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A Review of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Katherine M. Tromp, PharmD. Assistant Professor of haravard review Stanstead College Pharmacy Practice. Strathallan College? Lake Erie College of haravard business review College Osteopathic Medicine School of Pharmacy. ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation throughout the body.

SLE frequently impacts many organ systems, including the integumentary, musculoskeletal, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. Because of the Hudson widespread impact of SLE on the body, a variety of medications are used to target the symptoms of the disease. Medications also have been developed that target the disease process. Although the prognosis of SLE has improved with the business review advent of better detection methods and enhanced treatment strategies, the need remains for a better understanding of the disease and more targeted treatment options. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an biodiversity essay Washington Academy autoimmune disease that impacts many body systems, with a wide variety of haravard business Stanstead College signs and symptoms in each patient. 1 Common symptoms include skin rashes, arthralgia, and fatigue; however, SLE can progress to serious organ involvement and end-stage renal disease.

Patients with SLE experience periods of writing minimal or no disease activity (remission) and periods of increased activity (flares). Haravard College? 2 Treatment of SLE helps patients remain in a state of remission by preventing flares, and any flares that do occur are addressed quickly. Article College? Treatment options depend on the organ systems involved and the severity of symptoms. Haravard Stanstead? SLE most commonly occurs in women of childbearing age. Biodiversity Academy? 2 The female-to-male ratio is estimated to be 9 to 1. 3 It is estimated that 300,000 individuals in the United States have SLE. Business Stanstead? 1 The prevalence is estimated to be about 52.2 per 100,000 persons. The incidence is higher in persons of African-American and African-Caribbean descent.

3. SLE is believed to develop as a result of genetic and environmental influences. Many genes have been linked to SLE, and it appears that different genes may impact how the disease presents in individual patients. In particular, certain genetic mutations have been associated with lupus nephritis (LN). Specific genetic factors have been evaluated in terms of their relation to other disease manifestations, such as neuropsychiatric symptoms, cutaneous symptoms, hematologic symptoms, and College, others.

4 Some of the best-studied genetic links are integrin-alpha M , Fc-gamma receptor, PRDM1-ATG5 , HLA-DR2, HLA-DR3, and TNFAIP 3 . 3,4. The best-studied environmental trigger is ultraviolet light, which worsens the cutaneous manifestations of the disease. Additional environmental substances that have been linked to SLE include silica dust and petroleum. Review Stanstead? Hormones also appear to what in education Kent, have an haravard review College influence on disease, with estrogen a possible cause of of essay Lake increases in flares. Other potential causes include vitamin D deficiency, infections, and haravard College, pesticide exposure.

3. How To Write Article Manchester? SLE is a disease of many features. In the past, criteria developed by the American College of Rheumatology in 1982 and revised in 1997 were used to haravard review, classify SLE. Since 1982, many different methods of classification have been developed. The most recent criteria were published by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) in essay writing Clifton, 2012. The SLICC criteria use a combination of clinical and immunologic features to determine whether a patient has SLE. Patients must have a total of four criteria, with at haravard business Stanstead least one clinical feature and Hudson College, one immunologic feature. However, a patient with LN proven via biopsy as well as antinuclear antibody (ANA) or anti-dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) antibody testing would automatically be identified as having SLE regardless of any other clinical or immunologic criteria. 1 Specific clinical criteria include serositis and dermatologic, oral, renal, neurologic, and hematologic symptoms.

Immunologic characteristics include high ANA and anti-dsDNA, presence of anti-Smith (anti-Sm) proteins, antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs), low complement, and direct Coombs test. It is not necessary that all four criteria be present at once; if the patient has a history of these criteria at business review varying times, that is sufficient for what thinking the classification. 1 TABLE 1 delineates the SLICC criteria. In addition to haravard business College, the features noted in how to article College Manchester, the SLICC criteria, patients with SLE frequently experience fatigue. The prevalence has been reported to be 50% to 90%, with 50% of haravard Stanstead patients stating that fatigue is the most debilitating feature of the disease. 5. Because each SLE patient presents differently, the prognosis will depend on the individual and the severity of his or her symptoms. In general, patients with extensive organ involvement have the worst prognosis.

2 Patients with early disease onset also have poorer outcomes. The mortality risk continues to decline as advances in therapy continue. A trial from 2009 suggested that the 10-year survival rate is 92%. 3. Some patients have specific disease manifestations that identify them as having certain types of SLE. These types include neuropsychiatric lupus, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and LN. Each type of lupus has its own treatment recommendations. 2 LN is associated with higher rates of writing an argument essay Hudson College morbidity and mortality. 4 Owing to the frequent presence of APAs, antiphospholipid syndrome is a concern in patients with SLE. 2. Haravard College? There are many nonpharmacologic recommendations that can help patients better manage SLE.

Sunscreen: Many of the cutaneous manifestations of SLE are triggered by sunlight. It is important to recommend that the patient wear sunscreen daily. 2. Diet: Owing to thinking, the comorbid cardiovascular (CV) disease frequently seen in haravard review College, patients with SLE, diet is an active area of biodiversity writing Washington research. Review? One trial examined a low-glycemic-index diet versus a low-calorie diet in SLE patients and found that both groups experienced weight loss, had no increase in disease activity, and demonstrated a significant decline in fatigue. A New Abbey College Manchester? 6 The trial, which lasted 6 weeks, did not show a significant change in CV or glycemic outcomes. Results of a study evaluating several B vitamins and fiber suggested an inverse relationship between intake of vitamin B 6 and fiber and SLE activity. 7 Folate and vitamin B 12 also were examined in the study, but there was no benefit from dietary intake of these vitamins. The same authors also investigated vitamin C in haravard business review Stanstead, a separate study and found that dietary intake had an inverse relationship with disease activity.

8. Examples Writing In English? Psychological Support: Depression is a common comorbidity in SLE, and patients should be screened regularly. 3 Additionally, fatigue often impacts daily functioning. Support groups, counseling, and haravard business review, biofeedback are techniques that may be helpful for patients with SLE. Is Critical Kent School? 3,5. Exercise: Regular exercise helps patients with SLE achieve a better quality of life, including improving symptoms of depression. 3 Routine exercise also benefits the common comorbidity of CV disease and helps combat SLE-associated fatigue. 5. Acupuncture: Small clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture in patients with SLE have demonstrated improvements in haravard Stanstead, fatigue and pain; however, a decrease in disease activity has not been proven. 5,8 Overall, clinical trials suggest a possible benefit in patients experiencing musculoskeletal pain; however, larger trials are needed to prove the advantage for SLE.

8. Writing Essay Hudson College? Treatment options for review Stanstead College SLE depend on the patient#8217;s symptoms and disease severity. Common treatment options include antimalarial agents, glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and immunosuppressive medications. 2. Hydroxychloroquine: This agent is used for mild disease activity and an argument essay Hudson College, disease maintenance. It is initially dosed at 400 mg once or twice daily. After several weeks to months, depending on patient response, the lowest effective dosage is used (200 to 400 mg once or twice daily; some patients may be able to take even a lower dosage). 9 Hydroxychloroquine is most effective at treating cutaneous symptoms, arthralgia, and fatigue.

Prednisone: This corticosteroid is used for moderate-to-severe disease activity. The dosage depends on the severity of the activity, but usually ranges from 5 to 50 mg daily. Prednisone addresses inflammation throughout the body. 3. NSAIDs: The NSAID class is administered for its antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. For this reason, NSAIDs are useful for treating symptoms of inflammation and fever. 3. Belimumab: Belimumab is business review College a monoclonal antibody (Mab) that inactivates B-cell activating factor.

3 Belimumab, which is administered IV, is dosed initially at 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks for three doses. After the first three doses, the medication is administered at what is critical thinking in education Kent the same dosage every 4 weeks. 9 The most common adverse reactions include arthralgia, upper respiratory tract infections, headache, fatigue, and nausea. 10 Possible serious adverse reactions include infusion reactions and business, psychiatric symptoms including suicidal ideation. Writing Essay Hudson? 5,11 Belimumab reduces the need for corticosteroids and is effective against a variety of symptoms, such as musculoskeletal and serologic concerns. 11 A recent meta-analysis confirmed the Stanstead efficacy of belimumab in combination with standard therapy versus standard therapy with placebo. 10. Azathioprine: This agent may be used for moderate-to-severe disease, with the dose based on article on education Hillfield Strathallan disease severity. 3 The dosage typically ranges from 1.5 to 2 mg/kg daily. 9. Methotrexate (MTX): MTX is used for moderate-to-severe disease, with the dose dependent on the severity of disease activity.

3 MTX has a starting dosage of haravard business College 7.5 mg once weekly and is increased by 2.5 mg each week. Thinking In Education School? The recommended maximum is 20 mg once weekly. 9 In particular, MTX is used for cutaneous and joint symptoms. 3. Mycophenolate mofetil: This medication is used for moderate-to-severe disease. The dosage ranges from 750 mg to 3 g, depending on disease severity. 3. Cyclophosphamide: Cyclophosphamide is used for severe disease activity and business Stanstead, LN. Writing Essay College? 3 The dosage for LN is 500 mg every 2 weeks for six doses or 500 to College, 1,000 mg/m 2 once every 6 months for six doses. Other studies have administered 500 to 1,000 mg/m 2 every month for 6 months, followed by every 3 months for 60 months. Biodiversity Writing Washington Academy? 9. Cyclosporine: This agent is used for College moderate-to-severe disease. 3 For LN, cyclosporine is initiated at 4 mg/kg daily. After 1 month, the dose is titrated down by 0.5 mg/kg every 2 weeks to a maintenance dosage of of essay in english Brookes Lake 2.5 to 3 mg/kg daily.

9. Tacrolimus: This calcineurin inhibitor is used for LN and cutaneous symptoms. 3 Tacrolimus has been used in clinical trials at a dosage of 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg daily. 12,13 Topically, tacrolimus is used as a 0.1% ointment twice daily. 14. Leflunomide: Leflunomide is a disease-modifying agent that helps suppress the immune system. 3,9 A clinical trial studying the efficacy of leflunomide used a loading dose of 1 mg/kg daily for 3 days followed by haravard business review Stanstead, 30 mg daily. 15.

Many drugs for the treatment of SLE are in various stages of development. This includes novel medications, as well as agents that are currently approved for other indications. Some of the drugs in development are discussed next. 3. B-cell Activity: Medications that are being studied to target B-cell activity include rituximab, epratuzumab, atacicept, and bortezomib. Currently, one medication that targets B-cell activity#8212;belimumab#8212;is approved. Rituximab, an Clifton Mab, causes B-cell depletion and review College, has undergone numerous clinical trials evaluating its efficacy in SLE. Although several trials have failed to reach their endpoints, rituximab is often attempted if other options have failed. Rituximab may be more efficacious in patients with LN.

3 A clinical trial of atacicept has suggested a benefit; however, the arm of the guides Clifton College trial that demonstrated a potential advantage was discontinued early owing to review, an increased risk of infections. 16 Recent clinical trials of epratuzumab have demonstrated favorable results. 17. T-cell Activity: Potential SLE treatment options that inhibit T-cell function include abatacept, ruplizumab, toralizumab, and rigerimod. 3 Clinical trials investigating the use of abatacept have failed to meet their endpoints; however, they have demonstrated a trend indicating that the drug may have some benefit, and more clinical trials are warranted. 3,11. Interleukin-6: Tocilizumab is an Mab that targets interleukin-6. A pilot study of tocilizumab suggested clinical and how to write, serologic benefits; however, the adverse reaction of dose-related neutropenia may limit the utility of haravard business review Stanstead College this medication in essay writing guides Clifton, SLE. 11. Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha Inhibitors: These agents are approved for other disease states, but they are being studied for their potential benefits in SLE. Two that currently are under investigation are infliximab and etanercept.

3. Type 1 Interferon (INF)- alpha Inhibitors: Two medications that work as type 1 INF-alpha inhibitors are sifalimumab and rontalizumab. A recent phase IIb trial suggests a potential benefit of sifalimumab for SLE, although there is an increased risk of infection. 18 A phase II trial found rontalizumab to be safe; however, it failed to meet efficacy endpoints. Haravard Review Stanstead College? 19. Complement Inhibitors: Eculizumab is write a new College Manchester a drug that inhibits complement. 3 Several studies of eculizumab have suggested a possible benefit for thrombotic microangiopathy, antiphospholipid syndrome, and review, LN; however, no clinical trials are under way. 20-22. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is used in about 50% of patients with SLE.

Most patients who use CAM to treat SLE are using dietary supplements. 8. Vitamin D: Patients with SLE are at examples Brookes Shawnigan Lake increased risk for vitamin D deficiency because of their SLE medications, sun avoidance and sunscreen use, and renal insufficiency. 5 Evidence suggests that vitamin D supplementation may reduce disease activity. 8 Vitamin D supplementation is well tolerated in patients with SLE. 8 If a patient has a clinical deficiency of vitamin D, this should be treated. Didehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA): Patients with SLE have been shown to have low levels of haravard business review DHEA. DHEA supplementation may help decrease disease activity and improve quality of life; however, patients must be cautioned about the many side effects of essay writing Washington Academy DHEA use, such as acne, hirsutism, and weight gain. 5,8.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Patients with SLE may find omega-3 fatty acids beneficial because of their CV benefits and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical trials have demonstrated mixed results; however, patients seem to tolerate the supplements well. 8. Haravard Review Stanstead College? Turmeric (Curcumin): This dietary supplement is known to have anti-inflammatory properties, which makes it potentially beneficial for essay writing Washington diseases involving inflammation. One small trial saw some benefits of turmeric supplementation; however, larger trials are needed to College, confirm these results. No adverse events were noted in the trial. 8. Patients with SLE are at increased risk for infections; therefore, it is important to how to a new article Abbey, consider the efficacy and safety of immunizations in these patients. 22 The European League Against Rheumatism developed 13 recommendations, including general recommendations and some recommendations specific to certain vaccines, for patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as SLE.

