 3. The same fac- tors in?uence the biodiversity of mangrove wetlands were reclaimed in the three decades since independence. such as the Sundarban, where the interplay of hydrology, in 1947 (Richards, 1990). geomorphology and chemistry is most pronounced. Man- Thus major threats to biodiversity have come mainly. groves differ signi?cantly from the freshwater wetlands from the growing human population, and consequently, in their hydrology as they interact daily with both the sea overexploitation of both timber and fauna, and conver- and inland areas. sion of the research article Combe, cleared land to agriculture and aquaculture. The biodiversity of the Les Roches Hotel Management, Sundarban mangroves has, Today, the area around the Sundarban (in both India and. however, been affected by centuries of human exploita- Bangladesh) is how to of a research Combe School, densely populated.
Approximately 2.5. tion of the forests, their conversion to paddy ?elds, and million people live in business press School, hundreds of small villages very. reclamation of land for various uses. Eaton (1991) de- close to or within parts of the Sundarban, on which very. scribes in detail the write research article School, history of human colonisation of the large numbers of people depend for their livelihood at. Sundarban from 1200 to 1750 A.D. and Richard and Flint certain times of the to write of Hotel Management, year.
(1991) provide details of the transformation of the Sun- Numerous people are engaged in the commercial ex- darban thereafter under British rule, whereas Presler ploitation of sundari and other tree species, while the lo- (1991) discusses the management of the Sundarban until cal people depend on the forest for ?rewood, timber for. 1952. It is estimated that the Sundarban originally cov- boats, poles for house-posts and rafters, golpatta (Nipa. ered more than 40,000 km2 in coastal Bengal. How To Write A Summary Monkton School. Clearing of fruticans) leaf for roo?ng, grass for matting and fodder, the forest and rice agriculture was ?rst actively promoted reeds for fencing, and ?sh for their own consumption. by the introduction for essay University, then Turk sultan rulers of Bengal. After the British Honey and wax are collected during the summer season. colonised Bengal, the write a summary of a article Monkton School, area of the Sundarban still included (April to June) (Krishnamurty, 1990). Tens of thousand. 14,627 km2 of land and 4881 km2 of waterways in 1793 of ?shermen harvest ?sh and shrimps for most of the to write essays International School of Hotel, year.
(Richard, 1990). The British administration also actively except in write a summary of a article School, the monsoon season. In recent years, collection. promoted deliberate conversion to we have International agriculture. Hunter of shrimp juveniles has increased manifold, particularly. (1875) describes the state of the Sundarban at the end of for aquaculture in reclaimed areas (see, Haque, 2003, the 18th century when the then Governor of a summary research Monkton Combe School, Bengal im- Hoq et al., 2001, 2006). It is estimated that up to 60 % of. posed a rule bringing the forest outside permanent settle- the shrimp post-larvae (PL) collected from nature die. ments under Government control. The Commissioner for argumentative Community School, during sorting, transportation and stocking. This forces.
the Sundarban was charged with the task of “regulating further harvests from the how to of a research Combe School, mangroves. Unfortunately the. and managing the waterlogged forests and swamps of the PL harvest of shrimp and prawns is probably the most. lower delta” and “to ensure that private landowners lucrative local economic activity available to a large pro- cleared, settled and reclaimed Sundarban forests and for essay Anglia (INTO) portion of the Sundarban population. PL harvesting earns. swamps for a summary of a research article Monkton, rice cultivation” (Richards, 1990).
By 1870, approximately ?ve times more gross revenue per capita. 2,790 km2 of mangroves had been cleared. Another than rice farming, and probably proportionately even. 2,750 km2 forests had been reclaimed within the next more on a net revenue basis as inputs other than labor are. sixty years even though about 10,000 km2 of the Sundar- negligible compared to agriculture.
ban mangroves were declared a protected or reserve for- Although the introduction for essay University, ecological impacts of this activity are. est. The protected forests were available for clearance on uncertain because of the lack of detailed information, the. 348 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. by-catch which is discarded and usually dies, is a sub- 1990). Write A Summary Monkton Combe. Similarly, Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. stantial proportion of the Hall School, Sundarban ?sheries and is most are also declining rapidly. As a long-term consequence. likely a major negative in?uence on write research Monkton School the aquatic biodiver- Heritiera is being replaced by Excoecaria (Christensen, sity within the how to for essay of East (INTO), protected mangrove areas. While the re- 1984).
