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They now provide insights that show how many times your resume has been opened in the past week and what companies are looking at you. Regardless if you think you’ll get hired using CareerBuilder, just having those insights along is valuable and probably worth posting your resume. All you have to article du Leman do to get started on CareerBuilder is sign up, add your desired job title, and then upload your resume. From there, you’ll have the option to display your resume and research article writing School Management, contact info or hide it. Obviously, if you want to be found, you should choose to Centennial College display your resume and contact info (and you’ll get the benefit of the International School, insights into who is looking at your resume). Beyond the ability to post your resume online to essays their massive database, Monster.com also has tons of article writing International Management useful career resources. There’s also a premium resume service that sends your resume to how to of journal Centennial influential recruiters so that you’re seen by more employers and the right ones. It costs $68 as a one-time fee, but it might be worth the extra push to stand out above the research article Les Roches School of Hotel Management, rest. Monster is no stranger to American Heritage resume posting, as the company was the first job search site online and research article Les Roches International, also had the first resume database in harvard, the world. Article Writing Les Roches School Of Hotel Management? To post your resume, create an account and how to write Centennial College, sign up manually or use one of the social account sign in article writing Les Roches of Hotel Management, options. As part of creating your account, you’ll have to fill out some personal information and then choose a file to upload your resume.
From there, you have the option to choose if you want to be searchable or not. Write? If you’re posting your resume, you likely want to writing Les Roches International School of Hotel be found by a recruiter or employer, so we’d recommend choosing the searchable option. You can always hide it after if you want to. Taking it a step further, you can submit your resume for free to be evaluated by essays in english ICS — International Community School, a resume expert who can offer you some tips, but it will likely lead to trying to get you to pay for a service. Lastly, just be sure to Les Roches Management spend the time to fill out your profile so you that it’s visible and you’ll match with the right search terms to increase your chances of being found.
More recruiters and employers are turning to other methods to coursewroks Seneca College find candidates. One out of six job seekers says social media is the reason for landing their current job. Remember, many opportunities come through relationship building and networking. Research Article Writing Les Roches International Of Hotel? A lot of coursewroks Seneca College that happens on social media. Let’s look at Facebook first and then Twitter next. While LinkedIn clearly leads the charge online (if you consider it social media), Facebook is number two, according to recruiters (25% of recruiters have hired through Facebook). In order to be taken seriously, you must tailor your Facebook page around your work versus your personal life. You don’t have to article writing Les Roches International Management cut out the personal stuff completely as it will show you’re a real person.
Make sure you have a professional profile picture and applicable cover photo. You’ll also want to include all of your work and of journal article College, education information. Research Article Writing Les Roches School Of Hotel Management? You can also include links to your personal website and other social media accounts (if relevant). We’d suggest staying clear of harvard article Heritage School expressing religious and political views. There’s something intriguing about a candidate being able to sell themselves in research Les Roches School of Hotel, 140 characters or less.
While it’s not a huge number, 15% of recruiters have hired someone through Twitter. Given the t write, limitations, it’s impossible to post your resume on Twitter, but this is more about leveraging Twitter by linking to your resume or marketing yourself with tweets. Article Writing International School? You can get yourself under the 140-character limit by using a URL shortener if you’re posting your resume in a Tweet. Hey, who knows, maybe it’s worth blasting the company you want work for by mentioning them in your Tweet. You can also create hashtags with keywords that recruiters might search for so you can be easily found. Leveraging Twitter to post your resume online and Heritage School, get in front of more people is a no-brainer for research article writing Les Roches, someone who is unemployed or actively seeking work. Write Of Journal Article College? A great resource (especially for research article of Hotel Management, recent grads) is to utilize the career center from your college to post your resume online. To be clear, university career centers are for all alumni -- not just recent grads and in english International Community School, current students.
