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How to write articles Stevenson Academy

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What Inspired Robert Louis Stevenson to write Dr Jekyll & Mr Hyde

book report on d day In his latest surefire bestseller, Coben explores the big secrets and little lies that can destroy a relationship, a family and even a town. Stevenson Academy. Denise Kiernan Tells the Fascinating Story Behind the prompts Millfield School Nation#039;s Largest Residence. The story of the Gilded Age mansion Biltmore spans World Wars, the Jazz Age, the Depression and how to articles Academy, generations of the famous Vanderbilt family. Essay Writing University. Art Garfunkel Has Written a Memoir (of Sorts) WHAT IS IT ALL BUT LUMINOUS is a lyrical autobiography chronicling Garfunkel#39;s time as one half of one of the most successful musical duos, his solo career, and his musings on life, love, marriage and articles Stevenson Academy, fatherhood.

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The following are lists of Les Roches International Management new paperback releases that we think will be of interest to how to Academy you. September#39;s Books on Screen roundup includes the feature film s IT and American Assassin ; the journal difference The University of Glasgow season three premiere of Outlander on Starz and the movie Our Souls at Night available on Netflix; and the DVD releases of articles Stevenson Academy The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks and Captain Underpants: The First Epic Movie . Each month we spotlight a selection of Young Adult (YA) titles that we believe are great reads for adult readers. Explore our picks here! Bookreporter.com#39;s Fall Preview Contests and Feature. Prompts Millfield School. Fall is known as the biggest season of the year for how to write Stevenson Academy, books. The titles that release during this latter part of the year often become holiday gifts, and many are blockbusters. To celebrate the arrival of fall, we are spotlighting a number of outstanding books that we know people will be talking about in the days and months to paper School come. We are hosting a series of how to Stevenson Academy 24-hour contests for these titles on select days in September and October, so you will have to check the site each day to see the and article featured prize book and enter to win. New Release Spotlight: HANNA WHO FELL FROM THE SKY by Christopher Meades. Hanna has never been outside her secluded community of Clearhaven.

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When the path of Flora#39;s expedition crosses theirs, the three lives become intertwined. If we cannot be clever, we can always be kind. Copyright 2017 The Book Report, Inc. Persuasive School. All Rights Reserved.

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Obama’s Favorite Theologian? A Short Course on Reinhold Niebuhr. Some of the nation’s leading journalists gathered in Key West, Fla., in May 2009 for the Pew Forum’s biannual Faith Angle Conference on religion, politics and public life. Ever since then-Sen. Barack Obama spoke of his admiration for Reinhold Niebuhr in a 2007 interview with New York Times columnist David Brooks, there has been speculation about the extent to which the 20th-century theologian has influenced Obama’s views on faith, politics and social change.

Wilfred McClay, a historian specializing in American intellectual history and author of The Masterless: Self and Society in Stevenson Modern America , which won the 1995 Merle Curti Award in intellectual history, offered an overview of Niebuhr’s unique form of progressive Christianity and addressed ongoing debates about the influence of Niebuhr’s work on writing prompts for essays Millfield 20th-century American politics and international affairs. E.J. Dionne, columnist for The Washington Post , remarked on the recent revival of interest in how to articles Stevenson Niebuhrian thought and spoke about the role Niebuhr played as a public intellectual active during the worldwide political upheavals of the 1930s, ’40s and ’50s. Speaker: Wilfred M. McClay, SunTrust Bank Chair of Excellence in speech writing essay St. Louis University (INTO) Humanities, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. Respondent: E.J. Articles Stevenson! Dionne Jr., Columnist, The Washington Post ; Senior Advisor, Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion Public Life. Moderator: Michael Cromartie, Vice President, Ethics Public Policy Center; Senior Advisor, Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion Public Life. And Obama went on for 25 minutes about his admiration for Reinhold Niebuhr. Management! And then David did a column on Niebuhr and then we got an excuse to do Niebuhr.

So that’s why we’re talking about Reinhold Niebuhr – because our president likes Reinhold Niebuhr. But we thought you wanted to know about him anyway. So our session is really not about President Obama; it’s about Reinhold Niebuhr. But we used that teaser “Obama’s Favorite Theologian?” just to get your attention. Write! And I’m sure the essay writing Saxion University Sciences president’s name will come up in our conversation. Bill McClay is an intellectual historian who’s taught at articles Stevenson Academy Tulane and Georgetown universities and now is an endowed chair at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. Speech Essay (INTO)! Bill has, if you look at his bio, written some very important books.

One is called The Masterless: Self and how to articles Academy, Society in Modern America , which was the winner of a best-book award – the writing essay Merle Curti Award in intellectual history – in 1995. Remind me, Bill, who was Merle Curti? WILFRED MCCLAY: He was a great intellectual historian. MCCLAY: From the University of Wisconsin. CROMARTIE: Okay, good, well you won his award in 1995 and that’s why we invited you. Now ladies and gentlemen, we’re going to hear from Bill McClay and then E.J. Articles Stevenson Academy! Dionne is going to read to us from about five different books by Niebuhr that he has stacked over here. E.J.

DIONNE: Even a thriller. How do you like that? I have a thriller on my list. CROMARTIE: And you’re going to do all that in 15 minutes? CROMARTIE: Okay. Bill, we look forward. Thank you. MCCLAY: Thanks. This is really quite a change.

I think Francis Collins and Barbara Bradley Hagerty had a sort of hamburger writing University uplifting, hopeful subject. And I have Niebuhr who’s – I think by the time we get through with this you may be ready to write articles Stevenson Academy slash your wrists. Writing! (Laughter.) But I hope not. Write Articles Stevenson! I hope not. CROMARTIE: Do you have a song about that – suicide? (Laughter.) MCCLAY: “Stormy Weather.” I’m leaning with “Stormy Weather.” But actually I think there are some connections with what Professor Robert Putnam is going to be doing tomorrow. So I think you will see some linkages. Niebuhr is a theologian. He’s also a student of power politics and a great admirer of the saying of Lord Acton, that the power corrupts and PowerPoint corrupts absolutely. St. Louis (INTO)! (Laughter.) But now, there are souls who – let me finish – there are souls who are pure enough, children of light, as Niebuhr might say, who can – actually that’s a double-edged thing, you’ll see – but who can do it. But I’m not one of them.

So there will be no PowerPoint, which is not to say that there won’t be any corruption, but at least that particular occasion of sin is one I’m going to pass up. Mike’s right: The occasion for this – the hook – is this discussion between David Brooks and write articles Stevenson, then-Senator Obama, which was in 2007, actually. And actually, it was at speech essay St. Louis University a time when his candidacy was beginning to look very plausible. And it’s interesting – this may or may not be significant – but he said that Niebuhr was one of how to write articles Stevenson his favorite philosophers, according to David’s transcription – not one of his favorite theologians. So that may or may not have any significance. And of course, David did say that Obama gave a sort of perfect description of the book in perfect sentences and perfect paragraph structure for 20 minutes, which does suggest that he knew the writing Roedean School book in write articles question, The Irony of American History , which is one of the books I’m going to talk about. Obama’s not the first American president to declare his fondness for Niebuhr. For Essays School! Jimmy Carter notably did, and both before and how to write, after his election. Hamburger Essay Writing Saxion Sciences! Some people think that the famous “malaise” speech had some Niebuhrian input, and certainly it was influenced by Christopher Lasch’s book The Culture of how to Academy Narcissism , although in ways that Lasch didn’t particularly like. It always tends to defining Les Roches happen, when politicians use your books in how to Stevenson speeches – all of a sudden you’re not so thrilled to see it happening.

And I think Niebuhr would have been, probably, no exception. In any event, as Mike has said, I’m not really going to talk very much about Obama. I have a feeling you all would want to, and journal difference The University, between E.J. and myself, we may have some thoughts. Articles Academy! And certainly, I’m not going to get into the question of whether his interest – Obama’s interest in Niebuhr – is genuine or not, whether he really understands Niebuhr or not. That’s unrelated to my pay grade. For Essays Millfield! I won’t say above or below – instead, what I really want to do is how to write Stevenson Academy what I said in the title, is to lay out persuasive writing his vision, his worldview in a kind of short course. And obviously, if there’s an agenda here, it’s simply to indicate that his thinking, although it does develop – and articles, whose doesn’t – has a core of consistency.

There is a core to Niebuhr that seems to me carries through some three decades of concentrated work. I will avoid, strenuously, speculating about for essays, “what would Niebuhr do,” what would Niebuhr say, about how to write articles Academy, embryonic stem cell research or whatever other present-day issue. I think there’s plenty to talk about, just with respect to what he did say and think. And I’ll lay that out and then we can speculate. Niebuhr is the outstanding public theologian of the 20th century, and for kids Trafalgar Castle School, I’m sure you know about him. You may not know much about him. He has become a figure of how to Stevenson Academy obscurity in recent decades, and that’s partly because the term “public theologian” has come to represent something of a null set in recent times. I remember in the issue of Time right before 9/11, Stanley Hauerwas was dubbed America’s best theologian. But he’s not really a theologian who, whatever his other virtues, has much of practical import to hamburger Saxion University of Applied Sciences say about political life. But Niebuhr had an unusually long and productive career.

He turned out many books, many articles; wrote journalistically; wrote highly, densely scholarly works. How To Stevenson! He was engaged. He was involved in the politics of the day, from writing Roedean School World War I all the way to the Vietnam War. So he was not only a theologian of great distinction, but also a public intellectual who addressed himself to the full range of public concerns and had an enormously capacious mind that really could take in all kinds of issues that he wouldn’t necessarily have discussed in his books. His importance in his time tells you something about his time.

It was a time when theologians were important people. And it was a time when there was that great vitality in the mainline of Protestantism that Barbara referred to. It’s an indication of the severe attenuation of that influence that the closest thing to Niebuhr in recent years has been the late Father Richard John Neuhaus – who converted to Academy Catholicism (laughs) – and who had very low regard for essay the Protestant mainline. So Niebuhr’s career in some ways raises the issue of this now-attenuated influence and the fact that Neuhaus, who started out as a Protestant, ended up with Catholicism. The mainline Protestant world today is no longer the place where Protestants go for how to articles Academy fresh ideas.

Also, as a general observation, Niebuhr is something of a counterpuncher as an intellectual, and what I mean by that term I think will become evident; but in short, it’s hard to know what he thinks about somebody or about some subject unless he’s reacting to them. That’s when he truly discloses himself: in taking exception to writing or responding to other thinkers, which is why I think it’s very important to see him in context and be very careful about what we can extract and use for all occasions. One thing about the context is, I think it’s impossible to imagine him operating in anything other than a modern, Western, liberal environment, where there’s a strong tradition of science, of belief in the idea of how to write Stevenson Academy progress – a society that is in some ways poised on the cusp of a transformation into secularity, or at any rate a world in which a secular option exists. He was very much a creature of that historical moment and a critic of liberalism from within liberalism, a breed that flourished particularly in the late ’40s and defining problem Les Roches International School, ’50s – and doesn’t seem to exist, at least in the same form, today. The issues that he struggled with are quintessentially related to problems of advanced modernity, and science is one of Academy them. The University Of Glasgow! I wouldn’t necessarily have emphasized this – but with Francis Collins here – his talk made me think again and again about how his own perspective on science represents an advance over write articles Stevenson Academy the dilemma that Niebuhr saw us in. Niebuhr upholds the idea of progress and remorselessly critiques it at the same time. I might add something else that you may know Niebuhr for – what’s called the defining International of Hotel “serenity prayer,” which goes something like “God, grant us the serenity to accept the things we cannot change, the courage to change the how to write Stevenson things that can be changed, and the wisdom to journal know the one from the other.” I’m reciting from memory. How To Write Articles Stevenson Academy! But the interesting thing is prompts for essays Millfield what – to me anyway, as someone of conservative disposition – is what he leaves out, and that is preserving the things that need to be preserved. (Laughter.) It’s a striking omission! But it shows how thoroughgoing a progressive he was. There’s no hint of this in the serenity prayer – I don’t know whether anybody’s ever observed this about it, but – CROMARTIE: It could be a first.

MCCLAY: It’s a first and last. So Niebuhr has an how to write articles Academy, understanding of Christianity that’s grounded in a very complicated view of human nature. Actually, a lot of his persuasiveness derives from the fact that this view is defining International School Management more complicated and adequate than its secular equivalents. But first, let me give you a little background biography, which is how to write articles Stevenson all-important. He was born in 1892, not in defining Les Roches International School Management a log cabin, you’ll be happy to how to write articles Stevenson Academy know, but in rural Missouri, the son of a German immigrant pastor, Gustav Niebuhr. And Gustav Niebuhr was a member of persuasive writing a tiny Protestant group called the German Evangelical Synod, which was very much an immigrant group. He really grew up in a German-speaking enclave, which was actually rather common in that part of the Midwest – Missouri and Illinois in late 19th- or early 20th-century farm communities. By the way, an interesting side point: The German Evangelical Synod eventually became part of the United Church of Christ, which is the same Protestant denomination that the Rev. Stevenson! Jeremiah Wright belongs to.

So there’s a sort of odd little connection there. Reinhold inherited from his father this sense of pastoral vocation and and article difference The University of Glasgow, a keen interest in social and political affairs. He built on this with two years at how to write Stevenson Yale Divinity School, and so he began his career as a theologian and pastor as an prompts for essays Millfield School, advocate of what was called the “social gospel.” The social gospel was a movement within liberal Protestantism which located the meaning of the Christian Gospel in its promise as a blueprint for progressive social reform, rather than its assertions about supernatural reality. A few words about the social gospel, because it’s very important to this story. It arose out of a crisis within, particularly, Protestantism – although Catholicism had its own version of this – in response to industrialization and urbanization. In the Protestant case, particularly salient were the challenges to biblical authority rising out of these things, but more so out of Academy Darwinism – Darwin and Darwinism. And not so much the idea of evolution per se, which was a doctrine that easily comported with Christian faith, but the specific idea of natural selection. It was the randomness of the process of for kids Trafalgar natural selection that was viewed as particularly threatening.

And an equally powerful threat came from the so-called “higher criticism” of the write articles Stevenson Academy Bible, which deconstructed the journal difference Bible, for Stevenson Academy all intents and purposes, into a collection of essay Saxion University redactions of how to articles Academy successive texts by problem School multiple authors over long periods of time, and therefore not a text that should be regarded as having any kind of organic or authorial unity. So all of how to articles Stevenson these things were terribly threatening, especially to Protestants. Why Protestants? Because the whole basis of the speech St. Louis University Protestant Reformation, to oversimplify grandly, was to see the how to articles authority of the Bible as overriding – as superseding – the writing St. Louis University (INTO) authority of the articles Stevenson historical institutional church. There are some qualifications you’d need to make to that statement, but basically that is a fair assessment. So that tremendous weight is The University of Glasgow placed on the authority of that text, and if its authority falls into question, then the entire foundation of Protestantism is threatened. So the social gospel was one way of responding to write Stevenson Academy this problem. Social gospelers were modernists. They had dismissed the notion that the Bible should be read authoritatively in the way that, say, fundamentalists – the speech writing essay St. Louis (INTO) fundamentalist movement was just getting going at this time – read the Bible, or even the historical creeds.

But the social gospelers insisted that what they thought of as the heart of the Christian Gospel was very much valid and alive and how to write articles Stevenson, worth preserving. It could be preserved by dispensing with these supernatural problematic elements and instead socializing the Gospel, i.e., translating it into the language of social reform, including scientific social reform. Essay! They saw very little sense of antagonism between science and reform. And in the general optimism of the period, there were seen to be very few limits on what could be achieved. Walter Rauschenbusch, who was perhaps the leading figure in the social gospel movement, put it this way – and forgive me, I’m going to have to read more quotes than I would normally read to give you a sense of how to write Academy these thinkers. But here’s Rauschenbusch: “We have the hamburger essay writing of Applied Sciences possibility of so directing religious energy by scientific knowledge that a comprehensive and write Stevenson, continuous reconstruction of and article difference social life in the name of God is within the bounds of how to human possibility.” So this idea of progress, the writing of Applied Sciences idea of perfectibility of the how to write articles human condition, of man himself, to use that term in a generic sense, is very much at the core of hamburger essay it all. By the way, one of the ways American sociology differed dramatically from, say, German sociology is that from the very beginning it had an astonishingly religious content to it. Albion Small, who was the how to articles Academy chairman of the article Trafalgar Castle School department of sociology at the University of Chicago, the write articles Stevenson Academy founder of the first sociology journal in the United States, the president of the American Sociological Association, and so on and so forth, wrote the hamburger writing of Applied Sciences following: “Sociology is a science … of God’s image … a moral philosophy conscious of its task,” which was nothing less than “an approximation of the ideal of social life contained in the Gospels.” Social science was “the holiest sacrament open to Academy men,” devoted to prompts School “laying the individualistic superstition” and ensuring that “we live, move, and have our being as members of one another.” In other words, the kingdom of God is how to write articles not reserved for the beyond or the end of time, but can be created in the here and now by social scientists and ministers working hand-in-hand together.

Although Niebuhr is my subject, I’m going to make a few little interjections about Obama at appropriate points. And I think that certainly one of the things that one could speculate on is the degree to writing Millfield which Obama has been influenced by the social gospel, as I think his pastor Jeremiah Wright very clearly was. There is a lot of how to Stevenson evidence that he has been. For example, there was the famous speech that Obama gave in South Carolina, during the campaign, in which he declared his desire to be an “instrument of International School God” – and declared, quote, “I am confident that we can create a kingdom right here on Earth.” And it was a capitalized ‘k,’ – I assume he did not mean that he was going to institute the political institution of the monarchy. How To Articles Stevenson! So definitely, echoes of the social gospel were there. So Niebuhr initially bought into this. He bought into the social gospel movement. It fit with his upbringing.

It fit with his reformist inclinations. But being Niebuhr, as you’ll see, he soon became impatient with this kind of talk. He became uneasy with the progressive movement. He found it and the social gospel to be utterly naive about human nature, about the intractability of human nature, and inadequate to the task of explaining the nature of writing School power relations as they existed in how to Stevenson the real world. Sin was not just a word that we use to describe bad institutions that can be corrected. Sin, he thought, was something much deeper, an intrinsic part of the human condition, something that social reform was powerless to do much, if anything, about. And – I just had to throw this in for E.J. – in 1939 he says, “Liberalism is little more than faith in man, exemplifying that perversion of the will, that betrayal of speech writing divine trust, which is called sin.” Of course he was a liberal through and through, so he was critiquing his own beliefs, his own system. What was arguably his most important book came out in 1932, with the revealing title Moral Man and Immoral Society . Nineteen thirty-two, needless to say, is the depths of the Depression, so it’s a propitious moment to publish a rather hard-hitting book, which this was.

Niebuhr turned the social gospelers’ view on its head or on its feet – whichever Marxian analogy you like – and argued that in fact there was a disjuncture between the how to articles morality of individuals and the morality of groups. University Of Applied! And the latter – the morality of groups – that morality was generally inferior to Stevenson Academy the morality of individuals. I’ll explain that in a moment. This was, he thought, a fixed condition, a fixed dynamic of human life. Individuals could, once in a while, in for essays School rare instances, transcend their self-interest for the sake of a larger good. But groups of individuals, especially groups like nations, never could. So in fact, groups made individuals worse rather than better because the work of collectives was invariably governed by a logic of self-interest. So Niebuhr rejected the progressives’ belief in the plasticity or semi-plasticity of human nature. He thought sin was a better explanation. He liked to say that sin was the one element in the Christian creed that was empirically verifiable. (Laughter.) And he also took aim – and Stevenson Academy, I think this is more radical than people appreciate – he took aim at the very concept of socialization, which for the progressives was so central.

John Dewey was a frequent target – in Moral Man and Immoral Society he just goes after him every chance he gets. Journal And Article Difference The University Of Glasgow! John Dewey argued that “The lost individual will re-find inner wholeness … by subduing himself to write Stevenson Academy the forces of organization at work in externals.” You can tell that’s John Dewey because you could read it over and over again and problem of Hotel, it’s sort of like processing jelly, but you get the how to Stevenson idea. (Laughter.) Niebuhr thought almost the opposite was true. As I said before, men have little enough goodness in themselves and writing paper, socialization makes them worse because the reason for being, for all social groups, is to how to write Academy pursue the shared self-interest of the persuasive paper Roedean members. So that self-interest is triumphant. He dismissed as sentimentality the progressive hope that the wages of Stevenson individual sin could be overcome by intelligent reform and that there we could transform into a loving fellowship of and article The University like-minded comrades holding hands beside the campfire. Instead, the pursuit of good ends in write Stevenson Academy the arenas of national and writing, international politics had to take full account of the write Academy un-loveliness of human nature, and the un-loveliness of power. The implications for Christians who wanted to do good in article writing Trafalgar Castle School the world were fairly stark in his view. How To Write Articles Stevenson Academy! They had to be willing to hamburger essay writing Saxion get their hands dirty – very dirty, for how to articles Academy existing social relations were held together by coercion and prompts, only counter-coercion could change them. Social change was brought about not by write Stevenson persuasion, diplomacy, pedagogy, intelligence or sweetness, but by prompts Millfield School – to use a term that he uses repeatedly in the book – “emotionally potent oversimplifications.” Emotionally potent oversimplifications – these are the things that galvanize groups to effective action. You see why I say this is a rather depressing outlook – (laughs) – and write articles Academy, it doesn’t get any better. A quotation: “Our contemporary culture fails to realize the power, extent and essay Saxion University, persistence of group egoism in write articles Academy human relations.” So the idea of solidarity – the campfire – is an illusion.

Quote: “Society is a perpetual state of war between different self-interested groups.” Jesus Christ, meet Thomas Hobbes. Quote: “The only way a society can maintain itself is by the coercion of dominant groups who go on to invent romantic and moral interpretations of the facts, and the peace lasts only as long as the underdogs are kept down. Then when they are able to successfully challenge and coerce a new peace, they impose another set of romantic and moral interpretations of the facts.” So only power can counter power in his view – and power, as Henry Adams said, is poison. It’s a formulation that doesn’t – (laughs) – that doesn’t lead to hamburger Saxion Sciences an attractive conclusion.

His conclusion was that the exercise of how to write articles Academy power was always morally dangerous, but also always morally necessary. You had to act in the world. You couldn’t take the writing essay University (INTO) option of opting out. Hence, the need for a dualism in write articles Stevenson Academy morals, since – and I quote again – “The selfishness of human communities must be regarded as an inevitability and writing prompts, can only be countered by competing assertions of interests.” So that’s James Madison – (laughs) – along with Hobbes. But in none of this is there a release from the moral requirements of Christianity. I’ll come back to that. This rather stark view extends very much to the nation-state. And this was a response on his part to the social gospel, to the progressive movement and to a rather long strain in American ideas – progressive ideas – about how to write articles, solidarity. Edward Bellamy’s famous movement was built around a philosophy, a kind of socialist-fascist meld that he called nationalism.

So on the reform – I won’t necessarily call it the left; I’m not sure what to call it – but on the progressive side of things, nationalism was not a bad thing. But to Niebuhr it was. Niebuhr wrote an writing paper Roedean School, article in 1916 in The Atlantic called “The Nation’s Crime Against the Individual,” a nice, subtle title. And the how to write articles Stevenson Academy idea here was, and prompts Millfield School, this is before American entry into the first world war, which he strongly supported, that the nation cheats the how to write articles Stevenson soldier because it takes his loyalty, his willingness to die and sacrifice, for its own purposes without being able to hallow that sacrifice. Or as he put it, the nation “claims a life of eternal significance for ends that have no eternal value.” Or as he expressed the same idea some 16 years later in Moral Man and Immoral Society , “Patriotism transmutes individual unselfishness into national egoism.” It is “the unselfishness of the Roedean individuals [that] makes for write articles Academy the selfishness of nations,” which “is why the hope of solving the larger social problems of mankind, merely by extending the social sympathies of individuals, is so vain.” So much for empathy. But there’s an interesting twist here; it is that all of for essays Millfield School this rejection of the social gospel, affirmation of original sin and so on, did not mean that he gave up on social reform. And Niebuhr was a man of the Stevenson left and he remained a man of the left always. Maybe not enough left to suit some people, but he certainly was never a conservative.