In general, the forest structure is becoming sim- duction in shrimp juveniles directly affects the biodiver- pler and how to a summary of a article School the average height of the trees is decreasing. It is. sity, shrimp farming is also causing rapid deterioration in estimated that in the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban, the Sundarbans similar to that in other mangrove areas 0.4 % of the forest area is replaced by harvard business press High School dwarf species every. (Thornton et al., 2003; Barbier and Sathirathai, 2004; Is- year. This also causes a decline in the habitat for birds, lam and Haque, 2004; Islam and Wahab, 2005).arge- monkeys and other tree-dwelling species.
scale collection of shrimp from how to a summary of a research article, estuaries directly affects While the deterioration in vegetation is already well. the species that depend upon them for food. documented and receives continuing attention, the im- Fishermen’s camps are also a major source of distur- pacts of these changes on the fauna, particularly inverte- bance. Illegal hunting and trapping of animals is com- brates, have not been investigated. Reports suggest that. mon, not only by ?shermen and woodcutters, but also the changes in herbaceous vegetation are affecting the. occasionally by military defence personnel, e.g. in Hiron population of spotted deer which now has a much lower. Point in the Sundarban South Wildlife Sanctuary (Blow- population in the western areas where salinity is the high- er, 1985). Television ICS — International Community School. Habib (1989) reported that over how to of a article Monkton 3,300 m of est. How To Write For Essay Anglia. However, an increase in Sonneratia sp. favours the. deer nets were removed between 1981 and 1987, but such deer because the leaves of this mangrove tree constitute.
poaching is now rare. Adult marine turtles and Batagur its staple diet. There are several studies in other man- which get caught in ?shing nets are often killed and mar- grove areas showing the effects of salinity levels, and. keted for food. their seasonal variation, on the recruitment and growth of. Among hydrological factors, the freshwater ?ows are various animals and how to write a summary of a research article Combe School the effect on their predators (see. the most signi?cant as they in?uence the essay television, salinity as well Hussain and Acharya, 1994). as the write a summary of a, geomorphology through the deposition of sedi- Against this background, it is clear that human activi- ments. The tidal frequency is a near constant factor, but ties continue to signi?cantly impact biodiversity in the. the tidal height has a signi?cant bearing on the extent of we have Les Roches International of Hotel, Sundarbans.
While some freshwater ?ows are diverted. inundation and also the erosion of freshly deposited sedi- upstream for irrigation, or are regulated for a summary research article Combe, ?ood control. ments. The salinity regimes are also in?uenced by tidal and hydropower, major concerns have been voiced about. height. Human activities, such as forest clearing and sub- the effects of the topics to write an evaluation, diversion of water into the Hooghly.
sequent conversion to other land uses, directly in?uence River by constructing a barrage at Farakka on the Indian. the freshwater ?ow and sediment accretion. The nature of side of the write Monkton School, border with Bangladesh. The water is required. the sediments (clay to Moreton sand) also has a great bearing on primarily to how to write research article Combe School keep the channel open for navigation from. the mangrove vegetation as well as the fauna. The Sunda- the Bay of Bengal up to Calcutta Port. Regular dredging. rban mangroves lie on an evaluation essay on Polimoda a delta that is relatively young of the main channel is needed to maintain the depths re- geologically and has been undergoing drastic changes. How To Write Of A Combe School. quired by large, seafaring ships. In the absence of ade- These changes are caused by neotectonic activity that is quate information on Sundarban biodiversity before the.
causing the tilting of the delta towards the east, and by Farraka barrage was installed, it is not possible to assess. the enormous amounts of journal review Les Roches International Hotel Management College, sediments transported by the the how to write of a research article Monkton, extent of qualitative or quantitative changes since. rivers originating in the Himalaya. The accretion of sedi- then. However, the hilsa (Hilsa ilisha) ?sheries have de- ments in the western part and the tilting to how to Anglia the east causes clined considerably within the Indian part of the Sundar- the river to migrate eastwards. It was pointed out earlier ban, largely because the barrage is a barrier to t upstream. that most of the distributaries of the River Ganga on the migration to the breeding sites (Sinha and Khan, 2001; Indian side have silted up and do not carry freshwater. Payne et al., 2004).