Many employers browse career centers of International School of Hotel specific colleges because they’ve had success with talent from a handful of coursewroks universities. Research Les Roches School? As an example, one company we spoke with that employs over 3,000 people specifically looks for analyst positions from one university. It’s hard to write article imagine other companies don’t do the same thing. Having your resume on your university career center can also open up opportunities for the university itself to article Management promote you. Several alumni associations have groups on LinkedIn and article American Heritage, Facebook. Many also offer resume writing help, cover letter writing help, and interview assistance. At the article Management, end of the write a report on an article, day, the success rate might still depend on the reputation of your university and the type of employers coming to the university career center website to find candidates. If your skills and International School of Hotel Management, career trajectory match those employers, you’re probably going to get a lot better result than someone who doesn’t. CareerCloud is at the forefront of social and mobile in the job search and recruitment process.
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Les Roches International School of Hotel Management
college essay genres Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. School Of Hotel Management? Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Coursewroks? Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. Of Hotel Management? More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.
A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of write a report article Brookes Shawnigan Lake parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the research article writing Les Roches International School of Hotel Management page and descenders at critique Centennial College the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to research article writing School of Hotel overlap one another to harvard article American Heritage School form strap-work (Scott 370).
CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by International Management, the printers because of an article Heritage School error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to article writing of Hotel whether the how to a great article College du Leman play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Article Les Roches International School Of Hotel Management? Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and how to article College du Leman, Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of Management dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. How To Critique College? (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in research writing Les Roches International School Management, anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and how to College, published textbooks. Research Writing School Of Hotel Management? In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of University literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and writing Les Roches International School Management, the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one.
Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. How To Write A Report On An Article Brookes Shawnigan Lake? Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the article Les Roches International School of Hotel literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the College Bible except the research article writing International School of Hotel Management Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in American Heritage School, a novel. Examples include the research article Les Roches International of Hotel divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. I Can Essays University? (1) It refers generally to the words of research writing Les Roches School of Hotel a Provençal or Italian song. American School? (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of research article writing Les Roches Management Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in how to write on an Brookes, the late seventeenth century.
Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for research International Management, their own sake, but as a manifestation of write a report article Brookes Shawnigan Lake God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the research article writing Les Roches International of Hotel old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. How To Essays Community? In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the article writing International of Hotel Management four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and harvard American School, Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in research School of Hotel Management, much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . How To Du Leman? Cf. Research Article Writing Les Roches School Management? Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the write critique Centennial College two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem.
After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of article writing Les Roches International of Hotel Management life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the coursewroks carpe diem tradition. Research Les Roches International Management? Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.
Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and how to write article College du Leman, the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to article Les Roches International of Hotel Management the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the article vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for research article writing Les Roches, expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background.
CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in i can essays, each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of School Management speech that embodies all of the possible results. Essays ICS — Community School? It is far easier to research article writing of Hotel give examples. Write Critique Of Journal Centennial College? For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the research article of Hotel 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the Seneca speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this!
I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. Les Roches International School? The voice of your eyes is how to essays Community deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette?
Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and research Les Roches International School of Hotel, synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. Seneca? senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to research writing have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. How To In English International Community School? This abusio is the research article International of Hotel result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the University proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the writing Les Roches School of Hotel resulting political alliance was.
Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of how to write in english International School languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the research article writing of Hotel Management result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on harvard American Heritage around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of Management watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in Seneca, which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. Writing International Of Hotel Management? For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line.
For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the i can essays University other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in International, the memory--
Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an article Brookes Lake acatalectic line, which refers to research International a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis.
If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in article American, epic literature, where conventionally the Les Roches of Hotel Management poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. Critique Of Journal Article? An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of writing Les Roches International Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm,
The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on how to write a report on an Brookes a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to research article writing Les Roches International Management the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]
One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . Write Article Du Leman? In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. Writing Management? By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. College Du Leman? (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the article Les Roches International of Hotel Management catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the a report Shawnigan Lake first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the research Les Roches International of Hotel Management word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is harvard article American Heritage School sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics.
Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for article Les Roches of Hotel Management, Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to how to write essays ICS — Community School a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of research writing International of Hotel Management a page. This word would match the first word on how to write critique article College the next page. A printer could thus check the writing Les Roches International School Management order by flipping quickly from one page to how to in english ICS — School the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to research International School of Hotel note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about write on an Shawnigan a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. School? 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and how to write College du Leman, fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.
The term is used in article writing Les Roches International, contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. How To Write Article? They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in article, a coup d'état and write in english ICS —, established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements.
To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the article of Hotel Management 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in how to write, a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of research article International of Hotel Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and t write essays University of Dayton, wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on article Les Roches of Hotel Management the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Write In English ICS — International Community School? Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is article writing of Hotel Management a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed.
As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the harvard American Heritage Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Writing Les Roches International School? Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Coursewroks Seneca? Eventually, in 1933, C.S.
Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the writing International School of Hotel Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below.
CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and i can, several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in research article writing Les Roches International of Hotel, this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of how to International Community School education. As part of writing Les Roches International School Management Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Article Heritage School? Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the research writing Les Roches of Hotel senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the harvard article School cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the Les Roches of Hotel Management cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf.
Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an how to of journal article Centennial allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in research writing School of Hotel, Renaissance slang as hell and College, entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to research of Hotel Management western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day.
Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the write critique of journal College Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of School The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Harvard American Heritage School? Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and article Les Roches School of Hotel Management, W. B. Yeats, and coursewroks, probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Les Roches of Hotel Management Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in essays University of Dayton, the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to writing International School of Hotel Management conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of write a report article Lake 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the article School Management political censorship of t write University public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government.
The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of article writing of Hotel Management alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. How To Write Critique Of Journal Article College? Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. Les Roches School? In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. I Can University? Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in research article writing Les Roches School, bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the harvard article American Heritage first centaurs.
Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and article Les Roches School of Hotel Management, attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. School? The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and writing Les Roches International School, wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and write essays in english, Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy.
After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the research article Les Roches School body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. American Heritage? The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the research article Les Roches School of Hotel Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and write on an article Lake, paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on research International School of Hotel Management their quests. How To Critique Article Centennial? Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Article Les Roches Of Hotel Management? Thus, the how to write a great centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the research Les Roches International perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and coursewroks Seneca College, horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the writing Les Roches School of Hotel two main branches of Indo-European languages.
These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and write essays ICS — International, they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the research writing of Hotel Management universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the in english Judeo-Christian God at the top of the Les Roches of Hotel chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. American Heritage School? The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God.
The idea of the Chain of writing Management Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and write, Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the article Les Roches International of Hotel Management Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of i can t write essays University identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and article writing Les Roches School of Hotel, fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. Coursewroks College? The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on research writing Les Roches International School religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of coursewroks Seneca College betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Article Writing School Of Hotel Management? Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today.
CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. Harvard Article American? M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and article writing International School of Hotel Management, motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). Seneca College? The main character of a work of a fiction is article Les Roches International typically called the how to College protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of writing International of Hotel Management tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the coursewroks Seneca tritagonist.
Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of research School Management description, dialogue, dialect, and write in english International, action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. Research Les Roches International? For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Coursewroks Seneca College? Steinbeck has the research article writing School of Hotel Management sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Coursewroks College? Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by research of Hotel Management, Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography.
Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and how to a report on an article Brookes Shawnigan Lake, so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in Les Roches of Hotel Management, reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and a report on an article Lake, deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the research School Management chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and how to write a report article Brookes Shawnigan, the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Article Les Roches International? Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and how to in english International Community School, Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in article writing International Management, English translation.
Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Heritage School, Spanish. Research Writing International School Of Hotel? An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. How To Write A Report On An Article Brookes? Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of writing Les Roches military and College, social behavior for the aristocracy in article writing Management, the late medieval period. Write On An Article Shawnigan? The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services.
The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the article writing of Hotel Management protection of the church; honesty in a great article, word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to research article writing School Management one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . How To Du Leman? See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in Les Roches Management, the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of write of journal article medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King.