And he believed Christians were obligated to work actively for progressive social causes, for the realization of Millfield justice and how to, righteousness, but they had to do this in writing a way that, as he characteristically put it, abandoned their illusions, not least in the way they thought about articles Academy, themselves. The pursuit of social justice would involve them in acts of sin and acts of imperfection. Persuasive Writing Paper! Even the most surgical action, one might say, involves collateral damage. How To Articles Stevenson Academy! But the Trafalgar School Christian faith, just as inexorably, called its adherents to how to Stevenson a life of perfect righteousness, a calling that would seem to give no quarter to dirty hands. So we’re left with the feeling that Niebuhr is writing prompts for essays School calling Christians to the impossible and, in a sense, he is. He insists original sin is true. He insists that its probative value is Stevenson confirmed every day.

Yet he insists at the same time that human beings are splendidly endowed by their Creator, still capable of acts of Trafalgar School nobility and generosity or truth, still able to advance the cause of social improvement. All of these things he insisted are true at write Academy the same time and problem International Management, all have an equivalent claim. So he’s correcting the write articles social gospel. He’s pushing against the social gospel, which he sees as making many errors, but he’s not abandoning it entirely. These ideas would continue to develop. Writing Roedean! In 1938, he was invited to how to write give the Gifford Lectures at St. Andrews University, very prestigious lectures in prompts natural theology. And these were later published as what is write articles Academy arguably his magnum opus, a book called The Nature and Destiny of Man , about article School, which David Brooks once said, as I recall, “If you write a book with a title like that, you really feel like you have nothing else left to say.” (Laughter.) And that appeared in 1943. It’s interesting how productive Niebuhr was right through the second world war. And this book is really a grand tour of the entire intellectual history of the West and ultimately, I think, it’s really a book about the idea of progress itself and about the question of whether human history can be meaningful.

I want to stress that last point. One of Niebuhr’s great antagonists was Henry Ford. How To Stevenson Academy! He hated Henry Ford, loathed him for his treatment of his workers. And actually his hatred for persuasive Henry Ford was a very formative influence in how to articles Stevenson his life. Speech Writing St. Louis! But Henry Ford had one of the great sayings about history: that history is “one damn thing after another.” I think that’s a legitimate way of understanding history, that it has no intrinsic dynamic or meaning. How To Articles! But Niebuhr wanted to struggle with that, of course. And as a thinking Christian he had to see some meaning in history. Writing Prompts For Essays! Christians understand history as meaningful, although sometimes the meaning is in history and how to write articles Stevenson, sometimes it’s outside of history and one can’t know in advance which is operating. So it’s another one of defining problem Les Roches International School of Hotel these hazardous but necessary operations.

What he felt had happened, however, in modern times, was that there was a secularized idea of progress that saw an Stevenson Academy, immanent order, or as he called it, “an immanent logos,” that was no longer related to a transcendent meaning, but was inherent in writing St. Louis (INTO) history itself. Write Stevenson Academy! And this idea of for kids Trafalgar progress was something that had emerged out of Christianity, that was in some sense an outgrowth of Christianity’s worldview and ethos, but that had threatened to negate Christianity. Articles! It’s a view that is built on biblical language, built on biblical insights, but an speech writing essay St. Louis University (INTO), idea that became transformed by how to write articles two modern innovations. First, there was the speech (INTO) elimination of the notion that grace, meaning the supernatural intervention of divine power to give meaning to history, was necessary. How To Academy! And second, the thinkers who laid the foundation of defining of Hotel Management modernity – and this I think is really where you get to the heart of Niebuhr – failed to see that the dynamism of write articles Stevenson Academy history was a double-edged thing. These thinkers assumed that all development means the advancement of the good, but in speech writing essay (INTO) so assuming, they failed to articles Academy recognize – and this I think he sees as characteristic of all modernity – that, and I quote, “every heightened potency of human existence may also represent a possibility of evil.” So in other words, as our capacity grows, so does our power to do evil – intentionally or unintentionally. Everything that has its being within history is involved, on every level, in contradicting the eternal. And so the tendency is, as he says, to complete the system of essay Saxion University of Applied meaning falsely in a way that makes either the individual or the group the center of the system. And then Niebuhr goes on and says, “It’s not possible for how to Stevenson any philosophy to for essays School escape this error … but it is possible to have a philosophy, or at least a theology, grounded in faith, which understands the error will be committed and that it is analogous to all these presumptions of history which defy the majesty of God.” So he sees progress as a factor of history, a facet of history.

He sees that it’s right to conceive of history dynamically. He takes a generous view of history’s possibilities, but also warns that, as he puts it, “History cannot move forward towards increasing order without developing possibilities of how to write articles Stevenson Academy chaos by the very potencies which have enhanced order.” In other words, we’re never out of the woods. That’s my redaction there. And the essay St. Louis University (INTO) danger only increases as we progress. Man’s capacity for evil advances with his progress towards the good. Write Stevenson! Hence, the greater the progress, the greater the need for vigilance, the greater the essay writing Sciences need for some metaphysical check on human pride. How To Stevenson! The image I like to use to describe this is of a tightrope, one that is always going higher and higher and, as you know, with a tightrope, you have to keep moving forward. Journal Difference Of Glasgow! You can’t stop moving. But you’re moving along this tightrope towards ever-greater dangers, along with the ever-greater achievements.

And that I think is the vision that he’s operating with. I was going to articles say a little bit about The Children of Light and problem Les Roches International School, the Children of Darkness , but I think I’m running out of time. So let me move on to the how to write articles book that has really gotten attention in the last 10 years, The Irony of writing Roedean American History , published in 1952. And he takes these same insights and focuses them upon how to articles a consideration of America’s role in the world. Published in 1952, at the height of the Cold War, this was an interesting and perhaps surprising book. It was a stinging attack on communism and at the same time a stinging attack on prompts Millfield School America, on Stevenson Academy the moral complacency of America, a warning against the moral failings that would make America vulnerable. That’s Niebuhr – typically, as always, fighting on two fronts at once. Nobody can top Niebuhr for hamburger essay Saxion University of Applied his anticommunism, but he also believed the United States resembled its antagonists more than it cared to imagine. And much of the book is devoted to making that case. He criticizes the communists for their philosophical materialism, but then points out that Americans are guilty of the same thing in practice.

Here’s a statement that I think rings just as true today as in 1952: “Despite the constant emphasis upon the ‘dignity of man’ in our own liberal culture, its predominant naturalistic bias frequently results in views of human nature in which the write articles dignity of man is not very clear.” And this tendency towards materialism was not even the greatest of America’s dangers. Even more perilous, he thought, was one of our principal points of journal pride, the how to articles Stevenson Academy entrenched idea that America has a providential mission in writing prompts School the world and our nation’s rendered uniquely virtuous and innocent by the blessings of that history. And he goes through a discussion of this, locating the write articles Stevenson Academy beginnings of it in the Calvinist Puritan tradition, and then the Jeffersonian tradition, which saw America’s as nature’s nation, free from the encumbrances of the old world. It was the place of the new man, of the democratic future. America was, so to speak, the land of the great reset button, presumably labeled in persuasive writing paper the correct manner. How To Write Articles Stevenson Academy! (Laughs.) Even Abraham Lincoln, who was not a dewy-eyed fellow, called America “the last best hope of mankind,” words that certainly, if nothing else, convey a kind of persuasive writing paper School cosmic significance to American history.

Niebuhr didn’t reject these things completely; he didn’t see them as having no basis. He did not reject the greatness of Stevenson Academy America, but he insisted that the American belief that America had turned its back on history and made a new beginning for humankind was naive and dangerous, laying America open to the sins of spiritual pride. It was a source of strength that turned into writing for essays Millfield School, a source of weakness. And that is what he meant by the irony of American history, the tendency of American civilization to allow decent motives and noble intentions to blind it to the sins and write articles, errors to which it’s prone and thereby let its virtue become the source of its vice. It was an irony because it was unintended, inadvertent, unconscious and a consequence of good intentions, rather than doing evil for the sake of a larger good, which he called tragedy, not irony. If that was all he was saying, then he would just sound like another typical critic of American civilization, but he said something more. He said America had to act in the world and do so effectively.

It had no choice but to do so. In the same way that the sinful imperfect Christian is required to act in the world and get his or her hands dirty in working for the cause of good, so a morally imperfect America was obliged to employ its power in speech St. Louis University the world. Now, opting out was not an write articles Stevenson, option, or rather it was an option that was just as perilous as the prompts for essays alternatives it would avoid. And let me just read you a couple of passages that illustrate this, and then I’ll stop: “Our culture knows little of the use and write Stevenson Academy, abuse of article writing Castle power; but we have to use power in global terms. Our idealists are divided between those who would renounce the how to responsibilities of power for the sake of preserving the purity of our soul and those who are ready to cover every ambiguity of good and evil in our actions by the frantic insistence that any measure taken in a good cause must be unequivocally virtuous.” Fairly timely words, I think. Needless to writing for kids say, he rejects both of these options and continues this way: “We take, and must continue to take, morally hazardous actions to how to Stevenson preserve our civilization.

We must exercise our power. But we ought neither to believe that a nation is capable of perfect disinterestedness in its exercise, nor become complacent about particular degrees of International School of Hotel Management interest and how to write Stevenson, passion which corrupt the journal The University justice by which the exercise of power is legitimated.” And I will stop there. CROMARTIE: No, that’s great. We’ll just keep it rolling. Everybody here knows E.J. Dionne. I know you’ve spoken on Niebuhr a lot and how to articles, we’re delighted to have you respond to Bill. Speech University! Thank you. DIONNE: Thank you, Mike. How To Articles! I was thinking that maybe Barbara would explain it as some peculiar part of my brain, but it actually makes me happy to talk about Reinhold Niebuhr – (laughter) – and to do some research on him. I ran across how Robert McAfee Brown described Niebuhr as a pessimistic optimist.

And I think that’s exactly what he is, unless you want to see him as an optimistic pessimist. But I think there is this very deep element of optimism that comes out of that pessimism, which I want to get into. Before I say anything, I just want to thank Mike for running these things for 10 years. We’ll probably say this later, but I’ve been coming to these things from the writing beginning, and who’d have thunk that having sessions with journalists on write articles Academy religion would work like this. Now, Mike had the absolutely brilliant idea of holding these sessions in rather nice places. (Laughter.) But for me it’s not only been the meetings, but also all the friends I have met through this.

He actually – in this time it’s not easy – he actually created community out of this 10 years of work. So I thank him and Millfield, the Pew Charitable Trusts. (Applause.) And I also want to say it’s a great honor to be with Bill McClay. How To Write Stevenson! One of my very favorite essays on and article of Glasgow the general subject of religion in politics is a piece Bill wrote in 2003 called “Two Concepts of Secularism,” which I commend to everyone. And he wrote a great essay right after 9/11 called “The Continuing Irony of American History” in First Things . And I suggest this to write articles Stevenson Academy anybody who wants to see more of Bill’s thoughts on this. It’s a very interesting read in the wake – all these years later. Just to pick up two quick points that Bill made and then I just want to say a few things. Writing Paper Roedean! He did note that Barack Obama called Reinhold Niebuhr a philosopher rather than a theologian, and I can’t help but point out that President Bush referred to Jesus as his favorite philosopher. And you may recall that Alan Keyes took George Bush to task by saying, “Jesus isn’t a philosopher; Jesus is the Word.” And I was thinking that would be a great Cromartie session: “Jesus: A Philosopher or the Word?” So I hope Mike gets refunded. And it’s not just because he finally gave me one of those nice rooms on the water this year. (Laughter.) And I’m really glad that Bill did point out that Niebuhr got all this attention in Time magazine.

Can you think of Stevenson a talk show that would book Reinhold Niebuhr now? I was thinking about that. School! “Tell us, Reinhold, what do you mean by write Stevenson Academy the irony of American history?” “Well, Larry, as I was saying the speech writing essay St. Louis other day to write Stevenson Academy Abraham Heschel and Paul Tillich …” It just wouldn’t happen. For Kids School! And I think – (laughter) – it suggests a certain hole in our discussion of this. Colbert would have him on; absolutely, absolutely. And I was reminded of the omnipresence of Reinhold Niebuhr when I picked up one of my favorite thriller writers Philip Kerr – I highly recommend him. His hero is a perfect Niebuhrian character. He is a German detective in Nazi Germany. He’s anti-Nazi.

I’m pleased to say that in Stevenson one of his books he says that he voted for the social democrats. And he’s trying to operate in Nazi Germany to do as little damage and as much good as he can without actually going to the slammer. And I opened my Philip Kerr and there right at the beginning is the serenity prayer of prompts Millfield School Reinhold Niebuhr. So we were destined to have this discussion. In 1987, so 22 years ago, the late Father Richard Neuhaus organized a conference on Reinhold Niebuhr. Articles Stevenson Academy! It was funded – you will be surprised – by the Pew Charitable Trusts. It is writing paper Roedean written that the Pew Trusts will always be with us. And Father Neuhaus said a very interesting thing in introducing the volume about Niebuhr. He said, “In recent years,” – this is back in ’87 – “there has been something of a Niebuhr renaissance.

It has been led in large parts by those who are or are suspected of being, as though it were a sin, neoconservative.” And then he adds – and this part I very much agree with – “Attempting to capture Niebuhr for any partisan agenda, however, would be a great disservice both to Niebuhr and to what he can help us do today.” And I think it says something about Niebuhr that this new Niebuhr revival, which I think we are seeing right now, is not being led primarily by neoconservatives, but actually by liberals and certain dissident conservatives like our friend David Brooks. I want to just talk a little bit about the political character of Niebuhr’s thought without violating what Father Neuhaus said. Write Articles Academy! I do think in the end he is unmistakably, or if you have the other view, irredeemably, a liberal in the end. I wouldn’t use the word “irredeemably,” but it is journal something worth talking about because it’s very much a question of how his view of how to articles Stevenson original sin fits in with a liberal worldview. How do you sort of get at University what being a Niebuhrian is? My original example was going to write articles Stevenson be about a baseball player, but in deference to our resident hockey star Clare Duffy, I decided to use a hockey player instead. Writing! A Niebuhrian hockey player tries to win the game, but does not assume victory renders him superior to his opponent and write articles Academy, would admit that he may have won unfairly when he high-sticked Clare Duffy and got away with it. That’s a Niebuhrian hockey player.

A Niebuhrian wagering in Vegas plays the odds intelligently and tries to article writing for kids Castle School win, but always admits that perhaps luck or God’s grace, not his system, is write articles Academy why he won. A Niebuhrian will get into a fistfight if it’s absolutely necessary, but would be acutely conscious of the pain his blows are inflicting on his opponent and know that the very fact the article writing fight is happening is proof of the fallen nature of both himself and the person he is how to write articles Academy fighting. (Laughter.) And a proper Niebuhrian will have a sense of humor about all of these things, understanding the profound ironies involved in trying to act effectively in the world and trying to act morally at the same time. And that’s why I love Reinhold Niebuhr. I went back to the canonical text, which is David Brooks’ famous interview with Barack Obama, and I just think it’s worth to article Trafalgar School recalling. It was actually just a short statement by Obama, but it’s worth quoting to provide a context for articles the headline that Mike put on and article of Glasgow our discussion.

David asked, “Have you ever read Reinhold Niebuhr?” Obama replied, “I love him. He’s one of my favorite philosophers.” And David asked what Obama took take away from Niebuhr. How To Write Articles Academy! And here’s what Obama actually said. “I take away the compelling idea that there’s serious evil in the world, and hardship and pain. And we should be humble and modest in our belief that we can eliminate those things. But we shouldn’t use that as an writing for essays Millfield School, excuse for cynicism and how to articles Stevenson Academy, inaction. I take away the for essays sense we have to make these efforts knowing they are hard, and not swinging from naive idealism to bitter realism.” That is actually a pretty good description of Reinhold Niebuhr. And whether Barack Obama, the politician, was pandering to David Brooks’ well-known love for Niebuhr or whether he was reflecting something deep in him, it sounded pretty deep and I think it’s actually not a bad description of the way Obama views the world. In the discussion I’d love to have a friendly argument with Bill about whether he’s more social gospel or more Niebuhrian.

I think he’s actually more Niebuhrian. There are elements of social gospel in the way Obama preaches, but I think his content is more Niebuhrian. Niebuhr – and this is probably why I like him – is much more a “both/and” guy. He’s a “yes, but” guy. His favorite words are “paradox” and “irony.” He is a 1940s liberal and that’s why there is the big debate between liberals and neocons because a lot of neocons say they are 1940s liberals. I think Niebuhr, later in life, suggested that he did not take the same path as some of his neoconservative friends, particularly with his very early support for the civil rights movement – although a lot of them supported the civil rights movement – but also with his strong opposition to the Vietnam War. But that’s just a piece of history that we can talk about. What I like about him is that he believes what he believes passionately, but with a sense of humility. How To! I got some Niebuhr in Francis Collins’ presentation today. Why are there Niebuhr revivals?

Niebuhr is the person we turn to for balance. We turn to him when things get out of hand. Journal Difference Of Glasgow! He is a critic of the Stevenson left’s utopianism and he’s a critic of the right’s tendency to deify our own country. His critique of original sin I think applies neatly at different times to both the right and the left in writing essay St. Louis University our politics. How To Write! I think he has what you might call a dialectical relationship with the left.

And I think Bill was absolutely right to for kids point out write Stevenson Academy kind of three important episodes. He reacted against the social gospel not because he opposed the essay writing Sciences economic or social programs of the social gospel but because he had a different understanding of human nature. He thought liberals had too optimistic a view of human nature. His next big political turn was in the late 1930s, when he broke with his pacifist friends. Stevenson! The Christian Century , as you know, is still around, but he broke with The Christian Century and formed another magazine called Christianity and Crisis to paper Roedean School argue that we needed to go to Academy war against and article difference The University, Hitler and Nazism. And then he made his mark again in how to Academy politics, with a liberal anticommunism that made him one of the founders of Americans for Democratic Action with Arthur Schlesinger Jr. And I’m going to cite Schlesinger before I close. Niebuhr never stopped being a liberal, but he was a liberal critic. I want to use myself as simply a specimen of why people at different points get engaged with Niebuhr. And Article Of Glasgow! I think I’m fairly typical of Stevenson Academy people who will fall in love with Niebuhr, if he would permit that.

I’m not even sure he would. (Laughter.) I read The Children of article for kids Castle School Light and the Children of Darkness , which is the first Niebuhr I read, in the early-to-mid-’70s. How To Articles Academy! I read it as someone who broadly shared – still shares – the left’s views on economic justice and social reform, but I was impatient with a certain utopianism I saw on the left, which I thought was destructive. Journal Of Glasgow! And I was also impatient with some parts of the left that seemed not to believe in the disciplines and limits placed upon our aspirations by the need to persuade majorities and to build consensus in democratic societies. I was and still am turned off by how to write articles Stevenson self-righteous moralism disguised as morality.

Mike Novak is someone who’s written very well on that over the years and I think that tendency to hamburger writing Saxion University be moralistic rather than moral afflicts the right, the center, the left and even parts of the how to articles Stevenson self-satisfied center. And so I realized quickly after reading that book that Niebuhr was my guy, again preaching that you could combine passion and humility. I see two major reasons for the revival of interest in Niebuhr among liberals. One, I think some of the criticism by Christian moderates and persuasive writing Roedean, liberals of what we would see as a hyper-politicized Christian right square very much with some of Niebuhr’s criticism of a certain style of articles Christianity, a kind of revivalism that he was critical of in his own time. Niebuhr enjoined the speech writing essay St. Louis University believer to understand that “the worst corruption is a corrupt religion.” We need a sense of modesty about the virtue, wisdom and power available to how to articles Stevenson Academy us and speech essay (INTO), a sense of contrition about the common human frailties and foibles which lie at the foundation of both the enemy’s demonry and write articles, our vanities.

Americans, Niebuhr argued, were never safe against the temptation of speech St. Louis (INTO) claiming God too simply as the sanctifier of whatever we most fervently desire. One great Niebuhrian quote should hang over how to write articles Academy all seminars. Niebuhr once said that “we must always seek the truth in persuasive paper our opponents’ error and the error in write articles Academy our own truth.” And that is also classic Niebuhr. I think the writing essay St. Louis paradox is that – and my friend Bill Galston really called this to my attention – one of the paradoxes is that Niebuhr encourages us to doubt and write, the kind of doubt that Niebuhr encourages is the kind of Trafalgar Castle doubt that faith ought to how to write Academy encourage. If faith is defined solely as a demand that everyone assent, without reservation, to a long and problem Les Roches International School, particular list of propositions, that’s an odd idea. But I think this is an inadequate understanding of the Christian and Jewish traditions, which always call us to a form of moral doubt that, as Bill Galston has said, calls upon us to question our motivations and how to write Stevenson, pretensions to special virtue. Niebuhr said, “No virtuous act is quite as virtuous from the standpoint of hamburger essay Saxion Sciences our friend or foe as it is from how to articles Academy our standpoint.” He argued that some of the greatest perils to democracy arise from the fanaticism of moral idealists who are not conscious of the corruption of self-interest.

And in his assertion, which might usefully have guided us during our debate over the war in Iraq, Niebuhr warned, “A nation with an School of Hotel, inordinate degree of political power is doubly tempted to how to articles Academy exceed the prompts for essays Millfield School bounds of historical possibilities, if it is informed by an idealism which does not understand the limits of man’s wisdom and volition.” David Brooks and I did a session on write articles Stevenson Niebuhr recently, and one point that emerged clearly is that it is not surprising that Niebuhr really came to popularity in a period when he was writing about Nazism and Stalinism, which were ideologies that justified despotic pretensions in for essays Millfield the name of write articles Stevenson Academy creating new human beings and perfect societies. Niebuhr had a strong sense of human nature as a constant. Roedean! He was very skeptical of projects designed to create a new humanity and Stevenson, was very aware of how terrible these projects could become. This is religion’s essentially moderating role, which is far removed from ideology and from many claims that religion can provide a detailed textbook for creating the perfect society here on Earth. Even the paper Roedean School religious left’s talk of our obligation to build the how to Stevenson kingdom of God’s justice on earth emphasizes a constant act of creation – building – not a final outcome that human beings can achieve on our own.

It’s very important to understand that Niebuhr imported Saint Augustine into liberalism. And a friend of many of ours, Jean Elshtain, captured this very well. She wrote – and and article difference, this is a totally Niebuhrian thought on Jean’s part – that if Augustine is “a thorn in the side of those who would cure the universe once and for all, he similarly torments critics who disdain any project of human community or justice or possibility.” “Wisdom,” Jean says, “comes from experiencing fully the ambivalence and ambiguity that is the human condition.” When David and I recently did the session on how to Academy Niebuhr, at one point, I blurted out that maybe we were talking about the marriage of Madison, Lincoln and Niebuhr. And then I looked up and I said, wait a minute. That is and article of Glasgow polygamy. (Laughter.) And I don’t know what Niebuhr would think of that. But one of Niebuhr’s – and I think Bill alluded to this – one of write Stevenson Academy Niebuhr’s favorite public statements by any politician is Lincoln’s second inaugural address. And you all remember the key passage in Lincoln’s second inaugural, when he said: “Both sides read the persuasive paper Roedean School same Bible, and articles Stevenson Academy, pray to International School the same God; and each invokes his aid against the other. It may seem strange that any man should dare to ask a just God’s assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men’s faces; but let us judge not that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered; that of how to write articles Academy neither has been answered fully.”

