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Research article North Broward Preparatory School

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c missouri resume Library Instruction Coordinator/Reference Librarian. Thomas Jefferson Library. University of Missouri-St. Research Article North Broward School! Louis. 8001 Natural Bridge Rd. St. Louis, MO 63121. FAX: (314) 516-5853. Master of Library and Information Science, 1992. Write! University of Texas at research North Broward School Austin, Graduate School of Library and Information Science.

Bachelor of Arts in Political Science, 1983. Writing Essay In English Bishop Guertin High! University of Texas at research Broward Preparatory School San Antonio. Thomas Jefferson Library. University of Missouri-St. Writing Of A Journal Article Hall School! Louis. Position: Library Instruction Coordinator/Reference Librarian, Instruction: In charge of instruction for the Thomas Jefferson Library, which includes scheduling bibliographic instruction sessions as well as arranging tours Do bibliographic instruction sessions or assign these to other reference librarians (have done 121 of these for 1,881 patrons to date). Perform library skills workshops Maintain the library's instruction web page at: http://www.umsl.edu/services/libteach/ Create interactive, web-based tutorials using original HTML/Javascript coding (see Web Tutorials below). Reference: Reference desk work and research consultations (the latter by appointment) Help patrons with a variety of databases available via the Web and stand-alone workstations, in both Windows and DOS platforms. Databases include: Expanded Academic ASAP, General Business File ASAP, Academic Universe, ERIC, EBSCOhost, PsychInfo, SocioFile, WorldCat, Periodical Abstracts, and many others Help patrons find information on the Web using Yahoo , AltaVista , DejaNews and other search engines Subject specialist-selector for the university libraries in gender studies.

Iowa State University Libraries. Research Article North Broward Preparatory! Iowa State University. Caxton College! Position: Reference and Instructional Services. Instruction: Using Authorware, created computer-based tutorials for Library 160, a mandatory, one- half credit, library skills class Did first-day class lectures for Library 160 Collaborated on the Library 160 manual and assignments. Reference: Did Reference desk work and reference consultations (in-depth and by Broward Preparatory appointment) Did class presentations on specific resources and made hand-outs Helped patrons with a variety of how to write numbers essay Mercersburg databases available via the research Preparatory Web, the Internet, stand-alone workstations, and in both Windows and DOS platforms. Databases included: Reader's Guide Abstracts, ArticleFirst, ContentsFirst, ERIC, PsycLit, MLA, SocioFile, Business and writing a critique of a Moreton Hall School Company Profiles, F S Index, America: History and article North Broward Preparatory Life, Lexis-Nexis, WorldCat , Applied Science and Technology Index, Ei Compendex Web, NTIS , and many others Helped patrons find information on the Web using Yahoo , AltaVista , WebCrawler , DejaNews and other search engines Subject specialist-selector in reference department for anthropology, general social sciences and community/regional planning. Microcomputer Center-Reserve Book Collection. Writing.org! University of article Broward Texas at how to a composition International Austin. Position: Office Assistant, 1985-91. Microcomputer Center: Trained and helped supervise up to ten proctors in a lab with 25 IBM PC-XTs Assisted, in a public setting, novice PC users with word processing and other computer applications Created help-screens, hand-outs, and signs to instruct users Processed diverse types of software for public use Wrote batch files and arranged the computer hard-disks Frequently was asked to help solve a wide variety of computer problems Reserve Book Collection: Trained and research North Broward School helped supervise up to fifteen student workers for how to numbers in an essay Mercersburg, the for the Reserve desk Used the library online catalog to add and delete Reserve items, as well as to charge, discharge, and search for research North School, library books Processed Reserve items in addition to typing and filing Worked the Reserve desk. San Antonio, Texas.

Position: Clerk-typist, 1983-85. Processed bound serials, including inputting them into writing.org Windermere Preparatory School, the library online catalog, updating holdings records, and typing and affixing labels Typed-in new MARC records into a system that created shelf-list cards; also typed-in corrections made from proofs Assisted supervisor with cataloging tasks by searching for records on article Broward, OCLC Other clerical duties as assigned. Adept at working with Windows '98, '95 and how to Bishop High 3.1, and Macintosh Self-taught in HTML Tutorial creation using Authorware Proficient with HTML editor HotDog and trained to use FrontPage Original graphics creation with LView Pro, Photoshop, and Windows Paint Extensive use of FTP for binary file and ASCII text transfer File maintenance and editing using UNIX E-mail on a UNIX system using the article Preparatory editors Emacs and Joe Adept with UNIX VI editor Programming with Javascript and Pascal; 12 hours of coursework in computer science/programming including Standard C and Java with 3.5 GPA Extensive knowledge of DOS commands, batch files, and hard-disk arrangements Word processing with Microsoft Word for Windows 98 and Corel WordPerfect 8 Spreadsheet experience with Lotus 1-2-3 and seo article College Microsoft Excel Use of Microsoft Word for Macintosh, and programming in ThinkPascal for Macintosh. WEB TUTORIALS. The below tutorials are original creations that use Javascript to enhance interactivity. OVID Abstracts Tutorial for the Ovid Web Interface: http://www.umsl.edu/services/libteach/ovid/start.htm. Ovid Abstracts Tutorial linked by the following university libraries: Under the title: Ovid Tutorial. North School! University of in an Mercersburg Academy Virginia: Under the North Preparatory title: ERIC database using Ovid software Tutorial. Old Dominion University: Under the title: How to Windermere, Search OVID Databases (Interactive Tutorial) Oregon State University: Under the research Preparatory School title: If you need help searching this database, see the tutorial… Library Catalog Tutorial (INNOPAC): http://www.umsl.edu/services/libteach/merlin/start.htm Expanded Academic ASAP tutorial: http://www.umsl.edu/services/libteach/asapnew/start.htm.

A Computerized Final Exam for a Library Skills Course Reference Services Review 27 no. 1 (1999): 90-106. Authorware for Computer Assisted Instruction, Library Hi Tech , V.15, no.1/2, pp.133-144, 1997. With Moreton Hall School! Power Translator Professional for School, Windows, (software review) Technical Services Quarterly , V.13, no.3/4, pp.151-156, 1996. Spanish Assistant 5, (software review) Technical Services. How To Write In An Mercersburg! Quarterly , v.12, no.3, pp.58-65, 1995. Presentation: Computer-Based Training: HTML and Alternatives (presentation about research article North Broward School, Authorware). Where: Chicago, Illinois.

Occasion: 1996 NOTIS Users' Group Meeting. Presentation: Computers as Library Instructors: the Library 160 Experience at ISU. With Cathryn Canelas. Where: Decorah, Iowa. Occasion: Iowa Library Association/Association of College and Research Libraries meeting, Luther College, Poster Session: CAI in the Classroom: Teaching Library Skills by Computer. Essay Guertin High School! With Cathryn Canelas. Where: Miami, Florida. Occasion: American Library Association Annual Convention, June 26, 1994. LIBRARY/UNIVERSITY COMMITTEES University of Broward Preparatory School Missouri-St.

Louis: Center for Teaching and Excellence Advisory Committee Iowa State University Libraries Chair, Library Faculty Library User Education Council Library Use Committee Library Committee on Diversity Scholar (ISU OPAC) Public Documentation Committee Horizon Public Access Working Group. How To Writing Guertin High School! Travel and Research Funds Committee. ASSOCIATIONS American Library Association. Association of College and Broward Research Libraries.

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resume wizord Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 - June 22, 1969) was an North Academy Award-nominated American film actress and singer, best known for her role as Dorothy Gale. Her poignant performance and sweet delivery of Over The Rainbow , which became her signature song, earned Judy a special juvenile Oscar statuette on 29th February 1940 for Best Performance by a Juvenile Actor. Though Judy Garland was some peoples first choice to play Dorothy other executives wanted Shirley Temple because of her star power. At the time Shirley Temple was under contract to 20th Century Fox. MGM tried to borough her but Darryl Zanuck refused. A year later 20th Century Fox starred Shirley Temple in their own fantasy film, Maeterlinck's The Blue Bird , which was a failure and marked the begining of the end of Shirley Temples career. Unable to acquire Shirley Temple the studio began promoting Judy Garland via tours and stage performances.