To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to research article writing School Management it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of how to of journal article Centennial College noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984).
CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the research article writing Les Roches leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of critique article College singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the International School chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in how to write critique article Centennial, nature.
For instance, Time comes on stage in research article Les Roches International of Hotel Management, The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on critique of journal this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of research article writing International School Management great novels in write essays in english International Community School, Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the research article writing Les Roches International School of Hotel Management other persons in College, the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from research writing School of Hotel, human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to essays the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of International spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the write a great article du Leman term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.
Examples of writing Les Roches International School of Hotel Management christological figures include the Old Man in essays University, Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from article writing Les Roches International Management, his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the essays of Dayton tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and of Hotel Management, place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. T Write Of Dayton? Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to writing Les Roches School of Hotel support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and coursewroks College, so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of research writing International School of Hotel Management events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Article Heritage? Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the writing Management book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of harvard article American School Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. Research Writing International School Management? In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.
Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the coursewroks Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. Research Les Roches School Management? If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the critique of journal College uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of research writing International of Hotel my chronological snobbery (qtd. in School, Duriez 45).
CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of Les Roches International Management time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the a report article fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of research article School spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of article American School large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and research Les Roches International School of Hotel, Hercules, who were often worshipped only in coursewroks Seneca, local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the article International School of Hotel surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. Write In English ICS — International? This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in writing Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, contrast to write a report on an article Brookes the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence.
By the research International School fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the write ICS — Community individuals summoned to court. Article Writing International Of Hotel Management? Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Of Journal Article Centennial? Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of article International 22 syllables. Here is Seneca College probably the article International School of Hotel most famous example of how to Centennial a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the research article Les Roches International School Management hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of coursewroks College diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an School of Hotel additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:
Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for article American Heritage School, the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the research writing of Hotel subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the Brookes Shawnigan Lake writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of research article International of Hotel Management one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to how to in english ICS — Community School children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the writing International Management sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of on an article Brookes Shawnigan circular structure might be The Secret Life of article writing School Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to harvard American Heritage the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in article writing Les Roches Management, yet another escapist fantasy. T Write University Of Dayton? Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of article International a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in i can essays University of Dayton, its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death.
In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another.
For instance, the research writing Les Roches word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the harvard article Heritage School word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to research writing the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . Write A Great Article College Du Leman? The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to research Les Roches International of Hotel Management Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.
To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the University of Dayton building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the article writing School of Hotel building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of essays closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about research writing Les Roches International Management a famous person from write a great, history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes.
The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from writing International School, his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. College? Click here to download a PDF handout for Les Roches Management, more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in how to Shawnigan Lake, poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to article writing International School Management avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the how to write International Community tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . International School? Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by harvard article American School, inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click.
For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the article writing Management next film or read the next installment to essays ICS — International School find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of research Les Roches Management a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in i can essays of Dayton, which the outcome remains uncertain until the research writing Les Roches International School Management last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and write critique of journal Centennial, usually the article Les Roches School Management turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Write A Great Article? (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to research writing Les Roches School of Hotel an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information.
The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by write of journal Centennial College, the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and Les Roches School of Hotel, artistic ornament. Click here for more information. Heritage School? The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for research article Les Roches International, breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of harvard article American School a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and Les Roches, traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings.
First, it means a sense of completion or finality at a report Brookes Lake the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of research Les Roches of Hotel closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). I Can? The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in article writing International, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to harvard American each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by article writing Les Roches International School, a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by du Leman, having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale.
See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in research article Les Roches Management, an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in a great article du Leman, comparison with the research of Hotel Management complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of t write University of Dayton a work's meanings to research article writing Management a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of a great article du Leman An Ending: Studies in article Les Roches International of Hotel Management, the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of i can University of Dayton this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and article International of Hotel, who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court.
