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Patent Law School Exam: Essay No. 2. 2. (25 POINTS) AlphaDog’s US patent has one claim: 1. A method of paying a company executive comprising: Calculating a salary, wherein the salary is writing a good essay Ardingly College, calculated by writing Washington multiplying the average non-executive company employee income by an X-factor, wherein the writing Ardingly College, X-factor is between 10 and 99; and. Paying the executive the salary. During examination, the claim was amended. As originally filed, the claimed X-factor range was between 10 and 120. AlphaDog had amended the claim to critical, avoid a prior art reference that discussed paying executives over 100-times the average employee salary. Writing A Good Conclusion! AlphaDog had discovered that reference after filing the patent application. The company amended the claims, but did not tell the patent office of the reference (believing that it was no longer relevant to do a of an article, the claimed invention).

BetaDog has two employees – the Ardingly College, CEO and her secretary. BetaDog’s CEO is paid 9-times the summary of an article King’s Ely, salary of the secretary. A Good Conclusion Ardingly College! Although paid in US Dollars, BetaDog directly-deposits its CEO’s salary in an offshore bank located in Bermuda. AlphaDog sues BetaDog and how to do a summary of an King’s its CEO for patent infringement. Explain the relevant legal issues, and writing a good Ardingly figure out who wins and loses. Law Professor at the University of Missouri School of Law. View all posts by Dennis Crouch →

33 thoughts on “ Patent Law School Exam: Essay No. 2 ” Regardign the Washington, mouse/trackball, I heard the first mouse was invented by flipping a trackball over a good College, and attaching a button to it. So a mouse inherently comprises a trackball. You could flip the mouse over and use the trackball element without actuating the button. Or you could actuate the write an admission for graduate, button. It’s still a trackball on conclusion Ardingly, the other side.

Nobody123 wrote: “As claimed, the pc has both a mouse and trackball. There is no way to apa essay Wittenborg, use the a good, spec to reject the claim under 102. Critical Judgments School! Therefore, the a good Ardingly, claim has new matter because the claimed embodiment was not in possession at the time of filing.” I disagree, a mouse that is writing Stevenson, also a trackball is College, supported by the spec. Critical Judgments Abingdon! In the English language the word “or” is not exclusive. Although the “single input” limitation may limit the a good essay Ardingly, number of Academy inputs to one, the input can still be characterized as both a mouse and a trackball. Under current US practises, this claim definitely fails the “machine” prong of Bilski because there is no structure recited in any step. You can argue that “Paying the executive the salary” amounts to a “transformation”, but this would be tough. “Which problem would this patent be solving? I can’t make out a problem which doesn’t have either a trivial or arbitrary answer. Some patents are such that posing the problem they solve amounts to a good conclusion College, explaining the idea of the patent itself (those silly throw-dog-ball-sticks for example).

This one doesn’t seem to an admission essay school Thornton, be of that kind.” I’m not sure what you’re getting at. Writing A Good Essay Conclusion! Other than statutory subject matter, utility is essay of South Australia (Navitas), such a low bar that you can determine utility just by writing essay reading the title. Assuming that the issue is one of accidental anticipation, then EP enlarged boad decisions G1/02 and G2/03 allow you to exclude the “accidentally anticipated” values even if your new range 10-99 was not literally supported in the original specification. This allows the person drafting the University of Applied, application to avoid lists of the type “not more than 120, 119, 118, 117…” ad nauseum. In any case, such a claim probably can’t be patented in the EP because it might be considered to be lacking in technical effect or to be a method for performing a mental act or doing business. Example I use for training: spec at filing: a computer with a single input, wherein the input may be a mouse or a trackball.

pending claim: a computer with a mouse and a trackball. Using the spec as originally filed, there are 2 disclosed embodiments: 2) pc w/ trackball. As claimed, the pc has both a mouse and trackball. There is writing essay conclusion College, no way to use the spec to reject the claim under 102. Therefore, the claim has new matter because the claimed embodiment was not in possession at the time of filing. Even if it were obvious to combine mouse and trackball into a single pc, the spec would still need modification to how to write an admission school Thornton Academy, arrive at the claimed invention, and therefore constitutes new matter. Even if the spec at filing enabled Mr POSITA to make a pc w/ both mouse and trackball, this also is not germane to the new matter because applicant was not in possession of the claimed embodiment at filing.

I see several issues in the comments. Do we know the difference between written description and enablement? Written description = did applicant have possession of the claimed invention at the priority date? Enablement = did the specification at the priority date enable Mr POSITA to writing, practise the claimed invention? The originally filed claim recites 10-120. Critical! At most, the specfication should be objected to for lacking written description support. Essay Ardingly! It is the rest of the spec, not the claim, that is deficient.

In my personal opinion, narrowing to 10-99 does not constitute new matter because these embodiments were supported in apa essay writing Wittenborg, the original specification as filed. The question would be did applicant have possession of the 10-99 embodiments at writing a good, the time of filing? If the applicant had possession of 10-120, I would think that he/she/it had possession of of Applied 10-99. When I was trained for 112 1st, the test for new matter would be to use the a good essay conclusion, spec available at the priority date to reject the writing University Sciences, claim. If you can write the rejection as a 102, then there is no new matter because the claimed embodiment would be fully supported as a single embodiment in the spec. If you cannot write the rejecition as a 102, then the writing a good conclusion Ardingly College, claimed embodiment is not supported in a single embodiment in the spec. Do A Summary Of An! Whether the modififications to the spec is obvious/enabled or not is not germane to new matter. If you cannot do a 102, then there is writing conclusion College, new matter. Even if the new matter is of essay writing Stevenson, obvious from the spec, it is still matter because applicant did not have possession of the claimed embodiment. The question then becomes would a reference disclosing 10-120 anticipate a claim reciting 10-99? If yes, then there is no new matter.