Niebuhr said that this passage puts the relationship of our moral commitments in history to our religious reservations about the partiality of our own commitments more precisely than any statement or theologian has put them. Essay Writing University Of Applied Sciences! Think about it. If anybody could have claimed that he was on how to write articles the right side of history or even that he was on for essays Millfield God’s side, it was Abraham Lincoln fighting slavery during the Civil War. Yet, Lincoln himself refused in this extreme instance to presume an identification of his will with God’s will. And I think that Lincoln demonstrated as clearly as any statesman, which is why he is how to a Niebuhrian figure, that it is possible to undertake great tasks in politics with firmness, commitment, principle and courage and still not pretend to absolute certainty about one’s course, one’s intentions or the purity of one’s motives. And I should note that I have learned much about this point from Congressman David Price of North Carolina, who is persuasive writing paper a divinity school grad and has written very powerfully about the how to articles relationship between Lincoln’s thought and defining Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, Niebuhr’s. So I just want to do two quick things and then close with one Niebuhrian thought. And I want to thank Bill because I know he’s very fond of the same passage I’m going to read to close out my remarks, and I’m grateful that he didn’t read it, so I could use it.

I’d like to call attention to articles Stevenson two essays on Niebuhr that I think remain very important, and they show the reach Reinhold Niebuhr had – and continues to hamburger Saxion of Applied Sciences have – across philosophical lines. Mike Novak, back in 1972, wrote a great essay for Commentary called “Needing Niebuhr Again,” in which he drew on how to write Academy two Niebuhrian thoughts that I think are particularly revealing. Niebuhr said that “realism means particularly one thing, that you establish the common good not purely by unselfishness but by the restraint of selfishness.” That sounds an awful lot like James Madison. In The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness , Niebuhr said famously: “Man’s capacity for justice makes democracy possible; but man’s inclination to injustice makes democracy necessary.” One of the reasons Mike liked him – Mike then was still a liberal, but in prompts for essays Millfield School transit over to the conservative side – is because Novak was very critical of what he saw as a new-class kind of privileged liberal. And he thought that Niebuhr called the bluff of those folks. Mike wrote: “Pure intentions, high goals and articles Academy, unblemished radicalism of mind did not absolve men of the essay St. Louis University ambiguous consequences of what they estimate to be their most morally radiant actions. Political life does not follow the form of a morality play. Write! It is tragic, and that is a Niebuhrian view.” The other essay that’s worth looking up is one Arthur Schlesinger wrote, a beautiful piece in The New York Times magazine in 2005, an hamburger essay writing Saxion of Applied Sciences, essay in Stevenson Academy which I think Schlesinger successfully claims Niebuhr back for the liberals. Remember that Schlesinger and Niebuhr founded Americans for Democratic Action together, and for essays, were great political allies throughout their lives. Schlesinger used some of Niebuhr’s criticisms of the pretensions of write articles Stevenson American power as a critique of the Iraq war, and spoke of how liberals profited from an awareness of original sin that Niebuhr taught them.

This is Schlesinger: “The notion of sinful man was uncomfortable for my generation. We had been brought up to writing for essays Millfield believe in human innocence and even in human perfectibility. This was less a liberal delusion than an expression of an how to articles Academy, all-American DNA. Trafalgar School! Andrew Carnegie had articulated the national faith when, after acclaiming the rise of how to write man from and article difference lower to higher forms, he declared: ‘Nor is there any conceivable end to how to write articles Stevenson Academy his march to perfection.’ In 1939, Charles E. Writing School! Merriam of the University of Chicago, dean of American political scientists, wrote in The New Democracy and the New Despotism : ‘There is a constant trend in human affairs toward the perfectibility of mankind. Articles Stevenson! This was plainly stated at the time of the French Revolution and problem Les Roches International School, has been reasserted ever since that time, and with increasing plausibility.’ Human ignorance and unjust institutions remained the only obstacles to write articles Stevenson a more perfect world.” This is Schlesinger again: “If proper education of individuals and proper reform of institutions did their job, such obstacles would be removed. For the article for kids Trafalgar heart of man was OK.”

Yet Schlesinger said that this notion became absurd for liberals when they confronted the evils of both Nazism and Stalinism. Schlesinger notes Isaiah Berlin’s famous declaration that the 20th century was “the most terrible century in Western history.” And this is Schlesinger: “The belief in human perfectibility had not prepared us for Hitler and articles, Stalin. The death camps and journal, the gulags proved that men were capable of infinite depravity. The heart of man is obviously not OK. Niebuhr’s analysis of human nature and history came as a vast illumination. His argument had the double merit of accounting for Hitler and Stalin and for the necessity of standing up to them.” And I think that is at the heart of write articles Academy The Irony of American History . I’ll close there and we can get into a debate about Obama and Niebuhr, if we want, later on.

But I just want to close with this thought. I’ve always said that the reason I like this optimistic pessimism or pessimistic optimism is I’ve always said to myself that I think I’m a psychological optimist because I am an article Trafalgar, intellectual pessimist. I am not shocked when people do bad things. I’m actually amazed at Academy how well people do under the circumstances, so perhaps it’s worth noting Gene Debs’ great line that there should be another beatitude: Blessed are they who expect nothing for they shall not be disappointed. But I think a Niebuhrian view of the world insists that you can hold on to hope, that good Obama word, even with a realistic view of the capacity of human beings to make mistakes, and even, at speech writing essay times, to perform great acts of evil. It is possible, as Jesse Jackson likes to say, to keep hope alive. So this is write articles Stevenson Academy my concluding prayer, really from Reinhold Niebuhr. He wrote in The Irony of American History : “Nothing that is worth doing can be achieved in our lifetime; therefore we must be saved by hope.

Nothing which is true or beautiful or good makes complete sense in any immediate context of history; therefore we must be saved by faith. Nothing we do, however virtuous, can be accomplished alone; therefore, we are saved by love. No virtuous act is writing prompts quite as virtuous from the standpoint of our friend or foe as it is from our standpoint. Therefore we must be saved by the final form of love, which is forgiveness.” I hope you will forgive in that spirit any flaws in this presentation. (Laughter.) And now you can understand why I love Reinhold Niebuhr and how to Stevenson Academy, why he fills me with happiness.

Thank you very much. CROMARTIE: Well, I didn’t know whether it was the topic of journal Reinhold Niebuhr or the fact that you had a lavaliere neck mic on, E.J. I’ve never seen you preach so much like that. That was great. Thank you. And thank you, Bill. Write Articles Stevenson! David, you’re up first.

DAVID VAN BIEMA, TIME : This is both for International School of Hotel Management Professor McClay and articles, also for E.J. And so E.J. remembers it’s for him, I’m going to pervert one of his metaphors by saying that waterboarding is the hamburger writing Saxion of Applied Sciences ultimate form of high-sticking. And I don’t know much about Niebuhr. Articles Stevenson Academy! And the difference answer to this may be so obvious as to not make it enlightening, but if I understand you correctly and he believed in the necessity of acting, and getting one’s hands dirty and exerting power, while at the same time believing that inevitably there would be problems with pride and that the how to articles Stevenson state was particularly apt to and article The University fall into the sin of delusion of special virtue, where would he come down in articles Stevenson Academy the torture debate? MCCLAY: Part of and article The University of Glasgow what I was getting to in this overlong talk that I’ve prepared was the list of how to write Academy things that I think are wrong with Niebuhr, or are inadequate, and article, one of them may address this.

And I actually think of E.J.’s example, the guy pummeling somebody but doing it with a guilty conscience as he’s beating the crap out of write articles him. It’s awfully hard to tell whether a leader is hamburger essay University Sciences acting in a Niebuhrian way or just in an unscrupulous way. You know, a lot of it has to do with an inner disposition that’s not visible to us. And that’s a problem, especially in political life where you have to deal with external standards and how to write Stevenson Academy, principles that, particularly in a democratic society, ought to be open to general scrutiny. So a great example of hamburger essay of Applied this is – and I get this all the time from people on all sides because I’m a great admirer of Niebuhr and how to write Stevenson Academy, I’m happy about this revival – but when it comes to more general issues of essay Saxion University war. How To Stevenson Academy! For obvious reasons pacifists don’t like Niebuhr. I don’t even need to writing paper School explain that.

But, I mean, they see the doctrine of “realism” as just a kind of wild card that allows you to do whatever you want in how to write articles Stevenson Academy the name of persuasive Roedean School realism. But equally vehement about Niebuhr are some of the people who defend just-war theory. Write Stevenson! Their argument is, look, we have a whole set of Les Roches International Management criteria that often are hard to nail down in particular instances, but at least as principles they are worth observing and worth trying to follow as a way of write taming and speech essay St. Louis University, legitimizing warfare in a civilized world. And in their view Niebuhr chucks all that, and says, well, you are going to get your hands dirty, bad things have to happen, but you’ve got to exercise power and innocents have to die, and how to write articles, eggs have to be broken to make omelets. He would never say that in that way, of course. But you get my point, that there is some way in which what he writes can be very powerful in dealing with this way that “power is poison,” in speech writing St. Louis (INTO) Henry Adams’ terms – that it’s just inescapable. I’m not sure Obama – see, I’m mistaking this too – has quite come to terms with that, at least in his rhetoric. But that’s where I think the real test will come. But back to this issue of torture and war. I think that the problem with Niebuhr is he doesn’t give you clear standards by which to make judgments and have it legitimated in the public arena.

CROMARTIE: He emphasizes ambiguity while at the same time saying, use the power. DIONNE: I can’t prove this, although I do have a quotation that I think suggests it. Articles Academy! I think if you look back at some of the things Niebuhr said about the Vietnam War, they suggest that he would have opposed waterboarding. Speech Writing Essay St. Louis University (INTO)! I think he would have ended up on the side of articles those who said, we must fight the terrorists but we can’t use every method and that those methods demean us and hurt us. And my support for that – again, we can’t know for certain – are the very last words of International of Hotel Management The Irony of American History . He says: “For if we should perish, the ruthlessness of the how to Stevenson foe would be only the difference The University of Glasgow secondary cause of the disaster. The primary cause would be that the Academy strength of a giant nation was directed by eyes too blind to see all the hazards of the struggle; and the blindness would be induced not by some accident of nature or history but by hatred and vainglory.” If you want to persuasive writing make a case against waterboarding, that’s a pretty good text to cite. MCCLAY: I was just going to write articles Stevenson say, since we’re going to play this “what would Reinhold say” game, I want to go in with all four limbs. I think that, certainly, if you were updating The Irony of American History , there would be a discussion of the defining problem Les Roches International of Hotel Management ways in how to Stevenson which the jihadists have elements of truth in their critique of hamburger essay of Applied American culture.

Astonishing as it may sound, I think he would raise that issue. I don’t think there’s any doubt about write articles Stevenson Academy, it. ROSS DOUTHAT, THE NEW YORK TIMES : Just to defining International of Hotel Management bounce one alternative possibility, especially off you E.J.: I wonder what you think of the Academy idea that maybe what Niebuhr would say is that the writing prompts Millfield waterboarding of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed in 2003 is the kind of forgivable excess that you expect from governments, but that the torture memos of 2005 are the kind of Stevenson Academy thing that shouldn’t be forgiven. And I don’t know. What do you think about that kind of distinction, the sort of institutionalization versus the sort of crisis mentality, getting your hands dirty with an speech essay St. Louis, individual case? DIONNE: First of all, Bill is fundamentally right.

The “what would Niebuhr say and do” debate is Stevenson pretty tough to carry out. DOUTHAT: And all the questions are going to – (inaudible) DIONNE: And so, that’s fair enough. I could imagine Niebuhr saying: “I understand in the heat of the days and the few weeks after 9/11 why the people in power erred on the side of keeping us safe and they may have done things they shouldn’t do.” I still find it hard – again, we can debate this. I still think he would have ended up on the critical side because what’s so fascinating about Niebuhr is the paper Roedean School neocons have always sort of liked him, as Father Neuhaus suggests, because he always talked about the how to write articles Stevenson Academy legitimacy of using American power in the world. And there were moments when the people on the left were seen as always declaring that American power in the world, the and article The University of Glasgow use of American power, is wrong and how to articles Academy, illegitimate. So if you are someone who believes that American power can be used morally, then, yes, Reinhold Niebuhr is your friend.

But, he was also always very wary of hamburger Saxion of Applied Sciences jingoism, of our tendency not to look at our own flaws, the danger of write articles Academy overreach, the writing for kids School danger of doing things that were immoral in a moral cause. And those are two sides of Niebuhr, and in some ways, you can say it’s an how to write, ambiguity, but I think fundamentally it actually holds together; you know, a shorthand is: American power can be used morally but it should be used with fear and trembling and we have to be very careful about of Glasgow, how we use it. How To Write Articles Stevenson Academy! I don’t know. Would Bill disagree with that summary? MCCLAY: Yes. What I would say is, one of the article Castle School fundamental building blocks of the argument in The Irony of American History is that Americans are utterly bedazzled by this notion of write articles Stevenson Academy innocence, desire for innocence. And I don’t know what he would say about this, but I think he might react to the current kind of orgy of interest in this subject that has to come up on every occasion. And I’m not criticizing you for bringing it up, and there has been a lot of this, I think, in the early months of this administration, this pushing the persuasive paper School reset button, this desire to kind of scapegoat and exorcise the past.

This is contrary to how to write Stevenson the spirit of Niebuhr. There’s no basis in Niebuhr for thinking that America was ever innocent, that any administration is innocent or that there’s any reset button that any administration can ever push to make itself innocent. So that doesn’t answer the specific question about this one issue, but I think it’s reasonable to deduce from his work – given that I don’t know what he’d say – but it’s reasonable to deduce that he might think that the emphasis on St. Louis (INTO) whether sending John Yoo and Jay Bybee to prison is going to atone for our national sins, over a war that began as a very broadly popular undertaking but later became a great burden to write Academy the national psyche, is a morally misplaced emphasis. Whether that’s an appropriate deduction – that’s a different question. Article For Kids Trafalgar Castle! I think they’re connected. MICHAEL GERSON, THE WASHINGTON POST : I’ll change the subject. I think I played this role before in this kind of setting.

But let me maybe defend the social gospel – GERSON: – at least properly understood, against the Niebuhrians, and ask your opinion on one point. There seems to articles Stevenson Academy be a difference between Niebuhr as corrective and Niebuhr as guide, to me. It seems like you wouldn’t necessarily want, historically, a nation of Niebuhrs. You look at the way social progress took place in America. It was often true believers, patriots who believed we were a new order for speech writing essay (INTO) the ages, or William Lloyd Garrison who believed in absolute social equality between blacks and whites when no one else did, for how to write articles Stevenson purely religious reasons, or William Jennings Bryan, who had this kind of fundamentalist social gospel because he believed in it absolutely. You know, true believers in this context.

Clearly, there are risks and these were often eccentric people with kind of odd views, easy to make fun of. But it seems like the history of American justice, social inclusion was propelled by believers, not by Niebuhrians. And I guess, in the sense that I would want a Niebuhrian to do the navigation in my car, but he doesn’t provide the essay University (INTO) fuel to get us there. The fuel is a belief in how to articles Academy justice and truth in American history. So I’m wondering how you combine that kind of respect for Niebuhr as corrective with a recognition that that has not been the writing prompts for essays Millfield motivating principle of either the founding of our country or the progress of justice? MCCLAY: Well, I think that there’s a big difference between that and the kind of reform impulse growing out of 19th-century evangelicalism, which was oriented toward social reform but also had a strong emphasis on how to articles conversion. And, certainly, its supernatural face was part of a reform of the individual. And there’s a way in which the writing for kids Castle School social gospel moves against that notion of individual conversion and write, individual accountability towards simply seeing the Christian faith as a kind of mythic version of what we, through greater and writing paper Roedean School, great advances in social science, know about the way that social structures form the individual psyche.

So I think – GERSON: If I could, Bill, you’re missing the question: religiously, the more motivated moral idealism of how to write Stevenson American politics rather than just the social gospel. GERSON: It’s hard to writing regard William Jennings Bryan, who had a fundamentalist theology, as evidence of the social gospel, but he was, certainly, probably politically more influential of any of the how to write advocates of the social gospel in (INTO) changing the definition of the articles Democratic Party and doing all sorts of persuasive paper School other things. How To Write Articles! Maybe it might not be the right word, but I guess I just wanted your reaction to the point that it’s been important in and of itself, and that Niebuhr can’t replace or explain that. DIONNE: Now I see what you mean. Let me just say – Bill, do you want to – DIONNE: What I want to say, first of all, is bless you for article writing for kids Trafalgar Castle School defending the social gospelers, because I have affection for them too, and in write articles Stevenson particular for their critique of the society that surrounded them.

But I think you shortchange Niebuhr in terms of his own passion for writing paper Roedean School justice. And by the way, you’re completely right about Bryan, who was an extraordinary progressive. We forget how everybody sees him in how to light of the Scopes trial and forgets that he rejected Darwinism because he hated social Darwinism and prompts for essays Millfield, how Darwin was used to justify radical inequality. So I identify with all that. But I think you’re shortchanging Niebuhr in terms of his concern for justice. Richard Fox talks about how well into the 1950s Niebuhr could be very passionate in his critique of write Stevenson how capitalism actually works.

In 1954, he wrote that capitalism had again become too complacent. We haven’t, for instance, solved the economic problem short of war preparations. Persuasive Writing Roedean School! There was a passion in him for justice. His critique of the social gospelers was not against how to Stevenson, their mission. Writing For Kids Trafalgar Castle! And he certainly did not lack for articles a willingness to Millfield School fight for labor, or for Social Security, or for all kinds of corrections to a system of write articles Stevenson Academy unfettered capitalism. I think he was critical of social gospelers on writing Saxion University two grounds. One, he thought they had too optimistic a view of human nature and thought too much about articles Stevenson Academy, salvation through social action. They forgot about sin along the way.

And that in Trafalgar turn led to sort of a politics that didn’t work. He was not against Stevenson, the original motives of the article writing Castle social gospelers. I think Obama shares the social gospelers’ goals, but with a kind of Stevenson Academy Niebuhrian correction. You know, in that famous speech at Sojourners, he talked a lot about social injustice, but then, he also talked about individual accountability and responsibilities. He said when a gang member “shoots indiscriminately into a crowd … there’s a hole in that young man’s heart, a hole that the government alone cannot fix.”

Contraception could reduce teen pregnancy rates, he said, but he also talked about faith and guidance, which “help fortify a young woman’s sense of self, a young man’s sense of responsibility, and a sense of reverence that all young people should have for the act of sexual intimacy.” In other words, I think that Obama accepts some of the Niebuhrian critique of the social gospel but, still, like Niebuhr, believes in the social gospel’s core purposes. CROMARTIE: Quick comment? Although, I must say we’ve got two people in and these guys are so rich with their Niebuhrian illustration. MCCLAY: I would only say that one of the things that Niebuhr insisted on, and it was another source of his criticism of the social gospel because it was so completely subservient to the idea of the problem School nation, was the idea that an emphasis upon the collectivity over the individual could easily lend support to a kind of quasi-totalitarianism. And he says explicitly in how to write articles Stevenson Academy his later book The Self and the Dramas of University of Applied Sciences History that you have to have some source of value standing above the values inherent in history in order for those values to have validity. And even though he was himself very much of a theological liberal, he worried that the social gospel dispensed unwisely with the how to write Stevenson Academy entire supernatural element of faith, which not only was necessary as a driving force for reform, but kept that balance, serving as a corrective to the tendency of all social aggregates to tyrannize the individual. LAUREN GREEN, FOX NEWS: I’ve not studied Niebuhr, so please forgive my ignorance if I say something that is so obvious that you’ll laugh or something. Persuasive Writing School! But it seems to me that Niebuhr has this incredible understanding of the how to write Academy paradigm of the original sin, the fall, that we live in a broken world; but also of this narrative of redemption that there is definitely hope out there, this understanding that there are two prodigal sons, not just one. You know, we see the sins of the one that went away and squandered his wealth, but we fail sometimes to for kids see the sins of the self-righteous older brother. One of the things that is write obvious is that his understanding of morality appeared in the context of the time: communism, the speech essay St. Louis (INTO) Nazis.

What would he view as the evil today? What would his position be on the economic crisis? But also, is his effect on policy quantifiable? Did he have access to presidents like a Billy Graham did? Is there any quantifiable effect of how to Academy him on American policy in any kind of administration? MCCLAY: On the last part, I don’t think so. Actually – an interesting little side point – he and Arthur Schlesinger were very good friends for a long time, but Schlesinger had a very hard time persuading Niebuhr to speech writing support Kennedy. Niebuhr finally did, but with some reluctance. He was no fan of the how to Academy family. He hated, he just absolutely loathed and distrusted Bobby. And the father, Joseph Kennedy, of course was awful, in Niebuhr’s view.

JFK was OK, by comparison, but the thing he really held against JFK – and this is article Castle School all amply documented in how to write correspondence – were his sexual dalliances – CROMARTIE: He knew about them? MCCLAY: Oh, yes. Article For Kids Trafalgar School! Quite a few people knew about them, people who were around politics at that time. Write Academy! Yes, absolutely. And Niebuhr was very, very concerned not only about the defining problem Les Roches School sorts of risks that this would entail in terms of blackmail and national security, which he was very savvy about, but also what it said about the character of the man. So he was not close to Kennedy, who he saw as a somewhat reckless figure from time to time during his brief administration. DIONNE: Niebuhr, however, despite that, was very important in supporting Kennedy against anti-Catholicism. Shaun Casey writes about this in his new book, The Making of a Catholic President . Not all liberal Protestants were comfortable with having a Catholic president, and articles Academy, within liberal Protestantism, Niebuhr was passionately opposed to bigotry against journal The University, Catholics, and he played a very important role there.

So despite his doubts, he was there. DIONNE: I think, when you think about his impact on policy over how to the whole period – his work in prompts for essays School the labor movement, his support for the civil rights movement and all the work around Americans for Democratic Action ¬- he was engaged in all of the core social reform movements of the ’30s, ’40s and ’50s. And he was an activist – you know, he started life as an activist pastor in a poor neighborhood. He wasn’t a community organizer, but he almost was. So, I think it’s just hard to get into our heads the notion of this very serious theologian as a celebrity. He really was a celebrity in that period, of a certain kind. Write Articles Academy! So I don’t know how much he went in and out of the White House. Persuasive Roedean! He might not have even particularly wanted to do that, but I think he had a real impact on the direction of American politics as a New Dealer and a Fair Dealer.

MCCLAY: Well, one area in how to articles Stevenson which I think you can document influence is in the way that the doctrine of containment came to be formulated. Because containment was really a sort of speech University (INTO) Niebuhrian halfway between a kind of write articles Academy appeasement, on the one hand, and what John Foster Dulles called “rollback,” on the other hand. It was an answer to article writing Trafalgar Castle Douglas McArthur’s famous statement, “There is no substitute for victory.” You know, it was this notion that containing – which is actually a very Lincoln-esque strategy – containing the expansion of communism, not rolling it back but containing it, would eventually lead to the destruction, the internal unraveling and articles Stevenson Academy, destruction of the system. Containment is writing University a very difficult doctrine because it forswears those kind of how to write big victories and upbeat parades that wars generally have been about. George Kennan, who arguably played a major role in the formulation of the doctrine, was directly influenced by Niebuhr, knew Niebuhr, read Niebuhr. And I don’t think there’s any doubt that something of the article writing School Niebuhrian mood influenced Kennan in Academy that long telegram and International School Management, “Mr. X” article and these other documents that ended up becoming formative to containment – the how to write Academy way those policies and perspectives became formulated. So that’s a big influence. GREEN: But the other part about the great evil – what would he see as the great evil today? MCCLAY: That I just don’t know. He’d be very concerned about biotechnology, I suspect.

He already was. In The Irony of writing paper Roedean American History there are already passages about it. So I think he’d be very concerned about that. NAOMI SCHAEFER RILEY, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL : I’ll try to be quick. Writing about religion for The Wall Street Journal , I always look for how to openings to talk about economics. So I wanted to journal and article difference of Glasgow press you, E.J., and you, Bill, a little more on his views on economics. It was interesting to me that from the quote you read from Obama, he seemed right away to articles want to writing prompts for essays School talk about Niebuhr’s view of economics, and I think a lot of us tend to think about his views of foreign policy as the most formative ones. And you seem to say that he was on board with the social gospelers as far as their view of economics went.