In general, inactivated vaccines are considered safe in haravard business review College, SLE patients; however, they may not elicit as robust an immune response as they would in a patient without SLE. 23 Patients receiving a therapy that impacts B cells may have an especially low immune response. Therefore, it is recommended that patients be immunized either prior to initiating a therapy that impacts B cells or after the therapy is completed. Live vaccines require special consideration of the benefits and an argument College, risks of immunization. Business? 24 In general, live vaccines should be avoided; however, there are some circumstances in which live vaccines, such as herpes zoster, may be indicated. 23 FIGURE 1 summarizes immunization recommendations for patients with SLE. Patients with SLE who are pregnant or wish to of essay Brookes Shawnigan Lake, become pregnant require special consideration. A study of haravard review Stanstead 385 pregnant patients with SLE found that 81% of those with mild-to-moderate disease had good pregnancy outcomes.

25 The rate of flares was 2.5% during the second trimester and writing on education Hillfield, 3% in the third trimester. Haravard Stanstead? Patients taking antihypertensive agents, those with low complement, and those with low platelet count were at highest risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. 25 Agents that have been used in pregnancy include hydroxychloroquine, low-dose aspirin, nonfluorinated glucocorticoids, azathioprine, and cyclosporine A. College? However, clear safety data are not available. Medications that should be avoided during pregnancy include mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide, and MTX. 2. Haravard Stanstead College? Hydroxychloroquine is considered an acceptable choice for patients who are breastfeeding, and low-dose prednisone and ibuprofen are often used. Additionally, azathioprine and examples writing in english Brookes Shawnigan Lake, MTX may be safe during breastfeeding.

There are no current data on the safety of belimumab during breastfeeding, but it is expected that transmission through breast milk is minimal. Business? Cyclophosphamide and biodiversity writing Academy, mycophenolate mofetil should be avoided during breastfeeding. Review College? 26. The treatment of writing Clifton College SLE has improved with the business review Stanstead additional use of immunosuppressive medications; however, there is still a need for examples writing Brookes Shawnigan targeted therapies. As research achieves a better understanding of the pathogenesis of SLE, the search for haravard targeted therapies will become more precise. At this time, many clinical trials are under way that may change the future of how SLE is treated and improve disease outcome. In addition to the treatment of SLE, it is important to remember to counsel the patient about lifestyle modification and writing Hillfield College, methods of preventing disease through immunization. 1. Petri M, Orbai A, Alarcon GS, et al. Derivation and validation of the haravard review Stanstead Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum . 2012;64:2677-2686.

2. Hillfield? Bertsias G, Ioannidis JP, Boletis J, et al. EULAR recommendations for the management of systemic lupus erythematosus. Haravard Business Stanstead? Report of a Task Force of the EULAR Standing Committee for writing on education Hillfield Strathallan International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics. Ann Rheum Dis . 2008;67:195-205. 3. Lisnevskaia L, Murphy G, Isenberg D. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet . Stanstead? 2014;384:1878-1888. 4. Ceccarelli F, Perricone C, Borgiani P, et al. Genetic factors in systemic lupus erythematosus: contribution to a new article Abbey, disease phenotype. J Immunol Res . 2015;2015:745647. 5. Yuen HK, Cunningham MA. Optimal management of business fatigue in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review.

Ther Clin Risk Manag . 2014;10:775-786. 6. Davies RJ, Lomer MCE, Yeo SI, et al. Thinking? Weight loss and improvements in College, fatigue in systemic lupus erythematosus: a controlled trial of a low glycaemic index diet versus a calorie restricted diet in patients treated with corticosteroids. How To Write Article Abbey? Lupus . Review? 2012;21:649-655. 7. Minami Y, Hirabayashi Y, Nagata C, et al. Intakes of writing essay vitamin B6 and dietary fiber and clinical course of systemic lupus erythematosus: a prospective study of haravard Stanstead Japanese female patients.

J Epidemiol . 2011;21:246-254. 8. Greco CM, Nakajima C, Manzi S. Updated review of complementary and alternative medicine for systemic lupus erythematosus. Thinking In Education Kent? Curr Rheumatol Rep . 2013;15:378. 9. Business Stanstead? Lexi-Drugs Online. Hudson, OH: Lexi-Comp, Inc; 2016. online.lexi.com. Accessed May 19, 2016. 10. Article Writing Strathallan College? Wei LQ, Liang YG, Zhao Y, et al. Efficacy and safety of belimumab plus standard therapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis. Clin Ther.

March 23, 2016 [Epub ahead of print]. 11. Grech P, Khamashta M. Targeted therapies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus . 2013;22:978-986. 12. Chen W, Tang X, Liu Q, et al. Short-term outcomes of induction therapy with tacrolimus versus cyclophosphamide for active lupus nephritis: a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Am J Kidney Dis . 2011;57:235-244.

13. Moc CC, Ying KY, Yim CW, et al. Tacrolimus versus mycophenolate mofetil for induction therapy of lupus nephritis: a randomised controlled trial and long-term follow-up. Ann Rheum Dis . Review Stanstead College? 2016;75:30-36. 14. Kuhn A, Gensch K, Haust M, et al. Efficacy of tacrolimus 0.1% ointment in cutaneous lupus erythematosus: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial. J Am Acad Dermatol . 2011;65:54-64. 15. Wang HY, Cui TG, Hou FF, et al. Induction treatment of proliferative lupus nephritis with leflunomide combined with prednisone: a prospective multi-centre observational study.

Lupus . 2008;17:638-644. 16. Writing Essay College? Isenberg D, Gordon C, Licu D, et al. Business Review Stanstead College? Efficacy and safety of atacicept for prevention of flares in patients with moderate-to-severe systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): 52-week data (APRIL-SLE randomised trial). Essay Writing Washington? Ann Rheum Dis . 2015;74:2006-2015. 17. Strand V, Petri M, Kalunian K, et al. Epratuzumab for patients with moderate to business review Stanstead, severe flaring SLE: health-related quality of life outcomes and corticosteroid use in the randomized controlled ALLEVIATE trials and extension study SL0006. Rheumatology (Oxford) . 2014;53:502-511. 18. Khamashta M, Merrill JT, Werth VP, et al.

Sifalimumab, an anti-interferon-a monoclonal antibody, in moderate to severe systemic lupus erythematosus: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis . March 23, 2016 [Epub ahead of what is critical thinking in education Kent School print]. 19. Kalunian KC, Merrill JT, Maciuca R, et al. Haravard Review College? A Phase II study of the efficacy and safety of writing Hillfield College rontalizumab (rhuMAb interferon-a) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (ROSE).

Ann Rheum Dis . 2016;75:196-202. 20. Pickering MC, Ismajli M, Condon MB, et al. Eculizumab as rescue therapy in severe resistant lupus nephritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) . 2015;54:2286-2288. 21. El-Husseini A, Hannan S, Awad A, et al. Thrombotic microangiopathy in Stanstead College, systemic lupus erythematosus: efficacy of eculizumab. Writing An Argument Essay College? Am J Kidney Dis . 2015;65:127-130.

22. Strakhan M, Hurtado-Sbordoni M, Galeas N, et al. 36-year-old female with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome treated with eculizumab: a case report and business review College, review of examples of essay in english Brookes Shawnigan Lake literature. Haravard Business Review College? Case Rep Hematol . 2014;2014:704371. 23. van Assen S, Agmon-Levin N, Elkayam O, et al. EULAR recommendations for vaccination in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Clifton College? Ann Rheum Dis . 2011;70:414-422. 24. Grein IH, Groot N, Lacerda MI, et al.

HPV infection and vaccination in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: what we should really know. Pediatr Rheumatol Online . 2016;14:12. 25. Buyon JP, Kim MY, Guerra MM, et al. Predictors of pregnancy in patients with lupus: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med . 2015;163:153-163. 26.

Noviani M, Wasserman S, Clowse ME. Breastfeeding in mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus . February 16, 2016 [Epub ahead of print]. To comment on this article, contact rdavidson@uspharmacist.com. U.S. Pharmacist is a monthly journal dedicated to providing the nation's pharmacists with up-to-date, authoritative, peer-reviewed clinical articles relevant to contemporary pharmacy practice in Stanstead College, a variety of settings, including community pharmacy, hospitals, managed care systems, ambulatory care clinics, home care organizations, long-term care facilities, industry and academia. The publication is guides also useful to pharmacy technicians, students, other health professionals and individuals interested in health management.

Pharmacists licensed in the U.S. can earn Continuing Education credits through Postgraduate Healthcare Education, LLC, accredited by the Accreditation Council for haravard Stanstead College Pharmacy Education (ACPE) as a provider of continuing pharmacy education. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 Jobson Medical Information LLC unless otherwise noted. All rights reserved. Examples Of Essay Writing In English Shawnigan? Reproduction in business review College, whole or in part without permission is prohibited.

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Resume: Bruce Ensor, PE, SE, MLSE – Senior Structural Engineer. Bruce Ensor, Structural Engineer started in private practice in 2002 after serving as Chief Structural Engineer for Integrated Building Arts (IBA). Haravard. Before working at IBA, Bruce lived and worked in Washington DC for Skidmore Owings and Merrill and the moved to Honolulu HI on essay writing Washington the island in Oahu. During his six years in the Hawaii, he worked as a Structural Design Engineer and Special Inspector for Martin Bravo Inc., Sato and Associates and Shigemura, Lau, Sakanashi, Higuchi. Bruce graduated from the Pennsylvania State University’s Architectural Engineering program/structural option, in 1986.

The Architectural Engineering program is a 5 year program which focuses on Building Design and review Stanstead College Professional Practice for the production of biodiversity essay Washington, Construction Documents for Buildings. Bruce formed the Professional Corporation, BE Structural, PC in 2007 and is located in College Wormleysburg, PA. Bruce was certified as a Model Law Structural Engineer, MLSE, by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying. All licensed Structural Engineers, SE, are also licensed Professional Engineers, PE. All Professional Engineers, however, are not licensed Structural Engineers. In fact, some states have separate tests that allow Professional Engineers to what in education Kent School, be licensed Structural Engineers. Structural Engineers are more qualified by state exam to practice this specialty of Engineering. BE Structural PC provides professional engineering consulting services in the areas of structural engineering and building design for new construction, renovations and structural repair.

Bruce has provided forensic engineering and expert witness testimony for construction litigation cases. Bruce has been involved in review Stanstead post disaster structural evaluations, custom design, sustainable and non-traditional engineering. Examples Brookes Shawnigan Lake. Bruce tries to see his employees as people first, staff second. Bruce’s day to day functions include helping the staff compose proposals, engineering design, oversight and quality control. His primary mission is to ensure that the firm’s first priority is to business College, deliver quality services.

Bruce continues to value and biodiversity promote education and employee growth while taking BE Structural, PC to the next level. His passion for his work and his non-traditional ideas about what an engineering practice should be, have helped solidify his company’s position in Stanstead College a competitive marketplace. Of Essay Writing In English Brookes. Bruce believes their future is a bright one. Bruce has three children, one of which arrived in June 2014. When he is not at the office, Bruce enjoys spending time with his family, including Boomer, the family dog. Pennsylvania State University Bachelor of Architectural Engineering – 1986, Structural Option Lebanon Valley College , MBA Coursework. Alabama, #33912-E Arizona, #58595 Colorado, #PE0047983 Connecticut, #PEN.0029450 Delaware, #14885 Florida, #72724 Georgia, #PE039195 Hawaii, #PE-9190 Kansas, #PE24076 Kentucky, #30567 Maryland, #27411 Massachusetts, #5066 Michigan, #6201060356 New Jersey, #24GE05065700 New York, #091580 North Carolina, #041581 Ohio, #PE.77767 Pennsylvania, #PE048856E South Carolina, #31946 Texas #117701 Virginia #0402049833 Washington D.C., #PE906145. 2002 to business review Stanstead, Present, Harrisburg, PA.

BE Structural, P.C., Structural and Forensic Engineer. 1994 to 2002, Harrisburg, PA. Integrated Building Arts, Chief Structural IBA, and Forensic Engineer Whitney Bailey Cox Magnani, Structural Project Engineer TASC Engineering, Structural Project Engineer Erdman Anthony Engineers, Structural Project Engineer Gannett Fleming, Structural Project Engineer. Sato Associates Special, Structural Project Engineer Special Inspector Martin Bravo, Inc. Special, Structural Project Engineer Special Inspector Shigemura, Lau, Sakanashi, Higuchi, Structural Design Engineer. Skidmore, Owings, Merrill, Structural Design Engineer Purdum Jeschke Consulting Eng., Structural Design Engineer.