She was given top billing in 1938's Listen, Darling over better known actors of the time such as Mary Astor, Gene Lockhart and write London, Walter Pidgeon. On June 22, 1969, Garland was found dead by her last husband, Mickey Deans, in Preparatory the bathroom of her rented Chelsea, London house. Coroner Gavin Thursdon stated that the cause of death was accidental overdose of barbiturates; her blood contained the equivalent of ten 1.5-grain Seconal capsules. Garland had turned 47 just over a week prior to her death. Frank Morgan as Professor Marvel, the Doorman, Cabby, Guard, and The Wizard of Oz (Salary $1500.00 per how to write in an essay Mercersburg week) Frank Morgan (June 1, 1890 – September 18, 1949) was an American character actor best known for his portrayal of the title character in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz . Frank Morgan was not the first choice to research North Broward School, play the Wizard, nor was he the second or third choice, he went after the role after it was offered and turned down by Windermere both Ed Wynn and W. Preparatory! C. Fields. The role was conceived in writing different ways for North Broward Preparatory School each actor as a boisterous con man for Fields, emotional and zany for Ed Wynn and how to London Academy, finally as the familiar frightened and befuddled humbug of a Wizard played by Frank Morgan. The befuddlement was genuine as Morgan was known to be a drinker.

Because of the success of his role, which only North School, amounts to a few minutes of actual screen time, Frank Morgan was given a lifetime contract with MGM and went on to make sixty eight films before dying in his sleep after suffering from a heart attack at the age of fifty nine. Ray Bolger as Hunk and writing.org Windermere Preparatory, The Scarecrow (Salary $3000.00 per week) Ray Bolger (January 10, 1904 – January 15, 1987) was an article Broward Preparatory American entertainer of stage and screen, best known for essay Guertin High School his portrayal of the Scarecrow (and the farm worker Hunk) who was Dorothy's favorite in the 1939 film, The Wizard of Oz . Ray Bolger was originally cast in article Preparatory the role of the Tin Woodsman but he was dissatisfied. Bolger saw himself in the more fluid role of the Scarecrow, the part played by writing of a Hall School Fred A. Stone in 1902, an idol of his from the time he saw him in research Jack O' Lantern at a theater in Boston. The role of the Scarecrow had originally been given to Buddy Ebsen who had begun costume fittings and dance rehearsals for the role before Ray Bolger's insistence finally wore down the studio heads.

Ray Bolger died of bladder cancer on January 15, 1987 (five days after his 83rd birthday) in Los Angeles, California. Jack Haley as Hickory and The Tin Man (Salary $3000.00 per week) Jack Haley (born John Joseph Haley, Jr.; August 10, 1898 – June 6, 1979) was an American film actor best known for his portrayal of the Tin Man and write numbers in an Mercersburg Academy, farm worker Hickory in The Wizard of Oz . Ray Bolger was originally cast as the Tin Woodsman but after convincing the studios to switch him to the role of the research article Broward, Scarecrow it was given to how to, fellow contract actor Buddy Ebsen who was originally cast as the Scarecrow. Buddy Ebsen was not opposed to the switch as his only concern was to be in a major production, unfortunately this was not fated for the actor. Two weeks after production began he had an almost fatal from research article Broward School, inhaling the aluminum powder makeup. Though he recovered and went on to out live all of the major actors in The Wizard of Oz his career went into a slump until 1956 when he appeared in Disney's Davey Crocket . Jack Haley was given the how to writing essay in english Bishop High, role as the article North Preparatory School, Tin Man after Ebsen was hospitalized and the studio quietly change the help with essay Moreton School, make up to article Broward Preparatory, a paste, to write a composition London International Academy, avoid risking the research North Broward Preparatory School, same reaction by Haley. The new makeup did cause an eye infection which caused Haley to miss four days of filming, but he received treatment in writing.org Windermere Preparatory School time to prevent permanent damage.

Haley softened his normally gruff voice which he used for the Hickory character. For the character of Tin Man he spoke in the tone of voice he used when reading stories to his children. Haley died of a heart attack on June 6, 1979 in Los Angeles, California at the age of 80. Research Article North Preparatory! Buddy Ebsen outlived him by twenty four years. Bert Lahr as Zeke and essay in english Bishop Guertin, The Cowardly Lion (Salary $1500.00 per Broward Preparatory School week)

Bert Lahr, born Irving Lahrheim, (August 13, 1895 – December 4, 1967) was a Tony Award-winning American comic actor. Born in New York City, he is best remembered today for his role as the Cowardly Lion (and the farm worker Zeke) in The Wizard of Caxton, Oz , but known during his life for a career in burlesque, vaudeville and Broadway. Before Burt Lahr was chosen for North Preparatory the role of the Cowardly Lion the character was intended to be that of an enchanted prince. When the character was rewritten to be that of an essay writing Moreton School ordinary lion (at least ordinary for Oz) it was believed that Burt Lahr with his gentle sweetness and enormous comic energy had the ability to carry the North Preparatory, figurative and literal weight (it weighed 70 pounds) of the lion costume. The role of the Cowardly Lion was one of the how to writing essay in english Guertin High School, few on screen chances that Burt Lahr had to fully exploit his immeasurable talent. Though perfect for the role it took a month for the studio to article School, agree to Burt Lahr demand for a guarantee of five weeks work. Initially MGM would only agree to three weeks but finally they relented.

Burt Lahr ended up working on The Wizard of Oz for six months with five weeks alone being spent on the Jitter Bug scene that was cut from the final release of the film. In 1967, Lahr died of pneumonia in with essay writing Moreton Hall School New York City in the middle of filming The Night They Raided Minsky's , forcing producers to use a double in several scenes. Fittingly, this last role was as a burlesque comic. Margaret Hamilton as Miss Gulch, The Wicked Witch of the North School, West. (Salary $1000.00 per writing Caxton week) Margaret Hamilton (December 9, 1902 - May 16, 1985) was an American film actress best known for her iconic portrayal of article North Preparatory School, The Wicked Witch of the West and Miss Gulch in The Wizard of Oz . Gale Sondergaard was originally cast in Windermere Preparatory the role of The Wicked Witch.

Mervyn LeRoy had envisioned her as a glamorous, seductively wicked witch wearing a black sequined dress and hat, a character similar to that of the wicked queen in Disney's Snow White . Outside pressure forced a change in character from the glamorous witch to the evil and ugly witch famously portrayed by Margaret Hamilton who took the role when Sondergaard refused to article, have herself made ugly. Margaret Hamilton's name was passed along for consideration since she fit the character and the budget for the role. After a screen test negotiations began for the role but as with Burt Lahr initially MGM was only willing to guarantee three weeks work and not the six demanded by her agent. Help With Essay Moreton Hall! Margaret herself begged her agent to give in and not lose her the research article North School, role but he held fast and the studio relented. She worked on The Wizard of Oz for four months. During a second (and unused) take of her fiery exit from seo article writing, Munchkinland, in which the trap door's drop was delayed to eliminate the brief glimpse of School, it seen in the final edit, Margaret Hamilton suffered severe second and third degree burns. She had to recuperate in a hospital and at essay Windermere home for six weeks after the accident before returning to the set to complete her work on the film.

When she returned Hamilton refused to research North Broward Preparatory School, have anything to do with fire or to do the seo article writing Caxton College, scene where she flies a broomstick billowing smoke. The directors chose to have a stand-in perform the scene instead and the stand-in was herself severely injured doing the scene after a malfunction occurred during filming. Hamilton lived in North Broward New York City for most of her adult life. Write Numbers In An Essay Mercersburg! Her Gramercy Park apartment building also claimed James Cagney as one of its tenants. Research Preparatory School! She later moved to writing Guertin High, Salisbury, Connecticut, where she died in 1985 following a heart attack. She was 82 years old. Billie Burke as Glinda the Good Witch of the North. (Salary $766.67 per week) Mary William Ethelbert Appleton Billie Burke (August 7, 1884 – May 14, 1970) was an Oscar-nominated American actress primarily known to article North Preparatory, modern audiences for her role as Glinda the Good Witch of the how to a composition essay, North. Billie Burke was everyone's first choice from among the article North Broward School, contracted character actresses suitable for essay Preparatory School the role. It was felt that she had a quality that would play well against the menacing character of Hamilton's wicked witch, treating the threat as a more of an annoyance.

The ethereal nature of the character was very much a part of Billie Burke's own somewhat flighty personality. Billie Burke died in Los Angeles, California of article Preparatory, dementia, thought to be Alzheimer's and natural causes, aged 85, in 1970. Charley Grapewin as Uncle Henry (Salary $750.00 per week) Charles E. Grapewin (December 20, 1869 – February 2, 1956) was an American vaudeville performer and a stage and film character actor, perhaps best known for his portrayal of essay Windermere Preparatory School, Uncle Henry. Though he was the first choice to play Uncle Henry Charley Grapewin initially turned the role down. He had already appeared in more than 70 films, including Listen, Darling with Judy Garland the year before, and he was looking to retire from show business. Several months later, though, Charles Grapewin agreed to postpone his retirement and accepted the role. The filming of the Kansas scenes took just one week but Grapewin still worked to research article Broward Preparatory School, make his portrayal of the old Kansas farmer authentic. Help Essay Writing Hall! According to The Making of The Wizard of research North Broward Preparatory School, Oz by Aljean Harmetz, Grapewin wore the underwear that was standard for Westerns, two-piece balbriggan underwear with five buttons on the side. It was felt that balbriggan underwear added character to a critique journal article Moreton, the clothes worn over it. Grapewin died in Corona, California at age 86.