And, if you can clarify that, that would be great. And then, I guess the articles Academy second half of speech writing essay St. Louis University (INTO) that question is, if he saw institutions as so inherently sinful, even more so than individuals, I wonder what he thought about the how to write articles Stevenson potential for institutions to solve economic problems like poverty as opposed to individuals sort of hamburger essay University bringing themselves out of it. MCCLAY: I think his instincts were socialist. He supported Norman Thomas on the Socialist Party ticket in 1932, and his doing so was actually a moderate position compared with what some of his friends were doing. There were a lot of people, intellectuals, supporting the Communist Party that year. However, I do think you can deduce from Niebuhr some support for free market principles, simply because really, by the time he writes The Irony of American History , he’s completely sold on the structure and dynamics of the U.S. Constitution, on the sort of Madisonian idea – or Montesquieu, really – that it’s important to divide and disperse power as much as possible. But he’s clearly sold on all of that. I think economics is one area in which he could be a little formulaic and weak and just kind of go with the Stevenson Academy journalism of the day rather than thinking and article, reading deeply into it, and thinking independently.

I think you can deduce free market principles, or at least mixed-capitalist, mixed-economy kinds of principles from his view of politics. How To Write Articles Academy! But I think it would be anachronistic to go too far with that. In terms of his political commitments, he cordially disliked businessmen. He disliked Eisenhower and Eisenhower’s support for problem Les Roches International School of Hotel the business community. He was much more of an Adlai Stevenson kind of guy. DIONNE: A quick concrete answer that parallels this. He was either a liberal or a social democrat. This is from Richard Fox’s biography. Fox says: “To remember Niebuhr is to remember the union movement in its heyday.

For most of his life, the how to write word ‘justice,’ a term constantly on his lips, meant justice for workers, especially industrial workers. Only at article for kids Trafalgar School the very end of his life did ‘justice’ come to mean racial justice to the same degree that it meant industrial justice.” Although he was still earlier than most in supporting civil rights. “When Niebuhr tried to give concrete content to his notion of justice, he instinctively thought about equalizing standards of living, reducing job insecurity and enacting social insurance schemes. He was irreversibly shaped by his encounter with Henry Ford in open shop, Detroit, in the 1920s.” So I think he would have had differences with the Wall Street Journal editorial page on these questions. Academy! (Laughter.) CARL CANNON, POLITICS DAILY : I was interested in what other presidents thought of Niebuhr. Bill mentioned Jimmy Carter. Three presidents have mentioned Reinhold Niebuhr.

Lyndon Johnson gave him a Presidential Medal of Freedom. Bill Clinton gave a Presidential Medal of Freedom to Joseph Rauh and mentioned that he worked for defining Les Roches International School Niebuhr. But Jimmy Carter spoke about Reinhold Niebuhr on three separate occasions. Write Articles Stevenson Academy! I’ll go through it real quick because I want to ask each of you a question, what the implications are. One was in May of 1978. Carter was talking to the Los Angeles Bar Association and he said, “As a governor and as a president” – and this made me think that he was thinking about Niebuhr even when he was governor – he said that he’d learned that “as Reinhold Niebuhr said, it is the writing essay St. Louis University (INTO) sad duty of politics to establish justice in a sinful world.” In March 1978, he said, “From the experience of the write articles Academy urban renewal program of the 1950s, we learned to be skeptical about what Reinhold Niebuhr called ‘the doctrine of salvation through bricks’ – the idea that we can bulldoze away our urban problems.” That was a bit of a straw man. Niebuhr probably was talking about building our way, not bulldozing, but still. And then, in writing paper Roedean June, same year, he actually quoted and how to write Stevenson Academy, named Moral Man in Immoral Society , and Carter went on this riff, and he said that Niebuhr “pointed out the defining International School of Hotel difference between a society and Stevenson Academy, people. The expectations and demands on a person are a much higher standard.

A person should have as our goal” – ungrammatical was his, not mine – “complete agape love.” The sitting president. He just went on this riff. “The most we can expect from a society is to difference of Glasgow institute simple justice.” So my question for Bill is, what does this tell us about a president who embraces Niebuhr in this way and keeps coming back to him? And then, I would ask you, E.J., as a Niebuhrian: Should we reconsider Carter now that we’ve established his Niebuhrian credentials? Carter was Mike Gerson’s candidate in 1976, it should be pointed out. CROMARTIE: Carl, what was your source? I thought you were going to bring out a PowerPoint or something like that. CANNON: No.

Trust me on those quotes. CROMARTIE: Okay. You were just quoting. (Laughter.) CANNON: From the public papers of the write Stevenson Academy president. CROMARTIE: You brought them with you?

MCCLAY: I think those are fairly anodyne observations by Carter that have Reinhold Niebuhr’s name tacked onto the end of them. The thing about difference The University of Glasgow, bricks, I can’t even really quite imagine Niebuhr saying that. How To Write Articles Academy! But he wrote so much that it’s quite possible he did. I think Carter may have at writing some point been a serious student of Niebuhr. How To Write Articles Academy! I just don’t know. Persuasive Writing Paper Roedean School! But there’s a kind of Niebuhr line that you can embrace which is to say, well, you can’t expect the same things of how to Stevenson Academy institutions that you do of individuals. True, but that seems fairly obvious. Speech St. Louis (INTO)! You don’t really need all that heavy theological artillery to make that point. And the belief that one should have a sense of humility about oneself as a leader – I don’t know whether this came before or after he identified himself as born-again, which scandalized the press corps. Such referencing of how to write articles Niebuhr was a way of redeeming his reputation as a man of some education and breeding. I don’t want to be too harsh about it.

But if you look at Carter’s presidency, I think, in fact, many of the criticisms that Niebuhr makes of the children of light – that they have a kind of conviction about their virtuousness and journal and article of Glasgow, the virtuousness of their cause, and that by being virtuous and Academy, showing their virtue they will sway the opinions of others – this just doesn’t work in Niebuhr’s view. Prompts For Essays Millfield School! The biblical passage – DIONNE: The children of how to Stevenson Academy darkness are wiser in this world than the children of speech writing University (INTO) light. MCCLAY: In this generation. Yes. DIONNE: Yes.

In this generation. MCCLAY: And it comes from the parable of the dishonest steward in the Bible, which is one of the most perplexing things in the entire New Testament. I never have known what it means. How To! But I think Carter, in difference The University of Glasgow practice, didn’t show an write Academy, ability to exercise the kind of writing for kids Trafalgar Castle shrewdness and deviousness even that Niebuhr thought an write, effective leader needed to show. He hadn’t really taken in all of Moral Man and Immoral Society . By the essay of Applied way, as we were talking I did think of how to write Stevenson something else in Niebuhr: that he was a tremendous influence on Martin Luther King. DIONNE: Yes. I was going to say that.

That’s really important. MCCLAY: Because if you look back – I believe it’s the last chapter of Moral Man and Immoral Society – there’s a discussion of non-violent resistance that’s a blueprint for what King does, and King evidently read it and was very influenced by it. King is difference The University of Glasgow not an example of how to Academy a political leader, but an example of a social leader, a movement leader. DIONNE: And I just wanted to underscore too, that if you talk about somebody’s influence – “by their fruits shall ye know them” – King did a lot of his academic work on Niebuhr. Richard Fox says Niebuhr didn’t see race as early as he saw the article for kids Trafalgar Castle School injustice of labor, but he was pretty early in Stevenson understanding how important racial equality was. And in writing Millfield School terms of Jimmy Carter: Jimmy Carter was, and write articles Academy, is, an intellectually serious believer and he’s an intellectually serious believer of a certain age. And if you were, like Carter, an evangelical but not a fundamentalist, someone who was a moderate or a liberal, you could not help but encounter Niebuhr and take him seriously. You can debate, as Bill suggested, exactly how he applied Niebuhr. But I don’t think Jimmy Carter lost in 1980 because he sort of loved Reinhold Niebuhr.

I don’t think it changes our view of him. I think we knew that he was a thoughtful Christian. He lost because of stagflation and the hostage crisis and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Speech Writing Essay St. Louis (INTO)! And I don’t know what one can draw from his love for write articles Niebuhr out of those things. I don’t mean to be glib about it.

I just think what you said proves what I think we already knew about Carter, and a good side of Carter that a lot of people liked even if they disagreed with him. AMY SULLIVAN, TIME : Professor McClay, you warned us at the beginning that Niebuhr often wrote as a counterpuncher – speaking in reaction to writing other people. And it seems like that’s particularly true, at least in the way you outlined his criticism of religious liberals and particularly the social gospel. You could be excused for coming away from how to Stevenson Academy that thinking that he wasn’t that different and that he believed Christians still should be engaged in efforts to make the world a better place and progress in social causes. They just shouldn’t be surprised if bad things happen and their hands got dirty. But there must be more to it than that. And I wondered if one or both of you could talk just a little bit about what his affirmative theology was, or his sense of how religious people or institutions should operate? MCCLAY: Well, I’m afraid this is going to sound like I’m rehashing what I said but maybe I didn’t say it well enough. I think that Niebuhr wanted to journal and article difference stress – and yes, he is counterpunching when he does this – that there is no resolution to the problems of politics in this life. You can ameliorate suffering here and there, and you are obliged to articles try to do so.

But the notion that history is somehow moving towards some sort of omega point where frictionless social relations will come into writing essay St. Louis (INTO), being, where the self-realization of individuals is going to occur in an unimpeded way, that it’s possible to imagine that the interests of different individuals and different groups are not going to clash, and clash in a way that’s more or less permanent in character, that those interests may shift around in complexion but will not clash – that’s an illusion. MCCLAY: Yes. How To Write Academy! I don’t believe in being concise. They pay me by essay writing Saxion University of Applied Sciences the word. But you know, I’m trying to how to write Stevenson unpack what anti-utopian means in this context. It doesn’t just mean having moderate expectations. It doesn’t mean that perfection can only writing University Sciences, be approached asymptotically, and is not achievable for us here below. For Niebuhr, it is something much more disturbing. How To Write Stevenson! It’s the notion that the more we progress, the more we put ourselves in essay writing Saxion danger.

That’s a very scary but very powerful principle. How To Stevenson Academy! And I think that’s very different from the University (INTO) kind of progressive view that the social gospelers, by and large, took. But there’s an argument to write articles Stevenson Academy be made that he oversimplifies people like Walter Rauschenbusch, who are not quite as blithe and naive as he makes them out to be. And John Dewey even. SULLIVAN: I guess my question, which I may not have made clear, is what do Christians then do with that? That may be the article for kids Trafalgar School view, but then, how should they proceed?

DIONNE: See, I think that he assumed that Christians – it was a deep assumption reflected in how to write Stevenson the way he lived his life and the way he was a pastor – that Christians would be, should be engaged in social action. When you were a minister in a poor parish in writing School Detroit – a place you love – at a time of union organizing, low wages and all the struggles going on. It was built into the cake, if you were his kind of Christian, that you would be engaged in how to articles social action. What he was about was trying to think through not only what was the most effective form of social action, but also how should one think about that social action as a Christian. He came to believe – he started out as a socialist, and still maintained some of the speech writing essay St. Louis University (INTO) socialist aspirations – nonetheless he came to see utopianism as both theoretically flawed and also as ineffectual in politics. Larry O’Brien, who was an how to write articles Stevenson Academy, aide to paper Roedean Kennedy and a Democratic National Committee chairman, had a great book title for his memoirs. The book title was No Final Victories . And I think that’s an how to articles Stevenson, excellent view of democratic – small ‘d’ – politics.

I suppose, for that matter, capital ‘d’ too. There are no final victories in democratic politics because we are imperfect. The world is imperfect. Article Writing! All political systems are imperfect, so you have to just keep fighting. And you shouldn’t give up because you don’t win a final victory. It’s a philosophy of how to write articles Stevenson Academy constant improvement and accepting that setbacks happen along the way.

And he would have said this in a more profound way than I just said it, but I think that’s what it comes down to. School Of Hotel Management! And, at least to me, that is probably the most rational way to approach democratic politics. MCCLAY: Can I say one other thing? I think I’m getting a better feel for what you’re really asking. And I think it bears on Mike Gerson’s question and point, which I didn’t initially understand either. Niebuhr lived in a time when you could count on Christian culture as a propulsive force, when your real task was how to channel that, how to correct it, how to how to write keep it from its worst excesses and make it more self-aware and self-critical.

This is one of the problems about reviving Niebuhr – the fact that his time isn’t the St. Louis one we live in now. Today, an intelligent person is faced with the question: “Why should I be a Christian rather than nothing? Why should I take a Christian view of politics rather than a strictly secular view? What does the Christian modifier contribute to articles Stevenson Academy all of this?” And I think Mike’s point about the problem of religion being a corrective rather than being an engine bears on this too. These are questions that Niebuhr didn’t really have to face. DAN GILGOFF, U.S. NEWS WORLD REPORT : It struck me that so far, a lot of the conversation about Niebuhr has centered on his enduring, or perhaps not-so-enduring, influence on American politics and on policymakers both current and past. And I’m wondering if you could talk a little bit about whether that influence is discernable at journal and article of Glasgow all in American Christianity today, given that that was the articles Stevenson Academy realm in which he was operating. And also, I know you both do a lot more in terms of examining politics and theologians’ influence on it besides Niebuhr. Looking at Obama, his public statements, the degree to which he invokes the Bible, or religion, or father, or morality, do you see any other specific figures besides Niebuhr and Millfield, traditions like the social gospel shining through his words? And I don’t know if you’d go so far as to say actions.

I mean, I think that’s more difficult to analyze, but if you could speak to that point too, beyond Niebuhr. MCCLAY: Well, let me make one observation to how to write Stevenson start with, and St. Louis University, I think E.J. would be better on Obama than I am. One thing that’s curious about articles Academy, all of this, and I think it tells you something about the hamburger essay Saxion University Sciences times we’re living in how to write Stevenson too, is that – I think I mentioned this in passing – if you venture into the seminaries, what you will find is that Niebuhr is almost universally held in writing for essays low esteem. And I think among many of the write brightest young theologians I know, and persuasive writing School, some who are still graduate students, there are some who see him as completely irrelevant. CROMARTIE: Is it because they don’t like the ambiguity?

MCCLAY: I think they don’t like the ambiguity, and, in some ways, they don’t see him as being bold enough. He’s tailored too much for a secularist worldview. Stanley Hauerwas is – CROMARTIE: A theologian at Duke University. MCCLAY: – is, in some ways, far more influential. Academy! And Stanley Hauerwas – to writing St. Louis (INTO) talk about a counterpuncher – he has pretty much made a career out of eviscerating Reinhold Niebuhr at every turn, including in his own Gifford lectures. So what’s odd is that people in how to write the position of David Brooks and journal and article of Glasgow, E.J. and others – I suspect E.J. has a little more contact with the how to academy than David does – they’re the ones who are interested in hamburger essay writing University Niebuhr. And people like me. How To Articles Stevenson Academy! I’m a historian. Prompts For Essays Millfield! I’m not even in write Academy a theological world. But the persuasive writing paper Roedean School theologians, I think they see him as a back number.

Now, what that means, I don’t know. People like Hauerwas have a much more – to use the word these theologians would use – “prophetic” engagement with the write articles Academy culture and with politics. Writing Prompts Millfield! One way of translating “prophetic” means without any sort of acknowledgement of the how to write articles sort of defining Les Roches School half-measures and compromises and acquiescence that you need to how to write articles make to be politically effective. These theologians are much more interested in hamburger essay writing Sciences people who make very bold statements. And in that sense, ambiguity is indeed part of the complaint. CROMARTIE: Let me just ask, Bill, before E.J. responds: Professor Putnam, if you could tell us your perception of what Niebuhr is, say, in Cambridge, Mass. Or at least, if you know, in the divinity school or in the political science world in which you work. MCCLAY: Well, there is write Stevenson Academy a Reinhold Niebuhr chair at Union Theological Seminary, where he taught.

And the guy who occupies it – DIONNE: He’s a great guy. Gary Dorrien. MCCLAY: Yes. Defining Problem International! He’s a big critic of Niebuhr. DIONNE: He’s an Stevenson, affectionate critic of prompts for essays Niebuhr. CROMARTIE: Professor Putnam, you don’t have to answer the how to write articles Stevenson Academy question, but I was just thinking, as we are talking about Niebuhr in the academy, what you might want to tell us. ROBERT PUTNAM, HARVARD UNIVERSITY: This is what will cause you to withdraw the invitation to me to speak here even tomorrow because actually, I have relatively little contact with the article for kids Castle School divinity school at Harvard and almost no contact with theologians. It’s not a matter of principle. (Laughter.) In my own field, political science, when I was growing up, which was actually a long time ago in Stevenson the ’60s, Niebuhr was a major figure actually. And essentially along the lines of what’s been discussed here, in this kind of tragic realism kind of sense.

So, probably, most political scientists of writing Roedean School my generation know a little bit about Niebuhr. But I frankly doubt if contemporary political scientists know much about him. And maybe they should, I think, from a political-science point of write view, not from a theological point of view. This recent Niebuhr revival is actually quite interesting because I do think it reflects a little bit of what’s happening religiously, but mostly what’s happening sociologically, in America. I think this notion is partly the Lincoln tolerance part and partly the unintended consequences part: Don’t start pushing grand plans and distant ideals because you’re almost certain to get it wrong.

That part, along with the hope part. I don’t know if that fits theologically or not now, but I think I see it as a little bit of the ethos of persuasive writing paper Roedean School our times. How To Write! But actually I don’t have any reason to disagree with the account that was offered about Les Roches School of Hotel, Niebuhr’s standing among academic or non-academic theologians. DIONNE: Can I have a different view than – CROMARTIE: I know you do, but I want – DIONNE: It’s overlapping but different. DIONNE: Bill, you may not completely disagree with this. It seems to me that Niebuhr went out of fashion somewhere in write Academy the 1960s and that was partly a product of the anti-war movement, which saw him as more of a realist. And, you know, there was a rebellion against realism. Hamburger Essay Writing Saxion University Sciences! He wasn’t left-wing enough. And also, when you think back to some of the theological trends in the late ’60s and ’70s, the death of write articles Stevenson God movement, the theology of writing Saxion of Applied hope, the theology of liberation – I would love to know what Niebuhr would have made of liberation theology; what he would have agreed with, what he would have critiqued. I think that the journalistic and political comeback of Niebuhr has some parallels now in Stevenson Academy the academy. For example, Harvey Cox was one of difference The University my old teachers at how to Stevenson Harvard Divinity School, and he was to Niebuhr’s left.

And he had a very interesting little letter in St. Louis (INTO) The New York Times after Arthur Schlesinger wrote his piece that I think was probably friendlier to Niebuhr than Harvey would have been circa 1969 or 1970. Articles Stevenson Academy! I want to ask Cox about hamburger essay Saxion Sciences, this. I think it reflects Niebuhr’s resurrection – a good theme for a Christian theologian – and how to, the new engagement with Niebuhr that’s going on now. Bill is absolutely right about Hauerwas. Hauerwas, by the way, played a big role in the symposium about Niebuhr I quoted earlier. So I don’t dispute much of writing Sciences what Bill said, but I think that for a variety of reasons, some of them having to do with the zeitgeist, there is write Stevenson Academy a kind of rediscovery of Niebuhr. There are probably some neo-Niebuhrian theologians being born right now. MCCLAY: Just one quick thing. One of the appeals of Hauerwas, and hamburger University, I think one of the how to concerns – this is a Putnam-esque theme, that’s why I’m bringing it up – Niebuhr really was in his heyday in the ’30s through the persuasive paper Roedean ’50s.

Living in write articles Stevenson Academy those years, it is not surprising that individualism and what might be called the sort of defense of the integrity of the individual over against collectivities and groups of any kind became one of his greatest themes. That is not, it seems to persuasive writing paper me, so large a concern now. I think there’s a lot more concern with, if I may coin the phrasing, bowling alone with anomie. To take it to write articles Academy a theological level, one sees a lot of concern, particularly among the journal young, that our churches are not organizations in how to which people really are experiencing community, being bound together. And I think there is a lot more interest, particularly among the younger people, with finding a more vibrant and vital form of Millfield community than Niebuhr really has to write Academy offer, because Niebuhr is very guarded. He offers a very low level of social trust, Niebuhr.

He’s always looking out for article writing for kids Trafalgar School the ways the individual can be captured and co-opted by groups, and trying to maintain that individual’s independence. DIONNE: Ten seconds – just 10 quick seconds on that. There’s a debate over whether the Niebuhr of Moral Man and Immoral Society , which is decidedly against the collective – but remember, he’s writing in write articles Academy a moment when Hitler and Stalin are rising – whether that emphasis is quite as strong in some of the writing of Applied Sciences later work. And I’d argue that there is a greater concern for community in the Niebuhr of the ’40s and ’50s than there was in that particular book. PUTNAM: People around the table have also observed that Niebuhr is primarily a counterpuncher. The culture and theology against which he was counterpunching then is just very different from the kind of theology and how to write Stevenson Academy, society in which it would be useful to have counterpunching now. That’s my view, and I guess that’s close to what you were just saying. DIONNE: He is more than a counterpuncher. (Laughter.) MCCLAY: And I agree with that, too. LYNN SWEET, C HICAGO SUN-TIMES : My question is prompts for essays School aimed at Stevenson you, professor: How did the Holocaust influence Niebuhr?

As you said – or as E.J. might have said – he was in his heyday during this period, and I know he certainly was a supporter of the state of Israel and all that, but you know, you often don’t get these great figures who are working real-time with one of the speech writing essay St. Louis University great issues of the how to write articles world happening. So I’m just wondering, how did the hamburger Saxion University of Applied Sciences Holocaust influence him as it was unfolding, as he was on duty? MCCLAY: You mean during the’40s? Well, I don’t know. I can’t answer for that. I think it’s not a theme that figures all that prominently in his work, but I think – and this is sort of a cliche, but I think it’s true – that it was really after the ’67 and ’73 wars that the Holocaust as a theme becomes much more prominent in write articles American Jewish consciousness and in American public life. Persuasive Paper School! So there are a lot of people who we might have expected to give more attention to Academy it who didn’t. But that doesn’t answer, and I really can’t answer the point about how he saw the Holocaust.

I mean, he was very aware of issues like the firebombing of Dresden and strategic bombing in general and the use of nuclear weapons and the moral calculus involved in those things. DIONNE: He was a very, very strong opponent of of Hotel anti-Semitism, a very early person in inter-religious dialogue, and one of the reasons he broke with his pacifist friends is because he believed Nazism was evil. And his whole critique of Nazism was rooted in the idea that it was demonic in general, but in how to write articles particular, demonic in essay St. Louis (INTO) its treatment of the Jews. So I don’t know what he was. I just don’t know the answer to write articles the question of what he said as we learned about the Holocaust. But everything in his history – all of his associations with people like Abraham Heschel and lots of School other Jewish leaders, and his writing about Nazis, says this was all very important to him. I don’t have in front of write articles Stevenson me more detail than that. But it mattered to him.

It mattered to him enormously. CROMARTIE: How close was he to Dietrich Bonhoeffer? Were they close at all? DIONNE: I don’t know if they knew each other. They may well have. MCCLAY: Someone asked me about that yesterday. I’m going to look it up actually. I have Fox’s biography so I’m going to look it up. Hamburger Saxion Of Applied! I think they met when Bonhoeffer came to America, but I don’t think – CROMARTIE: It was brief. It was brief.

CROMARTIE: We’re moving the Niebuhr library books back and how to, forth. (Laughter.) MCCLAY: Can I say something? This doesn’t only, necessarily, relate to Jews, but he has always had a strong cadre of supporters in the academy, described in a term variously attributed to Morton White and Perry Miller and others as “atheists for Niebuhr.” He had a remarkably ecumenical outlook, aside from his rather dismissive view of evangelicals like Billy Graham or Billy Sunday. But he had very good relations with Jews, both religious and secular. There’s a story about the Niebuhr family place in a little town called Heath, near Stockbridge in western Massachusetts, where they spent a lot of time.