American Institute of Steel Construction, American Concrete Institute. Residential Wood Framed Construction Damage Roofing contractor placed several large stacks of shingles along the ridges of essay, a stick built home under construction causing the roof framing to deflect and pushing the bearing walls tilting them out along the top plate. Reviewed the structural as-built condition and provided engineering and details with instruction to remedy the business College, structural deficiencies and keep the construction on-track avoiding litigation. Parking Garage Collapse Shortly after the installation of a wearing course the one story parking garage collapsed. What Is Critical Thinking. Provided an on site assessment of the failure and made an assessment of the causes of failure. Wind Damage to Agricultural Buildings High winds collapsed a series of wood framed agricultural building. Provided an on site assessment of the construction and made an haravard business review College, assessment of the plaintiffs expert report as well as an biodiversity writing Academy, assessment of the causes of failure. Foundation Fill Material Failure Provided opinion relative to the failure of the fill material used in the construction of an haravard Stanstead, office park condominium.

Water Infiltration Investigation – Federal Building Under Renovation Conducted a site investigation to observe rain water infiltration and provide a professional opinion as to the cause the water infiltration. Cold Weather Concrete Slab Failure Investigate the failure of a second floor concrete slab placed and biodiversity writing cured during cold weather. Provided an on-site visual evaluation of the structural concrete slab, reviewed the construction documents and provided an business review, opinion letter relative to findings. 1 Brookwood Drive, Lititz, PA. 56 Ridings Way, Lititz, PA, 17543 104 Wheatland Drive, Lititz, PA 726 Broad Street, P.O. Box 477 Emmaus, PA 18409. 981 Marbrook Lane, York, PA. 1051 Wallace Avenue, Chambersburg, PA, 17201 3881 Stony Brook Drive, York, PA 4453 Cedarwood Drive, York, PA 726 Broad Street, P.O. Box 477 Emmaus, PA 18409.

8352 Willow Run Fogelsville PA. 1984 Cricklewood Cove, Fogelsville PA. 2014 Wooded Ridge Circle Fogelsville, PA. 6958 Lehigh Ct Allentown PA. 3686 Wingfield Drive York, PA.

Structural Observation and how to write a new article Abbey Due Diligence. 1337 N. Front Street, Harrisburg, PA Prepared due diligence report of an existing office building under consideration for purchase. Report focused on structural deficiencies and resulted in the withdraw from the purchase due to haravard business Stanstead College, the structural modifications that would be required. St. Clifton. Lawrence Chapel, Harrisburg, PA Structural Observation Report conducted to haravard review Stanstead, make visual observations of the structural characteristics relative to possible renovations of the essay guides, basement to make it an occupied space. Lancaster Host Resort and Conference Center Structural Investigation of haravard business, subsidence of biodiversity writing Washington Academy, courtyard around pool area. Provided a site observation report and opinion relative to the cause of the subsidence and haravard review Stanstead the options to remedy the situation.

Vibration and Blast Protection Analysis. Blast Wall Design for the Silver crest Housing Project, 1994 Design of a 25-foot high earth and concrete counter fort blast wall to resist an equivalent of 50 lbs. of TNT.The wall served as separation and protection from the biodiversity Washington, possible explosion of natural gas tanks adjacent to the site of a four-story HUD housing project. 11880 Williamsport Pike, Greencastle, PA, 2006 Blast Damage Claim to Residential property adjacent to Construction Site. 11858 Williamsport Pike, Greencastle, PA, 2007 Blast Damage Claim to Residential property adjacent to haravard business review College, Construction Site. 531 E. Derry Road, Hershey, PA, 2007 Vibration Damage Claim to Residential property adjacent to heavy traffic roadway and examples of essay writing Brookes Shawnigan Lake pipeline construction. Calvary United Methodist Church Designed the renovations and haravard review Stanstead additions to the Sanctuary, Office, and Classroom wings of an existing church. A new multipurpose room for basketball and essay writing Clifton College group meetings was set over a music room and haravard business review youth room on the basement level.

The Sanctuary was modified by extending wings to writing, each side and review Stanstead removing the legs of the existing Laminated Rigid Frame with the use of a deep Laminated Wood transfer girder supported by a Laminated Rigid Frame. The roof over the sanctuary was supported using laminated wood roof decking supported by new laminated rigid frames and CMU walls. The floor of the writing on education Strathallan, sanctuary is framed with concrete over metal deck supported on haravard open web steel joists. Clifton. The classrooms and office wing were modified by adding a pre-engineered wood truss roof over the flat roof area. Review Stanstead. The floors were framed with concrete topping over metal deck supported by open web steel joists. The foundation of the biodiversity Washington Academy, structure was a combination of modifications to business review Stanstead College, existing spread footings and the addition of new spread footings as well as continuous reinforced concrete wall footings.

Glatfelter Insurance Company Five story, 35,205 SF office building and connector to an existing facility. Each story is of essay writing Brookes Lake, approximately 7000 SF, (5,500 SF of office and 1,500 SF of connector). The roof was framed with Pre-engineered wood trusses supported on a structural steel frame that was braced with a combination of review College, X-bracing in the short direction and a series of write article Abbey Manchester, steel moment frames in the long direction. The floor framing consisted of concrete over metal deck supported by open web steel joists and haravard steel beams and girders. The building is Brookes Lake, situated into a sloping grade and haravard College required a reinforced concrete foundation wall. The foundations were a combination of what Kent, reinforced concrete spread footings and reinforced concrete continuous wall footings. Calvary Baptist Church Structural design of a 3000 seat church with a clear span of 240 feet. The Church was semi-circular in review College plan and required the use of tapered girders and columns terminating at a compression ring at the peak of the biodiversity essay Washington, roof. Franklin and Marshall Truck Dock Canopy Design Canopy design to match the canopy design of an existing structure.

Needed to consider the costs as well as connections to the existing structure to support the haravard business review, canopy. Slate Hill Road Office Building Renovation, Camp Hill PA On site evaluation of an existing structure to what is critical in education School, provide for the installation of business, new mechanical equipment on the roof of a one story office building. Matcon Diamond Retaining Wall Design, Pittsburgh, PA Property line retaining wall along a railroad right of Clifton, way. Designed with battered H-Piles driven into haravard review Stanstead College, fill material to accommodate parking above. Pennsylvania Turnpike Exit 19, Highspire, PA Structural design of biodiversity essay writing, new toll way with offices and subsurface connector between booths. Triangle Refrigeration Addition and renovation of an existing wood structure to add a new grand entrance lobby and elevator to offices on haravard business review College the second floor. 1000 Bryersdale Road, Harrisburg, PA Modifications to the Renovations of an existing doctor’s office to accommodate changes in the construction of offices in the ground floor. Lancaster General Hospital – Cherry Street Doctors Offices Provide structural assessment of for on education Strathallan College, the installation of Fluoroscopy equipment. Provide structural reinforcement details of the existing structure as well design of a substructure to support the equipment to prevent adverse deflection of the equipment during operation. Bryn Mahr Hospital – Fluoroscopy Center Provide structural assessment of an existing structural concrete and steel framed building built circa 1927 for the installation of Fluoroscopy equipment.

Provide details to install equipment from the existing structure. Foundation Failure due to Sink Hole Development Retained by Stanstead an Insurance Company to assess the damage and long-term liability due to foundation failure and biodiversity essay writing Academy subsequent repair due to the formation of business Stanstead College, a sink hole. Writing An Argument Essay. On an haravard, adjacent property the township drained a water tower to prepare to paint the inside. The water was drained out of examples writing Brookes, it to a catch basin on an adjacent site. The large amount of water created a sink hole to form adjacent to the insured’s building. The loss of soils below the foundation required emerging shoring and remediation. We assessed the relevance of the construction cost and the action taken by the building owner’s contractor in review of the insurance claim and made recommendations to review, avoid future problems at the site. Agriculture Building Collapse. Retained by the General Contractors Attorney.

During construction high winds collapsed a wood framed agricultural building. We provided an on site assessment of the construction progress at the point of failure and made an assessment of the plaintiffs expert report as well as an assessment of the causes of failure. Our involvement aided the General Contractor’s attorney in biodiversity Washington determining the merit of the claim against his client as well as the culpability of subcontractors hired by the general contractor to erect the structure. Arbitration of Construction Dispute. Retained by a contractor to evaluate a home he had constructed per prescriptive methods allowed by the code after the homeowner disputed additional charges and took possession of the unfinished home. The homeowner retained an inspector and claimed the roof was not adequate to support the loads and span of the as built condition. Construction Related Fatality. Retained by business Stanstead College an Attorney to how to write Abbey Manchester, evaluate a claim which was the result of a basement wall failure during construction.

We provided expert advise and analysis for the Attorney on haravard the technical merits of the essay, claim relative to his client, a subcontractor on the project. Severe Deflection in Residential Construction. Haravard Business Review Stanstead. Retained by the Plaintiff’s Attorney to review an existing condition. A homeowner after purchasing a $350,000 home noticed an unusual slope of the floor. The contractor had made revisions to the original design and a second floor bearing wall now sat on the first floor joists and caused the floor to biodiversity essay writing Academy, sag. Our assistance led to a resolution due to the difficulty the defense felt they would have disputing our findings. Penn DOT District 08 Office Building Renovation Expansion and renovation of an existing state office building. Added an entrance elevator and first floor lobby which required retrofitting the existing structure to tie in the elevator shaft.

Strengthened the roof framing system to install mechanical equipment on the roof. Haravard Business Stanstead. Strengthened an existing retaining wall adjacent to what thinking Kent, the addition. Pennsylvania State Police Academy , Hershey, PA. Addition of classroom and barracks space to the existing police barracks. Stanstead College. The structure consists of metal deck roof over long span steel joints. The second floor is article writing on education Hillfield Strathallan College, formed with a concrete topping over metal deck supported by review College steel joints and structural steel beams.

The lateral system consists of structural steel frames in both directions supported by concrete spread footings. Piedmont Hawthorne , Middletown, PA. Biodiversity Essay Writing Washington. Provided analysis of long span trusses in an existing airport hanger for the installation of full protection based on business Stanstead College OSHA requirements. Messiah Old Main, Admission Building , Grantham, PA. Provides structural engineering and design services for examples of essay writing in english Brookes Lake, the additions of haravard review College, offices to an existing building on the campus of Messiah College . Framing consists of structural steel frame with bar joist and metal deck roof, and a second floor framed with structural steel and concrete over metal deck and bar joist supported in spread footings.

CSR Shredder, Harrisburg, PA. Provided design and engineering for a scrap yard to install an automobile shredder. Examples In English Brookes Shawnigan. Design included special foundations installed as “rock columns.” The control building and sort buildings were all framed with structural steel and concrete over metal deck flooring and metal deck roofing over rolled sections. St. Paul United Methodist Church , Elizabethtown, PA.

Expansion and business review College renovation of a existing church. Added a grand entrance which required large openings introduced into the front of the existing bearing wall. The addition was two stories and was framed with exterior masonry bearing walls, concrete over metal deck and biodiversity essay writing Academy bar joist supported floor and a metal deck and haravard business review College joist roof. We assisted the contractor with a shoring of the biodiversity essay writing, existing masonry fill tower to allow for the addition of entrances to the new addition from the existing building. Messiah College , Greenhouse, Grantham, PA. Business Stanstead. Additions of a greenhouse to examples Brookes Shawnigan Lake, Kline Science Hall required the haravard review Stanstead College, analysis of an aluminum framed structure supported by a half height masonry wall. Snow drift from the adjacent structure required tighter spacing of frames adjacent to the existing building.

United Way Headquarters, Enola, PA. Two story office building framed with structural steel. Thinking In Education Kent. The roof is metal deck over bar joists. The second floor is concrete topped metal deck over bar joists and structural steel. The foundation system is concrete spread footings. Associated Pennsylvania Constructors, Harrisburg, PA. Structural and architectural rehabilitation of a concrete framed structure. Provided repair details and specifications which allowed multiple bidders with a fast tracked schedule. Hershey Entertainment Resorts Company (HER), Hershey Arena, Hershey, PA. Preliminary Design Study of a tubular steel space frame for a pedestrian bridge spanning 120 feet over seven lanes of traffic. Memorial Hall Expansion, Hershey, PA.

Addition of a long span structure to clear span a new natatorium, gymnasium, and auditorium. Also included structural interface addition with the existing structure and the addition of a new classroom and business Stanstead College cafeteria, as well as the renovation of an existing space to modify the function. HER, The Bears’ Den Sports Bar, Hershey, PA. Structural design of new Sports Bar at the Hershey Lodge and Convention Center. Milton S. Hershey School , Founder’s Hall, Air Handling Unit Replacement, Hershey, PA . Due to how to write a new article Abbey College, the renovations required in portions of Founder’s Hall, new Air Handling Units needed to be installed as well as new vent grills to allow for high outside air requirements.

Structural analysis and modifications were required to accommodate the business College, new vents and installation of the new mechanical equipment. Installation of long span lintels were designed to limit the deflection of the exterior masonry stone and to anchor the stone at the opening perimeter to the structural steel frame. Milton S. Hershey Schools , Hershey, PA. Conducted a Central Plant Study in an effort to examine the feasibility of utilizing the is critical thinking School, plant in the renovation of an existing school. Structural considerations were made in the running of piping from the central plant over a pedestrian bridge crossing a small stream. Outlook Pointe: Garden City, MI / Sagamore Hills, Westerville , Centerville , Hilliard , OH / Creekview, PA Assisted living facilities similar in nature for the Balanced Care Corporation. Approximately 70,000 square foot each, 2-storys tall. The structural system is a combination of Cold Formed Steel bearing walls on CMU foundation walls and continuous footings.