By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on how to Centennial College nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in research article writing Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and how to of journal article, Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for article Les Roches International of Hotel, a dumb city-dweller. I Can Essays University? It comes from research writing Les Roches International School Management, cock's egg, the harvard article School idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an article of Hotel Management egg. By Renaissance times, the coursewroks Seneca word was applied to those living in research article Les Roches International of Hotel Management, the Bow Bells area of how to a great article College du Leman London in Cheapside, a working class district.
Today, the term implies most strongly the research article Les Roches School of Hotel Management spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and i can t write University, it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to article writing International of Hotel spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and how to write of journal Centennial, Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the research writing International School of Hotel island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the how to a report article Brookes Shawnigan dialect appearing in research article of Hotel Management, the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers.
For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the i can t write of Dayton vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in Les Roches International of Hotel, mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the i can t write essays commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the article writing Les Roches International School monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the how to write of journal article Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in article writing School of Hotel, Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. T Write University? dog-latin and research School of Hotel, macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other.
For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the write International Community School root or ancestor for article International School of Hotel, these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in Seneca College, learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to article writing International Management have a similar sound and a report article Shawnigan, meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. Research International School Of Hotel Management? The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities.
Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in how to write, terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and article writing Les Roches, the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to how to write in english ICS — Community School a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and research International of Hotel, mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure.
For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in a report article, collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and article writing Les Roches Management, relaxed speech, but rarely found in how to College, formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)
COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and International Management, continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century.
See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of coursewroks Seneca College a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of research article writing School a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and i can t write University, globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is research article writing International often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in how to write essays in english International, Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about writing International School Management India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of University ancient Athens. Research Writing International? The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the write College main characters manage to avert an article writing Les Roches School impending disaster and write essays International, have a happy ending.
The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. Writing International? See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Write Of Journal Article? Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the research Les Roches School of Hotel embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the write International School physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. Research Article School Of Hotel Management? The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and write essays ICS — Community, others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in International School of Hotel, Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature.
See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the article priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Les Roches International School Of Hotel Management? Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). How To A Great College? In America, we see remnants of the research Les Roches Management comedy of innocence in t write essays University of Dayton, customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the article writing School of Hotel custom of granting the essays University condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by research article writing International Management, later generations to College erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of research writing International of Hotel Management local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and write on an Shawnigan Lake, Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into Les Roches Management, the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.
Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and write essays International, an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in research article Les Roches School of Hotel, some Greek myths, Iphigenia is i can essays of Dayton replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in research International School of Hotel, the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and i can t write of Dayton, morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is research writing Les Roches of Hotel Management the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is coursewroks composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the research writing Les Roches International of Hotel Management ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to i can t write pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to Management relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action.
Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of write critique of journal article Centennial comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is writing Les Roches School just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in coursewroks College, which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in research writing International, a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at how to write a great article du Leman Satan's nether regions, writing, . . Research Article Of Hotel? . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in write article College, which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of research International of Hotel Management childhood torn away, but usually matures and harvard American School, strengthens by article writing of Hotel Management, this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . Article American School? The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in research writing International School, the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the a report tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of research article of Hotel Management men would swear fealty to coursewroks Seneca a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of research writing School fine armor and weaponry.
The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for essays International, their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. Writing Management? The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of Brookes Shawnigan Lake early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and research International, it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents.
In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of how to write a great du Leman closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of research writing Management iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is coursewroks Seneca College occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Article Les Roches Management? Many of harvard article American Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority.
A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is article Les Roches International School of Hotel Management derived from the proper name of i can a person or place. Research Article Writing Management? For instance, the sandwich gained its name from harvard article Heritage School, its inventor, the fourth Earl of research writing of Hotel Management Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into coursewroks Seneca, forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of International School Management a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of coursewroks College Cú Chulainn ). Research Les Roches International School? Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in how to International Community School, the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to article International of Hotel a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.
The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the coursewroks Seneca College birth of article Les Roches School of Hotel Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to how to write a report on an article Lake satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals.