Clara Blandick as Auntie Em (Salary $750.00 per research North Broward Preparatory School week) Clara Blandick (June 4, 1880 – April 15, 1962) was a twentieth century American actress best known for her portrayal of Auntie Em. MGM went outside the studio for the character of Auntie Em because they felt that the how to in an essay Mercersburg, part was too minor for North Broward Preparatory one of there contract actors. Clara Blandick landed the part which was her most memorable minor role. Although it was a small part lasting just one week Auntie Em was a symbol for Dorothy's quest to return home. The character's of Auntie Em and Uncle Henry are the only ones that don't have alter egos in write a composition International Academy the land of oz though it's thought that Auntie Em's character was to be reflected in the character of The Good Witch of the North. Even though the character of Auntie Em as portrayed by Clara Blandick is well known her name wasn't as it was not listed in the opening credits and listed last in the closing credits. Blandick's health began to fail during the 50's. She started going blind and began suffering from severe arthritis.

On April 15, 1962, Clara Blandick returned home from article North Broward, Palm Sunday services at her church. She began rearranging her room, placing her favorite photos and memorabilia in writing a critique journal article Moreton Hall prominent places. She laid out her resume and a collection of press clippings from her lengthy career. She dressed immaculately, in an elegant royal blue dressing gown. With her hair properly styled, she took an overdose of sleeping pills. She lay down on a couch, covered herself with a gold blanket over her shoulders and tied a plastic bag over research North Broward, her head. Clara left the following note: I am now about to make the great adventure. Writing Of A Article Hall School! I cannot endure this agonizing pain any longer. It is all over North Broward Preparatory, my body. Neither can I face the impending blindness. I pray the Lord my soul to take.

Amen. Terry the Dog as Toto (Salary $125.00 per week) Terry the Dog was a Cairn terrier trained by Carl Spitz who also trained the St. Bernard that starred with Clark Gable And Loretta Young in High School The Call Of The Wild . Though referred to as a male in article Preparatory School the film Terry was a female terrier acquired by Spitz four years before the writing journal article Hall School, making of the Wizard of Oz. The search for a dog that resembled Toto as drawn by W.W.

Denslow in research article North the original book took longer then the search for any other actor. Spitz had been hired to train Terry who was so shy that she hid under a bed for three weeks. It took seven weeks to train Terry but when her breeder could not come up with money to pay for the training Carl Spitz decided to keep her. When Spitz heard about the writing Bishop High School, search for Toto and saw the research, illustration he recognized the breed and brought Terry to the studio. Unfortunately for Carl he stopped at the Property Department before meeting with the writers and producers and had already agreed to a salary of write Mercersburg, $125.00 per North School week. Had he realized earlier how desperate MGM was for in english Bishop the dog he could possibly have gotten up to $500.00. Like other members of the cast Terry was also injured during production when one of the Winkie guards jumped on her and sprained the research North Broward School, dogs paw. Directors. Now You See Them Now You Don't.

Richard Thorpe (directed for two weeks) Richard Thorpe began directing The Wizard of Oz on October 12, 1938 and was fired two weeks later because it was felt that he did not have the sensibility to direct a fantasy film. He is credited with the decision to dress Judy Garland in a curly blonde wig and make-up that made her appear to writing Caxton, be in her late teens and research Preparatory School, not as an innocent young farm girl. All the essay Windermere Preparatory, film that was shot during Thorpe's direction, which centered around the witch's castle and research article Preparatory, Dorothy's rescue was thrown out when the studio changed directors. How To Write Essay Academy! The actors were disheartened by the studio's reaction to their work during this time as they were berated for their performance though they were only following direction. With each change of director came the fear of being replaced. George Cukor (directed for three days) Though George Cukor was the article North, director for only three days (he was scheduled to how to International Academy, direct Gone With The Wind ) and shot no film footage he made some notable changes to research North Broward Preparatory School, the characters.

After viewing the how to write a composition essay Academy, film shot by Thorpe he was appalled by article North Preparatory School Judy Garland's appearance and writing, performance. It was his decision to remove the article North Broward Preparatory, blonde wig and most of the make-up that she wore. He also directed her to be herself and not to act in an overly cute fashion. Victor Flemming (directed for writing.org Windermere School four months) Victor Flemming took over as director after George Cukor left to direct Gone With The Wind . He was hesitant to direct The Wizard of Oz as he had never before directed a fantasy film. His immense affection for his two young daughters Victoria and Sally is what swayed his final decision. Flemming directed the research North Broward, majority of the film, all except the Kansas scenes.

As far as actual directing and with essay writing Hall School, contributions to the film it was Flemming who brought in writer John Lee Mahin. Research Article Broward Preparatory School! Flemming wasn't happy with the opening scene of The Wizard of Oz which had Dorothy barely concerned about Miss Gulch and her threat against Toto. Help Essay! Mahin changed the research North Broward Preparatory, scene to show a more realistic agitated and frightened Dorothy. A Critique Of A Journal Moreton School! He also came up with the story line of the damaged incubator in order to explain Uncle Henry's and Aunt Em's dismissal of Dorothy's concerns. Victor Flemming couldn't do much to change or direct the Oz characters as most of the acting was physical and the actors were left to themselves but he could direct Judy Garland and he did. He followed Cukor's direction and kept the cuteness out of her performance. Research School! Dorothy's performance is what drives the film and grounds tethers the fantasy to keep it believable.

Flemming left The Wizard of Oz to again replace George Cukor when he was fired from Gone With The Wind . He is credited with directing both films though he completed neither. King Vidor was going to take over directing Gone With The Wind but he was saved from the undertaking when Selznick made a deal with MGM to London Academy, get Victor Flemming, which left Vidor the finish directing The Wizard of Oz . He worked for ten days and filmed the sepia footage for the Kansas scenes. His contribution to research Broward Preparatory School, the film was in the directing of how to write numbers Mercersburg, Judy Garland during the singing of Over The Rainbow . People normally stood still when singing but he had Judy walk around as she sang the research North Broward Preparatory School, now well known ballad. How To Essay In English Guertin High School! He did not take public credit for his part in the film until after Victor Flemming's death. Premiers, Re-releases and Television Broadcasts of the Film.

The Wizard of Oz premiered in August of 1939 at Broward the Strand Theater in Wisconsin, Grauman's Chinese Theater in Hollywood and Loew's Capitol Theater in New York. For the first week Judy Garland performed live with Mickey Rooney after each screening. The nation wide opening was on August 25, 1939. The Wizard of of a journal School, Oz earned 3 million dollars and cost 3.8 million to make. The film was nominated for research article North School several Academy Awards upon its release, including Best Picture and a composition essay London International, Academy Award for Visual Effects. It lost the award in research Broward the Best Picture category to how to a composition essay London International, Gone with the Wind (another MGM release), but won in research article Preparatory School the category of Best Song (Over The Rainbow) and Academy Award for Best Original Score, which went to, not the songwriters, but Herbert Stothart, who composed the background score. Re-released ten years later in 1949 The Wizard of Oz earned another 1.5 million finally showing a profit.

From 1949 until 1990 the Kansas scenes were shown in black and white rather then the original sepia which was restored for write in an essay Academy the VHS release. In 1955 the film was again released, this time in an artificial wide screen format achieved by removing portions from the top and bottom of the North Preparatory, film. This format was used again in the 1998 release but the film was restored for the VHS and DVD releases. CBS televised The Wizard of how to writing essay High School, Oz for the first time on November 3, 1956. Though the film was shown and advertised as being in black and white and color most people viewed the movie in black and white since color televisions were not as common then. It is estimated that forty five million people viewed the original broadcast. Research Broward Preparatory School! Three years later the film was shown again as a Christmas special and was viewed by an even larger audience which started. The Wizard of Oz was televised as a Christmas special for the next three years until 1962. In 1964 the film was shown early in the year and continued to be shown once a year for the more then two decades. The film is now shown several times a year on various stations.

The Wizard of Oz was released on VHS in 1980, on laserdisc in 1989 and on DVD in writing journal article Moreton Hall School 1997. For more information visit Wikipedia's The Wizard of Oz (1939 film), or read The Making of The Wizard of Oz by Aljean Harmetz, (November, 1977) ISBN 0-7868-8352-9. Site design and original content Copyright2007 Amanda Jean Lopez Designs.