The 2nd floor is concrete topping over review, metal deck, bar joists, and structural steel. Steel columns bear on shallow depth spread footings. Article Writing On Education. The roof is sheathed with plywood and supported by business review prefabricated wood roof trusses. Lateral loads are taken out through exterior cross braced walls and writing an argument Hudson CMU stair and elevator towers. Outlook Pointe – Loyalsock, North Cornwall, Johnstown, PA.

Assisted living facilities, approximately 30,000 square foot each, 1 – story. The structural system is business review, a combination of Cold Formed Steel bearing walls on CMU foundation walls and continuous footings. The roof is sheathed with plywood and supported by a prefabricated wood roof truss system. Lateral loads are taken out through exterior cross braced walls. Dauphin Deposit Bank Renovation. What Thinking In Education School. Various site investigations and evaluations as well as preparation of contract documents for the repair and haravard business review Stanstead College modification of approximately 5 older buildings at is critical thinking in education School the corner of haravard business, 2nd and Market Streets Harrisburg. Essay Guides Clifton College. The existing buildings are constructed of mass brick masonry bearing walls, wood floor joist and deck as well as structural steel and concrete deck.

Royal Oaks at Bent Creek, Penna. Haravard Business College. Assisted Living Facility for the Basile Corporation. 72,000 square foot, 2-story structure. The roof is framed with plywood over long span wood trusses resting on perimeter and biodiversity essay writing Washington Academy interior steel beams and columns. Haravard Business Review Stanstead College. The floor is framed with a 4 inch concrete topping over metal decking supported by open web steel bar joists and steel beams and columns. Article Abbey. The Foundation is spread footings and grade beams founded below frost. The lateral system for the building is comprised of wood shear trusses connected to cross braced steel frames and reinforced CMU stair towers and elevator core. Edwards – Keyport, N.J. / Giant – Mechanicsburg / Giant – Gettysburg / Giant – Pennsboro Commons Grocery Stores, 55, 000 sq. Business Review. ft. to 65,000 sq. ft.. The roof is constructed of Hillfield Strathallan, metal roof decking over long span steel bar joists supported by long span girder trusses.

The roof framing is supported by columns at haravard business Stanstead College the sides with masonry bearing at the front and the rear of the on education Hillfield College, store. There is a second floor for haravard business review, the office staff and a mechanical mezzanine in the rear of the store for mechanical equipment. The second floor is article on education College, composite beam and deck. The lateral system for the building is the exterior reinforced CMU shear walls. Giant – Allentown / Giant – Yardley / Edwards – Philipsburg, N.J. Renovation to haravard business review College, existing grocery stores. The owner; Giant Food Stores made renovations to enlarge the retail floor space as well as improve the entrance and the dock areas.

Floor plans required that beams be strengthened, columns were moved, footings strengthened. How To Write A New. The existing retail spaces needed to be kept in service during construction which required eccentric wall footing design. Brenner Dodge Renovation of the showroom and facade, enlargement of the body shop and haravard Stanstead College creation of a customer service area to improve drop off and pick up of the customers vehicle. The structures were constructed with metal deck roofing over bar joists and structural steel. How To Write A New Article Abbey Manchester. The new construction was erected to maintain a separate lateral system from the existing construction. Worked closely with the General Contractor in haravard College a design build format as they uncovered unforeseen conditions I would help resolve the issues. United States Postal Service Distribution Center – Frederick, Md.

Design Build Expansion to an existing distribution facility. The roof was constructed using metal deck over open web steel bar joists, supported by steel columns and spread footings. Unique modifications required grade beams to straddle existing foundations. Details included interfacing with a pre-cast wall system and grade beams to biodiversity essay Washington Academy, avoid bearing on haravard business review College existing foundations. Biodiversity Essay Writing Washington. Provided a rigid frame at the exterior facade to allow for future expansion of the facility. Giant – Westminster , Penna.

Renovation to an existing grocery stores. The owner; Giant Food Stores made renovations to business College, enlarge the retail floor space as well as improve the entrance and the dock areas. Floor plans required that columns be relocated. Otterbien Methodist Church Education Center: New construction of is critical thinking School, a Church and School. Stanstead. The exterior is article Hillfield Strathallan College, brick faced with a reinforced concrete masonry backup wall. The roof of the church is heavy timber decking supported by prefabricated Glue Laminated Tudor Arches and beams. The school roof is flat and will be supported by plywood decking over custom prefabricated wood trusses bearing on reinforced concrete masonry. The structure will sit on concrete spread footings.

Fink Elementary School: Renovation and addition to an elementary school. The new construction will consist of haravard business Stanstead College, a metal deck roof supported by open web steel joists and load bearing reinforced concrete masonry units on concrete spread footings. Woolworth Warehouse, Shiremanstown, Pa. Structural evaluation of an existing warehouse roof framing system to provide a monitoring system to biodiversity essay, prevent excessive deflections due to snow loading. Develop recommendations to strengthen the structure and remedial steps to alleviate the ponding and business overloading of the roof. Mechanicsburg Navy Depot Bldg.’s 310 311: Evaluate an existing wood frame structure to take new furniture loads. Writing In English Shawnigan. Bldg.

210: Investigate the haravard review College, cause of the cracking in an existing 45 foot tall reinforced masonry fire wall. Capitol Complex Fire Safety Improvements Addition of fire access stairway in the State Capitol Building . The existing structural system was constructed with structural hollow tile floor with steel beams. Renovations to Patterson Hall, Penn State University , University Park Pa. Addition of a mezzanine hung from the inside of the structural steel trusses. Holland Tunnel Vent Buildings Architectural and Structural Rehabilitation The buildings originally constructed in the 20’s were deteriorated. Most of the damage was exterior cracks on the mass masonry walls. The buildings were constructed from structural steel with concrete floors and shotcrete for the liners of the ventilation stacks pulling air from the tunnels. The top of the ventilation stacks were deteriorated and needed to be replaced. It was determined that it would be cost effective to replace the limestone in these areas with a simulated limestone pre-cast concrete panel. Writing An Argument. This was designed to act composite with the new shotcrete backup. The corners of the buildings are to be rebuilt using a new concrete wall and brick facade that had to match the existing stiffness of the existing three wythe mass masonry wall.

Saint Peter and Paul’s Church, Wilkes Barre Pennsylvania Retained by the Office of Surface Mines we evaluated the structure and subsurface conditions of a church built in 1923. The structure is structural steel and the facade is haravard business review Stanstead College, brick. The church has a cathedral ceiling and was experiencing substantial cracking in the foundation walls and the brick facade. Our work involved writing a report summarizing site observations, the site survey, subsurface investigations and what is critical in education School structural analysis with regard to review Stanstead College, the apparent settlement. Lincoln Tunnel Vent Buildings Architectural and what is critical thinking Kent School Structural Rehabilitation. Renovated the exterior of the vent buildings similar to business review, the Holland Tunnel but much smaller in scale. May’s Chapel Reservoir Additions Two 900 SF reservoirs, one new reservoir and an addition of roof to an existing reservoir. Designed the pre-cast concrete roof double T’s, inverted T girders and the columns and foundations for the existing reservoir. The foundation was constructed with piles at Strathallan College the exterior and spread footings on the interior.

Hayden District Garage Bus Facility Expansion Addition of garage space to an existing bus facility. Business Review Stanstead College. The roof was supported with long span roof trusses fabricated from structural T shapes and angles. They were supported with structural steel columns resting on a caisson supported structure. Port Authority Bus Terminal Rehabilitation Reviewed the jacking system that was used to elevate the pre-cast concrete beams to repair the bearing pads. Cozine Bus Garage, New York City Transit Authority Addition of garage and a second story office space to an existing garage. The roof was supported with long span roof trusses fabricated from structural T shapes and angles. Washington Academy. They rest on business Stanstead structural steel columns resting on a pile supported foundation. The Harrison Street Water Facilities, Elizabethtown Water Company, Princeton, New Jersey Renovation of the Brookes Lake, filter house adjacent to the clear well.

The facade of the building was displaced due to inadequate design features and non conforming construction. The building was stabilized with the addition of structural steel supports erected on the interior face. Pennsylvania Air National Guard Comm. Electronics Training Complex, State College . Haravard Business Review Stanstead. Pa. Estimated Construction Cost $8,500,000.00 Total Square Foot: 45,000 SFThe facility consists of how to write a new article College, three separate buildings: a two story office building, a single story maintenance shop, and business review Stanstead College a single story warehouse.

The project was set up so that each building could be bid separate or all together. The buildings are framed with metal deck roofs supported by long span open web steel joists bearing on perimeter 12 inch thick insulated concrete masonry walls. Essay Guides. On the interior the joists are supported on structural steel beams and columns. The foundation consists of haravard review Stanstead, a continuous perimeter wall footing with spread footings under the interior steel columns. The floor system in essay Academy the office building is supported by haravard Stanstead College composite joists. The top chord is made composite with the of essay in english, concrete topping by welding studs to review, the top chord of the open web steel joist. The composite vehicle maintenance building houses adjustable hydraulic lifts, a three ton capacity bridge crane supported by an independent structural steel frame and a two ton capacity monorail hoist supported from the open web steel joists. Is Critical In Education Kent. The warehouse includes a small arms vault. The warehouse floor was designed for haravard review, forklift loads. The exterior walls were designed for retaining soil due to article College, the sloping site.

Septa Bus Garage Expansion, Philadelphia Pa. Developed details to renovate the business review College, exterior brick and CMU walls of the bus garage. Atlantic City Bus Terminal, Atlantic City New Jersey Design build competition involved the use of long span cantilever sections with a structural steel frame for the concourse. This was all designed to bear on spread footings. Port Authority Of New York And New Jersey Tunnel Inspection Report Inspected the tunnel walls and ceiling slab above the duct banks in the tunnel under the Hudson River . Pennsylvania Turnpike Tunnel Inspection Blue Mountain and write a new article College Kittatinny Tunnels Inspected the tunnel walls, ceiling slab and haravard business ventilation ducts.

Norristown Water Treatment Plant, Pennsylvania – American Water Company Expansion to the facilities supporting the how to write Abbey College Manchester, water treatment plant. Continuous Quality Improvement Training Participated in a two day seminar on the quality improvements process as it relates to the consulting engineering business. Confined Space Training Participated in a two day seminar on the proper procedures for the entrance into a confined space. University of haravard Stanstead, Hawaii Nursing Building Renovation Renovation of an existing four story classroom and essay Washington Academy office building on the campus of the University of Hawaii . The existing structure is cast in place concrete with pre-cast beams, cast in place slabs and business review columns. Due to what is critical thinking Kent School, the increase in floor loading in some areas the business review, main girders needed to be strengthened to meet the current code requirements for shear strength. How To College. Addition of a new mechanical building adjacent to house the new chillers and cooling towers for the air condition system. University of Hawaii, Hawaii Institute of haravard Stanstead College, Geophysics Renovation and seismic upgrade of an essay writing College, existing three story pre-cast / cast in place concrete research facility. Hawaii Cane and Sugar Federal Credit Union A two story structure, framed with engineered plywood web I-joists and glue laminated beams, wood and steel columns. Lateral support is provided by rigid steel tube frames and wood shear walls all on a concrete foundation. Blast Wall for the Silver crest Housing Project Design of a 25 foot high earth and concrete counter fort blast wall to resist an equivalent of 50 lbs. of TNT.

The wall served as separation and protection from the haravard Stanstead College, possible explosion of essay writing Washington, natural gas tanks adjacent to the site of a four story HUD housing project. Waikiki Aquarium Animal Glass Enclosure Design of a tempered glass railing system to contain monk seals at the Waikiki Aquarium. Haravard Business Stanstead College. The design specification required the dynamic loading of a 500 lb. monk seal colliding with the glass at examples of essay in english Shawnigan approximately 12 mph. Haravard Business Review. as well as other load cases which were not as severe. Four Meter Telescope at Haleakala for the United States Air Force Prepared the biodiversity essay writing Washington, lateral analysis for the use of haravard review Stanstead, tilt up wall construction for the building to writing on education, house the telescope. Performed the preliminary lateral analysis for the design of an business review College, adjacent one story ice storage facility. Salvation Army Facility – Kauai Addition and renovation to a one story wood and biodiversity Academy CMU structure. Review. The roof is to be constructed with long span wood trusses to provide for a large meeting space.

A’ala Market A one story structure with a panelized wood roof on post and writing essay College beams. The lateral loads are taken through the perimeter CMU walls. The CMU walls were designed with the slender wall design criteria of the review Stanstead College, 1988 UBC. For cost evaluation the foundation was designed with both grade beams at the property line retaining wall and the use of write a new article College, stepped footings. The building has a large freezer and required thermal separation of the freezer floor from the ambient ground temperature. Waioli Tea Room Renovation Renovation and structural evaluation of an existing termite damaged wood framed restaurant to take roof loads due to new mechanical equipment. Gaspro Warehouse Relocation and Site Evaluation Relocation of a prefabricated metal building. Design of the review Stanstead College, vertical and lateral system to divide the building along the ridge to make it into two separate buildings.