And Niebuhr’s daughter, Elizabeth Sifton, has written a book about the writing for essays Millfield School serenity prayer, which also talks a lot about this little town. Write Articles Stevenson Academy! Felix Frankfurter came out there once and went to defining problem Les Roches International School Management a service that Niebuhr conducted where he preached, and as he was leaving, he shook Niebuhr’s hand and said, “Thank you for Stevenson Academy preaching such a wonderful sermon that really warmed the heart of a believing unbeliever.” And Niebuhr, without missing a beat, said, “Thank you, that means so much to me, an unbelieving believer.” So he had a great degree of comfort with people of non-Christian, particularly secular outlook. DIONNE: Just to answer the question from journal and article of Glasgow Fox’s biography: Niebuhr actually wrote a piece for The Nation called “Jews after the Stevenson Academy War.” And Fox notes that one of his major reasons for favoring intervention was his concern with what Hitler was doing to the Jews. By the early ’30s, he grasped that Hitler was bent on the cultural annihilation of the Jews. From that time on, he was a firm, though sometimes qualified, backer of the Zionist cause. So it was a big part of him. FRED BARNES, THE WEEKLY STANDARD : What was Niebuhr’s objection to Billy Graham? MCCLAY: I think it was part of this sort of critique that people like Will Herberg made of American religion in the ’50s: that it was too culturally complacent, too adapted to speech writing American life. I mean, Billy Graham was, in a sense, the quintessence of the emphasis on individual conversion and nothing else, at least in Niebuhr’s view. And let me quickly add that this was not at all fair to Billy Graham. In fact, Billy Graham was remarkable in write Stevenson Academy the area of civil rights, for example, and did things that went beyond a lot of what Niebuhr did.

But that was Niebuhr’s view. And it’s true that Graham didn’t challenge social structures. He became cozy with presidents, saw himself as a kind of counselor to them, which was something that Niebuhr thought was perhaps inappropriate and certainly not anything that he ever sought to do. CROMARTIE: Actually let me add quickly, if I could here, that Graham tried to meet with Niebuhr in New York because Niebuhr was very critical of Graham’s New York crusade. For Kids Castle School! And because of that criticism, Graham tried to meet with Niebuhr and write Stevenson Academy, Niebuhr refused to writing Millfield meet with him. DIONNE: Mike Gerson will like this. This is from how to articles Stevenson Academy Fox’s book: “Niebuhr found himself pushed to School a defense of the same liberal social gospel he had been repudiating for decades by Graham.

It might have lacked ‘realism,’ he said, but it was ‘infinitely more realistic than the pietistic individualism which it replaced and which Graham was resurrecting.’ Graham was certainly better, Niebuhr urged, than the popular religious therapists who dispensed with a God of how to judgment altogether,” but Fox quotes Niebuhr – this is about Graham – “‘Evangelism has a blandness which befits the Eisenhower era.'” ADRIAN WOOLRIDGE, THE ECONOMIST : I’m going to ask two questions. One is about Niebuhr’s influence outside the United States. We have a very American-centric view of defining problem International School Management things. I wonder if he had much influence in how to write Stevenson Britain or Europe? And the second is about this other character who seems to have suffered the same fate as a lot of writing Roedean School people in the politburo when they fell out of favor, sort of being written completely out of history – Jeremiah Wright. Stevenson Academy! I wondered what sort of influence Niebuhr had on Jeremiah Wright, if anything? MCCLAY: Oh yeah, I wouldn’t know about the second one. I mean, my sense of Jeremiah Wright is problem Les Roches School that he’s much more influenced by James Cone and by black liberation theology, although I’m sure he had some contact.

You don’t associate a whole lot of how to write articles ambiguity with Reverend Wright, but – (laughter) – I really don’t know that much about him other than the Cone influence. CROMARTIE: What about British influence? MCCLAY: Well, Niebuhr was part of this transatlantic group of liberal anticommunists, membership in prompts for essays Millfield School which ended up being part of what counts for a decline in his reputation, too. People like Fox, who were new-left types, found him too much of a prop to the status quo, too anticommunist for their taste. But he was part of the Congress for Cultural Freedom crowd, and how to articles, wrote for Encounter magazine occasionally, and well you get the picture. So he was part of that world and was read all over article writing Castle School Europe, not just in Great Britain. And there’s a bit of a revival of Niebuhr going on in the U.K. now.

There’s a British scholar named Martin Halliwell at Leicester who’s written a very good book on Niebuhr that’s well worth reading. CROMARTIE: Is it a biography or an explication of him? MCCLAY: It’s more of an explication. It has biographical elements. WOOLRIDGE: Is it more than 700 pages?

DIONNE: You know, I think that’s right. I agree with what Bill said in terms of the transatlantic influence of his liberal anticommunism and his view of foreign policy. How To Write Academy! He very much influenced Hans Morgenthau, who had a lot of influence over there. Persuasive! On Jeremiah Wright, I did an interview with Obama in that period for a piece I wrote for The New Republic . Obama had a very interesting observation on Wright, where Obama made a distinction between King and write articles Stevenson, Wright. He noted that in his early stage King had the combination that was all about prompts School, – publicly, especially – reconciliation, but that King was angrier toward the end of his life, particularly about the Vietnam War, and how to articles, that Wright came along in that late stage and defining problem International, was much more influenced by the period of disillusionment at the end of the how to write articles Academy civil rights years than by paper School the spirit of hope at the beginning of the write articles civil rights years.

And so my hunch is that, just as Bill said, Wright clearly was influenced by article writing for kids Castle James Cone and his black liberation theology, which was part of Stevenson all those post-liberal theological developments in article writing Castle School divinity schools that led to more radical forms of theology. How To Articles Stevenson Academy! But I bet you – I’m sure Wright had to paper Roedean have some contact with the ideas of Niebuhr. He was in how to write Stevenson the United Church of Christ which, you know, had a lot in common with Niebuhr at one point. CROMARTIE: Well, he may well have introduced President Obama to Niebuhr’s work, one would think. DIONNE: That’s an speech essay University, interesting question. MCCLAY: Well, you know who did read Niebuhr was Malcolm X, who clearly is a major influence on Jeremiah Wright. Articles Stevenson! I mean – the whole “chickens coming home to roost” trope – that’s a Malcolm phrase from his famous description of the Kennedy assassination. DAN HARRIS, ABC NEWS: The second part of the writing Saxion of Applied question about beyond Niebuhr, who are the theologians, religious figures, religious traditions that you see, you know, embodied in some of Obama’s rhetoric or perhaps beyond that, if you’re daring enough to how to Stevenson Academy read it into defining International School, his actual policies. Just to kind of get beyond Niebuhr while still on the subject of Obama.

DIONNE: I have tried to figure out how to write articles Stevenson Academy who has influenced him. Of Glasgow! If you read the Sojourners speech, he’s clearly spent some time, or somebody has, looking at the whole debate around John Rawls: What are the obligations of the religious person in the public square in write Stevenson making arguments that are accessible to those who do not share the same religious commitments? With the public reason debate, he seems familiar with that, so that’s one set of influences on him. I think the persuasive writing paper Roedean formative influences, both rhetorically and to some degree substantively, are all the traditions of civil rights Christianity. Stevenson! And, you know, clearly there are a lot of echoes of King – and not only writing Trafalgar Castle, King’s rhetoric but also his theology, in how to write articles Stevenson the way he speaks.

And in some ways, what I see in Obama is an effort to writing School go back to civil rights Christianity as part of his way of how to articles reformulating a sort of persuasive progressive gospel – to make a link between that and Niebuhr, which is quite a natural link since King himself was influenced by Niebuhr in how to write Academy a lot of his language. But beyond that, I don’t know. Problem Management! I’d be very curious. It’s a good question. CROMARTIE: Bill, you have anything to add to that? MCCLAY: Well I’m sure you’re right about that and this is just something I don’t know enough about.

But I’ve read The Audacity of how to write articles Hope and the other autobiographical book and for kids, I don’t think his rhetoric has the kind of yeastiness of a lot of the how to write Stevenson Academy ’60s-era civil rights people who were really coming right out hamburger essay writing University of Applied Sciences of the black Baptist church. You know that book by David Chappell, A Stone of articles Stevenson Academy Hope ? This is a terrific exposition of the ways in which the civil rights movement was a religious movement. He may overemphasize it a little, but I think it’s a corrective worth making. And you know, someone like Fannie Lou Hamer – who admittedly is hardly typical – everything she says sounds like it comes out of the Bible or out of a black sermon. And Article Of Glasgow! And Obama is much more of how to articles Stevenson a guy who went to prep school, who went to elite colleges and universities and writing paper School, wants to kind of how to write articles draw on that religious language and imagery, but I just don’t know that it steers him. DIONNE: A book that I think is really important in understanding King is Jonathan Rieder’s The Word of the Lord is Upon Me , and the subtitle is The Righteous Performance of International Martin Luther King Jr. And what Jonathan’s book points out is that King had many different rhetorical styles used at different moments and with different audiences. How To Write Stevenson Academy! And I think it’s a really good account of King taken whole.

There’s a lot of use of King for particular purposes and people quote the more-conciliatory King when they want to, they quote the more-angry King when they want to. And Jonathan argues, you’ve got to hamburger writing Saxion of Applied Sciences take him whole with all of write Stevenson these parts, and it’s a very interesting take on King, I think. MICHAEL GERSON, THE WASHINGTON POST : Follow-up on that question to maybe return it to Niebuhr a little bit. You know, he points to Lincoln as the writing Trafalgar example of Stevenson Niebuhrian rhetoric in The University of Glasgow American history. If you look at the history of American rhetoric, Niebuhrian rhetoric is articles Stevenson Academy pretty rare. I mean, during World War II, Franklin Roosevelt didn’t use it – he used The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness . During the Cold War, John Kennedy didn’t use that language; he actually used much more morally charged language. And a lot of King’s rhetoric, whatever his influences by Niebuhr, were certainly more in the social justice tradition. You know, the writing for essays Millfield kingdom of God on Earth. How To Articles Stevenson Academy! But I think there’s a misinterpretation of Lincoln in for essays School a lot of ways. I think the subtext of the second inaugural address is the evil of slavery, not some kind of paradox or irony in that circumstance.

There’s a certain humility in write Stevenson its application, but this sin of slavery affected both North and South – they were both complicit in speech writing St. Louis University it. But I think it’s a misunderstanding of Lincoln in how to articles Academy a lot of ways to say that this represents a Niebuhrian viewpoint, filled with irony and paradox; there’s none there. But what does it say that when people need to hamburger essay Saxion University motivate in American history – if you’re Franklin Roosevelt and you’re engaged in the long twilight struggle, that you don’t use Niebuhrian language – that it isn’t even a rhetorical option in American history? You call people to grand purposes and Academy, moral missions and American exceptionalism and a lot of other things – and how did Niebuhr himself kind of journal deal with that notion? DIONNE: Just on Lincoln: I don’t think there’s any ambiguity in Niebuhr’s view about slavery. The paradox and irony around and about slavery – the paradox and irony are that even though you are engaged in a just struggle against slavery, you may nonetheless be inveigled in its evils, as you suggest. The struggles of war create sin on both sides even though the how to articles Stevenson core sin of slavery is at the heart of it. Persuasive Paper School! So I don’t think he is ironic about slavery itself and I was not asserting that and would not assert that.

GERSON: And I guess my point was not necessarily to assert that. I think, actually, if you look at Lincoln’s rhetoric and actions on these issues, it was a fairly extreme course that he took in how to write articles Academy these situations, insisting essentially on certain views at the cost of the Union and, you know, the and article cost of hundreds of thousands of how to write Academy lives on moral principle. Hamburger Essay Saxion Of Applied Sciences! That had a terrible cost, which he realized. How To Articles Stevenson! But he was willing to do those things. But just on writing the broader point, about the kind of moral clarity in how to write rhetoric. I mean, how would he diagnose that? Is it just that Americans are ignorant, that they need to be motivated by moral clarity, but the reality is the moral ambiguity? I’m just curious about the level of rhetoric.

MCCLAY: I think it’s worth pointing out that at the time that he gave the essay Sciences second inaugural, there was no doubt about who was going to write Stevenson win and journal of Glasgow, that it was going to happen very soon. So, while I do think it is a tremendously magnanimous speech, it’s the magnanimity of the victor. And that’s important to note, but the other thing is that there is a different task that the rhetorician is called upon to play in that instance, in calling the nation to a task that has yet to write Stevenson Academy be performed – to heal, to reconcile. Particularly in hamburger essay Saxion of Applied Sciences the case of this particular war, the write articles Stevenson Academy point is and article difference The University of Glasgow not just to crush the South; it’s to bring the South back into the Union, into this sort of write articles family that they had thought to extricate themselves from, for whatever reason. So the strategy that they use, the Niebuhrian part, I think, comes in – maybe E.J. already said this – in for essays not saying well, we’ve defeated the bad guys and now we’re going to be a morally better nation because we’ve defeated the bad guys. What he says is, that this is how to write Stevenson Academy a national sin for which we all bear some responsibility; it is a mark upon all of is, and maybe this war came because of the need to essay Saxion University of Applied expiate the sin of how to articles Academy slavery, and if it has to go on and on and on, the judgments of the Lord are true and defining International, righteous altogether. So he’s – GERSON: Maybe I shouldn’t have mentioned Lincoln, because, you know, that’s a different debate.

GERSON: The point is the difference between Niebuhr’s diagnosis of the moral conflicts of the write articles Stevenson Cold War or World War II. Maybe one of the reasons, to just put it bluntly, that Niebuhr’s influence waned in the aftermath of that is that he was talking about the ironies of American history just at the point that America was on the verge of some of the greatest moral achievements in prompts for essays human history. It wasn’t as though these were deeply conflicted circumstances; liberating death camps was a pretty good thing. Americans were pretty confident about our moral role in the world in write articles the aftermath of St. Louis World War II because it had been a very good one. The Cold War was conducted with a language of moral certainty – DIONNE: Can we go back and articles Academy, forth on this?

Because I think the very notion of containment, as opposed to rollback, was in fact full of Niebuhrian ambiguity. In other words, I think what’s important is that Niebuhr was unambiguous about the for essays morality of the struggle. And it’s good, actually, that you brought up Lincoln, because Niebuhr, just so we get him on the record correctly, said that Lincoln’s brooding sense of charity was derived from a religious awareness of another dimension of meaning than that of write articles immediate political conflict. This combination – a moral resoluteness – about the immediate issues with a religious awareness of School another dimension of meaning and judgment must be regarded as almost a perfect model of the difficult but not impossible task of how to write Stevenson remaining loyal and responsible toward the moral treasures of a free civilization on the one hand, while yet having some religious vantage point over the struggle on the other. Niebuhr was at his high tide in the ’40s and ’50s because he believed in the struggle against the Nazis, the liberation of defining problem International School Management death camps and anticommunism. But he was not a jingoist. He did not believe America was automatically moral or always right. And the write Academy very idea that he was in favor of containment as opposed to rollback says that we can behave in prompts School the world in a way that is write articles Academy responsible in confronting communism but does not carry all the risks that rollback would entail.

I think possibly – and we would probably both have to look this up and then we could debate the text – I do think some of Kennedy’s rhetoric had some of that in it. The very notion of article Castle School a long twilight struggle is write articles quite different from what you say in defining International School of Hotel Management the middle of a war – for example, what FDR would say in the middle of the war. Kennedy’s speech in favor of disarmament at American University in 1963, I think, has some Niebuhrian elements. And then Obama going to Europe and saying, we Americans have sometimes been arrogant, but you Europeans have engaged in a kind of anti-Americanism that’s dangerous. Write Articles Academy! That struck me – now, maybe I was looking for hamburger Sciences it – but that struck me as a very Niebuhrian sort of balance. I thought it was a good thing to say. Others didn’t think it was a good thing to say. But I thought that sounded like somebody who, whether he was influenced directly by Niebuhr or not, clearly was carrying that message. JOHN SINIFF, USA TODAY : Last night there were a few of us who were having a discussion about the articles Stevenson office of faith-based initiatives, or whatever it has become under President Obama, and I realized that at the end we came to this unsatisfactory, very Niebuhrian conclusion as to what he’s trying to do to with this office. Persuasive Writing Paper Roedean School! And I wondered, E.J., if you see anything Niebuhrian in the re-casting of the office – because ultimately I think four or five of us at how to the table couldn’t quite figure out what he’s trying to do.

Maybe that’s the purpose. Hamburger Writing Saxion Of Applied! You know, the worst thing is to kill it off, and the second-worst thing is what he’s doing in how to write letting it sit there and fester. DIONNE: As far as I can tell Niebuhr has no direct influence or indirect influence on Obama’s thinking on the White House Office of Faith-Based and and article The University, Neighborhood Partnerships. (Laughter.) God knows what Niebuhr would think of this, and he does, but we don’t know. (Laughter.) I think what Obama is how to articles Stevenson trying to do is walk a line between not wanting to overturn it and thinking there is good work done here; and in fact, partnerships between government and faith-based groups pre-date President Bush. I think that it distorts the debate on both sides if liberals say, this is a Bush creation and we’re against problem Les Roches, it. Well, it wasn’t a Bush creation; he pushed it in how to articles Stevenson certain directions, he did certain things, you know, and writing St. Louis University (INTO), that can distort the how to articles conservative view as well. And I think Obama is trying to figure out, “How can I be true to journal and article difference things I say or believe about church-state separation and religious liberty and still keep this thing going?” So I think they’re still struggling toward resolving that, and he’s clearly kicked down the road the how to write Stevenson Academy hardest question, which is the religious hiring issue, and persuasive, he’s clearly tried to fudge that for how to articles Stevenson Academy a while, and my impression is that he’s going to speech writing St. Louis (INTO) fudge it for a while longer. I think he’s going to have to confront it, but the shrewd thing I think he did – shrewd because I thought he did the right thing – was to say we don’t want this whole effort to get blown up immediately in a debate over this hiring issue when we know there is quite a lot of common ground on these partnerships. Bill Clinton had some of the how to write articles first faith-based offices at the Department of Housing and Urban Development and other parts of the administration. So what Obama’s doing is not that far out of speech writing essay University line with what a number of Democrats have done, and certainly Clinton before him. And so I think they’re still figuring it out, is the short answer.

CROMARTIE: You have anything to add to that, Bill? MCCLAY: I agree about the continuity with Clinton. You know, Charitable Choice came in during the Clinton administration, with welfare reform, with the idea that you can’t discriminate against how to articles Stevenson, a faith-based organization in for kids awarding government contracts for the provision of social welfare. Write Articles Stevenson Academy! You can’t discriminate against them simply because of their religious identity. This goes to the point that Amy Sullivan, Fred Barnes and others have brought up, or maybe it was in our conversation on the side: that we live in a very different world. I mean, at one time in the past correctives seemed to have been needed to protect the secular, to writing keep the religious realm from overwhelming the secular. Now, it seems to me both Democratic and Republican administrations have seen the how to write articles need to push back the other way, to speech essay (INTO) some extent. Whether Obama will sustain that or not, I don’t know. But I agree with E.J.; this has lasted for a while, even if it hasn’t always been so effective. CROMARTIE: Well, on that note of heated agreement – (Laughter.) CROMARTIE: – raging moderation and heated agreement, you are allowed to continue these conversations, I promise you.

There will be another reception out there where we were last night, so bring all your copies of write Academy Niebuhr and hamburger writing Saxion University Sciences, we’ll continue the conversation. Join me in thanking both these gentlemen for their time. This transcript has been edited for clarity, accuracy, spelling and grammar. Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe. Video: Israel's Religiously Divided Society. Where the Public Stands on Religious Liberty vs.

Nondiscrimination. American and Israeli Jews: Twin Portraits From Pew Research Center Surveys. Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in how to Academy the US middle class? Try our income calculator. Fact Tank 09/28/2017. Views about whether whites benefit from societal advantages split sharply along racial and partisan lines.

Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in the US middle class? Try our income calculator. Internet Tech 11/11/2016. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the and article difference issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world.

It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and how to write Stevenson, other empirical social science research. Paper! Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. Write Stevenson! It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts.

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You Are What You Eat: How Food Affects Your Mood. For thousands of years, people have believed that food could influence their health and well-being. How To Articles Academy? Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, once said: “Let your food be your medicine, and your medicine be your food” (1). In medieval times, people started to take great interest in for essays Millfield School, how certain foods affected their mood and temperament. Many medical culinary textbooks of the how to write articles Stevenson Academy time described the relationship between food and hamburger essay Saxion mood.

For example, quince, dates and elderberries were used as mood enhancers, lettuce and how to Academy chicory as tranquilizers, and apples, pomegranates, beef and eggs as erotic stimulants (1). The past 80 years have seen immense progress in research, primarily short-term human trials and animal studies, showing how certain foods change brain structure, chemistry, and physiology thus affecting mood and performance. These studies suggest that foods directly influencing brain neurotransmitter systems have the greatest effects on journal and article difference, mood, at how to Stevenson, least temporarily. In turn, mood can also influence our food choices and speech writing essay St. Louis expectations on articles Stevenson, the effects of certain foods can influence our perception. Chocolate is a powerful mood enhancer. Complex Mood-Food Relationships.

The relationship between food and mood in defining Les Roches School of Hotel, individuals is complex and depends “on the time of day, the write articles Stevenson type and macronutrient composition of food, the amount of hamburger essay food consumed, and the age and dietary history of the subject” (2).In one study by Spring et al. How To Stevenson? (1983), 184 adults either consumed a protein-rich or carbohydrate-rich meal. After two hours, their mood and performance were assessed (3). The effects of the hamburger writing Saxion University Sciences meal differed for female and male subjects and for how to write Academy, younger and older participants. For example, females reported greater sleepiness after a carbohydrate meal whereas males reported greater calmness. In addition, participants aged 40 years or older showed impairments on essay University of Applied, a test of sustained selective attention after a carbohydrate lunch. Furthermore, circadian rhythms influence our energy levels and performance throughout the day. “Early birds” feel most productive the first part of the day and their food choices become particularly important during lunch and throughout the afternoon. “Night Owls” feel most energetic later in the day and should pay attention to their breakfast choices as they can increase or decrease energy levels and influence cognitive functioning.

For example, according to Michaud et al. (1991), if you are an evening person and articles Stevenson you skip breakfast, your cognitive performance might be impaired. A large breakfast rich in writing paper Roedean, protein, however, could improve your recall performance but might impair your concentration (4). This illustrates the write Academy complexity of relationships between food and mood and the need to find a healthy balance of food choices. The Serotonin Theory: the effects of writing St. Louis (INTO) carbohydrates and protein. Serotonin is an Stevenson, important neurotransmitter that the writing prompts Millfield brain produces from tryptophan contained in foods such as “clams, oysters, escargots, octopus, squids, banana, pineapple, plum, nuts, milk, turkey”, spinach, and eggs (1). Functions of serotonin include the regulation of Stevenson sleep, appetite, and impulse control.

Increased serotonin levels are related to persuasive writing paper Roedean mood elevation. Wurtman and Wurtman (1989) developed a theory suggesting that a diet rich in carbohydrates can relieve depression and elevate mood in disorders such as carbohydrate craving obesity, pre-menstrual syndrome, and seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (5). They theorized that increased patients’ carbohydrate intake associated with these disorders represented self-medicating attempts and that carbohydrates increased serotonin synthesis. A protein rich diet, in contrary, decreases brain serotonin levels. The synthesis of serotonin in Stevenson, the brain is limited by persuasive Roedean School, the availability of its precursor tryptophan. The large amino acids such as tryptophan, valine, tyrosine, and leucine share the same transport carrier across the blood-brain barrier (1). The transport of tryptophan into the brain is “proportional to the ratio of articles Academy its concentration to that of the sum total” of the other large amino acids since they compete for available transporters (1). Eating foods high in protein increases the amount of many amino acids in the blood but not of tryptophan, which is only found in low doses in dietary protein. Therefore, many large amino acids compete with a small amount of writing paper School tryptophan for transport into the brain, meaning that less tryptophan is available for serotonin synthesis.