Thus, increased levels of salinity, particularly during the Whereas much emphasis has been placed on the al- dry season (low ?ow period) affect biodiversity, with the terations in how to write Monkton Combe School, freshwater ?ow regimes in recent years, the. salinity-tolerant species gradually overtaking species de- impact of embankments and polders needs to be assessed. pendent upon regular freshwater inputs. Recent studies in detail. . During the past century, all streams and creeks. by Hoq et al. (2006) have clearly demonstrated the strong outside the protected areas, have been extensively em- in?uence of salinity, temperature and conductivity on the banked to harvard High School protect the cultivated land from inundation. seasonal abundance and distribution of shell?shes and with saline/brackish water. About 3,700 km of how to write of a Monkton Combe, embank- ?n?shes within the Bangladesh Sundarban.
The palyno- ments were constructed in Bangladesh between 1960 and. logical evidence clearly shows that Heritiera fomes was 1970 (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). Harvard Press. These embankments. very abundant in the western parts of the Sundarban 5000 and polders have altered the ?ooding regimes, increased. years ago, and has declined relatively recently as the sa- salinity intrusion, promoted erosion, accelerated silta- linity has increased (Blasco, 1975; see also Rahman, tion, and reduced the a summary research Monkton School, nutrient exchanges, and thereby af-
Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 349. fected the biodiversity (Rahman et al., 1992; Bhattach- Sundarban East (31,226 ha); and Sundarban South. arya, 1999). Journal Jin Jiang Hotel Management. (36,970 ha), protecting about 23.5 % of the remaining. Further threats to biodiversity because of pollution Sundarban under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) have arisen on both the landward and seaward sides of the (Amendment) Act, 1974. These sancturies (IUCN, 1997) mangrove. The agrochemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) lie on disjunct deltaic islands in the Sundarban Forest. used extensively in the catchments of the write of a research article School, Ganga and Division of Hall School, Khulna District, close to the border with In- Brahmaputra rivers and their numerous tributaries, as dia and just west of the main out?ow of the how to write a summary of a research article Monkton School, Ganges, well in the ?elds close to the mangroves, pollute both the Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers (Fig.
4b). In 1987, the. waterways and the landmass, and affect the aquatic vege- Sundarban National Park in India, and in articles for websites Moreton Hall School, 1997, parts of. tation and fauna directly. Write Of A Research Article Monkton. Growing industrialisation of the the Sundarban in Bangladesh, were inscribed on the.
area around Calcutta, particularly the Haldia industrial World Heritage list (IUCN, 1997). complex, and the industries situated on write articles for websites the western side The entire Indian Sundarban area south of the Damp- of the Hooghly River, contribute signi?cantly to the pol- ier-Hodges line (that demarcates the inward limit of tidal. in?uence), including 5,366 km2 of reclaimed lands, has. lution load and hence, to the degradation of the Sundar- ban mangroves. From the seaward side, major pollution also been designated as the Sundarban Biosphere Re- occurs through oil spills that cause great damage, espe- serve. Within the Biosphere Reserve several distinct. cially to the aquatic fauna and seabirds (Blower, 1985). zones have been recognised: a Core Zone comprised of. An oil spill from the wreckage of a Panamanian cargo the National Park and the Tiger Reserve, a Manipulation. Zone (2,400 km2 of mangrove forests), a Restoration.
ship in August 1994 near the Dangmari Forest Station, affected about write Monkton, 15 km2 area including a considerable part Zone that covers 240 km2 of degraded forest and saline. of the Sundarban. Large scale mortality was recorded in mud ?ats, and a Development Zone which includes. the seedlings of Heritiera and Excoecaria, grasses, ?shes, mostly the reclaimed areas. Only the Core Zone is under. shrimps and other aquatic animals (Hussain and Acharya, strict conservation measures. Income generating activi- 1994).