The structure is a new College Manchester, supported laterally by modified rigid frames in the strong direction and by rod bracing in the transverse direction. Haravard Review. The foundation was designed to resist the wind up lift and the rigid frame kick force at the supports for the frame. Waste Management Hawaii Renovation Renovation of an biodiversity essay writing, existing prefabricated metal building to add office and haravard business review Stanstead industrial space in a second floor added a 2 ton jib crane with foundation to be used in lifting of diesel engines. Royal Kunia Golf Course Clubhouse Design of a three building complex. The main building is write a new article Abbey College Manchester, framed with a heavy timber roof bearing on both cantilevered concrete columns and concrete masonry block walls all on haravard review Stanstead spread footings. The other two structures have roofs framed with engineered plywood web I-joists and glue laminated beams. These are supported by steel tube columns at the interior and CMU at the exterior.

Pukalani Townhomes Design development of essay Hudson College, approximately 25 multi-family two story wood framed town homes on the Island of Maui . The sloping site condition warranted the use of braced post and review Stanstead College beam construction to frame the essay writing, first floor. Stanstead College. Portions of the structure are to write a new Abbey College Manchester, be prefabricated on the mainland and shipped to Maui for final assembly on site. The addition of prefabrication to the design process presented unique considerations to the framing of this wood structure. Business Review Stanstead. The lateral system is constructed with panelized wood exterior shear walls and gypsum board interior shear walls. Symphony Park Plaza A luxury condominium project in examples in english Brookes Lake downtown Honolulu . The project consists of a 43 story residential tower with a 6 level parking garage adjacent to the tower. Haravard. The structure is essay guides College, regularly reinforced concrete, the business Stanstead, building’s foundation was designed to rest on end bearing piles with pile caps and grade beams to carry the column and wall loads.

The structural slab in is critical in education Kent School the tower was designed as a one way flat slab and haravard the parking garage was designed as a two way flat slab. The tower was designed with the use of wind tunnel testing and also dynamic analysis of both the wind and seismic forces. On Education Strathallan College. The lateral design was done using ETABS software and 1988 UBC Zone 2A seismic forces. Nauru Phosphate Royalties Condominium A luxury condominium project in business review Stanstead downtown Honolulu . The project consists of a 43 story residential tower with a 6 level parking garage adjacent to the tower. Essay Guides College. Our firm was selected to perform the structural design of the haravard College, tower. The tower is reinforced concrete, the Clifton College, buildings foundation was designed to rest on end bearing piles with pile caps and haravard review Stanstead grade beams to carry the article writing on education Hillfield, column and haravard review Stanstead College wall loads.

The structural slab in the tower was designed as a one way flat slab given the unique half circle floor plate and relatively short spans between interior unit walls. Federal Express South Ramp Development This is to be Federal Expresses Operations facility at the Honolulu International Airport . The project consists of essay writing guides, three buildings: the ramp facility, the city station and the sort facility. Two of the structures are to be long span rigid steel frames with cold formed steel roof purlins and wall girts. The city station was constructed of reinforced masonry with a timber roof and College panelized wood roof deck. The metal buildings rest on both spread footings and grade beams which are used both as gravity support and also as dead men for the overturning due to wind forces. Longs Drug Wahiawa This is what Kent School, a drug store within the Wahiawa Town Center . The building has a large sales floor with a mezzanine for offices and heavy storage. The building is haravard business, constructed of reinforced concrete masonry support walls using the examples writing in english Shawnigan Lake, slender design provisions of the haravard, 1985 UBC. Essay Clifton. The roof of the business, structure is a panelized wood diaphragm with long span glue lam beams that frame into standard steel pipe columns that rest on spread footings. Kenny’s Restaurant Kaneohe This is the first prototype in a planned expansion of the Kenny’s Restaurant chain.

The building is constructed of reinforced concrete masonry exterior walls and has a structural timber mezzanine and pitched wood roof. Outrigger West Hotel, Pool Deck Repair Corrosion investigation and repair of reinforced concrete pool and write a new article College Manchester lanai decking. Developed the structural steel shoring for the construction period and details and plans for the repair of the damaged area. Outrigger Reef Hotel, Column Repair Corrosion investigation and repair of reinforced concrete columns at the foundation level of a multistory ocean- front Waikiki resort hotel. Sheraton Kauai Hotel Renovation Renovation and expansion of a low rise wood structure. Ameron Concrete Batch Plant Kaneohe Design and construction documents for a temporary mat footing supporting a portable concrete batch plant. Hapuna Beach Resort 300 room resort hotel located on the Big Island of haravard business review College, Hawaii. The six guest wings were each six stories and essay writing Clifton College were designed for seismic zone 3. Stanstead College. Performed a three dimensional analysis using the ETABS computer program for the guest wings.

Ritz Carlton Kapalua 552 room luxury hotel on the Island of Maui . The 6 story guest towers were bearing wall concrete with a one way flat slab. The ballroom and back of house were designed using both concrete and structural steel. The lateral system was done using the ETABS program. McDonalds at Kahana Gateway, Maui Utilized McDonald’s standardized drawings for the basis of design of the structure with the addition of a customized wood roof that served as a facade for the mechanical equipment. Ena Road Documentation report of an existing apartment building adjacent to a construction site where pre-cast concrete piles were to be driven.

Waikele Golf Clubhouse Three story club house with below ground golf cart storage. The Main level was designed using regular reinforced concrete beams and pre-cast planks. The mezzanine level and roof were a combination structural steel, glue lam beams and structural lumber. Sizzler Steak House One story wood structure with a flat wood roof diaphragm on engineered wood I-joists and plywood shear walls. Waiehu Beach Center Renovation of an existing one story wood structure and essay guides Clifton College the addition of haravard review, a second floor above the existing roof using glue lam beams and structural lumber. Ameron Tunnel Repairs Site investigation of corrosion damage to a conveyor belt service tunnel supporting aggregate bins. Article Writing On Education Hillfield Strathallan College. Designed a replacement roof structure for the service tunnel and haravard Stanstead performed construction inspection of work as it progressed.

Kahana Gateway Development consisted of three structures, commercial, professional, and residential. All three buildings were constructed of wood with some use of reinforced concrete and CMU. I administrated the an argument Hudson College, construction of the project and business helped the contractor resolve field conditions. Liberman Residence Two story wood framed residence on spread footings. Mililani Recreation Center Single story recreation facility, long span open web steel joists with metal deck on roof and steel framing. Plywood shear walls all on spread footings. Palms At Waelae Multi-family housing project. Designed the recreation facility and all exterior stairs to the units. The recreation center was designed as reinforced flat slab with reinforced masonry walls and columns. The roof is wood framed and the foundation is reinforced concrete spread footings.

Earle M. Jorgensen Steel Warehouses Office Two rigid frame buildings with metal deck roof on cold formed Z-purlins. The rigid frame is tied at the base with reinforced concrete tie beams to reinforced concrete spread footings. The office structure was also a rigid framed building, with the addition of a second floor constructed of composite metal deck on steel framing. Repairs to Pier 52 53 Honolulu, Hawaii Demolition of writing essay Hudson College, damaged bull rail on shipping pier, patch with epoxy based patching compound. Repairs to reinforced concrete curb around bollards. Plaza Bridge Repairs Honolulu, Hawaii Designed the repair of bridge stringers that had corroded by the addition of continuously welded scab plates on the bottom flanges of the bridge. Addition of cross bracing to replace damaged cross bracing. Business. Repair of expansion joints in essay Hudson College plaza deck to stop leakage problem. Konishki Residence Single family residence, with wood roof, reinforced CMU walls, flat slab on second floor, all on review College spread footings. Association of Retarded Citizens of how to a new article Abbey, Hawaii Group Home Halfway house for haravard business review, retarded citizens. How To Abbey. Wood framing on spread footings.

Site retaining walls and property line retaining walls. Warehouse for Daniel and Nancy Han Rigid framed building with metal decked roof on cold formed Z-purlins. Tied at base with tie beam on haravard review spread footings. Submarine Base Bowling Center Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Rigid framed building with metal deck roof on essay Clifton cold formed Z-purlins. Frame tied at base with tie beam on spread footings. Hyatt Regency Kauai Luxury class hotel on the island of Kauai . Designed the auxiliary buildings. Auxiliary buildings were all similar in construction. The subsurface buildings were constructed of reinforced concrete. The roofs of the business review Stanstead College, subsurface buildings are flat slabs. The columns and load bearing interior walls were all reinforced concrete on spread footings. The above ground structures have wood roofs on writing Hudson College reinforced concrete columns or braced pole columns both on business College spread footings.

2001 Eye Street, Washington, DC 12 Story Reinforced concrete office building with 3 levels of below grade parking and 1 level retail. Two way flat slab design, Beams supporting ramps in parking levels and in areas of heavier loading. Tie beams for sloped columns in parking garage to accommodate the transition from the article on education Hillfield Strathallan, office space above to parking garage below. Haravard Review College. The basement perimeter walls were designed as retaining for writing in english Shawnigan, construction purposes. The lateral system was a concrete moment frame utilizing the equivalent frame structure. Structural steel framing was used for the mechanical spaces and architectural dormers on roof.

1310 G. Street, Washington, DC 13 Story reinforced concrete office building with 3 levels of below grade parking. Similar to the design of 2001 Eye St. with the exception of the mat foundation design due to a bearing pressure of only haravard review Stanstead College 2000 psf. Goodwin Square, Hartford, CT 28 Story hotel and office complex with renovation of existing buildings and integration of new structures. Designed spread footings, reinforced concrete columns, steel base plates for steel structure above 9th floor and wind analysis on structural steel framing for Hudson, the Cupola. Colorado Center, Denver, CO 22 Story reinforced concrete office building. Performed the business Stanstead, preliminary wind study using ANSI and BOCA loading criteria. Land Bay Five, Fairfax, VA 5 Story office building with steel frame and composite metal deck. The steel frame was braced in the weak direction and a frame in the strong direction. The floor system was composite steel beam. PURDUM JESCHKE CONSULTING ENGINEERS.

Security Gate, Marine Barracks, Washington, DC Structural design of crash barriers and how to article Abbey College Manchester blast protection for Marine Barracks. David Taylor Naval Science Research and Development Center Structural design of addition to a 1 story existing facility. Metal roof with open web joists and CMU walls.

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Work and drawing up work plans Essay. What things need to business Stanstead, be taken into what is critical in education School, consideration when allocating work and drawing up work plans? Consider: 1. Goals and haravard business review Stanstead College, objectives. When we have to allocate work and biodiversity Academy, draw up work plans, first of all, we need to figure out the goals and the objectives of the organization to ensure that the haravard, outcome would be achieved to the goals when allocating work. It is make sense that we cannot allocate work without knowing our goals and objectives. Identify short or long term goals and make sure that they are realistic and achievable. After we are considering the guides Clifton, goals and objectives, we may need identifying and choosing between options. There may be a range of different options for achieving an agreed objective.

The best of these options has then to be chosen. Business College? Therefore we should consider the goals before identifying or generating possible options, and then exploring the options and evaluating them. When allocating work, the competencies and availability of staff must be considered so that work is allocated to those who are best equipped to do it. On Education Strathallan College? You must consider employees’ experience, skills, knowledge, understandings and workloads. You must consider checking their understanding and give support and opportunities to ask questions. When allocating work, the goals and objectives must be clearly defined so that employees can put them into action plans and achieve these goals. College? Managers and leaders must take into consideration, the interests of the staff members, their availability and the likely outcomes of involving specific employees. 3. Operational need.

The execution of any plan will require resources. The resources like people, accommodation, equipment, materials, time and money are identified as necessary to enable department to carry out normal activities. In some simple plans it will be relatively easy to see where resources will be needed to article writing Strathallan, complete the work within the planned time scales. In more complex work plans, when it is haravard business review Stanstead difficult to see precisely what will be required, a disciplined and methodical approach should be used. The following steps will usually appropriate. -Identify each separate resource (skills, item of equipment, etc.) and guides, its costs. -Identify when each resource is review required and for how long. -Find out what is available and what you think can be made available when required. -Establish the shortfalls and the costs of essay writing guides Clifton College obtaining the additional resources to meet them. -Consider how the original plan could be changed so that resources usage could be smoothed and review College, the shortfalls made less significant. How To Article Manchester? -Choose between covering the resource shortfalls, or replanning or combination of the haravard business review, two.

For an organization to article writing on education Strathallan, benefit from the work involved in developing an Action Plan, the plan must do more than merely meet the requirements. It must be effective in meeting the objects of the plan and the expectations of the organization. An Action Plan should. eliminate discrimination in haravard business review College an active way. improve services to Clifton College, existing consumers or customers. enhance organizational image. reduce the haravard, likelihood of complaints being made. increase the likelihood of being able to successfully defend complaints increase the likelihood of avoiding costly legal action.

allow for an argument Hudson College a planned and managed change in business or services open up new markets and attract new consumers. demonstrates commitment to eliminating discrimination. shows clear evidence of effective consultation with stakeholders has priorities which are appropriate and relevant. provides continuing consultation, evaluation and review. has clear timelines and implementation strategies and. is in fact being implemented. If your Action Plan cannot do that there is little point in investing resources in developing one. A poorly developed Action Plan will not result in the elimination of discrimination and will be of no use as part of a defence in the event of a complaint.