Consuming foods high in carbohydrates can also change amino acid levels in articles Stevenson Academy, the blood. As blood glucose levels rise, insulin is released and enables muscle tissues to take up most amino acids except for tryptophan, which is bound to albumin in the blood. Article Writing Trafalgar? As a result, the ratio of tryptophan relative to other amino acids in the blood increases, which enables tryptophan to bind to transporters, enter the brain in large amounts, and stimulate serotonin synthesis (5). The potential of increased carbohydrate intake to treat depression, pre-menstrual syndrome and how to articles Academy SAD remains small, however. Benton and Donohoe (1999) found that only a protein content of less than 2 percent of writing University a meal favored the rise in how to write Stevenson, serotonin levels.

Foods high in carbohydrates such as bread and defining problem Les Roches International potatoes contain 15 percent and how to 10 percent of calories, respectively, that come from defining School, protein thereby undermining the effects of carbohydrates on serotonin levels (5). In addition, “carbohydrate craving” is not an accurate description to describe the craving for foods such as chocolate, ice cream, and other sweets. Although people might think that these foods are high in carbohydrates because of their sweet taste, most of the calories come from fat and contain enough protein to undermine any effect of write carbohydrates on serotonin levels (6). Rather, taste preferences for sweets seem already present at birth. For example, the for essays facial expressions of write Stevenson Academy newborns indicate a positive response to The University sweet stimuli and articles Stevenson a negative response to bitter stimuli (7). Writing Paper Roedean School? The innate preference for how to write articles Academy, sweet-tasting foods might have adaptive value since bitter tastes could indicate the paper School presence of toxins and sweetness signals a source of energy in the form of carbohydrates. The effects of chocolate.

Chocolate has a strong effect on mood, generally increasing pleasant feelings and reducing tension. Nevertheless, some women, especially those trying to lose weight, experience guilt after eating chocolate (8). Many people consume chocolate when they are in negative moods such as boredom, anger, depression and tiredness, experience stress, or are in a particularly happy mood. Furthermore, many women label themselves as “chocoholics,” which led researchers to examine the effects of psychoactive substances in chocolate that potentially could create a drug-like addiction (6). Chocolate contains a number of potentially psychoactive chemicals such as anandamines which stimulate the brain in the same way as cannabis does, tyramine and phenylethylamine which have similar effects as amphetamine, and theobromine and caffeine which act as stimulants (6).

Nevertheless, these substances are present in chocolate in very low concentrations. For example, 2 to 3g of articles Stevenson phenylethylamine are needed to writing induce an antidepressant effect, but a 50g chocolate bar only contains a third of a milligram (6). In 1994, Michener and Rozin conducted an important experiment, which showed that the how to write Stevenson sensory factors associated with the consumption of chocolate produce the chocolate cravings rather than psychoactive substances. Participants were supplied with boxes that contained either milk chocolate, white chocolate, cocoa powder capsules or white chocolate with cocoa and instructed to eat the The University of Glasgow contents of Stevenson Academy one box when they experienced a craving for chocolate. If the chemicals in chocolate produced the craving, the The University intake of pure cocoa would satisfy it. Interestingly, only milk chocolate could alleviate the desire for chocolate. White chocolate was not as effective and adding cocoa to white chocolate did not alter the results. Stevenson Academy? Cocoa powder could not satisfy the craving at all. The unique taste and feel of chocolate in the mouth is responsible for the chocolate craving (8). Therefore, chocolate can serve as a powerful mood enhancer. Caffeine: a psychoactive drug.

Caffeine, mostly consumed in the form of coffee and tea, has stimulant effects enhancing alertness, vigilance, and reaction time but also increases anxiety in susceptible individuals. It is the speech writing essay St. Louis most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world with an estimated global consumption of write articles 120,000 tonnes per year (7). Caffeine blocks adenosine receptors in the brain and can relieve headaches, drowsiness and fatigue. Short-term caffeine deprivation in regular users can lead to withdrawal symptoms (7). Personality might determine caffeine use. For example, evening people who have difficulty getting up in the morning can improve their alertness and energy levels through caffeine. Contrarily, caffeine can cause unpleasant effects in people who have high levels of anxiety. Fish oil pills are sold as Omega-3 fatty acid supplements.

Omega-3 fatty acids can influence mood, behavior and personality. Low blood levels of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids are associated with depression, pessimism and impulsivity, according to a study by the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (9). In addition, they can play a role in major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, substance abuse and Trafalgar School attention deficit disorder. In recent decades, people in developed countries have consumed greater amounts of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, contained in foods such as eggs, poultry, baked goods, whole-grain bread, nuts, and many oils, that outcompete omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and write articles eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), both members of the omega-3 fatty acid family, contribute to the fluidity of the cell membrane thereby playing an important role in brain development and functioning (10). Omega-3 fatty acids are found in fish, other seafood including algae and krill, some plants, meat, and nut oils. Problem School? Many foods such as bread, yogurt, orange juice, milk, and eggs are oftentimes fortified with omega-3 fatty acids as well.

According to one study by Benton and Stevenson Academy Donohoe (1999), insufficient amounts of thiamine or Vitamin B1 caused “introversion, inactivity, fatigue, decreased self-confidence and St. Louis generally poorer mood” in participants (5). Improved thiamine status increased well-being, sociability, and overall energy levels. Thiamine is contained in foods such as cereal grains, pork, yeast, potatoes, cauliflower, oranges, and eggs and can influence mood states. Thiamine deficiency is very rare in the United States, however. Iron deficiency represents one of the most common nutritional problems in both developing and how to write articles developed countries affecting over 2 billion people worldwide. Iron deficiency anemia can result in depressed mood, lethargy and problems with attention (5).

A low iron status is most common among women, children, vegetarians, and people who follow a diet. Iron deficiency also results in a decreased ability to exercise. Foods rich in speech essay, iron include liver, vegetables such as broccoli, asparagus, and write Stevenson Academy parsley, seafood, iron-fortified grains, greens, nuts, meat, and dried fruits. Besides helping in the prevention of neural tube defects, folic acid also plays an important role in the brain. Folic acid deficiency, which is rare in the general population, is associated with depressed mood. Psychiatric patients are particularly at risk for developing folic acid deficiency because of possible disordered eating habits caused by hamburger essay writing Saxion University of Applied Sciences, a loss of articles Stevenson appetite and anticonvulsant drugs, which inhibit folic acid absorption (6).

Foods rich in folic acid include dark, leafy green vegetables, liver and of Applied Sciences other organ meats, poultry, oranges and grapefruits, nuts, sprouts, and whole wheat breads. Food effects on emotions. Studies have found that diets low in carbohydrates increased feelings of anger, depression, and tension and diets high in protein and low in carbohydrates increased anger (6). Diets high in carbohydrates have a generally uplifting effect on mood. Mood effects on food choice. As much as food can affect our mood, our mood can also affect our food choices. In a study by Macht (1999), female and male participants were asked to report how their eating patterns changed with emotions of anger, fear, sadness, and joy. When experiencing anger and joy, participants experienced increased hunger as compared to write articles Stevenson feelings of fear and sadness. Anger increased comfort and impulsive eating, and joy increased eating for pleasure (6).

Another study found that people eat more less-healthy comfort foods when they are sad (11). Prompts For Essays School? Participants either watched a happy or a sad movie and were provided with buttered popcorn or seedless grapes throughout the movie. The group watching the upbeat movie consumed significantly more grapes and less popcorn than the group watching the sad movie. In addition, when participants were provided with nutritional information, the sad people consumed less popcorn than the happy people and Stevenson the happy people did not alter their consumption (11). Psychological effects of food consumption. Cognitive factors are often more powerful than physiological factors (6). For example, if a group of dieting individuals is asked to eat foods high in calories, they might experience anxiety and other negative emotions because they are afraid of gaining weight. These effects have nothing to do with the paper ingredients of the foods themselves. In addition, learned appetites can also influence our experience of foods. For example, our favorite foods usually trigger positive emotions. Even the smell of food can evoke a strong emotional experience.

Furthermore, the situation in which food is consumed and our past experience with particular foods also affects our emotional response (6, 7). For example, a person who thinks that drinking a cup of write articles Academy coffee will increase alertness might feel more alert even after drinking decaffeinated coffee. How to maximize the benefits of food on mood. The perfect diet to enhance mood and writing paper School optimize performance and health remains unknown. Although abundant research exists on food-mood relationships, the findings of these studies are often generalized and subjective. For example, the ability of carbohydrates to positively influence mood remains controversial. Therefore, it seems best to follow a well-balanced diet rich in protein, moderate in carbohydrates and write Stevenson low in fat since this could generally improve mood and writing prompts for essays Millfield School energy levels. How To Write Stevenson? This should also ensure the writing adequate supply of micronutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids, iron, folic acid and thiamine. Furthermore, to write articles Stevenson Academy avoid the sense of School guilt evoked from how to write articles Stevenson Academy, overindulging in craved foods such as chocolate, the best way is to journal and article The University manage their intake such as including them in small amounts with meals and avoiding them when hungry. In addition, reading the labels before consuming these comfort foods can also deter from overconsumption. 1. Prasad, C. (1998).

Food, mood and health: a neurobiological outlook. Write Articles Academy? Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 31(12): 1517-1527. 2. Rogers P.J. Lloyd H.M. (1994). Nutrition and mental performance. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 53: 443-456. 3. Spring, B et al. (1983). “Effects of protein and carbohydrate meals on mood and performance: interactions with sex and age”. Journal of psychiatric research (0022-3956) , 17 (2): 155. 4. Michaud C., Musse N., Nicolas DI Mejan L. (1991). Effects of breakfast size on writing Sciences, short-term memory concentration and blood glucose. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12: 53-57.

5. Benon D. Donohoe, RT. 1999. The effects of nutrients on mood. Public Heath Nutrition, 2(3A): 403-9. 6. Ottley, C. 2000. Food and how to write articles Academy mood. Nursing Standard, 15(2): 46-52. 7. Rogers, P. 1995. Food, mood and appetite. Paper? Nutrition Research Reviews, 8: 243-269.

8. Macht, M. Dettmer, D. Write Articles? 2006. Everyday mood and emotions after eating a chocolate bar or an apple. Appetite . Writing Sciences? 46(3): 332-336. 9. University of articles Stevenson Pittsburgh Medical Center (2006, March 4). Omega 3 Fatty Acids Influence Mood, Impulsivity And Personality, Study Indicates. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 28, 2010, from writing University, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060303205050.htm.

10. How To Write Stevenson Academy? Pawels, E. K. Defining Of Hotel Management? Volterrani, D. (2008). “Fatty acid facts, Part I. Essential fatty acids as treatment for depression, or food for mood?”. Drug news perspectives (0214-0934), 21 (8): 446. 11. Lang, Susan. (2007). Stevenson? “Mood-food connection: We eat more and essay less-healthy comfort foods when we feel down, study finds”. Cornell Chronicle . Sewage Can Soon Be Converted into how to Stevenson Academy Bio-based Fuel. Cassiopea jellyfish prove that sleep requires no brain. A Genetic Explanation for the Process of Aging. Ancient DNA Explains Human Origins and persuasive paper Prehistory.

Why Poison Frogs Don’t Poison Themselves. Researchers Develop Artificial Skin That Senses Touch. Risk and write Stevenson Resilience in Children Coping with Parental Divorce 1,408,000 views 2015 ISEC Results 1,332,564 views Computer Forensics in essay Saxion University, Criminal Investigations 1,211,089 views Turning Waste Into Food: Cellulose Digestion 1,137,337 views Why Do Our Fingers Get Wrinkled? 1,073,033 views The Science Behind Social Networking 922,505 views Esophageal Cancer and the ‘Asian Glow’ 816,579 views Breaking the how to articles Stevenson Mold: Moving Toward More Functional Prostheses 812,864 views DUJS Style Guide 750,026 views Biodegradable Plastic: Its Promises and Consequences 742,836 views. Copyright 2017 DUJS Online.

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10 Essential Tips for Your Amazing Social Work Resume. by how to articles Academy Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP. Is your resume ready to send out to employers? You have Googled example resume templates, perfected your formatting, and essay writing Saxion University, added appropriate action words. Everything is in how to Academy, the correct tense, in defining Les Roches International of Hotel Management, reverse chronological order, and how to articles Stevenson, kept to writing Roedean School, two pages or less. Write Articles Stevenson Academy! What else should you think about for an amazing social work resume? Whether you are a clinical or macro social worker, student, new professional, or have been in the field for defining of Hotel Management 30 years, these essential tips will keep your resume ready to send out to your future employer. 1. Objective or Professional Summary? Let’s start at the beginning.

I am not a fan of the how to write Stevenson, objective, and neither are many hiring managers. Prompts Millfield! If they are reading your resume, they already know you are seeking a position with them. Generally, an objective is used by someone who has recently graduated or has very little experience. If you have plenty of social work experience, you should consider using a professional summary. This is how to write Stevenson, one to three sentences at the beginning of your resume that help describe the value you bring as a social worker through your skills and experience.

This helps your reader know right away if you will be a good fit for the hiring organization. It is much easier for a hiring manager to find that value in a short paragraph than trying to piece it together from a lengthy history of professional experience and education. DON’T: Objective: Seeking a social work position within a facility where I can utilize my experience to the benefit of my employer as well as gain knowledge and professional growth. DO: Licensed Clinical Social Worker with 6+ years experience in medical and mental health settings, working with diverse populations in writing, private practice, health care, outpatient, and how to, inpatient treatment settings. Recently relocated to Georgia. 2. Don’t assume your reader already knows what you do. This is one of the biggest mistakes I see when reviewing resumes. Saxion! Write your resume as if the person reading it has no idea what you do. Articles! Really? Yes! This will help you to be descriptive about your experience.

For some reason, some social workers are not very good at tooting their own horns. Your resume is exactly the place you need to essay of Applied Sciences, brag about what an amazing professional you are. Stevenson! Don’t assume that because your title was “Outpatient Therapist,” the reader of your resume will know exactly what you did. Be descriptive. Give a little information about the organization or program, the essay Saxion University of Applied, clients, and the type of therapy or work you performed. How To Write Articles! This can easily be done in three to hamburger Saxion of Applied, five bullets if you craft thoughtful, complete sentences. DON’T: Provide psychotherapy to clients. DO: Provide group and articles Stevenson, individual outpatient therapy to article Trafalgar School, adult clients at how to articles Stevenson a substance abuse treatment center utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), psychoeducation, and motivational interviewing. If you worked in for kids, a position for five years but don’t list one relevant accomplishment, that is a red flag for a hiring manager. How To Stevenson! Describing accomplishments is more than simply listing your job duties. These are the contributions you have made in your career that would encourage an organization to hire you.

Questions you can ask yourself to help remember your accomplishments include: How did you help your clients? Did you create a new form or program based on the needs of the client population? Did your therapy skills reduce the relapse rate in your agency? Did you save your organization money by coming up with a cost-saving idea? Were you selected for special projects, committees, or task forces? Even if the only social work experience you have on your resume is your field placement, you should be able to list an accomplishment that will entice the reader to want to know more.

DON’T: Completed appropriate and timely documentation according to compliance guidelines. DO: Recognized need for updated agency forms. Developed 10 clinical and administrative forms, including no-harm contract, behavior contract, and therapist’s behavior inventory, which increased staff efficiency and productivity by 15%. 4.Quantify your accomplishments. Numbers aren’t just for business professionals. Numbers also help with the bragging I mentioned that needs to happen on your resume. The most convincing accomplishments are measurable and defining problem Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, help your resume stand out how to articles Stevenson Academy from the crowd.

How many clients did you serve? How much money did you receive for journal and article difference that grant you secured for your agency? How many people do you supervise? DON’T: Wrote grants for counseling program in schools. DO: Co-wrote School Group Experiences proposal, which received a $150,000 grant from State Foundation for write Stevenson Health, resulting in article writing for kids Trafalgar School, doubling the number of children served in group counseling from 120 children to write, 240 children, and increasing the International Management, percentage of write articles minority children served from 20% to 50% of the total child population in Trafalgar, group therapy. 5. Write Articles Stevenson Academy! Tailor your resume to the specific job.

You have heard this over and over, and it should make sense. Still, not many social workers do this correctly or at all. Many big organizations, hospitals, and university systems use online applicant tracking systems to review resumes. When one job has 100 applicants, this is when using keywords REALLY counts. Look at the job description for keywords. For example, what words do they use to describe the clients? Patients, clients, residents, victims, survivors, adults, children? If you have worked with the speech essay St. Louis (INTO), same client populations, used the same therapy techniques, or provided the how to write articles Stevenson Academy, supervision listed in defining Les Roches School of Hotel Management, the job description, make sure these SAME words are in your resume. Write Articles Stevenson! Hiring managers can tell when you haven’t put any time into persuasive paper Roedean School matching your experience with their open position.

DON’T: Provide in-home therapy for families. DO: (Similar language from job description) Perform individual and family, agency, and home-based therapy for medically fragile children and their families (parents and siblings) with goal of maintaining intact families and improving family functioning. Social workers LOVE to use acronyms. Many social workers spend hours writing case notes, and to be efficient, they rely on acronyms to describe their work. For the same reasons you should use keywords, it is essential that you spell things out for the computer or human resources person who may not know what certain acronyms mean. I am a social worker with limited clinical knowledge, and I often have to Google acronyms when I review NASW members’ resumes. How To Academy! The reader responsible for journal The University finding the right candidates to interview will consider this a waste of how to write articles Academy his or her time and might move on to the rest of the Les Roches International School of Hotel, resumes in the pile if he or she has no idea what you are talking about. DON’T: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments to include SIB-R, CBCL, CTRF, or SCQ in write Stevenson Academy, packets for families scheduled for autism evaluations. DO: Scored and and article difference of Glasgow, analyzed clinical assessments for autism evaluations including Scales of Academy Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Caregiver/Teacher Report Form (CTRF), and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Most resumes I review are succinct and and article difference The University of Glasgow, formatted very nicely by how to write articles Academy bulleting experience.

But there are still some folks who use paragraphs to describe their experience. You may have 20 years of social work experience at writing for essays Millfield one agency, but that does not mean you can’t be concise. I guarantee you that hiring managers are not going to read a paragraph that is 15 lines long to look for Stevenson the experience that will fit the position they are trying to fill. Write your resume in such a way that it is easy to scan and writing for kids Castle School, find the keywords in 30 seconds or less. Use three to eight bullets to how to write articles, describe your experience and International of Hotel, accomplishments. Write Academy! 8. Do not list every continuing education training you have ever attended. Whether or not you are licensed in your state, you should seek out hamburger essay Saxion University continuing education in Stevenson, social work. Don’t forget, it is in the NASW Code of Ethics: Section 4.01 (b) Competence: “…Social workers should routinely review the professional literature and participate in continuing education relevant to writing Trafalgar Castle School, social work practice and how to articles, social work ethics.” It is great to show your reader that you are up to writing Millfield School, date on the latest clinical information on your client population, but the section on your resume for Continuing Education or Professional Development should only list the courses that are relevant to the job you are applying for. It is a great idea to keep a list of all your continuing education, for your own reference and for your license renewal. You just don’t need to list them all on your resume.

I hope you are seeing a theme here. Recently, I have come across a few resumes that have all of the following sections: #13; #13; Professional Summary #13; Education #13; Relevant Social Work Experience #13; Work Experience #13; Additional Experience #13; Summary of Skills #13; Professional Affiliations #13; Volunteer Experience #13; Publications #13; Relevant Coursework #13; Activities #13; Honors #13; Every resume is personal and different. You don’t need 10 categories on your resume. Professional Experience and Education are musts. How To Write Articles Academy! but after that, limit the places hiring managers need to search to find the information that will help them decide to interview you. Only put the information that is most relevant to Les Roches School Management, the job to which you are applying. 10. Your references should always be available upon request and not on your resume. How To Write! If the last line on your resume is “References Available Upon Request,” this one is for you. It is not necessary to tell your reader that you have references. If you get far enough in the interview process, they will ask you for your references.

Have them listed in a separate document. Only send the references that are relevant, and only send them when asked. It is imperative that you inform your references that they may be contacted, and always send them a copy of the job description and essay St. Louis University, your recent resume, so they can be prepared when contacted. Nothing is a bigger turnoff to me than getting a call to be a reference for someone I supervised five years ago and write, I can’t remember exactly what their job duties were. It is writing Trafalgar, great to get a heads-up and a reminder of what the write Academy, person did under my supervision. And don’t forget to send your references a thank-you note, even if you didn’t get the job!

DON’T: References Available Upon Request. DO: (Separate document with your contact information at the top) References: Jessica Rogers, MSW, LICSW, Director of Family Programs, Affordable Housing AuthorityChicago, ILRelationship: Former SupervisorPhone: 543-321-1234rogers@email.orgJessica was my direct supervisor and is familiar with my clinical social work skills, my ability to article writing, work with diverse communities, and how to, my aptitude for managing relationships with partner organizations. Jessica recognized my success in client outcomes and persuasive paper Roedean School, promoted me within 6 months of my hire date. Remember, your resume is your tool to get an interview. It doesn’t need to include every detail about write Academy you as a professional social worker. Use your cover letter to hamburger writing Saxion of Applied, expand on details that are specific to the job you are seeking.

During the interview, you can go into more detail about your relevant experience. Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP, is the articles, Associate Executive Director for the National Association of Social Workers, North Carolina Chapter (NASW-NC). She received her dual degree in social work and article Trafalgar Castle School, public policy from the University of Minnesota and write articles, currently provides membership support, including resume review, to the members of NASW-NC. Graduating with my MSW in social work this helps out hamburger writing Saxion of Applied a lot. How To Academy! Thank you so much for this article. I greatly appreciate it and feel it will be an immense help in my job search and speech essay, resume formulation. Emerald Reese 107 days ago. Thank you for the advice. Right now I am revamping my resume and trying to avoid paying for the service. Jennifer J. Capri 138 days ago.

Thank you so much for all the information! I will be graduating with my MSW in 3 short months and it's about time to start job searching so I am starting to update my resume and this has been so helpful! It has been much appreciated. Kelly 153 days ago. How To Articles Academy! This article was so helpful in tweaking my resume. Dana 181 days ago. Prompts For Essays School! I would have made all the listed mistakes, if I hadn't read this article. Thank you so very much for sharing this knowledge.

Amy 197 days ago. Many thanks for the information! Always nice to find job information specific to the human service/social work field! Michael 237 days ago. Featured Jobs at. Copyright 2017 White Hat Communications. All rights reserved.

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Writing Style of Robert Louis Stevenson s Treasure Island | Study com

dokumentarfotografie von mahlke – dokumentarfotografie und zeitgeist. Blicke auf die Wirklichkeit Foto: Michael Mahlke. Naturlich stehe ich bei dem Thema Dokumentarfotografie mit meinem Eimer vor einem Ozean. How To? Wenn ich daraus schopfe, dann ist darin alles vorhanden und trotzdem nur sehr wenig drin im Eimer – pars pro problem Les Roches School of Hotel Management, toto.. Aber die Beschrankung ermoglicht erst den Blick und den Durchblick. How To Articles Stevenson Academy? Doch wahr ist auch, da? nicht jedes Foto Dokumentarfotografie ist. Defining Problem Les Roches International School? Jedes Foto konnte dokumentarisch bzw. How To Write Stevenson? dokumentierend im weiten Sinne sein als Beleg seiner selbst.

Aber zur Dokumentarfotografie wird ein Foto erst, wenn es einen offentlich relevanten sozialen Zusammenhang hat und offentlich gemacht wird. Writing For Kids Trafalgar Castle School? Das kann auch regional oder sozial begrenzt sein. Das kann man nun noch mehr unterscheiden und je mehr Worter daruber verloren werden, desto mehr Unterscheidungen gibt es und je mehr das akademisiert wird, desto weniger versteht man davon dann noch. Als Historiker habe ich versucht auf den Spuren derer zu gehen, die davon und damit gelebt haben. How To Articles Stevenson? Von der Fotografie als Waffe bis zum fotografischen Erhalt dessen, was physisch einfach da war reichte der Bogen, um Veranderungen zu zeigen bei offentlichen Themen und im offentlichen Raum. Im Kern ging es mir immer um sozial relevante Themen. Journal The University Of Glasgow? Armut ist ja nicht abstrakt sondern kann sehr gut vor Ort konkret auf der Stra?e gezeigt werden, wenn sie sichtbar wird im offentlichen Raum. Articles Stevenson? Geheimes Denken kann durch heimliche Darstellungen im offentlichen Rahmen gezeigt werden etc.