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Top 10 Things Job-Seekers Need to Know about Submitting and research North Posting Your Resume Online. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. In the early days of Internet job searching, e-resumes, or electronic resumes, were distinguished from traditional print resumes. Today, since most resumes are transmitted electronically, the term “e-resume” is not used much anymore. Online resume submission has become so pervasive that “resume” is nearly synonymous with “electronic resume.” Job-seekers today submit their resumes via e-mail, post or submit them on help with Moreton Hall, Internet job boards, or publish them on their own Web page. To learn more about the research Preparatory, many forms of resumes used online, see our accompanying article, Your E-resume’s File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. In the meantime, stay right here to learn the 10 things you truly must know about submitting and posting your resume online. 1. You absolutely MUST have a version of your resume that is optimized for online posting and submission. A job-seeker simply cannot succeed these days with just the traditional formatted resume intended to be printed out as a visually pleasing marketing piece. The formatted “print” resume is still important, but it can no longer be the only resume tool in writing.org Preparatory, your kit. More than 90 percent of employers place resumes directly into searchable databases and an equal percentage of employers prefer to research article Preparatory School receive resumes by e-mail.

More than 80 percent of Fortune 500 companies post jobs on their own Web sites — and expect job-seekers to respond electronically. Thus, you need at least one other version of your resume that can go directly into a keyword-searchable database with no obstacles. Formatting that needs to be removed before the help with writing School, resume can be placed in a database is an example of such an obstacle. Sending your resume in text-based format directly in the body of an e-mail message removes all barriers to an employer’s placing your resume right into a searchable databases. Some employers still prefer the formatted document version of your resume attached to an e-mail message (so they have the option to North Broward Preparatory School print it out, for example), while others won’t open attachments because of how to write in an essay Mercersburg Academy, concerns about viruses and incompatibilities among word-processing programs. The formatted “print” resume is research North School, still vital because the employer may wish to visually review your resume, especially once the database search has narrowed down the candidates, and the formatted, print version will be more reader-friendly than the text-based version. You’ll also want to essay Windermere School have a print version of your resume on hand for networking, to take to interviews and career fairs and for the rare occasions when employers request resumes in old-school ways — by mail or fax. At the research School, bare minimum, you need a formatted, print version of your resume and a text-based (ASCII) e-resume.

To cover every contingency, you might also want to essay School have a Portable Document Format (PDF) version, and a Web-based (HTML) version. Article Preparatory School! The nuances of these versions are explained in our article, Your E-resume’s File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. 2. Your resume must be loaded with keywords. Much of job-hunting today revolves around the mysterious world of write essay, keywords. Employers’ dependence on keywords to find the job candidates they want to interview has come about in recent years because of article Preparatory School, technology.

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It’s surprisingly easy to create an e-resume once you get the hang of it. There’s more than one way to writing.org Windermere create a text-based e-resume, but the most common method involves saving your word-processed (usually Word) resume in text (.txt) format, re-opening it in North, a text editor program, such as Wordpad, Notepad, or Text Wrangler, TextEdit for Mac OS, and then making a few adjustments in it. Write In An Mercersburg! One good resource that can walk you through this process include this part of How to Upload or Email a Resume from Susan Ireland. Even a Web-based HTML resume is Broward School, not that hard to craft. Learn everything you need to know in our article, A Web-Ready Resume Can Be a Major Advantage in write a composition International, Your Job Search. 5. Text-based resumes are the ugly ducklings of the resume world, but you can dress them up a bit. Job-seekers and resume writers have strived for years to develop ways to make resumes visually appealing and graphically interesting — through font choices, bold and italic type, rule lines, bullets, centering, indents, and more — only to have all that formatting thrown out the article North, window in the e-resume world. How To Write Essay! Text-based resumes are the research Broward Preparatory School, antitheses of the gorgeous documents that job-seekers hand to employers at interviews and career fairs. The fact is that most online resumes aren’t intended to be visually attractive because their main function is not to write essay London Academy be seen but to be searched in article Broward, keyword-searchable databases. Still, they may be seen at some point.

Employers may see the resume you’ve posted on writing Caxton College, an online job board. Their primary interest is whether the content of your resume (indicated largely by keywords) shows you to be qualified for the opening you’ve applied for and/or for which the employer is searching the database. But once the match has been made, the employer may actually look at your resume. So, even though — without formatting — you can’t make it look as fetching as your print version, you can still ensure that it looks decent. For example, you can use keyboard characters, such as equal signs (=====), plus signs (++++++) and tildes ( ) to make rule lines. You can use asterisks (*****), hyphens (—–), lower-case letter o’s (ooooo), and carats () to make bullets. You can use UPPER CASE for North Broward emphasis in writing a critique article School, headings.

See how some of research article Broward, these techniques are used in this sample text chronological resume. Now, one type of e-resume that is meant to write numbers in an essay Academy look good is the HTML or Web-based resume. This type of resume resides on a Web page, in part, so it can be seen, so it should be visually pleasing. While it’s not too difficult to make an HTML resume look attractive, the more you know about Web design, the article Preparatory School, better you can make the resume look. Write Essay London! You can also transform your Web resume into Broward School a Web portfolio that extensively shows off your skills and accomplishments. Write A Composition London! If you’re not confident of your skills, you might want to enlist a Web designer or resume writer in this process. Research Broward Preparatory School! A number of services have emerged in recent years that enable you to create Web-based and multimedia resumes that usually reside on how to Bishop Guertin High School, a service’s site.

See examples of these in article North Preparatory, our article New Web-Based Twists On Resumes: Best Ways to Construct a Resume? 6. Text resumes are highly versatile. Once you have a text-based resume, you can do a lot with it, including: Post it in its entirety on how to writing in english Guertin High School, many job boards. Research Preparatory School! Paste it piece-by-piece into the profile forms of job boards, such as Monster.com, that have a rigid setup and don’t allow resumes to be posted as is. Paste it into the body of an e-mail and Bishop Guertin send it to employers. Convert it to a Web-based HTML resume. 7. You must tailor the use of your resume to each employer’s or job board’s instructions. As you might have guessed from what you’ve read so far in this article, there is research article Preparatory, no universally accepted way to of a Hall School submit your e-resume to an employer. Some employers want your resume as an attachment, usually as a Word document.

Others want your resume as text pasted into the body of an e-mail message. Still others want you to paste your resume into research article North an online form. If you absolutely cannot find out an employer’s preference, the following is a fairly safe bet: A formatted, “print” resume in document (.doc because some older versions of Word cannot open .docx files)) form sent as an attachment to an e-mail message to how to the employer. Article North! And here’s a bit of common sense: Can you imagine how many resumes employers receive with files entitled “resume.doc”? Use your name as part of the writing.org Windermere Preparatory, file name for North School your resume. Example: JaySmithResume.doc. A text-based e-resume stripped of most formatting and pasted directly into the same e-mail message into which your print resume is attached. Since the employer has this text-based resume, he or she can choose whether or not to open the attached version, based on compatibility, virus protection, and company policy on opening attachments. For a truly complete e-mailable, electronic package, add a text-based cover letter stripped of formatting and pasted directly into the same e-mail message into which your print resume is attached. Pat Kendall and Susan Whitcomb note in a book about online resumes that your cover letter can contain verbiage that points out the writing a critique journal School, options you’re providing: “I have attached an MS Word version of my resume, as well as pasted a plain-text version below. Article North Broward Preparatory School! (If the plain-text version is sufficient for your database, it is not necessary to download the formatted attachment.)”

The same lack of universality goes for job boards. Some enable you to paste your resume into a form in any format, but the board automatically converts it to text. Others require that the resume be in text format to begin with before you can paste it into the form. These variations underscore the importance of having a text-based e-resume. Writing.org Preparatory School! While researching this article, the Quintessential Careers staff experimented with posting resumes to several sites. We learned that a text-based e-resume is not only vital for boards with a text-resume requirement — but also extremely helpful when the research article School, boards convert any resume to text. Just because a job board turns your resume into text doesn’t mean it will look decent; it’s better to have a text resume to begin with so you know it will look appropriate when pasted in. Also note that some job boards/employers limit the number of words or the size of the file that you can paste into any one field. 8. Take advantage of job-board features to protect yourself and get the writing.org Windermere Preparatory, most out of posting your e-resume on Broward, the boards. Most reputable job boards have features that enable you to writing essay Bishop Guertin High School protect your own privacy and confidentiality, control who sees your resume, mask the identity if your current employer (so your employer doesn’t know you’re looking), and easily edit and article Preparatory School delete your resume or change it from active to inactive.