The process of developing an effective Action Plan can be divided into five elements: understanding your organizational environment. creating a favourable climate for implementation. undertaking effective consultation. developing an effective evaluation, monitoring and review strategy and structuring and writing your plan clearly and accessibly.

5. Cost effectiveness. The cost implications of different courses of action will need to be explored. A preliminary estimate of costs can be important in deciding whether a particular option is visable, some option maybe eliminated after a quick estimate of costs. Cost can be estimated at haravard business review Stanstead College several different level of detail. While a rough and ready exercise may be sufficient to on education College, show that an idea is worth pursuing, fuller cost and reliable figures are likely to be needed later on before firm decisions are made. To produce detail costings you will probably need information from your staff and colleagues in other departments.

When producing detail estimates, assess all relevant costs, even those which may not be directly apportioned to your budget such as photocopying or phone bills, etc. By showing you are aware of the costs your decision incur, you are more likely to get your plan approved. Monitor all spending. You will almost certainly need reports from those accountable to you at appropriate intervals. Record and learn from any differences between estimated and actual expenditure. Only monitor employees output if this is essential. Regular meetings with staff could be arranged to see how things are going. At these meetings managers could provide advice and support where necessary and ensure that staff are coping. A supportive environment is crucial. Staff need to know that managers will support them, even if things go wrong or if they find that they are unable to cope with added pressures.

Provide your staff with suitable and sufficient training to do their jobs. Take account that people’s skills and the way they approach the work will different. Develop individual or unit training arrangements and refresher sessions to ensure training and competencies are up to date and appropriate for the core functions of their job. Offer training in business review College basic counselling skills/access to counsellors. Ensure staff know how to prioritise, or how to examples of essay Brookes Shawnigan Lake, seek help if they have conflicting priorities. Provide training on review Stanstead, time management, prioritisation, assertiveness etc. Article Writing On Education Strathallan College? Encourage your staff to recognise the review Stanstead, individual contributions of other team members and the benefits of the whole team pulling together.Encourage good communication and provide appropriate training to aid skill development (eg listening skills, confidence building etc). Provide training to help staff deal with and defuse difficult situations. Discuss how individuals work together and how they can build positive relationships. Identify ways to celebrate success. Explain why it is write a new article Manchester necessary to : 1.Develop KRAs and KPIs that meet the organization needs.

Key result areas (KRAs) capture about haravard College, 80% of the department’s work role. The remainder of the role is usually devoted to areas of shared responsibility (e.g., helping team members, participating in writing Shawnigan Lake activities for the good of the business College, organization) Identifying KRAs helps individuals: · – Clarify their roles. -· Align their roles to the organization’s business or strategic plan. -· Focus on results rather than activities. -· Communicate their role’s purposes to others. -· Set goals and objectives. -· Prioritize their activities,

– Therefore improve their time/work management. -· Make value-added decisions. A performance indicator or key performance indicator (KPI) is a type of performance measurement. An organization may use KPIs to evaluate its success, or to evaluate the success of a particular activity in which it is engaged. Sometimes success is defined in terms of making progress toward strategic goals, but often success is simply the repeated, periodic achievement of some level of operational goal (e.g. zero defects, 10/10 customer satisfaction, etc.). Examples Of Essay Shawnigan Lake? Accordingly, choosing the College, right KPIs relies upon a good understanding of what is in english important to haravard review Stanstead College, the organization. ”What is important’ often depends on the department measuring the performance – e.g. the KPIs useful to finance will be quite different from the KPIs assigned to how to Manchester, sales. Stanstead? Since there is a need to understand well what is important (to an organization), various techniques to what thinking Kent School, assess the present state of the business, and its key activities, are associated with the selection of review performance indicators. These assessments often lead to what is critical in education Kent School, the identification of potential improvements, so performance indicators are routinely associated with ‘performance improvement’ initiatives. A very common way to choose KPIs is to apply a management framework such as the balanced scorecard. 2. Develop and implement effective performance management systems The basic tenet of performance management is haravard business Stanstead that if employees know what is expected of them, they are more likely to perform effectively.

This is also essential for writing in english employee engagement. Despite the common misconception, an engaged workforce is business Stanstead actually more accountable. This can be best achieved by robust performance management processes. This results in improved individual performance, increased employee engagement and ultimately better organizational performance. 3. Have a code of conduct (or a code of ethics or behavior) for the organization A code of conduct is what in education Kent intended to be a central guide and reference for users in support of day-to-day decision making. It is meant to haravard business review College, clarify an organization’s mission, values and principles, linking them with standards of thinking in education professional conduct. Haravard Business Review Stanstead? As a reference, it can be used to locate relevant documents, services and other resources related to ethics within the organization. A code is an open disclosure of the examples of essay writing in english, way an organization operates.

It provides visible guidelines for behavior. A well-written and thoughtful code also serves as an important communication vehicle that “reflects the business review Stanstead College, covenant that an Hillfield organization has made to uphold its most important values, dealing with such matters as its commitment to employees, its standards for doing business and its relationship with the community. Haravard Review? A code is also a tool to encourage discussions of ethics and to how to Abbey College, improve how employees/members deal with the ethical dilemmas, prejudices and gray areas that are encountered in everyday work. A code is meant to complement relevant standards, policies and rules, not to substitute for them. Haravard Review College? Codes of conduct offer an invaluable opportunity for responsible organizations to create a positive public identity for themselves which can lead to article Hillfield College, a more supportive political and haravard Stanstead, regulatory environment and an increased level of public confidence and trust among important constituencies and stakeholders. 4. Regularly monitor and evaluate the work of article employees. A well thought out monitoring and haravard review Stanstead, evaluation framework can assist greatly with thinking through programmatic strategies, objectives and planned activities, and whether they are indeed the most appropriate ones to implement. Writing Guides Clifton? Monitoring and haravard business Stanstead College, evaluation frameworks: Assist in understanding and analyzing a programme.

Help to develop sound monitoring and evaluation plans and writing an argument College, implementation of business review College monitoring and evaluation activities Articulate programme goals and measurable short, medium and long-term objectives Define relationships among inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes and impacts Clarify the relationship between programme activities and external factors. Demonstrate how activities will lead to desired outcomes and impacts, especially when resources are not available to conduct rigorous impact evaluations. Writing Hillfield Strathallan? They often display relationships graphically. 5. Give effective feedback and haravard Stanstead College, reinforcement to employees and acknowledge good work Positive reinforcement is the process of recognizing and rewarding a desired behavior in an effort to encourage its continuance. Writing? Positive reinforcement can consist of praise, offering incentives to continue the behavior or showing appreciation for review effort. In the workplace, supervisors can use positive reinforcement for purposes such as increasing productivity and improving the morale of an an argument essay Hudson individual or department.

-Providing Sense of Worth. Providing positive reinforcement can give an employee a sense of self-worth by making her feel good about haravard business Stanstead, her work performance. This can be important in instances where areas that need improvement have been pointed out previously, such as during a performance appraisal. Positive reinforcement lets the employee know she is making progress and that management is recognizing her efforts. This can also help to is critical Kent School, alleviate any self-doubts she may be having about haravard business, her ability to perform well. -Encouraging Good Behavior. Positive reinforcement can increase the examples writing in english Brookes Lake, chances of a desired behavior reoccurring in the future. Workers receive repeated praise or encouragement for good performance, they may be more likely to continue it. For example, a habitually tardy employee who receives praise for arriving at work early may seek to continue the pattern if he continues to receive positive feedback from his supervisor.

-Improving Workplace Morale. Positive reinforcement can help improve morale in the workplace. A supervisor who lets workers know she appreciates their efforts can foster a more positive work atmosphere. Employees may not only be happier and more productive in their own position, but they also may be more willing to help others who may be overworked or struggling. This is especially import in work environments where teamwork is business essential to getting the job done or when employees work in close proximity to each other. New employees may have concerns about fitting in with the culture of the write a new article College Manchester, workplace and whether they are demonstrating the ability to business review, perform as desired. Positive reinforcement early on in the is critical thinking School, training or orientation process can alleviate these concerns and help the haravard business Stanstead, employee relax and essay writing Washington, feel more confident about his ability to be successful. It can also encourage him to feel more comfortable about asking questions or expressing concerns as his training progresses. Business Review? 6.Have systems in place to manage poor performance. Performance management makes up a significant part of every manager’s job description, and this means managers are required to deal with poor performance.

Managers often view this as one of the less desirable responsibilities that come with their job because too often our perception of managing poor performance is clouded by thoughts of tense, uncomfortable situations that may result in finger pointing, anger and denial. Therefore we need a system in place to manage poor performance. 7. Understand the organization’s termination policy and the legislation to which it relates Most employers find dismissal of an employee to thinking, be a difficult process regardless of the reasons for business College the dismissal. However, when a dismissal is essay guides necessary, it is haravard business College important for the employer to: Be informed about and comply with legislation. Treat the employee fairly and act in good faith. Handle the writing essay Hudson College, termination process in a professional way that preserves the employee’s dignity Be careful about how much information is communicated to others about the Stanstead, facts and reasons for the termination Termination, as discussed in this section, is an action taken by the employer to end the employer/employee relationship. Employers have a basic right to terminate the employment of an writing Clifton employee, but along with that right comes responsibilities. Employers must comply with the employment/ labour standards and human rights legislation for their jurisdiction and business College, beyond that, employers must treat employees fairly and in good faith as defined by common law or civil law. Project 2- case study.

Organization X has been expressed dissatisfaction with the service provided by my team, and actually they has expressed their dissatisfaction on a number of previous occasions. Therefore Organization X is considering that the contract with our company may not be extended. Article On Education Hillfield College? Thus, we are going to consider how to address the problem. The organization should have explicit and well communicated performance standards There may some communication problem occurs. Since when representatives from organization X have contacted the team member to haravard business review College, confirm orders and delivery times, they have received vague assurances, but the goods ordered have either not arrived on time, or the write a new article Manchester, orders have not been fully made up. Business College? Therefore I will draw up a timetable of the delivery times and the list of details of the goods order, to ensure that there is a clear work plan to follow.

I will also ask my team member to sign the time schedule and how to write article Abbey College, record the time when every time they deliver the goods. Haravard Business Stanstead College? I may also make a check list and what is critical School, ask my team member to record the quality and the quantity of the goods before they deliver the goods. Moreover, to ask them to follow up customers’ feedback, call them and ask whether they satisfy with the service and the quality of the goods. At last, in haravard business College order to improve my team members job performance, I will draw up an Employee performance improvement plan terms of agreement to clearly define and document the duties or behaviors requiring improvement. Employee should receive appropriate training. The team member should receive a clear step-by-step instruction of the order to ensure that they know how to carry out the job, they understand the goals or requirement of the customers need, and encourage them to ask when they have any problems. Employees should be given suitable support so they can do their jobs well I will hold on a meeting with my team members to discuss all about his case.

As the organization X has been expressed their dissatisfaction on a number of previous occasions, so I may consider about my team members’ work load and make sure that they have ability to finish their works. I suggest that we should transfer the case to another team member to carry out or assign one more team member to help them out. Therefore they can look after each other in this project and reduce their work load. What action might you take if, after you have implemented your problem solution, the situation does not improve? When performance counseling, or methods of accommodating the needs of the employee are unsuccessful, it may lead to an argument essay Hudson, the written warning letters.

In this warning letter, it build in information, responses, and commitments made in any performance evaluations and counseling processes. Include a statement about the past, reviewing the employee’s history with respect to haravard business review Stanstead College, the problems; a statement about the essay College, present, describing who, what, when etc. of the current situation, including the employees’ explanation; and haravard business review Stanstead College, a statement of the future, describing the organization’s expectations and the consequences of continued failure. Timeframes attributed to the improvement result should be included, along with the measurement criteria. http://labspace.open.ac.uk/file.php/5401/B600_1%20Blk%206.2.pdf http://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/disability-rights/standards/action-plans/developing-effective-action-plan#5 http://www.drivingforce.com.au/hr-implementing-performance-management.php http://www.ethics.org/resource/why-have-code-conduct. http://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/335-monitoring-and-evaluation-frameworks-3-parts.html http://smallbusiness.chron.com/positive-reinforcement-important-workplace-11566.html http://hrcouncil.ca/hr-toolkit/keeping-people-termination.cfm. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 27 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Work and drawing up work plans. for only writing an argument essay Hudson College, $16.38 $13.9/page.

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45,000 caught cheating at Britain#039;s universities. Stanstead? As cases of 'academic misconduct' rocket, computer programs able to biodiversity writing Washington Academy identify plagiarism are being overtaken fast. The Independent Online. Using a mobile phone is review one way to pass your exams, but notes on the arm will do Jason Alden. Tens of thousands of students in universities across Britain have been caught cheating in exams and coursework – and the trend is on the rise, according to a investigation by The Independent on Sunday . Over the past three years, more than 45,000 students at 80 institutions have been hauled before college authorities and found guilty of academic misconduct ranging from bringing crib-sheets or mobile phones into exams to paying private firms to is critical thinking in education School write essays for them. Some 16,000 cases were recorded in the past year alone, as university chiefs spent millions on software to identify work reproduced from haravard review, published material, or simply cut and what in education School pasted from the internet. But officials last night warned they were fighting a losing battle against hi-tech advances – which means it is becoming increasingly difficult to detect the cheats.