Und die Auseinandersetzung mit dem Sozialen durch die Fotografie verandert dich und die Wahrnehmung von dir und dem Drumherum. Dabei wird nichts einfacher aber manches eben sichtbar oder anders gesehen. Jetzt bin ich sehr froh, alle diese Menschen visuell und textuell getroffen zu haben und mich mit ihnen auseinandergesetzt zu haben. Les Roches Of Hotel Management? Das bringt mir personlich viel, aber hat mir auch gezeigt, wo die Grenzen sind. Wenn ich uber die Vergessenen schreibe und dieses Thema fotografiere, dann dokumentiere ich etwas, das vergessen ist und bleibt, so meine Erfahrung, wenn ich von meinen digitalen Orten der offentlichen Darstellung einmal absehe. Es ist kein Thema fur Geld und Auftrage.

Das will niemand kaufen und dafur gibt es auch kein Geld uber Projekte. How To Stevenson? Auch daruber habe ich geschrieben. Jedes bisher geschriebene Wort konnte ich auf einen eigenen Text verlinken. Damit ist es bei google eher sichtbar und wird sogar fur die wikipedia immer wieder gebraucht. Dokumentarfotografie ist aber mehr. Wenn ich den Bereich der Vergessenen verlasse und sie in Les Roches International Management, Richtung darstellende Fotografie andere, dann ist alles moglich – auch das Geldverdienen. Das ist aber jenseits der Reportage sozialer Not und schlechter Ereignisse.

Diese Themen durfen sowieso nur noch in how to articles Stevenson Academy, wenigen Landern fotografiert werden ohne dass man verhaftet wird. Difference The University? Und welche Relevanz haben sie denn? Insofern wird es nicht gefordert und kleingehalten. Aber das stort kaum jemand, weil die Welt ja eigentlich lieber uber die Gewinner spricht und die Vergessenen vielfach auch am liebsten dazu gehoren wurden und sich selbst mental verdrangen. Articles Academy? Sie wollen sich als Vergessene nicht zeigen sondern lieber vergessen werden statt sich zu zeigen, um Aufmerksamkeit und Veranderungen einzufordern.

Dagegen wollen sich Gewinner zeigen und gesehen werden. Das ist naturlich etwas pauschal aber stimmt meistens. Die Welt hat zumindest mir deutlich gemacht, da? die Hoffnung auf ein besseres Morgen so nicht stimmt, weil die Machtverhaltnisse sich nicht wirklich andern und dies allein auch kein hinreichendes Kriterium fur Verbesserungen ware. Und wenn man nur irgendwie die Chance hat dabei zu sein und anerkannt zu werden im Kreis einer sozialen Gruppe, dann ist dies oft der Zustand, der auf dieser Welt am ehesten erstrebenswert zu sein scheint, weil es keine echte Alternative dazu im Leben gibt. Welchen Sinn hat es recht zu haben, wenn die Menschen nicht auf dich horen oder horen konnen oder andere Interessen haben? Was macht man dann? Man kann sich zuruckziehen und einsam sein oder man schaut nicht so genau hin und akzeptiert die Welt, die man nicht andern kann.

Einzig und allein dann die eigene Grenze so in article writing, Worte zu fassen wie hier und dies dann entweder im Tagebuch oder in how to write articles Academy, einem offentlichen Blog zu zeigen bleibt als Moglichkeit, ist aber ohne Relevanz. Denn sobald du deinen Geist verla?t und dich dem sozialen Leben zuwendest, kannst du mit diesem Denken nicht bestehen, sondern mu?t die Gesetze des Miteinanders annehmen. Das ist die Wirklichkeit, die mir durch das Fotografieren immer wieder bewu?t wurde. Millfield School? Das war der Weg von mir zwischen solo und sozial. Und damit dieser erhellende Moment fur mich auch fur andere, die sich davon angesprochen fuhlen, nicht verloren geht, habe ich es hier aufgeschrieben, weil ich dies nun nicht in how to Academy, ein Foto stecken konnte. Selbst Fotos haben Grenzen, die nur durch Worte uberschritten werden konnen. Und deshalb publiziere ich dies hier auch von Angesicht zu Angesicht, von mir zu Dir! Aber diese Worte waren mir erst knapp sechs Monate nach dem Ende des Bloggens an problem Les Roches of Hotel, dieser Stelle moglich. Die Zeit spielt also mit. Deshalb erst heute – oder besser schon heute? Das alles konnte man ubrigens auch dokumentieren – mit neuen Fotos … Neue Zeit fur neue Fotografie und neue Fotos?

Die Vergessenen und die vergessene Fotografie. Foto Mahlke – AFD und Die LInke zum Thema Armut. „Marine Le Pen sei die einzige, die von uns, von „den kleinen Leuten“ sprache, erklarten sie und machten sich auf ins Wahllokal. Write? Alle anderen Kandidaten wurden uns ignorieren. Das Gefuhl der Unsichtbarkeit war das zentrale Element unseres Lebens, war allgegenwartig und eine Obsession. Essay Of Applied? Kein Tag verging, an how to write articles Academy, dem meine Mutter nicht sagte: „Fur uns, die kleinen Leute, interessiert sich niemand. Hamburger Saxion University Sciences? Schon gar nicht die gro?en Tiere.“ Wenn sie Politiker im Fernsehen sah, schimpfte sie: „Die sind doch alle gleich!

Die denken doch nur an how to Academy, sich. Meine Eltern fuhlten sich von der Linken verraten. Defining Problem Les Roches International Of Hotel Management? War die Verteidigung der Schwachen in write articles, der Gesellschaft nicht deren Sache gewesen? „Aber heute sind sie alle gleich, links wie rechts“, kommentierten sie, was sie als unnormal empfanden. Essay Saxion Of Applied Sciences? In diesem „aber“ steckte ihre ganze Enttauschung und das Gefuhl der Verlassenheit, das an how to articles Academy, ihnen nagte. Worte wie Hunger, Elend, Ungleichheit, Leiden, Schmerz, Erschopfung kamen in writing for essays Millfield School, den Erklarungen der Linken tatsachlich nicht mehr vor. Write Academy? …Kurz nach meinem zwanzigsten Geburtstag schickte ich das Manuskript meines ersten Romans an hamburger essay Saxion, einen gro?en Pariser Verlag. Write Articles Stevenson Academy? In Das Ende von Eddy beschrieb ich jene Welt meiner Kindheit, die Armut und die Ausgrenzung, die ich erlebt hatte. Writing For Kids Trafalgar Castle? Schon nach gut zwei Wochen erhielt ich Antwort: Sie konnten den Roman nicht veroffentlichen, teilte man mir mit. How To? Das Elend, von dem ich berichtete, hatten wir vor hundert Jahren hinter uns gelassen, die Leser wurden nicht glauben, was ich erzahlte. Speech St. Louis? Ein solches Buch kaufe keiner, hie? es.“ Dieses Erlebnis habe ich bis heute.

Die Welt aus der ich komme und die ich immer noch erlebe, kommt um mich herum uberhaupt nicht vor in how to Academy, der offentlichen Diskussion. Und die wachsende Anzahl der Vergessenen trifft nun die Schutzsuchenden, die hier sofort leben konnen wie Einheimische ohne jemals etwas geleistet zu haben oder leisten zu mussen und mancher fragt sich, welchen Wert noch Staat, Flei? und Grundgesetz haben. Denn wer fur seine Familie als schutzsuchende Asylanten sofort rechnerisch monatlich uber 4000 Euro netto erhalt (selbst wenn nicht alles bar ausgezahlt wird), welchen Ansporn sollte der haben, hier arbeitend mitzumachen? Echte Sanktionen gibt es nicht, Ausweisung gibt es nicht, Bedingungen fur das Bleiben gibt es nicht – aber viel Geld und lebenslange Leistungen, die Inlandern bei Arbeitslosigkeit erst nach der Anwendung der Verarmungsregel von Hartz 4 zustehen. Migrationsforscher warnen fast verzweifelnd vor den Folgen und fragen sich, wo man hier ist. Prompts? Akzeptanz bedeutet namlich, da? die aufnehmende Bevolkerung dies annimmt und nicht ablehnt. Write Academy? Dazu wurde aber gehoren Migranten und Asylanten rechtlich anders zu stellen so da? z.B. Journal Difference Of Glasgow? Migranten und Asylanten mehr Steuern zahlen mussen und weniger Sozialleistungen erhalten als die, die hier geboren sind und hier gearbeitet haben (wie das in how to articles Stevenson Academy, klassischen Einwanderungslandern auch ist und dort auch fur Asylberechtigte gilt und ubrigens das Erlernen der Sprache zwingende Voraussetzung fur das Bleiberecht ist und es dafur nix gibt statt nur Abzuge). Das geht ohne Probleme, denn es sind zwei paar Schuhe. Difference The University Of Glasgow? Man mu? sich verdienen dabei sein zu durfen und nicht erst einmal alles ohne Arbeit erhalten auf Kosten der Einheimischen, denen man seit Jahren immer mehr wegnimmt. How To Stevenson Academy? Das bedeutet Akzeptanz.

Einfach zu regeln ware dies mit einer Basissicherung fur Asylsuchende, die nach erfolgreicher Integration langer gewahrt wird und in article writing for kids Trafalgar School, den Arbeitsmarkt fuhren mu? und einer echten hoheren Grundsicherung (die mehr als das Existenzminimum abdeckt) fur arbeitslose Inlander, also Menschen, die hier gearbeitet haben, die je nach Anzahl der sozialversichert gearbeiteten Jahre aufgestockt wird und Erspartes nicht anrechnet und bei der Rente mitzahlt. How To Academy? So einfach geht das Grundgesetz und so einfach baut man Hass ab. Aber es ist wohl politisch anders gewollt: Hartz4 stabilisiert die wachsende Ungerechtigkeit und die vorhandenen Machtverhaltnisse, weil das Volk mehr kontrolliert wird als in defining Les Roches International School, der DDR und naturlich bei den Nazis. Man verga? wohl bewu?t die, die diese Gesellschaft tragen oder vor der Arbeitslosigkeit getragen haben. Stattdessen wird uber die berichtet, die sich tragen lassen und es wird mit viel Geld alles getan, um ja keine Debatte uber die zu fuhren, die dies alles tragen und ertragen. Insofern handelt es sich um bewu?t „vergessene“ Fotografie, die nicht zeigt, was bei vielen Millionen von Staatsburgern hier real an write, sozialer Armut durch materielle Armut vorherrscht. Die in Millfield School, Deutschland aus sicheren EU-Landern angekommenen Asylanten wurden und werden hier aber gerne fotografiert und exponiert ausgestellt, die vergessenen Inlander werden so gut wie nie fotografiert.

Die betteln dafur u.a. in articles Academy, der Elberfelder City. Und sie werden z.T. Persuasive Roedean? sogar beschimpft, wenn sie nun die wahlen, die sie als Einzige ansprechen und ihnen Hoffnung geben. Was fur eine Zeit! Projekt beendet oder warum es Sinn macht, etwas Neues anzufangen. Dieser Blog mit Namen Streetlens.de bzw. Write Articles Academy? dokumentarfotografie.info ist wie Frontlens.de und Artlens.de ein Teil von Fotomonat.de. Fotomonat ist als Projekt in writing Roedean, der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek gespeichert, weil ich knapp zehn Jahre. die mediale und universitare und reale Debatte und Umsetzung. des Themas Dokumentarfotografie. aktuell bearbeitet habe und zugleich dies alles in how to articles, die historischen Entwicklungen eingebettet habe, die ich wiederum oft erstmals aus dem englischen Sprachraum in prompts Millfield School, die deutsche Welt holte.

Hinzu kamen daraus abgeleitet oder als Teil davon eigene Projekte als Historiker, Sozialwissenschaftler, Publizist und Fotograf. Aber die digitale Welt ist anders. Der ursprungliche Sinn des Internets war u.a. Articles Academy? die Verlinkung auf Texte an difference, anderen Stellen, um gemeinsam Wissen zu erweitern. Articles Stevenson? Und so habe ich viel verlinkt und merkte eines Tages, da? die Verlinkungen verschwunden sind. Persuasive Writing Roedean? Daraufhin zitierte ich wesentlich mehr aus den verlinkten Texten, damit wenigstens etwas erhalten bleibt. Das war gut so, weil meine Blogs hier insgesamt ein unerreichtes Wissen um die Dokumentarfotografie in how to write Stevenson Academy, deutscher Sprache in and article difference, diesem zeitlichen und aktuellen Zusammenhang zeigen und ich glaube, es gibt so gut wie nichts Vergleichbares fur diesen Rahmen.

Aber wie das so ist. Immer mehr Verlinkungen verschwinden oder werden sogar umgelenkt auf kommerzielle andere Inhalte. How To Articles Stevenson Academy? Das geschieht dann wohl bewu?t und ist link. Das kann ich gar nicht nacharbeiten und wurde auch die authentische Struktur meiner Artikel und der damaligen Wissensbasis zerstoren. Speech Writing Essay University? Es gibt ja kein neues und besseres Wissen zu vielen meiner Themen sondern nur neue Themen. Daher halte ich es fur sinnvoll, wenn ich diese Blogs in articles Academy, dieser Form beende und als Dokumentation von Themen und der Jahre von 2007 bis 2017 zum Thema Dokumentarfotografie nutze. Denn es beginnt real und digital eine neue Zeit.

Industrielle Zone von Dolf Toussaint. Der Anfang ist das Ende. Als Dolf Toussaint 1983 die sterbenden Industriegebiete in article for kids Castle, Nordfrankreich, Sudost Belgien und im Ruhrgebiet fotografierte, zeigte er die damalige Alltagskultur ungeschminkt und im Zusammenhang. Write Stevenson? Er hatte offenbar Weitblick und sah, was geschehen wurde. Hamburger Essay University Of Applied? Ein guter Essay von Martin Schouten rundet das Buch ab. Ob es Zufall ist, da? genau in how to write Stevenson, diesen Regionen heute vielfach massive soziale Verwerfungen und Probleme dominieren und dort viele ohne Hoffnung ausharren und beginnen sich zu emporen? Im Buch wird zwischen den drei Industriegebieten nicht getrennt und deshalb wei? man auch nie, wo man ist.

Dies zeigt wie die Funktionalitat der Industriegesellschaft landerubergreifend normiert – Menschen, Hauser, Fabriken, Strassen etc.. Nur dann werden Unterschiede deutlich, wenn der Fotograf es bewu?t zeigen wollte, indem er Zeitungen, Plakate oder Aushange mit in essay Saxion of Applied Sciences, das jeweilige Foto integrierte. Ein vergessenes Buch dokumentiert eine fast vergessene Zeit, die so lange noch nicht vorbei ist. Bemerkenswerterweise habe ich auch fast zehn Jahre gebraucht, um auf dieses Buch zu sto?en, und dies auch nur, weil ich mich mit niederlandischer Fotografie beschaftigt habe. Es ist eben so, da? sozialdokumentarische Fotografie mit Weitblick und konkretem Blick keinen Blick wert zu sein scheint – au?er bei mir hier und an articles Stevenson Academy, wenigen anderen Stellen. Ich habe mich in defining problem International School of Hotel Management, den letzten zehn Jahren in articles, diesem Zusammenhang mit allen Fragen beschaftigt, die mir fotografisch wichtig waren. Ich wollte wissen, welche Menschen fruher engagiert fotografiert haben, weil sie damit auch gegen das Asoziale angehen wollten. Essay St. Louis University (INTO)? Ich wollte wissen, was passiert ist mit den vielen engagierten Menschen und ihren Fotobuchern. How To Write? Ich wollte „richtig“ fotografieren lernen und erlernte dies mit der klassischen visuellen Grammatik und fotografischen Vorbildern.

Aber: Die Ara, die ich meine, ist vorbei. In gewisser Weise habe ich hier noch einmal das aufgearbeitet, was sozial und fotografisch vor meiner Zeit und wahrend meiner Zeit in writing Saxion University Sciences, der Dokumentarfotografie an how to write Stevenson, Entwicklungen ablief, ohne da? ich es bewu?t wahrgenommen habe. Writing St. Louis University (INTO)? Erst mit dem neuen Sehen war ich in how to Stevenson Academy, der Lage, dies alles zu erfassen und systematisch darzustellen. Of Applied Sciences? Die Webseite hatte dann durch die Wechselwirkung zwischen Fotografie in how to write articles Stevenson Academy, Theorie und Praxis eine Dynamik, die sich im Tun entwickelte. Difference The University? Einzigartig!

So ist diese Webseite mehr und wird wohl auch Grundlage fur ein neues Buch sein konnen. Ich habe in how to write Stevenson Academy, diesem Prozess die fotografische Philosophie von Henri Cartier-Bresson und anderen in journal The University of Glasgow, die digitale Zeit geholt und mit dem Handbuch zur Fineart-Streetfotografie eine gute Anleitung fur klassisch-gute Fotografie fur uns heute nutzbar gemacht. Und immer sind es eigene Fotos, die zu sehen sind. Weil ich selbst ein Kind der Industriezeit bin, ist es auch richtig, wenn der Schwerpunkt auf dem lag, was ich selbst erlebt habe und was meine Interessen pragte. Gerade die Eingrenzung ermoglichte die intensive Beschaftigung mit dem Themenfeld der Dokumentarfotografie und zeigt hier Zusammenhange, die sonst nirgendwo zu finden sind. Da ich kein Netzwerker war, habe ich dafur weder Forderung noch Hilfe bekommen und bin auch nicht in write articles Stevenson Academy, die DGPH aufgenommen worden wegen besonderer Verdienste um die Fotografie. Writing For Kids Castle? Dafur hat diese isolierte Arbeitsweise eine unglaublich vertiefte Auseinandersetzung mit der Dokumentarfotografie ermoglicht bis zur Schilderung von Zusammenhangen, die die eingetrichterten Bilder aus dem Kopf holen und die Mechanismen der Manipulaton durch Bilder offenlegen. How To Write Articles Academy? So kann man aus der Matrix aussteigen und mit befreitem Blick sehen – fotografisch und personlich! Ich bin diesen Weg gegangen und habe mich solange mit der Dokumentarfotografie auseinandergesetzt, bis ich kaum noch Neues fand.

Das ist der Punkt an defining problem School of Hotel Management, dem eine Veranderung angesagt ist. Mein Rahmen steht. Ausgestattet mit selbst erarbeiteten theoretischen und praktischen Instrumenten sehe ich anders und denke in write Academy, Zusammenhangen, die ich fruher nicht gesehen habe. Ich habe fotografisch und sozial neu sehen gelernt und mein Horizont hat sich erweitert. Daher ist dies fur mich der Anla?, mich bei der Vorstellung des Buches von Dolf Toussaint von hier zu verabschieden. Denn eigentlich fing mit der Zeit, die er so klar und europaisch sah, alles an, was mein weiteres Leben hier pragte. Es war mein Leben in School, einer Welt voller Industrie von der Blute bis zum Zerfall – und dies alles in how to write articles, nur 30 Jahren von ca. Article Writing Trafalgar Castle School? 1980 bis 2010! Das ist historisch interessant und sozial sehr ernuchternd.

Aber so war es und so ist es. (Unter dem Gesichtspunkt der abgerissenen Industriekultur mochte ich an write, dieser Stelle auf den Duisburger Christian Brunig aufmerksam machen, der offenkundig mit viel Engagement weit uber das Ruhrgebiet hinaus gut mit Fotos dokumentiert hat. Paper School? So erhalt man eine Vorstellung von den Strukturen, die verschwunden sind. How To Write? Zusatzlich ist die Linksammlung auf lipinski.de gut nutzbar sowie die Verlinkungen im Pixelprojekt-Ruhrgebiet, das allerdings regional sehr eingeschrankt ist.) Die sozialen Folgen davon sind fotografisch ein anderes Thema. Damit sind auch die Moglichkeiten der dokumentarischen Fotografie aufgezeigt: sie kann dokumentieren und den Dingen und sozialen Situationen eine Chance geben, nicht vergessen und wieder gesehen zu werden. Das ist wie Geschichtsschreibung im besten Sinne. Und ich kann sagen, ich bin dabei gewesen und wurde zu einem Spezialisten fur dokumentarische Fotografie und visuelle Geschichtsschreibung. Damit nicht genug konnte ich visuell und mit Texten die Zeit dokumentieren, in University of Applied, der ich dabei war.

So war es mir moglich, offentlich und privat Gesehenes und Geschehenes real und mental aufzuarbeiten. Wer wei? wozu es gut ist! Das Ende der fotografischen Existenz der unteren Schichten? Foto: Michael Mahlke – Armut in write Stevenson Academy, Deutschland, Rentner, Flaschen, Mulltonnen. „Immense Einwanderungswellen haben in hamburger essay Saxion University, der zweiten Halfte des 19. Stevenson Academy? Jahrhunderts die amerikanischen Gro?stadte rapide wachsen lassen und unterschiedliche Nationalitaten auf engstem Raum versammelt. Hamburger Essay Of Applied Sciences? Zwangslaufig wenden sich Reformbewegungen wie auch Kunstler und Journalisten den uberfullten Stadtvierteln und der Einwanderungsproblematik zu.

Lewis Hine macht sein ersten Aufnahmen um 1905 von Immigranten auf Ellis Island und registriert die Vielfalt ihrer Kleidung, die Heterogenitat ihrer Erscheinungsformen. Articles Stevenson? Jack London taucht fur seinen Bericht The People of the writing Trafalgar Abyss aus dem Jahr 1903 in how to write articles Academy, die entsprechenden Viertel von London ein. Defining Of Hotel Management? Wie Riis richtet er seine Darstellung an Stevenson Academy, einer Fulle von faktischen Informationen aus und gerat angesichts der uberwaltigenden Authentizitat der Lebenswelten ins Staunen. Persuasive Paper Roedean School? …“ Soweit diese kurzen Satze von Christof Decker zum Thema Fotografie. How To Write Stevenson Academy? Da kommt Jack London vor, der sonst immer fehlt, wenn es um sozialdokumentarische Fotografie und ihre Anfange geht. Jacob A. Defining International School? Riis in write articles, New York und Hermann Drawe in essay University Sciences, Wien werden genannt, Jack London nicht. Danach kam Lewis Hine mit dem Kampf gegen die Kinderarbeit, dann die Fotografie der Farm Security Administration, parallel zur Fotografie der Arbeiterfotografie in write Academy, Deutschland und der Fotografie der Sowjetunion. Nun fasse ich mal hundert Jahre in Millfield School, wenigen Satzen zusammen: „Wenn es stimmt, dass eine soziale Klasse sich ebenso durch ihre Wahrnehmung als auch durch ihr Wahrgenommensein definiert (Bordieu), dann beginnt fur die unteren Klassen in how to write Stevenson Academy, den USA und Europa ihre fotografische Existenz um die Wende zum 20.

Jahrhundert.“ Nach 1945 war alles anders. Das waren ca. Journal And Article The University Of Glasgow? hundert Jahre vom „Wir“ bis nach dem „Wir“. Dabei war das „Wir“ entscheidend, um Zusammengehorigkeit und Werte zu leben. Fotografisch sind heute auch die Bilder der arbeitenden Menschen in how to articles Academy, dieser Form verschwunden, weil die Arbeit, die durch Flei? zu bescheidenem Wohlstand und einem besseren Leben fuhrte, als Teil des offentlichen Staatsverstandnisses verschwand und einer Ideologie des Neoliberalismus gewichen ist, die verantwortungslos privatisiert und gute soziale Strukuren fur die kleinen Leute demoliert. Journal And Article Difference The University? Geld fuhrt eben auch nicht mehr zum Wohlstand fur alle und sparen fuhrt seit Hartz4 zur Enteignung. Fotografisch aufgearbeitet wurde dies im Arbeitsfeld der damaligen Schlusselindustrien Stahlindustrie und Metallverarbeitung, die die USA und Europa dominierten (ahnliche Fotos aus der DDR und UdSSR sind sicher vorhanden aber mir so nicht bekannt. Write Stevenson Academy? Dort vollzogen sich ahnliche Prozesse). Und heute – nach 2016?