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This feature, found under Word’s File menu, enables you to insert keywords, comments, and a link to your Web-based resume if you have one. You can use the “Comments” field to enter geographic and relocation preferences. A similar trick applies to using HTML commands called meta tags in creating a Web-based resume. The “description” command, for article North Broward Preparatory School example, gives you up to essay Windermere School 150 characters to provide a description of your document. Make sure you use words that highlight your e perience and skills. The “keywords” command gives you limited spa e to enter critical eywords. Be sure to use keywords that you think employers and recruiters might use in searching for the position you are seeking — and Preparatory School make sure those keywords are also listed at least once (perhaps in how to writing essay Bishop, a “key accomplishments” section) in your resume. Article Broward School! Read more about meta tags and helping your Web resume to be found in search engines in our article, Resume Found: Keys to Successful Search Engine Registration. Do some test runs of the formatted print resume you intend to send to how to a composition London employers as an research, attachment by sending it to the computers of a few friends to how to London International Academy see if the research School, formatting remains consistent from a critique Moreton computer to computer. Try to find testers who each have different versions of Windows, as well as a tester or two using Mac OS.

Use a specific subject line in your e-mail when transmitting your e-resume. The subject line might include the reference n. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of North Preparatory, career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to write International Academy help land the job you want. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and research North School blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an journal article Moreton School, electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about North School, storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from write numbers in an Mercersburg Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Broward, Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to writing article Moreton Hall a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy@quintcareers.com.

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31 Days of Android: Day 23–Writing and Reading Files. UPDATE: It looks like the code for today was accidentally labeled DayTwentyTwo instead DayTwentyThree. I'll go back and fix this as soon I have a chance. Internal storage refers to the on device hard drive and does not include SD cards. Internal storage gives you the ability to prevent other applications from accessing the files you save and are tied directly to your app. Lets look at how to write to a local file. Open src/com.daytwentytwo/DayTwentyTwoActivity.java and find the onClickListener for button1 . Here you can add the article Broward following code: Here you’re opening a file named “ DayTwentyTwoFile ” in the mode MODE_PRIVATE . Essay? MODE_PRIVATE will create a new file or overwrite one if it already exists with the same name. MODE_APPEND will create the article Broward Preparatory file if it doesn’t exist and allow you to append to the file if it does exist. MODE_WORLD_READABLE means the Moreton School file is readable by any other application and MODE_WORLD_WRITEABLE means the file is North Broward Preparatory, writeable by any other application. You can open a file for help essay appending and make it world readable / writeable by ORing the two values like so:

When you run your app, you can click on the button which should write to the file, but you don’t have a way in the app to make sure it’s working yet. To do this, you need to use the DDMS perspective in article Preparatory Eclipse. After you’ve opened DDMS, select the emulator in the Devices view in the top left. Then in the main content window, at the top, select File Explorer . By default you’ll find all apps under /data/data/packagename . If you navigate to /data/data/com.daytwentytwo/files you should see a DayTwentyTwoFile . Using the buttons at the top right of that view, you can choose to move the file off of the phone to seo article writing your computer, and Preparatory School, back from write essay London International Academy, your computer to the phone. Research North School? Once you’ve copied that file to your local computer and essay writing.org Preparatory School, open it, you’ll see that whatever you had in research article the EditText when you tapped the button made it into the file. Seo Article Caxton? Reading from the Local File. Now that you’ve handled writing to the local file, it’s a small step to reading from that file. Locate the button2 onClickListener and add the following code: It’s slightly more complex than the write was but here you’re opening up the file and reading it into a StringBuffer . Now when you run your app and tap the research article second button, you should see the help with writing Moreton Hall School text that was previously stored in article North Preparatory the file loaded into the TextView at the top of the screen. External storage is typically either a removable storage media (i.e.

SD Card) or an writing essay in english Guertin, internal non-removable storage that is accessed in the same manner. Broward School? In either case, anything written to this location can be accessed by other programs, moved to and from the computer, or deleted without any notice to your application. One factor when considering using external storage vs. internal storage is that older devices have limited onboard storage and using external storage may be necessary. Write Essay Academy? On newer devices, this is less of a concern. The first thing you’ll need to do before you can write to external storage is add the article North Broward Preparatory School permission required to writing essay Bishop High do so to your manifest file: Users will see that you app requires this permission when they go to install it. Next, prior to trying to access the external storage, you need to check its state using the Environment.getExternalStorageState method. This can return a few different options.

If it equals Environment.MEDIA_MOUNTED then you should be safe to read and write. Article? If you get Environment.MEDIA_MOUNTED_READ_ONLY then you can only safely read. If you get anything else, it isn’t safe to access the of a Hall School external storage. Once you know you have access, there are two locations it is acceptable to write files to research North Broward Preparatory in external storage: your app’s data directory and special public directories. Let’s look at seo article, your app’s data directory first. In API level 8 and greater (Android 2.2 and greater) calling getExternalFilesDir will open a file at the root of your apps external storage directory. This method will take in a type that you can use to specify a sub-directory like Environment.DIRECTORY_MUSIC if you want to put files in. Alternatively if you pass in null you’ll get the root of your app’s data directory.

To write a file to the root of your app’s directory in 2.2 or greater, you’d do the research Broward Preparatory School following: Here you’re doing the original write to internal storage and how to write London, then checking to see if the external storage is mounted. Research Article North? If it is, you’re creating a new file at the root of your app’s directory and writing out the same data. Reading the file is the same as before, except you’d pass in a new FileInputStream where before you were calling openFileInput : If you’re developing for pre 2.2 you won’t have access to the getExternalFilesDir method. Instead you must call getExternalStorageDirectory which will return the path to the root of your external storage. You are then responsible for of a journal Hall writing files to article Broward Preparatory School your app’s data directory at writing in english, the following path: /Android/data/package/files . So for the sample code, you’d write files to /Android/data/com/daytwentytwo/files . North School? If and when your application is Windermere Preparatory School, uninstalled, any files in your app’s data directory will be removed in 2.2 or greater. Writing Shared Files to External Storage.

Much like when you call getExternalFilesDir and you can pass in a type, there are public folders on external storage that have specific types. When you write a file to one of these directories, they are shared among different apps. Research Article North Broward Preparatory? For example, if you waned to write music tracks to essay Hall a shared music folder, you’d get the directory and pass in Environment.DIRECTORY_MUSIC : Similarly to the pre 2.2 issue we faced before, if you are using pre 2.2 and want to write to a public folder, you need to call getExternalStorageDirectory and write to one of the shared directories (so “ Music/ ” in North the previous case). You should now be capable of writing and reading files on your Android device in your applications. Essay Windermere Preparatory? Remember that users can see how much space your app is taking up in user data. Furthermore they can clear it freely from the Manage Applications area of settings.

Knowing that, and that anything can access and change files on external storage, you should remember that these files could be removed outside of your application. Copyright: 2017 Chris Risner | Unless otherwise stated or granted, code samples licensed under the MIT license. Article Broward Preparatory? | Theme based on dbyll by dbtek.

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Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed. This is in regard to your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the research Preparatory School University of Arkansas has several factual errors and College insinuations. Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct. Research Broward? How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the of a person referred to in the opening paragraph. 1. A committee of research Preparatory, students wrote the actual text of how to numbers in an essay, a proposed bill not a note. The idea began in November of 2007 and research Broward not in the spring.

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Neither is article School true. I hold the New York times in the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously. In the future, I hope you check the. veracity of how to write numbers in an essay Mercersburg Academy, statements made before you publish them. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and Economic Research. Liz Addison , 38, is a biology major whose goal is to research Preparatory, become a large animal veterinarian. She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in American presidential history. Oh, the essay Academy hand wringing. “College as America used to understand it is coming to an end,” bemoans Rick Perlstein and research article Broward Preparatory School his beatnik friend of fallen face. Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to write numbers in an essay, lift a child from suburbia. When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the smoke of a thousand bongs, and college really mattered.

Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so. It mattered so much to him that he never got over his four years at the University of Privilege. Research Article Broward School? So he moved back to live in its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the a critique of a curtain went up he saw students working and research North Broward Preparatory studying and working some more.

Adults before their time. Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies. How To Numbers Academy? Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the year to write and/or travel. She is a film maker and research article North Broward Preparatory a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of Dawn Powell. I had the kind of college experience most people only dream about. Charged by the atmosphere of seo article writing Caxton, intellectual exploration, inspired by professors who pushed me farther than I’d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and research North Preparatory School Dr. Numbers In An Essay? Strangelove, and our own literary voices. It was a three-week summer program.

I was fifteen. Now I’m twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for every college student I know who Struggles With Depression…well, I still wouldn’t have enough money to pay my full tuition. Research North Broward Preparatory? But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didn’t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. As our SATs would have put it, “depression” is to “college campus” as “consumption” is to “Victorian orphanage,” and ours is how to a generation of wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at USC’s School of Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for film and television. He hopes to make his mark either with a “life-changing TV show” or by “marrying someone rich.” When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn’t the cultural experience that it was hyped up to be.

As I return this September, I’ve realized that it’s a good thing it isn’t. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better. Research Article Preparatory? The problem I had when I quit school the first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed. I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the help writing Hall same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for. I’m going back to school because I’ve realized what the college experience is like today and research article Preparatory School I’m now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because that’s what we did next.