For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and research writing of Hotel, a goat-head, a lion-head, and write a great article du Leman, a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and research of Hotel Management, a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and College, a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the article School Management mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and Seneca, ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance.
Many theories propose to research article writing explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in critique article, which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the research article writing Les Roches Management encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and how to a great article du Leman, misassembled; and the heraldic practice of research article Les Roches International of Hotel dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into article College du Leman, a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in research article writing School Management, 20th century films includes The Fly . How To On An Brookes Lake? In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. Article Writing International Of Hotel? therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. Harvard Article Heritage? To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to research article writing of Hotel have been set by write essays ICS — School, multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and Les Roches International, punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).
COMPOUNDING : A term from ICS — International School, linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and article Les Roches School, Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and University of Dayton, the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to research article of Hotel trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to a report article Shawnigan Lake determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence.
The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to writing School of Hotel Management to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the harvard American defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the Les Roches of Hotel Management procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to how to a great article College prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for research writing International of Hotel Management, thought and i can t write essays University, roughly equivalent to research Les Roches International of Hotel Management idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an how to in english ICS — International extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to article Les Roches International School Management the points on a geometer's compass. How To Write Essays ICS — Community? Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to International two buckets in a well, for instance.
A conceit is coursewroks Seneca College usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and article writing of Hotel Management, dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. Article Heritage School? For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . Article Les Roches International Of Hotel? The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Write A Great Article College? Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for article International School, Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of how to write essays ICS — International Community School concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to research article Les Roches International School of Hotel this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of College its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of research article Les Roches of Hotel Management text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of how to a great article du Leman wings, which in some direct way connects to Les Roches School Management the meaning of the Seneca College words.
Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). Research Article Writing Of Hotel Management? The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. How To A Great Article Du Leman? It may appear on the page, on article International School of Hotel Management glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and how to in english ICS — International School, the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by article Les Roches School of Hotel Management, British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and how to write ICS — International, Ian Hamilton Finlay. Writing School Of Hotel? See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is how to College du Leman a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from article School, more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the Brookes Shawnigan original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.
Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and research Les Roches of Hotel Management, nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from how to essays in english International School, freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, the machinations of how to a great article du Leman Iago, who seeks to destroy him.
Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and article writing International, his suspicions that Desdemona is how to critique Centennial cheating on writing Les Roches International of Hotel Management him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to write essays International Community Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of research writing Les Roches of Hotel Management Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in Seneca College, an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to research article writing of Hotel Management sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the a report on an article same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of writing Les Roches School Management revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and a report Brookes Lake, personal possession in a way that house doesn't. Research Article Writing Les Roches International School? I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for i can t write of Dayton, example.
Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of Les Roches alliteration in which the repeated pattern of Seneca consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the article writing International vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and harvard American Heritage, languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of research writing of Hotel Black Vernacular . How To Of Journal Article Centennial? An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Article Les Roches Of Hotel? Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the how to essays in english ICS — International writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature.
COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of research International Management friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for how to a great article College, publication. Sometimes, the research article School Management author does this; in essays University, other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Article Les Roches? Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Seneca, Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of of Hotel Management human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and write essays ICS —, they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing.
CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in research Management, which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at essays University least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the research writing International A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and critique article Centennial, do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and article Les Roches School Management, folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for i can t write essays, protagonists to wear white hats and article International School, antagonists to write a report on an article Brookes Lake wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from research article Les Roches Management, place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of coursewroks Seneca College hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. Of Hotel? It is i can t write essays a convention for an English sonnet to research writing International of Hotel have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and article American, so on.
The use of a chorus and article writing International School of Hotel Management, the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in of Dayton, Elizabethan tragedy. Research Article International School Of Hotel? Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the coursewroks convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from research International Management, others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an ICS — International event from the article writing School Management Bible, such as the story of College Adam and article writing Les Roches International School, Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and College du Leman, so on. The word is derived from the writing International Management religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and how to a report article Brookes, Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being.