Und in writing for kids Castle School, den USA bewegt sich dadurch politisch nun das Land: „Im sogenannten Rostgurtel, der altesten, gro?ten Industrieregion Amerikas, die sich entlang der Gro?en Seen von Wisconsin uber Michigan, Illinois, Indiana und Ohio nach Pennsylvania erstreckt, hat die Mehrheit (au?er in write Academy, Illinois) den Republikaner Trump gewahlt. Speech Writing St. Louis? 2012 hat Barack Obama (genau wie 1992 und 1996 Bill Clinton) funf dieser sechs Staaten fur die Demokraten erobert, 2008 sogar alle sechs.“ Wenn man so wie ich hier nun diese Informationen zusammengetragen hat, dann sieht man, wie viel oder wenig visuell dokumentiert wurde, um soziale Ablaufe festzuhalten und auf Probleme hinzuweisen. Fruher war es mehr und spielte auch in how to write articles Stevenson, der offentlichen Debatte eine starkere Rolle. Wo ist das heute bei dem, was uns in prompts, Deutschland sozial bewegt? Oder ist die Frage falsch? Bewegt uns noch sozial etwas in Stevenson Academy, Deutschland?

Uberdeckt die Fluchtlingsschwemme alles, um das, was wichtig ist fur eine soziale Demokratie, unter den Teppich zu kehren? Mehr als 8 Millionen Menschen dauerhaft in writing Millfield School, Hartz 4 und viele knapp daruber in how to write articles Stevenson, einem der reichsten Lander der Welt. Ist das der politischen Klasse egal, weil Hartz4 Dauerkontrolle von noch mehr Millionen ermoglicht? So stabilisiert Hartz4 die wachsende Ungerechtigkeit, weil das Volk mehr kontrolliert wird als in journal difference The University, der DDR. Zu wenig gute Arbeit aber dafur unglaublicher Reichtum. Wo sind die Fotos dazu? Es waren heute Fotos von Armut in how to, einem reichen Land jenseits der alten Industriestrukturen. Writing Essay St. Louis? Es waren Dokumente des lebenden Schmerzes von Staatsburgern. So wenig Fotos und so viel soziales Leid! So sind wir aktuell am Ende der fotografischen Existenz der unteren Schichten angelangt.

Was nicht in write articles Stevenson, den Medien ist, ist nicht politisch relevant. Prompts Millfield? Was nicht sichtbar ist, kann nicht gesehen werden. Dies bedeutet, es gabe viel zu fotografieren mit neuem Denken auf alte und neue Art und Weise. Ich bin gespannt wer, wann, wo und wie dies geschehen wird. Die sozialen Gebrauchsweisen der Fotografie – Beobachtungen in how to write articles, der Nachfolge von Pierre Bordieu.

Die sozialen Gebrauchsweisen der Fotografie, also die Frage, wer was warum vor und hinter der Kamera macht, interessiert wenige und wenn, dann eher im Verkauf. University? Dabei ist es so interessant. Das Verlassen der Matrix: Dokumentarfotografie – Werkstatt der visuellen Wahrheit? Wie Wahrheit und Wirklichkeit entstehen. Ich bin aus der Not zum Fotografieren gekommen.

Ich wollte Entwicklungen und Momente festhalten aber mit Worten allein ging es nicht. Arbeit – Industrie, Handwerk, Jobs und Entfremdung – Blicke auf die Dokumentarfotografie. Es gibt im Verhaltnis zu anderen Themen in write articles Academy, der Fotografie erstaunlich wenig Bucher und noch weniger kritische Bucher, die sich mit dem Thema Arbeit beschaftigen. Wir beginnen am besten heute. American Realities von Joakim Eskildsen und Natasha Del Toro. Der Direktor des Time Magazine beauftragte Joakim Eskildsen, die wachsende Krise in hamburger Saxion of Applied, den USA zu fotografieren. Write Articles? An insgesamt 36 Tagen in persuasive writing paper, sieben Monaten fotografierte Eskildsen dort, wo nach den Statistiken die Armut am hochsten in how to write articles Stevenson Academy, den USA ist. So entstanden Fotos, die die Armut fokussiert darstellen sollen oder wie Barbara Kiviat im Nachwort schreibt „These Vignettes reflect a broader reality.“ Dokumentarfotografie – Soziale Kampfe im Ruhrgebiet und im Bergischen Land zwischen 1987 und 2010. Es hat knapp drei?ig Jahre gedauert bis die Fotos von Michael Kerstgens uber den Stahlarbeiterstreik in and article The University of Glasgow, Duisburg-Rheinhausen 1987 als Buch erschienen sind.

Dieses Buch wurde u.a. Write Academy? durch die Hans-Bockler-Stiftung gefordert. School? Es ist ein gutes Buch geworden und es erinnert mich an articles Stevenson Academy, meine eigenen Erlebnisse. Michael Kerstgens zeigt Fotos von 1987 bis 1993 als im Walzwerk in writing paper, Hagen die letzte Schicht war und symbolisch das Ende des gesamten sozialen Konstruktes. Und im Bergischen Land ging es dann weiter. Foto: Michael Mahlke. Was ist Homeland-Fotografie? – Ein Versuch. Um das im deutschen Wesen besser einordnen zu konnen, fange ich mit einigen Eingrenzungen an.

Heute ist das deutsche Wort oft ein englisches Wort. How To Write Articles? Manchmal sogar zu recht. Ein Beispiel: Uber Harry Gruyaert und sein Buch 2015 schreibt Francois Hebel: „In 1972, while living in for essays Millfield School, London, Gruyaert created the write articles Academy striking seriesTV Shots by speech writing University (INTO), turning the how to dial on essay Saxion University, a television set at articles Stevenson random and prompts Millfield photographing the Stevenson distorted images he saw there. Journal And Article Difference The University Of Glasgow? A later series, Made in how to articles Stevenson, Belgium, portrays his ambivalent relationship with his homeland in writing for essays, a palette of how to write articles Academy saturated tones.“ Auf Deutsch fotografiert Herr Gruyaert sein zwiespaltiges Verhaltnis zu seinem Heimatland (homeland) mit gesattigten Farben. Wenn ich uber Heimat und Heimatland spreche, dann ist dies im deutschen Wesen total besetzt. Writing Prompts Millfield School? Gibt es eine Trennung zwischen Heimat und Heimatland? Land ist eine regionale Begrenzung, wahrend Heimat mehr ist oder sogar ohne Land sein kann?! Das habe ich noch nicht zu Ende gedacht. Wenn ich uber homeland spreche, dann ist dies nicht unbedingt nur das Heimatland sondern kann auch die „Ortlichkeit“ sein, in write articles Academy, der ich mich zu hause fuhle oder zu hause bin. Millfield? Da ist fur mich die Trennung von meinem Geburtsland drin.

Man mu? es eben exakt sagen. Hinzu kommt, da? Heimatland in write Stevenson, Deutschland immer politisch verknupft wird, wahrend mein Homeland, so wie bei den Amerikanern, alle paar Jahre woanders sein kann. Und so kann Homeland-Fotografie eine Fotografie sein, die das Umfeld entdeckt, in hamburger Sciences, dem ich bin und das ich so zeigen will, wie ich es sehe. Homeland ist ein subjektives Wort, weil ich bestimme, welchen Raum und welche Region ich zu meinem entdeckenden Homeland erklare. Und ich trenne mich hier auch bewu?t von der Ubersetzung, weil fur mich Homeland-Fotografie eben nicht deckungsgleich mit Heimat-Fotografie ist.

Es hat eben primar nichts mit Staatsgrenzen zu tun sondern mit sozialen Strukturen oder Themen. Damit ware die regionale Eingrenzung weg. How To Write Stevenson? Kann ich meine Heimat mitnehmen in writing University of Applied, ein anderes Land ware die umgekehrte Frage? Naturlich kann man alle Worter auch anders definieren. Da die deutsche Wortinhaltsebene aber im englischen Sprachraum nicht gelten mu?, sondern umgekehrt die englische Wortinhaltsebene auch im deutschen Sprachraum gelten kann, ist meine Argumentation eher logisch als unlogisch. Articles Stevenson Academy? Wenn Parallelwelten mit Inhalten vorhanden sind, mu? man sich entscheiden, mit welcher inhaltlichen Bedeutung das Wort genutzt wird. Mit der digitalen Kamera und Software als Werkzeug kann ich gestalten.

der Rahmen, die inhaltliche Gestaltung mit Vordergrund und Hintergrund das Malen mit Bokeh und Freistellung einerseits und digitalen Filtern andererseits. Wie sieht dies konkret aus? Seine Reise zu mythischen Orten bezieht sich auf Deutschland als Heimatland. Article Writing For Kids Trafalgar School? Er fotografiert in Stevenson, Regionen, die im deutschen Sagenschatz zu finden sind. Writing Millfield? Um das Marchenhafte zum Ausdruck zu bringen, werden digitale Filter eingesetzt und so gelingen sehr starke beeindruckende Aufnahmen, die das ausdrucken sollen, was in Academy, den Erzahlungen zu finden ist. Das ist der Vorteil digitaler Technologie. Aber die Auseinandersetzung mit dem homeland kann auch anders sein. Neben marchenhafter Anmutung konnen auch die kalten Folgen menschlichen Handelns zu sehen sein, die aus Konsum kleine Katastrophen fur die Menschen machen, personlich und sozial. Dazu habe ich einige Serien im Wupperartmuseum, hier und hier und landschaftlich hier. Dies alles ist Homeland-Fotografie, es kann also Stadt, Land, Flu? sein.

Ich und mein Umfeld sind der Rahmen. For Kids Trafalgar Castle School? Es mu? nicht einmal immer ortlich im Sinne fixer Geografie sein, es konnte sich auch um z.B. How To Stevenson? Hotels handeln, wenn ich immer dort bin oder fahrbare Bungalow-Siedlungen, wenn diese mein Homeland sind. Speech Writing Essay St. Louis University (INTO)? Wie viel davon im deutschen Sinne Heimat ist, ist eine ganz andere Frage. Es ist aber ein Bereich, der sich auf mein Da-Sein bezieht.

Und es ist mehr als my home is how to articles Stevenson my Castle (die Rechtschreibprufung setzt einfach Castor ein…). Les Roches International Of Hotel Management? Es fangt danach an, dort wo es sozial wird…- finde ich. Die UN-Vollversammlung hat den 20. How To Stevenson Academy? Juni zum zentralen internationalen Gedenktag fur Fluchtlinge ausgerufen. Problem Les Roches School Of Hotel Management? Dieser Tag wird in how to write Academy, vielen Landern von Aktivitaten und Aktionen begleitet, um auf die besondere Situation und die Not von Millionen Menschen auf der Flucht aufmerksam zu machen.

Und nun liegt es vor mir, das Buch, das dies alles schon vor einer Generation zeigte und niemand kann sagen, er hatte es nicht fruher wissen konnen.

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Robert Louis Stevenson - Author - Biography

How to how to write Keep Good Teachers Motivated. This week, Education World's Principal Files team chats about what they do to keep good teachers motivated. What special things do they do to inspire teachers to Les Roches School Management keep learning and improving their skills? What do they do to how to write keep up staff morale and make their schools fun places to work? Our principal team shares their best ideas for speech writing University (INTO) encouraging teachers to keep on plugging. Included: More than two dozen practical ideas for keeping teachers motivated. Given the state of school budgets, it is extremely difficult for articles most principals to do substantial things to motivate and inspire teachers.

But sometimes little things can make an even bigger difference! That's why Education World recently asked our Principal Files principals to share with us some of their best ideas for keeping teachers motivated. As usual, our principals responded with dozens of practical ideas. This month's P-Files question reminded principal Les Potter about Robert Greenleaf, author of Servant Leadership. Greenleaf's idea is that administrators need to serve the worker, explained Potter. At our school we try to article Trafalgar do that. We work hard at making things less difficult and complicated.

We try to how to write articles Academy cut down the amount of prompts Millfield School paperwork our faculty must do, limit the number of staff meetings, streamline procedures. Write Stevenson Academy! Administrators at Potter's school try to article for kids Castle show teachers every day that they care in many ways. We have an open-door policy, they see us picking up trash and cleaning cafeteria tables, we arrive on campus before they do and we are here when they leave, and articles Stevenson we do not have designated parking or other perks sometimes associated with management, Potter said. Administrators always have to put aside their own issues and do what is writing Roedean School best for students and articles Stevenson Academy staff in a caring and sensitive way. We try not to say no to teachers, and we always treat them as adults. Principal Tony Pallija agrees. He and the rest of his administrative team try to writing prompts Millfield do lots of special things for the entire staff -- from special little gifts to Cookie Day. We try to pretend we are at IBM -- we treat everyone as a professional and we celebrate whenever we can, said Pallija. The material things are nice, but I have a motto that I try to live by each day: My job as principal is to make the teacher's job easier, better, so they can teach and students can learn.

Developing a positive school climate is critical to an effective school, added Les Potter. Morale is a very tentative issue. Write Articles Stevenson Academy! You can do 99 things right and make one mistake that will shoot morale forever. RECOGNIZING THOSE WHO GO ABOVE AND BEYOND! All teachers yearn for reassurance that they are doing a good job. Most principals recognize teachers' efforts by offering positive feedback -- both publicly and privately. Weekly memos or e-mails, and regular staff meetings, are the perfect forums for recognizing special contributions that teachers or other staff members make.

Principal Jeff Castle includes such recognitions in staff memos and during a special celebration portion of defining problem International of Hotel each month's faculty meeting. He also makes a special point of articles Stevenson spotlighting efforts teachers make to Les Roches School of Hotel Management develop projects that involve students across grade levels or with other schools. Castle hopes those special recognitions encourage others to consider projects that extend learning outside the walls of write articles Stevenson individual classrooms. With all teachers have to do, motivation is the key to keeping them focused and feeling worthy, principal Larry Davis told Education World. Davis reports that at each month's staff meeting at speech writing essay (INTO) his school two teachers are awarded the Golden Apple for their above-and-beyond efforts. The neat thing about the write, Golden Apple is that the teachers select its recipients!

Each of the problem Les Roches International of Hotel Management, winners of this month's Golden Apples are responsible for passing on the award to another worthy teacher at articles next month's meeting. Many principals try to paper leave a little extra money in the budget to recognize outstanding efforts with small personal gifts such as prepaid phone cards or store gift certificates. Recently, one principal gave a phone card to a teacher who stepped in without being asked (because the principal was out how to write Stevenson, of the writing essay St. Louis University, building) and how to took over an after-school program for essay Saxion University of Applied Sciences a teacher who was stuck in a dentist's chair having a tooth pulled. Not every school can budget for a faculty retreat, but such an effort can go a long way toward building collegiality and morale. At The American School in London, lower school principal Julie Ryan has fond memories of a two-day retreat held an write articles Stevenson Academy hour north of the city two years ago. Parts of the conference center where the writing Saxion, retreat took place dated back to how to write articles Stevenson the time of Elizabeth I (16th century).

Retreat activities included a mix of socialization and team-building activities; analysis of the article writing for kids, strengths and how to weaknesses of the school's culture; and creating essential agreements about how we want to hamburger essay Saxion University Sciences work together, Ryan told Education World. STICKY NOTES, OLYMPIC GAMES, TV STARS, MINI GRANTS, MORE! Principal Teri Stokes tries to observe every teacher at how to articles Academy least two times a month. Many of those visits are unscheduled, snapshot stops. Before heading on hamburger writing Sciences, to the next class, Stokes takes a moment to scribble a positive comment or two on a sticky note. On the way out Stevenson, of the defining problem Les Roches International School, room, she sticks that note to the door or the teacher's desk. In addition, Stokes often drops little feel-good cards or inexpensive gifts in teachers' mailboxes or on their desks. One year she provided each teacher with a Beginning-of-the-Year Survival Bag that included odds and how to write ends, each with a special significance. Does this sound like an idea you might want to employ?

If so, you'll find some great ideas for putting together a Teachers' Survival Kit in the Education World article When All Else Fails, Turn to article for kids Castle the Survival Kit! Principal Marie Kostick uses a snapshot observation strategy similar to the one Teri Stokes uses. In addition, she takes advantage of Stevenson local television stations that reach out into the community to offers awards such as The Class Act Award or the Excellence in Teaching Award. Writing Essay St. Louis University! Kostick nominates members of how to write articles Stevenson Academy her staff who go beyond the call of University duty. Reporters from the television stations come to school to interview the how to, teachers and present them with certificates. Each teacher is then recognized in a TV spot that is broadcast several times in article Castle School, one week. To build a strong team, principal Phil Shaman held an Educational Olympics at this school one year. Teachers were divided into teams and competed in a variety of events. All events required that team members support each other to how to complete a task.

Events, planned with the support of his physical education staff, were both athletic (for example, relay events and a team table tennis match in which team members had to alternate hits) and non-athletic (such as going through a maze blindfolded). Many states and some local school districts offer reward monies for schools whose students show improvements on standardized tests. Essay St. Louis University (INTO)! In some schools, those monies are divided among contributing staff. In other cases, that money can be used to support additional purchases for the school. At Silver Sands Middle School, staff members voted to set aside a chunk of that money for mini-grants, principal Les Potter told Education World.

Staff members complete a simple form to request a mini grant that will benefit their students. 20 MORE GREAT IDEAS FOR MOTIVATING TEACHERS. Education World's Principal Files principals shared dozens of great ways to motivate teachers. How To Write Articles Academy! So far, we have mentioned just a handful of those ideas. Following is writing (INTO) a list of more than 20 additional ideas presented by write Stevenson principals already mentioned above: Plan noon-hour lunches for all staff members several times a year. Essay University (INTO)! (Don't leave out the paraprofessionals, the school secretaries, or the custodians!) Those lunches can be roving lunches in which people eat during their regularly scheduled lunch period, or they can be whole-staff lunches that kick off professional development sessions scheduled for how to write articles Academy the p.m. Writing Prompts! part of the how to write articles, day. Organize small fundraising activities to raise money for an all-staff holiday or end-of-year banquet. And Article Difference! For example, several times during the year faculty might be allowed to pay $2 to dress casually for the day. Contact local restaurants, sports franchises, movie houses, arts centers, and how to Stevenson Academy other businesses to arrange for gifts, gift certificates, tickets, or discount coupons that can be used as special prizes for teachers or coaches who volunteer their time or who go above and beyond. Encourage teachers to seek out persuasive writing Roedean School, professional development courses or workshops. Write Articles Academy! Approve all reasonable requests.

Then get extra mileage out of those sessions: Set aside time during each staff meeting, or arrange a special professional development day, so teachers can share with their peers the defining Les Roches School, main ideas they learned from each session they attended. Encourage teachers to write ask for speech writing essay St. Louis University (INTO) the instructional supplies they require to facilitate teaching and learning. Provide reasonable requests from the budget, or enlist local politicians or businesspeople to sponsor or help you track down other needed supplies. Organize a trip to write Stevenson Academy the movies. Have you seen these articles from the Principal Files Series? Principals share the courses they wish they had taken before they took the job. Our principal team paints a picture of how school districts manage finding, training, and retaining substitute teachers. Principals share ways in which they are using data to lead their schools to success. Stuck for ideas for effective staff meetings? Looking for ways to make sure everybody is present and interested? Principals share the joys of the job plus words of encouragement for persuasive paper Roedean educators who might be considering the path to the principal's office.

The December holidays can be such a busy time. Instead of adding one more thing to articles do and one more expense to the month of December, why not spread around the fun? In October, for example, one school held Secret Spook Week. Those teachers who wanted to participate filled out a profile form that asked questions about favorite colors, foods, drinks, hobbies, and writing for kids Castle School so on. Then each participant drew another staff member's profile form and became that person's Secret Spook. Each Secret Spook provided small token gifts for the other person all week long. The total expenditure for each participant was set at $10. Include on each weekly staff memo a quick activity idea that might be tried out in write articles, the classroom, a quote related to defining Les Roches of Hotel Management education, or a short school-related joke. (Note: Each issue of Education World's Weekly Newsletter includes a Last Laugh section with several funny stories and jokes.

Feel free to copy and paste them for how to use in your own weekly memos or parent newsletters.) Send cards to teachers to welcome them back after an illness, celebrate a birthday or another important event, or recognize a special achievement. Add a copy of those special achievements cards to writing prompts for essays Millfield teachers' personnel files. Once a semester, or once a quarter, provide all staff members with a come-late-to-work-no-questions-asked form. How To Articles! (Or give that form to staff members who logged one or no absences in journal and article The University of Glasgow, the most recent quarter.) That form represents two hours of time that can be taken at the start or end of the school day for any reason -- from sleeping in to getting a head start on the weekend. The only how to write articles Stevenson catch is that the form must be cashed in writing essay St. Louis University, in advance so arrangements can be made to how to write Stevenson Academy free an administrator or somebody else to persuasive Roedean School cover the staff member's responsibilities. Little things like this cost no money and demonstrate that administrators are willing to Stevenson Academy go the extra mile for prompts School the folks who work for them. Provide free coffee in the teacher's lounge from Stevenson, 7:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. every day.

Select a Teacher of the Month. Set aside a special parking space close to the main faculty entrance that is marked with a Reserved for the Teacher of the Month sign. To motivate professional development, arrange study groups (perhaps organized by grade level) to read a book or discuss and research a current hot topic. Set up a schedule to ensure that every educator makes at least two visits to other teachers' classrooms or other schools during the year. Writing! Arrange coverage for those teachers. You might set up a special arrangement with other schools to open their classrooms to your teachers, but teachers should also be able to make their own arrangements for visitations to write classes/schools they have learned about through the grapevine. Feed the teachers! Celebrate the end of a busy week by arranging to have the cafeteria staff prepare a special continental breakfast -- beverages and muffins, rolls, or coffee cake -- every Friday morning. And Article The University Of Glasgow! (Even once a month would be nice!) Don't forget to do something nice for write articles Stevenson the cafeteria folks a couple times a year. Appoint a teacher to be acting principal when you are out of the building. (This usually convinces them that they love being a teacher!) Make sure that everyone is on a committee that meets regularly and that they have real tasks and opportunities for real input in school-level decision making.

Arrange to have music played (or piped in) during faculty meetings. Music stimulates the brain. Be sure to publicly commend staff members who go above and beyond outside of the school day -- by volunteering to University be part of district-wide or state-level committees, for example. Approach the parent-school association, local business partners, Jaycees, or other groups to write Stevenson Academy gather materials and labor to accomplish various fix-it projects that the Board of writing Saxion Education is unable to tackle. Organize a social committee to write Academy plan events just for fun. One such event might be a monthly Treat-Your-Friends Tuesday. Each month a different group of teachers brings themed food items to share during the day in the teacher's lounge.

During Teacher Appreciation Week hold a daily drawing for for essays Millfield a 1/2-day off certificate. Write Stevenson Academy! The principal will cover the class when you take that time off. For more Teacher Appreciation Week ideas, see a previously published Education World article, Ways to Celebrate Teacher Appreciation Week. Make a spot on speech University (INTO), your weekly memo for a special thank-you or congratulations to individuals or the entire team. Write Academy! For example: Thank you for and article difference The University of Glasgow organizing Red Ribbon Week! Thanks for the extra effort on parent teacher conferences! Thank you to the bulletin board fairy who decorated the how to write Academy, board in the workroom. Educator recounts how her school's administrators used the Survivor television show as a theme to strengthen teams, build camaraderie, present challenges -- and teach a few lessons about how to create a quality classroom environment for students. Included: Survivor activity ideas and teacher reactions! Submit your own lesson plan for a chance to receive a FREE $50 Classroom Supplies Gift Card! Receive timely lesson ideas and PD tips.

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