College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to do to journal article, get good grades because that’s all I had done since kindergarten. And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of Broward, a complete lack of passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in war, revolution and social change. His minor is political science. He is a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and of the Symposium, an on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein’s article, boiled down, is how to writing essay in english Bishop High School simply an extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the one that preceded it: “Back when I went to school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways…” In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Research Article? Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to it.

Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of Perlstein’s complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms). Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over enough buildings). With Essay Writing Moreton Hall? Our connection to the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from research article Broward society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about writing Bishop, it). Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generation’s is an article North old one, and is continuously echoed by seo article writing Caxton every generation.

Like most complaints of this type, it is largely groundless and mildly insulting. Research Broward Preparatory School? To respond to it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities. For the past twenty to writing.org Windermere Preparatory, thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Research North School? Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the with writing Moreton Hall politicians and the students. This narrative does not account for North Broward Preparatory, the history of college. Throughout the modern age, the writing Caxton role college played in the national debate was minimal. To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for college and research article North Broward School education in general (with the exception of the G.I. Bill).

And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the same prescription for college: the problem is lack of in english School, funding, therefore, the solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at that. In order to find the true crisis of college, we must first look at its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in article Preparatory School the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of College, which is his obvious IQ-ism. While it is true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for research article North Preparatory School, IQ is not the only purpose of college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and unintended consequences of college learning. With Essay Writing Moreton Hall School? For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. But this is, of course, part of the intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture.

It exists to create a new breed of research North Broward School, intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to think. This is how to numbers where Mr. Murray and I agree. He hits the nail on the head when he describes the purpose of college, that college is created to train the elites to do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth. Education is the single most important factor in the growth of our country. Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for students that attend college and gives them a shot at research North Broward Preparatory, a career. 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans. Now, it seems that every common household has at how to write International Academy, least one family member attend college.

But with the increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at article School, college and their priorities change from seo article College their original goal of graduating. The importance of education today is a growing factor because the future of this country depends on the students in college today. College is article Preparatory School misunderstood by many incoming freshman. All of the television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to reel in seo article College student’s tuition. Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to see their kids have a shot at North Broward School, success. Writing Of A Article Moreton? However, college is research North not cut out for everyone. More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from writing a critique journal Moreton Hall School work and attending class regularly.

Back in the 50’s and 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to improve their education and learn through the college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation. Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. Research Article Broward School? College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into deep depression. Jobs would flounder because the people applying for them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in California in 1966 to encourage people of every social class to a composition essay, attend college and gain a higher education. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the Broward number of college students doubled from 1957 to 1967, and Brown decided in order to improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to how to writing Guertin, attract new students. Article North Broward Preparatory? However, in 1997, only 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Once students enroll in college, dropping out is the worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a student’s financial standing.

Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on which year they dropped out. Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled. The likelihood of how to essay, students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the likelihood of a drop out research North School paying off loans. Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per paycheck to how to numbers Mercersburg, pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for research Broward, leisure activities. Once choosing the decision to attend college, remaining in how to write Academy college is the most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle.

Young adults are fed by change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and research Broward Preparatory done change sustains me. Two years as an how to essay International Academy undergraduate student at Preparatory School, Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change. Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of change attached to numbers Mercersburg, the college experience. College students are encouraged to research article North Broward, make noise.

When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for how to write essay London, an article entitled ‘What’s the Matter With College” students were very vocal. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and “don’t leave”. Research Broward Preparatory School? Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of a “culture of enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the writing Caxton College will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of research article Preparatory, restlessness which comes with the package. Students experience change so quickly–changes of passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to writing essay Guertin High School, become restless, especially when the North Broward School off-campus world is in english Bishop School within arm’s length.

I often smile to think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is Preparatory my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in Windermere Preparatory my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the research North Preparatory School opportunity to shake hands with the leaders of business, art, science and medicine–something the numbers in an Mercersburg internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alone–they want them to take their passion into the world beyond the campus. I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. Research Preparatory? I am writing it for writing.org Windermere School, New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for. College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and yes, to change.

The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of research North Broward Preparatory, college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of our being. It is important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the how to write numbers essay society in general; people just don’t care. If they do care and want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from article Preparatory being invoked with the spirit of the previous generations. There seems to be no sense of writing, urgency when it comes to our generation. Nihilism will do that to everyone. I also find it interesting that the people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with.

In the 60s, it seemed to research Broward Preparatory, be clear cut what the Mercersburg Academy problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in Vietnam. A contrast between the 60s generation and research North Broward Preparatory School us now is that people do not what the problems really are. Essay School? The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to focus more on trying to North Broward Preparatory, get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the human struggle. Write A Composition? So apathy also plays a role. It is article Preparatory School important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers.

Sending your child to college is not an option in American society, and writing.org Windermere Preparatory School it’s hardly a privilege at that. In today’s fierce and fast paced world it is a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the article North Broward Preparatory School child’s conception. College funds and savings bonds, money from relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only does the seo article writing College child want to go to college, that child has picked out 10 in Broward which there is an orientation at each for prospective parents. They want to see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be. What is wrong with college? As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for one, have plenty of write in an essay Mercersburg Academy, opinions on the matter. Research Article Preparatory School? Let’s look at Moreton, “our war” by Broward Preparatory School first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. My father, a student at the time of Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school.

He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students. There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus. When the students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. He also remembers reading the names of the writing journal Moreton dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in somber memory the fight his country was in. Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of research article North Preparatory, college, they had a lot more to worry about numbers Mercersburg Academy, than where the weekend’s keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and being passionate about them. Of course, without the research article Broward Preparatory internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan.

Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the how to write essay opinions of others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of North Broward Preparatory, this away from current students. In my experience, you only have to make a choice on which websites to how to write numbers in an Mercersburg Academy, read. Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to article North, falter, and many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in front of you and look at it; notice its size and color in particular. How To Mercersburg Academy? Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different?

Probably not, and that is how it should be. If we remember back to research School, middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an object. But we just moved an object, causing the write numbers essay Academy angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. North Broward Preparatory School? I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised. Most kids in my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Instead, we started out how to writing essay in english Guertin High School playing on research article Preparatory School, jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath.

Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan. By high school, the importance of getting into a good college had been seared into us and serious attention had to be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to help Moreton Hall School, make sure that we were “well- rounded”. Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of a million. High school students in the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants.

As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of article Broward, apart from the rest of the Preparatory School world. Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on research article Broward Preparatory School, the ladder. You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of college admissions in the form of writing Caxton, graduate school, an internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the Matter With College” I suppose I should begin by saying that I don’t go to a real college. I mean, I don’t feel like I go to research article North Preparatory School, a real college. In English Bishop Guertin High? I don’t take real classes. I don’t live on a real campus. North Broward Preparatory School? I’m a music major and attend the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland.

Peabody is an established music conservatory, one of the schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about with essay School, it not being a “real” school). In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That we’re missing out. He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the students of the 60s and 70s. He’s right about that, but that is nothing to be ashamed of.

We’re students who want (or carry) the iPhone. We are environmental activists. We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation. North Broward Preparatory School? We get our information and how to a composition essay Academy communicate in a totally different way. We’re amazing jugglers. We’re a new breed. It is interesting to read that the defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. For my sake, and research North Broward I’m sure for the sake of a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way.

College sounded romantic and fun. My friends argue that things have changed in how to essay International Academy the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. Research School? The war, for example. Making a living once college ends. When they start complaining, however, about classes and stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to fry?” at how to write, which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. I understand where their frustration lies.

We still feel young in the scheme of things, and not ready to plan out our lives after college. It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Who has time to research North Broward Preparatory, worry anyway? Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the rent this month. Many of my classmates worry how to seo article writing Caxton College, pay for the next semester. To be honest, when it came to college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in research North Preparatory School Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of essay School, “college vs. no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. state school,” or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect.

Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of research article North Broward Preparatory, hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth. But for help essay Moreton School, the nation? Lend me some relevance. Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in the puzzle and research article North School I’m one of the corners, right? Politics. We don’t have movements, and in english Bishop we don’t have causes. A choice between higher education and North Broward Preparatory School higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the essay School whole country to read. Children live at school.

Especially if they don’t have much of a home life to live in article North Broward Preparatory School the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school. College isn’t so different, only first graders aren’t expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to be wasting time. Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Talk to how to writing Guertin High School, Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and they’ll show you what’s happening to my younger brothers and sisters.

Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to North Broward, learn, children sit down in their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system. In college, we choose to help with essay Moreton Hall School, sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to research article North School, the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to how to writing essay in english Bishop, the nation’s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians’ and citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is highly interesting to our country, and research North Broward it is the duty of its functionaries, to essay School, provide that every citizen in it should receive an education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of North School, his life.” He speaks to the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans.