Tessa Byars, an advice services manager at Anglia Ruskin University Students' Union, warned that advances in technology had made it nearly impossible for universities to haravard business Stanstead keep up. It's only going to get worse, she said. From next September we expect to see cheating incidents rise. The introduction of tuition fees will increase pressure and anxiety to write College get a good degree. They're all worried about their employment prospects. University bosses blame the financial crisis for raising the stakes in higher education, making many students willing to do anything to secure good grades – or just to business Stanstead stay on an argument their degree courses. A number of experts claim that Tony Blair's flagship policy of increasing access to higher education has left thousands of business Stanstead, young people starting university without all the practical and intellectual skills required. Ministers have now been urged to what in education Kent School step in to help institutions defend standards against increasingly sophisticated methods, particularly agencies that produce customised essays for students – often for fees of hundreds of pounds.

The Liberal Democrat peer Lord Willis, who led an inquiry into the state of Stanstead College, Britain's universities three years ago, said ministers must gain control over the essay-writing companies whose products are almost impossible to detect. The former headteacher said ministers should impose a register of all companies offering professional advice on examples Brookes Lake writing essays. Lord Willis said: We were disappointed that the haravard business review Stanstead College last government ignored our recommendations on making these firms liable for essay Clifton College criminal prosecution. Business Review? Something needs to be done to bring them into line. Under the Freedom of Information Act, The IoS obtained answers from examples writing in english Shawnigan Lake, more than 80 institutions. The responses revealed a catalogue of offences, including individuals caught taking exams for haravard business review College someone else, using concealed notes or taking mobile phones into examination halls and colluding with fellow students to produce identical coursework. Hundreds were kicked off their courses, while many more have been fined, had their marks downgraded, or been sent for counselling. Writing Hudson? The Oxford University Proctors' Office report listed 26 cases last year, including two students who were expelled for review Stanstead College offences including plagiarism and further fines on two students who took mobile phones or BlackBerrys into exams. The IoS has established that at least 45,000 students at more than 80 UK institutions have been hauled before the authorities and found guilty of misconduct in their exams or coursework over the past three years. The toll last year was almost 16,000, an increase on two years before, despite attempts to persuade undergraduates to stay on in english Brookes the straight and narrow.

Greenwich University, with more than 900 cases, was the worst in the country, but 12 others reported more than one cheat every day. The high rate of cheating has also been blamed in part on the tens of thousands of international students who, Ms Byars said, come from countries with different practices and cultures. Others said the recent huge increase in College, undergraduates meant there were many students at new universities who were not adequately prepared to complete degrees. Geoffrey Alderman, professor of history and examples of essay in english Lake politics at the University of business College, Buckingham, said the cheats had moved on from Type 1 fraud – mainly cutting and pasting material from the internet – as that could now be detected easily. Professor Alderman, who has complained about essay guides Clifton College, a decline in university standards, added: If a student who I know to be mediocre in class suddenly produces a brilliant essay, I will have them in for an oral examination to see whether they can reproduce that work.

I'm not sure all universities do that. I will not allow a student's nationality or ethnic background to excuse cheating. The Government should use the criminal law to stop this happening – it's fraud and it devalues the review College currency of article writing on education Strathallan College, all degrees. Sally Hunt, general secretary of the University and business Stanstead College Union, said politicians had to share the blame for the rising tide of cheating. She said: Cheating is wrong, and students need to understand that and the consequences that come with it if they are tempted to explore unscrupulous ways of completing their work. However, successive governments are also partly to blame. Writing? Hawking degrees around like any other commodity, using graduate-earning premiums as a selling point, has changed the nature of life on campus. London Metropolitan, which had the highest number of cheating offences in the country in 2009-10, recorded the second-highest last year, behind Greenwich. They were followed by Sheffield Hallam, Leeds Metropolitan and Wolverhampton. A spokeswoman for Greenwich University said the figures demonstrated a particularly robust approach to academic misconduct. She added: Staff are highly vigilant, and we use a number of techniques that are not in use throughout the whole sector.

Increasingly, universities are taking a defensive stance – insisting it is complicated by haravard business Stanstead, a growing number of students who enter university unfamiliar with the correct procedures of citation or who do not have a good command of English. Niall Hayes, a lecturer at what School Lancaster University Management School, said: People come to us without experience of extended writing or formulating arguments and building on other's ideas. That's something we have to deal with and it's why we can't necessarily identify it as cheating. Jon Elsmore, dean of students at Wolverhampton, said: Sometimes plagiarism can occur unintentionally, and if problems are identified early in a student's career they can be helped to develop their academic skills and avoid more serious consequences if they do not change their approach. Business? There are hundreds of essay guides Clifton College, internet sites offering everything from presentations, short-form essays and even a PhD thesis written to order. Some are based in the UK while many exist only online.

Posing as a student with an urgent deadline, we used a company called All Writing Source purporting to be based in Surrey. Essays can be ordered using a drop-down menu, with prices determined by haravard business review Stanstead College, length, time of delivery and desired mark. We stipulated a Guaranteed First Class Degree (sic) at 1,500 words and delivered by e-mail within 24 hours. Essay Writing College? The title we set was: Did Tony Blair lie in business review, making the what is critical thinking in education case for military action in Iraq? The total cost came in at ?143.70. The sales assistant, Kevin, refused any textbooks, insisting the firm would get in touch if they needed more information. The reason is that we have our own in-house writers who do the job for us. Haravard Business Review? free from all plagiarisms, he wrote. He promised to on education Hillfield deliver the essay in under 24 hours. The next day, 10 minutes before the business review Stanstead deadline, we were told the essay was ready.

The paper passed flawlessly through Turnitin, one of the how to write article Manchester leading plagiarism checkers, and had even cited seven sources in the bibliography. But was it really the Guaranteed First Class that we were promised? We gave it to John Rentoul, a visiting fellow at Queen Mary, University of London, for marking. Professor Rentoul's verdict: Some evidence of haravard Stanstead, knowledge of the subject, but: 1. Writing An Argument Essay Hudson? Very poor grammar and style, unintelligible in places (reads as if it has been translated by review Stanstead, Google from guides, another language); 2. Very poor sources and Stanstead sourcing. Is Critical Thinking In Education Kent? All four books cited are polemical anti-war works. No primary material cited at business Stanstead College all; 3. Argument, analysis and narrative weak and how to write Manchester unsupported by evidence. Stanstead College? Much too polemical rather than historical in style. The question needs to be defined and then the evidence for and against needs to be cited and examples of essay writing in english Shawnigan Lake weighed.

Please see me for further advice. Mark: 42 (Third Class marks: 40-49) We returned to the company the next day, explaining that we were from The Independent on Sunday . The firm denied it was encouraging cheating and offered to improve the essay based on the examiner's comments. The company's website disclaimer reads: AllWritingSource.co.uk is haravard business review a custom research/writing/rewriting service that provides proper references too for writing an argument essay assistance purposes only. It is necessary to use every paper with appropriate reference. The papers provided serve as model papers for business review College students and are not to Washington Academy be submitted as it is. These papers are intended to be used for research and reference purposes only.

Ollie (surname withheld by review Stanstead, The IoS), 22, studied at Glasgow Caledonian University. The computer science student was accused of cheating after a professor spotted similarities between his and a friend's work. Biodiversity Essay Writing Washington? It was the business Stanstead College night before a programming assignment was due and I convinced someone on my course to let me see their coursework. Essay Writing? I tried to change some details and I thought it would be enough. But when the marker looked over the code it was clear that the origins of both our work was similar. We were called in on separate occasions to explain the code outline, how it worked, in order to haravard business College try to work out which of us was cheating.

I thought I could get away with it, but it was clear that the work was alien to me. But it was also obvious that I had grasped the theory, even though I hadn't done the work myself, so I think they were more lenient. The assessment was counted as a fail and I was made to resit the assignment. In the end, I took the blame. If anything, the experience has taught me not to attempt things I can't explain and never to use other people's coursework. Clare Trayner, 23, was a geography student at writing on education Hillfield Strathallan Royal Holloway who was accused of cheating after anti-plagiarism software flagged up her essay.

Everyone was emailed to collect their essay, but mine was held back. Stanstead College? I was then told to attend a formal meeting as I had been caught committing plagiarism. I knew I hadn't cheated but I wasn't clear on what the problem was. I was told one paragraph had been flagged up as resembling the content on an internet site. Eventually I was found guilty of plagiarism but as it was my first time I would be only marked down by 10 per cent on that module.

My mark for what is critical School the module went from business Stanstead College, a high 2:1 to a 2:2. Interviews by Tabby Kinder. We use cookies to thinking enhance your visit to our site and to bring you advertisements that might interest you. Read our Privacy and Cookie Policies to find out more. We've noticed that you are using an ad blocker. Haravard Review Stanstead College? Advertising helps fund our journalism and article on education College keep it truly independent.

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Descriptive essay: Christmas market. The Christmas market in Ulm has always been a magical place to me. At the Stanstead first day of November it opens, in the centre of the town, on how to a new Abbey, the big market square, a big plaza covered with grey cobblestone, surrounded my creameries, restaurants and souvenir shops (and the church with the tallest steeple in the world). Whenever I walk down the Hirschstreet, the haravard Stanstead largest shopping street in Ulm, which is writing in english Brookes Shawnigan leading to the market square and I spot the twinkling gate to the Christmas market, covered with small light bulbs, pictures of Santa Claus, angels, stars and gifts in every size and colour, I know winter has come. As I enter the market, passing two big fir trees decorated with lights and a sign with the words “Welcome to the Christmas Market of haravard review College, Ulm” engraved on it, I feel like I just entered a completely different world, a world of Christmas. Everywhere are small booths, built out of wood and decorated with small sparkling stars, fir branches, fairy lights, bathing the in education scene in its golden light.

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One letter can make a big difference. Overall you had a very good point and business Stanstead, understanding the poem Edward Higham : You still aren't using correct grammar and punctuation. But other that I liked how you said because we have lived in the city most of our lives, that we think the country is essay writing more beautiful. Your the only the person so far that has stated this. Good job. Cindy Han : You expressed your own thoughts about this topic very well -- just be careful of capital letters where they do not belong (after commas and semicolons). Dan Lian Zhao : I like the haravard business Stanstead College fact that you explained why the city might be beautiful and it'd be better if you could use a quote from the poem to support your idea. Edward Giles : You h?ave made ve?ry good points and a good exampl?e of a p?art of the Abbey poem? raising que?stions.

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Also, would the examples Brookes eco-parks also count as artificial because we planted them and designed them in a wa Mihnea Lupu : I did not like the beginning, (structure and wording) as it was not captivating as well as clear. However the body and conclusion where much better then the beginning. Haravard Business Review. Sophie Krafft : your post is very interesting and i liked how you related the poem to math and its beauty. Article On Education College. like Tom said you should put your own opinion in to Stanstead improve you writing but overall i understood what you mean Edward Higham : I like how you structured your post in paragraphs and each of biodiversity Washington Academy, them had a new point. I like the quote that you used to explain your ideas. Dan Lian Zhao : i like how you used examples to help expand your point of view.

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But if in the conclusion, instead of writing on education Strathallan College, thinking about how others might think, write about your own opinion. Edward Higham : Something that you could have done better was to haravard business Stanstead College refer the questions to essay the poem, like Tom stated. Haravard Business Stanstead College. Sophie Krafft : It is good how you used the write Abbey College things we learned last year to refer to this poem such as a dystopian world and haravard review Stanstead College, how we live i also liked how you described the cities as concrete jungles which i thought was a good choice of essay guides, words. Cindy Han : Be careful of the review punctuations and phrasing (especially the of essay writing Brookes Lake first sentence). Tom Prior : Good points shown, maybe go on to relate these ideas back to the poem :) Edward Higham : I like your opinion on the questions and ideas that were raised on haravard business Stanstead College, the sonnet. Essay Writing. Cindy Han : You said that beauty both naturally made and man made, but do you think everything (natural and artificial) seems beautiful to you? If not, what makes something beautiful and business review, others ugly? Mihnea Lupu : I enjoyed reading your comment but I would suggest putting your view and writing, stand on this matter. As well, not to end the haravard business Review with a question but a statement or conclusion. A New Article College. Tom Prior : You showed that you understood the class discussion, one improvement would be to relate the questions back to the poem.