Recently, the off-shore exploration for topics essay, oil and gas ties such as the collection of seeds of black tiger prawn. by both Bangladesh and India has raised strong protests (Penaeus monodon), the culturing of oysters and how to a summary of a article crabs, concerning fears about its likely impacts on the Sundar- mushroom cultivation and bee-keeping for honey pro- ban’s biota (Anonymous, 2004; Saha et al., 2005). duction are allowed in the Manipulation Zone. Bodwell. Efforts are. being made, however, to also rehabilitate certain degrad- ed areas through afforestation. Among faunal species, the. Conservation estuarine crocodile and the Olive Ridley turtle are receiv- ing some attention by write a summary research article Monkton School way of captive breeding. The Sun- Conservation of the Sundarban mangrove is supposed to review articles Les Roches International Hotel College darban Tiger Reserve in India has started a special pro- have started with its declaration as a reserve forest, under gramme for the conservation of how to write a summary research, sea turtles (http://www. the Indian Forest Act in 1878, after Schlich (1875) raised wildbengal.com/sanctuaries/sunderban_main.htm). concern over argumentative television ICS — School its conservation (Presler, 1991).
However, The approaches to conservation differ considerably. as described earlier, this did not help conservation per se, between the Indian and Bangladesh Sundarbans and how to write a summary research Combe School this. but only regulated the exploitation and articles conversion by how to write a summary article Combe School the has been discussed at length by Seidensticker (1991). government. Argumentative International Community School. Soon after independence, India declared The Bangladesh Sundarban is write of a research article Monkton Combe School, managed as a refuge. Lothian Island (3,800 ha) as a Wildlife Sanctury, and lat- where wildlife is write articles for websites Moreton, protected in small sanctuaries located.
er, in 1960, another 35,240 ha were brought under the in the larger forest tract by providing protection to the re- Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctury. The hunting of tigers was source “hot-spots” essential to the maintenance of wild- banned completely in 1970, after the IUCN listed the life populations. How To Write Of A Article Monkton. This approach assumes that inviolate. Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) as an endangered core areas surrounded by introduction for essay of East Anglia (INTO) restricted-use buffer zones can. species. Write Research Combe. Later, under Project Tiger, the Government of ensure the how to write for essay University of East Anglia (INTO), survival of communities and species such as. India established a Tiger Reserve in how to a summary research article School, the Sundarban cover- large mammals and birds which depend upon write for essay University of East Anglia, the re- ing 2,585 km2 in 1973 (Fig. 4a). Another 241 km2 area sources such as food or nesting and roosting sites over. was demarcated as a subsidiary wilderness area.
The core larger areas. area of 1,330 km2 was later designated as a National Park. In India however, the strategy for Sundarbans conser- Another wildlife sanctuary was established in 1976 on vation involves the setting aside of how to write a summary of a research Monkton Combe, areas where the entire. Haliday Island (595 ha) to we have essays International School of Hotel protect the spotted deer (Axis life-cycle needs of a community can be met and the eco- axis), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and rhesus macaque logical needs of wildlife can be linked into the overall. (Macaca mullata), which are dominant animals in a for- management of the system for the Sundarbans.
Further- est type consisting mainly of Ceriops decandra. more, in so doing, the ecological processes upon which. Soon thereafter, in 1977, Bangladesh created three wildlife depend become integral values in the manage- wildlife sanctuaries: the write article Monkton School, Sundarban West (71,502 ha), ment matrix. 350 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Future of the Sundarban. rban mangroves and their biological diversity. We Have To Write Les Roches International. First, the. demand on freshwater resources is write a summary research article Combe School, bound to grow as the. human population in both countries continues to in- crease, resulting in the restriction of freshwater ?ows to.
the monsoon season when extensive ?oods occur in the. eastern parts of India and in Bangladesh. The resultant. increase in salinisation and accretion of sediments may. alter vegetation composition. Impacts on how to write introduction University of East animal commu- nities may also occur due to both, the direct effects of. salinity and indirectly through food chain modi?cations. caused by the alterations in the nature and how to a summary research Combe School amount of de- tritus available in the mangrove ecosystem. Therefore, it is the human response to the spatial and. temporal variability in precipitation, and hence the fresh- water availability, which will determine the Bodwell School, water avail- ability for sustaining the functions and write a summary Monkton values of the.
mangroves. The proposed plan of India for the inter-basin. transfer of water through a river-linking program in India. has already raised concern for the fate of the harvard business, Sundarban. and its rich biodiversity, as well as for the millions of. people dependent upon it (Ahmed et al., 2004). Secondly, global climate change is how to of a research article Monkton Combe School, expected to in- Figure 4a.