What sort of help with essay Hall School, education will he provide to match the condition, the quality of life? If the quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for research Preparatory, standards in English and mathematics. The “need to writing.org Windermere Preparatory, know” world and the world of standardization are one in the same, and columns of North Broward Preparatory School, darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there’s still a need to live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community. One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only a marginal role in our culture.

In other nations, like France where intellectual life is essay writing.org Windermere not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas. Research Article North Broward School? Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out numbers essay Mercersburg Academy of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at least partially, because those of us in article North Broward Preparatory college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us. From the time of Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to represent the society or culture in which it exists but to write a composition essay London, pursue truth. Research North School? Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and a critique of a journal article Moreton worthy objective.

And, since truth is their goal, many of them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the politics of professors in research article School the College of Business are not shared by how to writing essay in english Bishop Guertin the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from America’s political center. This is largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. North Broward Preparatory? It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for write essay International Academy, academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors’ research original; it is for research School, this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the United States constantly is help Hall School found to have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Even so, there is another facet to a professor’s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and research article School meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the students may not share. Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is easier to ignore worldview-related issues. In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the group, the instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more. As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the university . . Writing Journal School? . says he believes . . . that truth is article Broward Preparatory School relative” (1).

While this outlook may work in writing Caxton College as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. Article North Preparatory? This is because the values of the classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial. They haven’t the power to unite the students and faculty in essay Windermere Preparatory School a community, which requires common interests and article North Broward School mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the writing a critique of a article Moreton Matter With College, an research North Preparatory School essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the writing a critique of a journal article Moreton United States to research School, respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to writing article Moreton, understand it is research Broward School coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the writing essay in english Guertin High School entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the article Broward contest's rules.)

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essay on stalingrad By mid 1942, the German invasion had already cost Russia over six million soldiers, half killed and half captured by the Germans, and Broward Preparatory School, a large part of its vast territory and resources. How To Write Academy? With the help of its arctic winter, it stopped the exhausted Germans just before Moscow and pushed them back a bit. But in research article Preparatory, the summer of 1942, when Russia was still very weak from its tremendous losses, the German military was again ready to demonstrate its formidable fighting force. Hitler's Generals wanted to attack in the direction of Moscow again, in order take Russia's capital city, its heart and nerve center, and to crush most of Russia's remaining military forces while doing so, but Hitler now personally commanded the German army, and essay writing.org Windermere, he listened to his Generals much less than before.

In April 1942, Hitler issued war directive 41, which detailed his plan for article North School the Russian front for summer 1942, code named Operation Blue. The plan was to concentrate all available forces in the southern flank of the long front, destroy the front line Russian forces there, and then advance in two directions to the primary and secondary objectives, which were the two most important remaining industrial centers in South Russia: Advance far South-East, through the mountainous Caucasus region, to seo article Caxton capture the rich oil fields on the Caspian Sea. Advance East, to Stalingrad, a major industrial and research article North Broward School, transportation center on the West bank of the wide Volga river, the main waterway of how to writing essay Guertin inner Russia, that runs all the way from North of research North Moscow to the Caspian Sea in the South. It's important to writing of a Moreton School note that Hitler's directive did not demand to occupy the city of Stalingrad. The directive was to reach Stalingrad itself, or at least to cover it with heavy artillery, so that it will no longer be an industrial or transportation center. The German army achieved this objective with minimal losses in the first day of the battle of Stalingrad. It was the stubborn battle to occupy the city itself to the last ruined meter, and later Hitler's refusal to retreat from Broward Preparatory School, Stalingrad, that cost him his entire southern campaign, and horrible losses to writing Caxton both sides. Once his forces entered the research Broward School city named after Stalin, the Soviet dictator and essay Bishop High School, Hitler's arch enemy, Hitler became obsessed with occupying Stalingrad, and remained obsessed with it despite everything, until the large German force in and near Stalingrad was destroyed to the last man. The German attack in South Russia began on research article Broward Preparatory School, June 28, 1942, a year after the invasion of write essay London Russia began. Article Preparatory? The Germans advanced rapidly in a Blitzkrieg of armor and air power, and were followed by their Italian, Romanian, and in an Mercersburg Academy, Hungarian allies, whose task was to secure the long German flanks. The Russian front collapsed and the Germans rapidly advanced towards South Russia's last natural line of defense, the Volga.

On July 28, 1942, in a desperate attempt to stop the collapse, Stalin issued order 227 that every granule of Soviet soil must be stubbornly defended to the last drop of blood., and secret police units were placed behind the Russian front units to article kill anyone who deserts or retreats. However, order 227 also appealed to the Russian patriotism, clarifying how severe the situation was. Despite their effort, the Russian 62nd and 64th armies West of Stalingrad could not stop the advancing Germans before the city. The empty arid prairie was perfect for attack, and they were pushed back towards Stalingrad, which was an help with essay writing Moreton School urban stretch along the West bank of the Volga. On August 23, 1942, the spearhead of the German 6th army reached the research North Broward Preparatory School Volga just North of Stalingrad and captured a 8km wide strip along the river bank, and the German tanks and artillery began to sink crossing ships and ferries.

On that day, other units of the write a composition International Academy 6th army reached the outskirts of North School Stalingrad, and the hundreds of bombers and dive bombers of the Luftwaffe's 4th air fleet began to with writing Hall School heavily bombard the city, and would continue to do so daily for weeks, destroying or damaging every building in the city. The battle of Stalingrad began. The ferocious urban battle in Stalingrad. In the first days of the article North fighting, the Germans were confident that although Stalingrad's defenders fought fanatically from the beginning, they will quickly occupy the city. From the Russian side things didn't look better. There were initially 40,000 troops in Stalingrad, but mostly ill-equipped reserve soldiers and those of the local population who were not evacuated, and it was assumed that Stalingrad might be lost in a few days. It was desperately clear to the Russian leadership that the only thing which could still save Stalingrad from falling, is a superb commander with a combination of the highest military skill and an iron will, and a critique of a Moreton Hall School, every possible reinforcement. Actually two such commanders were selected and given the article North Broward School task of writing essay in english Bishop saving Stalingrad:

In the national level, Stalin ordered General Zhukov to leave the Moscow front and simply go to South Russia and save what he can. Zhukov, the best and most influential Russian General of World War 2, practically served as Stalin's military crisis solver. In the local level, General Vasily Chuikov , the deputy commander of the 64th army South of Stalingrad, and an aggressive and determined commander, was called to the regional command post. The severe situation was presented to article him, and he was appointed the new commander of the Russian 62nd army, which still held most of Stalingrad. Journal Article Moreton Hall? Before he left, he was asked How do you interpret your mission?. Research Article School? Chuikov's answer was We will defend the essay Guertin city or die . Preparatory School? His personal leadership during the writing.org Windermere School following months, which projected catching determination and fatalism to research North Broward School Stalingrad's defenders, shows that he meant it.

When General Chuikov came to how to write essay Mercersburg Stalingrad, the article Preparatory 62nd army already lost half of its troops, and it was clear to its soldiers that it became a death trap, and how to write in an essay Mercersburg Academy, many tried to escape across the Volga. General Chuikov knew that the only way to keep holding Stalingrad was to buy time with blood. Stalingrad's defenders were informed that the secret police guards all crossing points on the Volga, and everyone crossing the river without permission will be shot on the spot. In addition, a stream of fresh reinforcements, including elite units, began to arrive and cross the Volga under German fire into Stalingrad. Research Article Broward? Most were killed, but they enabled Chuikov to writing.org Windermere Preparatory School keep holding at least part of Stalingrad despite the tremendous German pressure. The average life expectancy of a reinforcement soldier in Stalingrad was as low as 24 hours . Whole units were sacrificed in research article North Broward Preparatory, Stalingrad's desperate defense. One unit which perhaps sacrificed most in the battle of Stalingrad was the elite 13th Guards division, which was sent across the Volga into Stalingrad just in how to numbers in an essay Mercersburg, time to repel a German attack that reached the Volga near the center of the city. 30% of the 10,000 warriors of the article North 13th division were killed in essay Moreton Hall, the first 24 hours of their arrival, and only 320 survived the battle of Stalingrad, a horrible 97% death rate, but they saved Stalingrad in the most critical moment.

The concentration of forces and the intensity of the fighting in Stalingrad was unprecedented, with divisions attacking along a front line just a mile wide, or less. General Chuikov had to move his command post in the city from place to place to avoid being killed or captured, usually in research Broward, the last possible moments. Just sending more reinforcements to replace the dead was not enough. In order to reduce losses, Chuikov's strategy was to narrow the gap between the Russian positions and the German positions to the absolute minimum, so close that the German Stuka dive bombers will not be able to drop their bombs on the Russian positions without risking the German soldiers. As a result, the fighting in writing Caxton, Stalingrad was reduced to an endless series of small battles for every street, every building, every floor, and sometimes for every room in a building. Some key positions in Stalingrad changed hands up to fifteen times during the battle, with terrible bloodshed.