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Contrast bewteen the 2 groups of people was shown really clearly. Also lots personal thoughts are given examples and explained in detail. Mar 26: Robert Frost (1874) Mar 30: Vincent van Gogh (1853) Apr 2: Emile Zola (1840) Apr 7: Billie Holiday (1915) Apr 20: Lionel Hampton (1908) Apr 25: Ella Fitzgerald (1917) Apr 26: Harper Lee (1926) Apr 26: Wm. Biodiversity Essay Writing Washington. Shakespeare (1564)

Apr 29: Duke Ellington (1899) At least half of your DEAR books should be from business review this list. Arron (14) Daniel Lee (11) Darvina Magandran (6) Edward Higham (22) Elson Yap (11) Harry Tidmarsh (11) Jasmine Yeh (23) Jeannie (18) Kaitlin (23) Khai Wen (5) Leo Rodriguez (8) Marcela (16) Marilia (16) Mihnea (14) Mike Li (15) Mr. Essay Writing Clifton. MacKnight (23) Negar Zunuzi (10) previousu (1479) Raina Cheung (15) Jasmine Yeh (21) Edward Higham (20) Leo Rodriguez (18) Arron (13) Mihnea (12) Marilia (9) Mike Li (9) Daniel Lee (8) Marcela (7) Darvina Magandran (7) Negar Zunuzi (7) Kaitlin (6) Raina Cheung (6) Jeannie (6) Elson Yap (6) Harry Tidmarsh (0) Khai Wen (0) The Son's Veto : What details in the story make us sympathize with the haravard business mother? Her First Ball : How does Katherine Mansfield make us wonder whether happiness is only an illusion? The Fly in writing guides, the Ointment : How does the detail of the fly contribute to our understanding of haravard review College, Harold's father? The Custody of the essay writing Pumpkin : What details in the story make Lord Emsworth appear ridiculous?

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At Hiruharama : What details give the reader certain impressions of New Zealand in the early 20th century?

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essay on amerindians CONTACTS WITH AMERINDIAN POPULATIONS. There remains very few pure hunters/gatherers, that is, speaking anthropologically, non-sedentary populations living exclusively from haravard business Stanstead College hunting, fishing and article Hillfield, the gathering of haravard business review Stanstead College, wild fruit and biodiversity writing Washington, plants growing in the forest. For the business review Stanstead great majority of Indians, food is provided basically by agriculture, the remainder coming from hunting and fishing. American Indians cultivate small areas taken from the forest by slash and burn method: during the an argument Hudson dry season, a portion of the forest is review College cleared then burnt, the seeded plants developing when the College rainy season starts. The Central and South American rainforests often grow on haravard business College, poor acid soils. Through burning, the necessary basic elements are brought to the soil. - Manioc (manihot esculata) is particularly adapted to poor acid soils. Writing In English Shawnigan Lake! The poorer the soil, the more prussic acid containing cyanide is College found in the plant.

The juice of the manioc is very toxic and must be extracted before it can be eaten. As I already mentioned above while speaking about white soils, plant life is more difficult and they protect themselves more against predators. Poor soils get exhausted rapidly. A study has shown that the yield per hectare after the third year represents only 45% of the first year's yield. New fields thus must continuously be cleared. Populations being traditionally not dense, the impact on the rainforest is negligible but Indians have to move their villages from place to place often, which explains their semi-nomadic way of Washington Academy, life. Amerindians are experts at using the haravard Stanstead College resources from the College Manchester rainforest. One example: the use of the moriche palmtree (mauritia flexuosa) by the Warao Indians of the Orinoco Delta: The palm leaves are used to cover roofs.

Fruits are eatable. Fibers are used to haravard, make superb hammocks. Larvae from an insect develop inside a felled trunk, they are delicious (when eaten raw, they taste like butter). Openings are made in the trunk on the ground. Rainwater accumulated in what is critical Kent School, them ferments and haravard Stanstead College, produces an alcoholic beverage! Indian villages are usually composed of few families.

A community composed of what School, 50 people is haravard business College considered large. However, thanks to medical aid, their population increases sharply in certain zones. The pressure on hunting and fishing is more and more important. Indians sometimes have to travel far by dug-out canoes in order to find game. They often overuse the nivraie, a creeper which contains chemicals that prevent fish from article College breathing, forcing them to go up to business College, the surface where they can easily be picked. The surplus population has to emigrate towards the closest Creole communities to which they finally get assimilated, loosing their identity and often becoming tramps. The increase in population density in the rainforest breaks the equilibrium that maintained the traditional slash and burn cultivation method. Essay Guides College! More and more areas have to be cleared, on larger and larger surfaces. On the poorest soils, if the vegetation is eliminated on a large scale, the rains soon wash away the Stanstead College fertile layer and a barren base remains on which only grasses and scraggy bushes will grow. Rain and heat facilitate the formation of iron and aluminium oxides, giving these soils the characteristic red colour of laterite.

Don't expect to meet populations who have never had access to the outside world, especially during a hike that lasts but a few days. The Indians whom you will meet are used to contacts with tourists who sometimes represent their livelihood. You will see young Indians proudly displaying their soccer tee-shirt or their latest model Walkman. The adults possess motor dug-out canoes and article Abbey Manchester, hunt with rifles. But apart from these small details, their way of life has remained the same. And this is what counts for the preservation of their culture. Among interesting remarks that I have heard, a gentleman told me how disappointed he was at not having seen real Indians. Does a true Frenchman always wear a beret and an Englishman a bowler hat? The most occidentalized Indians regularly organize traditional festivals during which they wear their beautiful feathers, paint their bodies and dance according to ancestral rites. Foreigners are usually not invited, but sometimes you can be lucky. If you have the chance of being able to business review Stanstead, travel to writing College, more remote zones of the rainforest, you might meet much more primitive populations.

Nearly every year in Amazonia, communities who have never had any contact with the review Stanstead College civilized world are being discovered. They are extremely vulnerable and, as far as I am concerned, they should be systematically protected and their access be either severely limited or forbidden. Even with American Indians used to examples writing in english, contacts with tourists, there are rules of good behaviour to be followed. First of all, according to my thinking, nothing is business worse than condescendence (oh, the poor things!). Some people have the thinking Kent tendency to confuse happiness with material riches. If Indians usually possess hardly anything, nothing allows us to state that they are not happy. Life is good in the forest, food is abundant, freedom is extraordinary, and stress is unknown.

Indians are indeed materially poor, but they are certainly less miserable than the people who live in shantytowns or other favellas of the large sprawling cities. I was once with a group in review Stanstead College, a Ye'Kwana village of South Venezuela when we chanced upon a French missionary who had been living with Indians for the past 37 years. When a lady asked him: Father, what do you feel when you return to civilization? He answered with a smile: Madame, the word civilization is a plural, not a singular word. The Wayanas of Guyana have several tens of what is critical thinking, different names to qualify a wasp. I personally know a Ye'Kwana chief of Venezuela who is capable of identifying in his language more than 350 tree and College, plant species. A botanist friend who worked at length with him was full of essay guides Clifton College, wonder. That too is culture#133; The more primitive, structured and haravard business, hierarchical the writing Clifton College civilization, the more it imposes on its members strict rules of haravard business review Stanstead, behaviour. Even though Indians are very conscious that these rules do not apply to foreigners, it is advisable to avoid behaviour that could put them ill at ease or shock them : American Indians are usually calm, silent and rather introverted.

They can perceive a loud or exuberant behaviour as an invasion. They hate to have to take decisions hurriedly or abruptly. The decision taking process is for them slow and essay writing guides Clifton College, involves wide consultations. If someone tells you no, don't keep on insisting. You can commit a blunder unknowingly. For example, in certain tribes, to ask to speak directly to the chief or have a conversation with the business review Stanstead College sorcerer can be against protocol, especially for a woman. Avoid excentricities and familiar behaviour, and biodiversity essay, don't bathe half or completely naked in front of them (furthermore, the eventual presence of the candiru is business review a good excuse not to an argument Hudson College, do so!). The American Indians are extremely modest. Don't ask questions about their intimate lives. Don't put them in situations where they can loose face, even as a joke. That is not how you will gain friends#133;

Taking pictures is a delicate question: you always have to ask permission to the villagers, even if you don't photograph people directly. If they refuse, don't take pictures behind their backs#133; (I seem to give obvious advice, but my experience has shown me that it is not so obvious, unfortunately!). The sad practice of paying people to photograph them seems morally doubtful to me. Along the Maroni river, between French Guyana and Surinam, there are populations of African origin. They are what is called marrons, that is descendants of former slaves who escaped from plantations of haravard business review, what used to what thinking in education School, be Dutch Guyana at the beginning of the business 19th century.

They have kept many ancestral characteristics. The Boni, Djuka and Saramaka have in common a profound dislike of photographs. They even put up signs to tell tourists not to take any. Be careful, they are built like Hercules! I once saw a transgressor receiving a good thrashing#133; When you arrive in an Amerindian community, you might be offered the cachiri, a weak beverage made of fermented manioc or other ground root. On Education Hillfield Strathallan College! It looks yellowish, lumpy and not very appetizing.

As for the taste, you have to have generations of American Indian ancestry to like it. Furthermore, in review Stanstead College, certain tribes (not all happily), women spit in an argument Hudson, the preparation to speed fermentation. However, it is rude to refuse. You can ask however to haravard, be served only a small quantity of writing on education Hillfield College, it. Dip your lips in it, or swallow a small mouthful and smile broadly (but not too broadly or else you will be served again!). If they offer you to haravard business review Stanstead, share their meal (a rare thing) don't expect an writing unforgettable gastronomical experience. Indians only like nearly burnt meat and will not hesitate to boil together a fish and haravard review Stanstead College, some game. College Manchester! The Pemon Indians of Southern Venezuela consider grilled ants a delicacy. Business Stanstead College! These ants are the how to write a new article Abbey College large winged stud Atta species, the leaf-cutting ant.

As a matter of fact, it is Stanstead not bad, leaving a peanut aftertaste. BE CAREFUL OF THE ALCOHOL THAT YOU BRING INTO THE VILLAGES! If you have to sleep in a community, don't offer alcohol, rhum in particular, to Indians. The sweetest Amerindian becomes hard to bear and often violent under alcohol (they are not the only ones #133;). Don't drink ostensibly and don't leave the an argument essay Hudson bottles conspicuously. Business Review! This is also true in Creole villages. Giving presents is examples in english Shawnigan Lake another delicate subject. I have seen people arriving with bags full of old clothes and distributing them to haravard business review, Indians. You must remember that a free gift does not exist in primitive societies. It always must be accompanied by Abbey Manchester a gift in business, return, there has to be a counterpart or else there is no equilibrium in Strathallan College, the transaction.

Don't think that Indians will be grateful or have some regard towards you if you act that way: they often consider that your gift is business College what you owe them as a consequence of some virtual obligation you might have towards them. Once I wanted to please a dug-out canoe driver who had worked well and I offered him my forehead lamp. What Kent School! He was furious. He wanted the lamp AND the fishing equipment! It is business always better to exchange in order not to create dependency and begging behaviour. There are always interesting things to exchange in villages: crafts, bows, blow-pipes, etc. But always choose things they like, not remains#133; Indians in general love things like knives, lamps and everything pertaining to fishing and hunting. The great majority of Amerindians use money to essay Academy, buy fuel, cartridges, etc#133; A good way to haravard review Stanstead, help them is to is critical thinking in education School, buy their crafts if they sell some. You can of haravard review, course bring candy for the children but choose some without paper wrapping or else you will find all the of essay in english Brookes Shawnigan Lake wrappings scattered throughout the village!

Don't expect the impossible from contacts with Indians. Some agencies use meeting others as a marketing device#133; It is College rather naïve if not foolish when applied to Amerindians. They are fascinating but secret and introverted and will certainly not talk about their lives to a tourist spending two hours in their village. It takes years for them to examples writing Shawnigan, accept you.

The missionary whom I mentioned above told me that when he arrived with other members of his congregation, they settled outside the village and haravard business Stanstead, studied Indians for 5 years before starting their mission #133; 5 YEARS! It seems to me that we have passed from the excesses of civilizing and examples Brookes Lake, evangelising missions to the excesses of business Stanstead, humanitarian missions! Culture loss phenomena must be analysed in the middle and long term#133; For example, you will have the impression that you are doing a good deed by bringing medicine to Indians. But you must realize that the result of the guides Clifton College accumulation of this type of review Stanstead College, action leads Indians to abandon and finally forget their traditional medicine, which is often very efficient. It is much easier for them to ask for essay, a drug at the dispensary than to pass long hours in the forest looking for a certain root, for example#133;But if the review dispensary disappears, they will be unable to cure themselves. It is possible to bring help on the short term but to destroy in the long run, I suppose that it is a moral problem which each one of us must solve according to one's conscience. Personally, I always take great pleasure being with Amerindians.

For a passionate lover of the rainforest, they are an endless source of fascinating information. I have true friends among them. But if I have the choice, I prefer not to stay overnight in villages. I think that it is always better to camp in what thinking in education School, the forest, a little aside. The nightly concert of barking dogs is followed at dawn by that of roosters and other domestic animals. Their conception of hygiene is haravard review Stanstead College often quite different from ours, that is the least one can say. I recently went on an expedition in the South of Venezuela during which we slept in a Sanema village, a sub-group of the Yanomami Indians. As in most tribes, there is a communal central hut where visitors are welcomed, it is also used for festivals and other tribal meetings. The Sanema hold a tobacco quid nearly permanently under their lower lip. Guides Clifton! This savoury habit leads them to spit continuously everywhere inside the huts, eventually under your feet.

While I was preparing dinner, there were about fifty Indians around me, spitting every 30 seconds or so. I must say that it somewhat cut our appetite#133; Furthermore, Sanemas very often suffer from haravard business College tuberculosis. Expect to have many children permanently around you, even while you perform the of essay Brookes Shawnigan most private daily functions. Finally, I have always been personally embarrassed by all the review College unpacking of equipment and food in an argument essay Hudson, front of people who possess nearly nothing#133; In communities that regularly welcome tourists, the Indians, who are conscious of these small annoyances, often build aside a special hut for foreign visitors.