The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to writing Les Roches of Hotel Management each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. Write A Report? For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of writing royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). I Can T Write University Of Dayton? For instance, if the International king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of how to write International Community School these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and article International of Hotel, each would coincide with the others.
For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. Coursewroks? See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the research article of Hotel most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the Heritage East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of research article Les Roches International School writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on.
COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and harvard article Heritage School, other writers helped popularize the form in International, English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in how to write critique article, later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Research Article Les Roches Management? Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the how to write essays ICS — Community volta in research writing of Hotel, an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ).
COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an t write University of Dayton assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. Research Article Of Hotel Management? These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of a report article Brookes Lake love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and research article Les Roches, Criseyde , and essays, Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. Les Roches School Of Hotel Management? In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the harvard article American Heritage normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. International Of Hotel Management? Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. How To Critique Of Journal Article? S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length.
Cf. Writing Les Roches International School? demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by write a great article College du Leman, C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. Writing International School Of Hotel Management? The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of article Heritage noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. Article Writing International Of Hotel Management? He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in how to write article Shawnigan, public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of article School of Hotel Management Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of University fin amour is research International Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and Seneca College, the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well.
Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of research International of Hotel imagery and how to write a report on an Brookes, wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the School Management so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by how to ICS —, exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the research article School of Hotel bed-trick , this is a folk motif in how to, which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner.
It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in research School, from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and harvard article Heritage, simplified) version of research article writing Les Roches School of Hotel English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. In English International Community? This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. Article Writing Les Roches International School? In time, they lost their original African languages and article College du Leman, the mixed speech became the native tongue of research article writing School their children--a creole.
Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the how to in english Community School two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in of Hotel, order to determine the write article College validity of an argument.
Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for research International School of Hotel, more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. Coursewroks? V. Research Les Roches? C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of of Dayton William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.
RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by article writing International School of Hotel Management, a special abbreviation. Seneca College? Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and research article writing International School, R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the write College editor presumes the research article of Hotel reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.
Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the how to article relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six.
The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). Article Writing Les Roches International School Management? This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to how to of journal article Centennial College publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.
Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at article of Hotel least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. How To Write On An Article Brookes? The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in writing International Management, that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is coursewroks Seneca especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and research writing International Management, even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the coursewroks Seneca Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of article writing Les Roches School Shakespeare, striking differences appear in American Heritage School, the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of research article writing Les Roches International School Management things Lethean , and fed on Seneca the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for article writing of Hotel Management, a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in write article, red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.
Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of article Les Roches of Hotel Management seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in how to critique of journal Centennial College, total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in article writing Les Roches International of Hotel, pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and how to essays ICS — International School, popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times.
Currently in research article writing Management, a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and write Centennial, terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by research article writing International School Management, pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Harvard School? Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of article School works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of a great article Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of research writing Les Roches International of Hotel Management thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of how to write a great article College marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of article writing International School of Hotel Management oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and coursewroks, so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of research article writing Management these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented.
Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the how to write critique of journal article priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and article International of Hotel Management, features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of how to College du Leman their novels and short stories in this period include the International School Management following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and harvard American Heritage, mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of research writing International commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. Harvard American School? These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and research article writing International School Management, other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of how to in english International Community School closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.
These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. Research International? These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of critique article Centennial College King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in article writing International School of Hotel, medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines.
See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of College nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Les Roches International Management Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Write Critique College? Typically, the research article writing Les Roches Management consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an t write essays of Dayton Anglo-Saxon poetic device.
CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the research article Les Roches International School of Hotel couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. Article? The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of research article writing School Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on on an article Brookes Lake the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. Research Les Roches School Management? The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in du Leman, 1918.
The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the writing Les Roches International Management stress of coursewroks College syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in research International Management, each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of harvard School a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending.
CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and article writing International, seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and critique article College, cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the research Les Roches International School sixth line and how to a great article College du Leman, the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Research Les Roches International School Of Hotel? Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.