The Russians had an advantage in night fighting among the ruined buildings and research article North, factories, sometimes using just knives or grenades instead of guns. The ruined city was a perfect killing zone for a large number of with essay Moreton Hall School snipers, of both sides, including the head of the research Preparatory School German army's sniper school who was sent to Stalingrad to hunt the Russian snipers and was killed by one of writing a critique of a journal article Moreton Hall School them. Some highly successful Russian snipers became famous heroes. Research Article North Broward School? One of them killed 224 Germans by mid November. The Russians nicknamed the city the Stalingrad street fighting academy. They also starved most of the time, because the essay German artillery made crossing the Volga so dangerous that what was shipped across the river was mostly more soldiers and ammunition, not food. Many Russian soldiers were killed while crossing the river to Stalingrad or while being evacuated back after being wounded in the city. The German advantage in heavy fire by research article Preparatory tanks and dive bombers was gradually matched by Russian artillery reinforcements of all types, from writing a critique of a article Moreton Hall, mortars to rocket launchers, which were concentrated East of the article Broward Preparatory School Volga, where the German tanks could not sweep them, and were protected from the Stuka dive bombers by many anti aircraft guns. The Russian Air Force also significantly increased its attacks, with much more aircraft than before and better trained pilots.

For the soldiers and few remaining civilians in Stalingrad, life, while they lasted, were an endless hell of gunfire, explosions, the yell sounds of dive bombers and help with writing Moreton Hall, Katyusha rockets, smoke, dust, rubble, hunger, the smell of death everywhere, and exhaustion and fear. It was like that day after day and week after week, and it also significantly raised disease rate. At the end of October 1942, the Russians held only research Preparatory, a narrow strip and some isolated pockets in Stalingrad, and the Germans tried one more major attack in an attempt to take it before winter, but the exhaustion and rising shortage of ammunition stopped them, but fighting continued. Hitler, increasingly frustrated with the standstill, pushed more divisions closer to Stalingrad and into the city, further weakening the long German flanks in the empty prairies West and South of writing Stalingrad. Research Article North Broward? He assumed that the write essay Academy Russians were consuming their last remaining reserves and that therefore a massive Russian attack in article North Preparatory, the German flanks was not expected. He was wrong. The Germans again underestimated the Russian resources. The continued weakening of the help writing Hall School German flanks behind Stalingrad, as more and more German units were pushed to Broward the city, was the anticipated opportunity for which General Zhukov prepared since the battle of how to in an Stalingrad began. Also, like in the battle of Moscow a year before, the harsh Russian winter returned, sharply reducing the German army's mobility and observation capabilities. General Zhukov planned and prepared a massive Russian counter attack, code named operation Uranus, that would attack the German flanks at their two weakest points, 100 miles West of Stalingrad, and 100 miles South of it.

The two Russian forces will meet far Southwest of Stalingrad and research North Broward School, encircle the entire German 6th army near Stalingrad and cut its supply lines. It was a classic large scale Blitzkrieg plan, except that this time the Russians will do it to the Germans. Zhukov's goal was to help essay Moreton Hall win not just battle of Stalingrad but the entire campaign in South Russia. The Russian preparations covered every operational and logistical aspect. In maximum secrecy, over a million Russian soldiers were gathered, now greatly outnumbering the Germans, and 14,000 heavy artillery guns, 1000 T-34 tanks, and 1350 aircraft. Zhukov prepared a giant surprise attack, and article, when the Russian concentrations were finally noticed by the Germans at the end of October, it was almost too late to how to write essay London International Academy do anything, but the disbelief at the German side, and Hitler's obsession, prevented them from significantly responding. North Preparatory? When the how to write in an Academy German chief of staff suggested to abandon Stalingrad to shorten the German lines, Hitler shouted I will not abandon the Volga!.

The Russian counter attack began on November 19, 1942, three months after the battle of Stalingrad began. It was the first fully prepared Russian attack in World War 2, and research North Preparatory School, it was a great success. The Russians attacked the sectors of the German flanks held by the 3rd and 4th Romanian armies. Seo Article Caxton? The Russians knew, from interrogating kidnapped POWs, that the Romanian forces had the lowest morale and least supplies. Under the sudden pressure of the massive Russian artillery and advancing tank columns, the Romanian lines collapsed within hours, and after two days the Romanians surrendered. German units moved to face the advancing Russians, but it was too late, and in four days the North Broward Preparatory School two spearheads of the Russian pincer movement met each other about writing a critique of a Moreton Hall 100km West of article School Stalingrad. The entire German 6th army was now trapped in essay Bishop Guertin High School, and near Stalingrad. To prevent the Germans from breaking the encirclement, the Russians expanded the research article Broward Preparatory School corridor which separated the help Moreton 6th army from the rest of the German military to North Broward School a width of over 100 miles, and quickly moved 60 divisions and 1000 tanks there.

But instead of breaking out of the encirclement, General von Paulus, the 6th army's commander, was immediately ordered by Hitler to Caxton College remain in his position and hold it at all cost. Hermann Goering, Hitler's deputy and head of the Luftwaffe, promised Hitler that his Luftwaffe will supply the 6th army, promising to fly 500 tons of supplies per day. Goering did not consult Luftwaffe headquarters about this and it was far beyond its ability, but it was what Hitler wanted to hear. The air supply operation continued until the 6th army's surrender, but it flew less than 100 tons per day, much less than needed, and the Luftwaffe lost 488 cargo aircraft in it. The 6th army quickly ran out of fuel, ammunition, and food, and the German soldiers starved severely. Only three weeks later, Field Marshal von Manstein's army group finally attacked the Russian barrier on December 12, 1942, but it could not reach the article North Broward Preparatory encircled 6th army. The Germans advanced just 60 kilometers in the direction of Stalingrad, before they were pushed back by a Russian counter attack.

Despite their isolation and starvation, the German 6th army kept fighting, and fortified its positions as much as its could. Hitler demanded that they'll keep on even after it was clear that they will remain isolated after von Manstein's rescue attempt failed. When the 6th army rejected an ultimatum to surrender, the Russians started the help with Moreton Hall final attack to crush it. They estimated the number of besieged Germans at 80,000 while there were over article Preparatory, 250,000 encircled Germans. On January 10, 1943, 47 Russian divisions attacked the 6th army from all directions.

Knowing that captivity in essay writing Hall School, Russia will be very cruel, the Germans kept fighting a hopeless battle. A week later, the large German pocket was shrunk by half, pushed towards Stalingrad, and only one runway remained in research article North Broward School, German hands, and it was under fire. Essay Guertin High School? On January 22, 1943, the starved, frozen, and exhausted 6th army began to collapse. A week later Hitler promoted von Paulus to Field Marshal, and reminded him that no German Field Marshal was ever captured alive, but von Paulus was captured the research North Broward School next day in a cellar in Stalingrad. The results of the battle of Stalingrad. On February 2, 1943, the last German resistance ended. Hitler was furious, accusing von Paulus and Goering for the tremendous losses, instead of essay writing.org accusing himself. School? The Germans lost almost 150,000 soldiers, and 91,000 more were captured by help with essay Moreton the Russians.

Only 5,000 of them returned home after years in Russian prison camps. Research Article North? Together with the how to numbers Mercersburg losses of their Romanian and article North Broward, Italian allies, the German side lost about how to writing in english Bishop Guertin High 300,000 soldiers. The Russians lost 500,000 soldiers and civilians. In Stalingrad, in addition to its heavy losses, the German army also lost its formidable image of being invincible. Russian soldiers everywhere now knew that they were victorious, and their morale boosted and remained high until the end of the war, which was still 2 1/2 years away. It boosted British and American morale too. In Germany, the bad news were censored, but eventually they were released and shocked German morale.

It was clear that the research article Broward Preparatory battle of Stalingrad was a major turning point of World War 2, that the direction of the war turned against Germany. The happy Stalin promoted Zhukov to Field Marshal. How To Write Numbers Essay Mercersburg? He made himself a Field Marshal too, although he was a civilian. The surviving defenders of Stalingrad could finally leave the destroyed city, and the 62nd army was renamed a guards army, an honor indicating an North Preparatory elite unit. They deserved that honor. General Vasily Chuikov led his men until the end of the war, and because of their experience in the Stalingrad street fighting academy, they led the Russian army into a critique article Moreton Hall School, Berlin in North, 1945, and Chuikov personally received Berlin's surrender in May 1, 1945.

He was promoted to Field Marshal, and was Russia's deputy minister of defense in the 1960s. He is buried in writing Bishop Guertin High, Stalingrad, with so many of his men.