Protected areas of the Indian Sundarban. crease the average temperature and spatio-temporal vari- ability in precipitation, as well as cause a rise in sea level. (Ellison, 1994). The increase in temperature and variabil- ity in write introduction for essay University, rainfall will put further pressure on freshwater re- sources and hence, alter the freshwater in?ows to the. mangroves. If precipitation declines in the Ganga-Brah- maputra basins it may lead to a further reduction in the. availability of freshwater in the deltaic region. Some. models of climate change also present an increased fre- quency of tropical cyclones and storm surges, which may.
cause further changes in freshwater-seawater interactions. and hence affect the of a Monkton, mangroves (Ali, 1995, 2003; Ali et. al., 1997). Substantial areas of the Sundarban along the. coast are expected to be inundated by write articles for websites seawater in this. case, and the increased landward salinity intrusion would. affect the biotic composition.
Ultimately, the future of the Sundarban mangroves. hinges upon write a summary research Monkton Combe, the ef?ciency of managing the limited fresh- water resources for meeting both human and environ- mental needs, coupled with effective adaptive responses. to the added threats from climate change. Figure 4b. Argumentative Essay Television ICS — International Community. Wildlife sanctuaries (dark shaded areas) in the Bangla- We are thankful to many researchers whose published. studies have been used freely in preparing this overview. Thanks are also due to write of a article Monkton School Wolfgang Junk for inviting us to. prepare this review and to the organisers of the how to write University Anglia, IN- TECOL’s International Wetlands Conference for partial.
Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 351. Chakrabarti, P., 1995. Evolutionary history of the how to write a summary research article Monkton School, coastal quaternar- support to BG for presenting it at the symposium. MC. ies of the Bengal Plain, India. Proceedings of the Indian Na- acknowledges the how to write introduction for essay Anglia (INTO), support from the Department of write a summary research, Sci- tional Science Academy 61A: 343–354.
ence and Technology, New Delhi, for ?nancial support Champion, H. G., 1936. Write Articles For Websites Moreton. A preliminary survey of the forest types. by way of how to write a summary of a article Monkton, a Project under the Fast Track Scheme during of India and Burma. Indian Forest Record (New Series) 1:1– the tenure of which this paper was prepared. Champion, H. G. and University of East Anglia S. K. Seth, 1968. Revised Forest Types of In- dia. Manager of Publications, Govt of India, New Delhi. Chapman, V. J., 1976. Mangrove Vegetation. Write Of A Research. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Ger-
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cial reference to post-larvae and juvenile ?sh and press Bodwell School shrimp abun- Macintosh, D. J. and E. C. Ashton, 2004. Principles for how to write a summary article Monkton Combe School, a Code of. dance. Wetlands Ecology and Management 14: 49–93. Conduct for the Management and Sustainable Use of Mangrove. Huq, S., Z. Karim, M. Asaduzzaman and F. Mahtab (eds.), 1999. Ecosystems. World Bank, International Society for Marine Eco- Vulnerability and Adaptation to harvard business Climate Change for Bangla- systems (ISME), and Centre for Tropical #cosystem Research, desh, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Nether- University of Aarhus, Denmark. (pdf ?le). 104 pp. lands,147 pp.
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Studies on periphytic alfae. Hussain, Z. and G. Acharya (eds.), 1994. Mangroves of the Sundar- on the aerial roots of the mangroves of Sindarbans in West Ben- bans. Volume 2: Bangladesh. Why Do We Have Essays Of Hotel. World Conservation Union, gal. In: M. Roy (ed.) Environmental Pollution and Ompact of. Gland, 257 pp. How To Article Monkton. Technology on Life. Viswa Bharati, Santi Niketan, West Ben- Islam, A. K. To Write Les Roches International School. M. N., 1973. The algal ?ora of Sundarban mangrove gal, pp.
91–104. forest. How To Of A. Bangladesh Journal of Botany 2(2): 11–36. Macnae, W., 1968. A general account of the ?ora and fauna of man- Islam, Md. S. and we have to write Les Roches Management Mahfuzul Haque, 2004. The mangrove-based grove swamps in the Indo-Western Paci?c region. Advances in. coastal and nearshore ?sheries of Bangladesh: ecology, exploi- Marine Biology 6: 73–270.
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