If no, there is writing a good, new matter. It’s pretty clear that 10-120 anticipates 10-99, right? As for enablement, if all embodiments between 10-120 were supported by the spec as originally filed, then all embodiments between 10-99 would be enabled as well. Anybody care to comment? David French writes: Hey! Isn’t amending to 10 to of essay writing Stevenson, 99 new matter?

I think it would be in Europe. The whole scenario just makes me weep inside. But anyway, claim invalid for non-statutory subject matter and/or lack of writing a good essay conclusion Ardingly College novelty/obviousness in light of the real world, and not infringed because amending to 10-99 to avoid 100 should also exclude 9. Just a comment about the patent. Which problem would this patent be solving? I can’t make out a problem which doesn’t have either a trivial or arbitrary answer. Some patents are such that posing the problem they solve amounts to explaining the idea of the patent itself (those silly throw-dog-ball-sticks for example). This one doesn’t seem to be of that kind. Anyone, please tell me why the X-factor being greater than or equal to 0, and less than infinity would or would not be obvious? You know what’s really sad? How is the US going to of essay writing Academy, continue to lead the world in CEO pay if we can’t protect new and creative ways of paying CEOs?

And if America can’t be competitive in essay conclusion College, paying CEOs, then those CEOs will just move to other countries and our businesses won’t be able to compete. Now more than we ever this country need new methods of determining CEO pay if we expect to remain competitive. /patent wanker off. “Glad I’m not in law school anymore.” So are your professors. Especially if you really needed clarification on a patent law exam that you should limit your discussion to how to do a summary article King’s Ely, issues of patent law. Did anyone bring up the issue of writing essay conclusion Ardingly whether the CEO can be liable for infringement? Personal liability would generally require active inducement or some other specific intent on the part of the individual to infringe the patent. The claim against the CEO is probably dismissed on a MTD for failure to state a claim (unless there is how to do a summary, some other evidence presented). Question possibly fails because we don’t know if the secretary is an executive.

If no executive, then no non-executive salary to compare. A Good Essay Ardingly College! Cannot assume that secretary is not an executive. Where is betadog company? Is it in America? Is it on Earth? So what if pay is in US dollars. By the way, does discuss all relevant legal issues include failure of betadog to disclose foreign bank account to the art of essay Stevenson Academy, IRS? Not to mention possible criminal laws? You should clarify location of betadog company or where there business is writing essay College, transacted. You should clarify that relevant legal issues should be limited to patent law.

You should clarify that secretary is not executive (or maybe you did intend to leave this as gray area??) By the way, 10*0=0 so any start up company in write The University Australia (Navitas), which the CEO and nonexecutives paid by stock probably anticipate the patent. Claim should say executive salary is greater than zero. Glad I’m not in law school anymore. You should prepare your students for dealing with the USPTO by requiring them to use 14pt font and writing a good essay conclusion Ardingly have a page limit of 2 pages and then ignore all requests for essay Washington reason. haha. Nice question. If you can get it down to only a claim and “Discuss,” you’d be in the company of Currie. Here are the issues I see and writing Ardingly College how I might call them: Written Description or Alternately Enablement under 35 USC 112, paragraph 1. How To Do A King’s! It’s unclear where the a good essay Ardingly College, basis is for the upper end of 99 for the range.

I know there is case law, such as In re Wertheim that might support such a narrowing, but I’m not sure it would apply here. My view is that Claim 1 goes down under 35 USC 112, paragraph 1. Inequitable Conduct. The fact that the claim was amended to avoid the uncited reference is how to write The University Australia (Navitas), a real “red flag” here. For sure, this uncited reference is “material.” “Intent to deceive” is essay College, a bit more problematical, but given how “material” the essay of South Australia, uncited reference is likely to be considered, there’s a good chance that “intent to deceive” will still be inferred. Likely to be held invalid/unenforceable for inequitable conduct. Patentability under 35 USC 103. Given that the difference here is 1 for the multiplier, hard to believe that Claim 1 would be considered unobvious, without some sort of “surprising” or “unexpected” result, which I don’t see here. Writing Essay Conclusion College! Likely to be held unpatentable under 35 USC 103.

Patentable Subject Matter under 35 USC 101. Claim 1 is too close in character to the one that went down in Bilski. What we have defined here is primarily a “calculation” step which won’t fly under Bilski’s “transformation” prong (the “machine” prong wouldn’t apply). How To Do A Summary Of An Ely! Almost certainly invalid under 35 USC 101. Literal Infringement of Claim 1. Unlikely, especially as there is no “about” before the writing a good essay conclusion Ardingly, lower limit of 10. DOE Infringement of Claim 1. Possible, as the write a university essay The University Australia, end of the end of the range in play (10) isn’t the one that was amended to get around the art. This is similar to writing a good Ardingly College, the situation in Warner-Jenkinson. Infringement under 35 USC 271(a) et al.

Most likely, none, as one of the writing essay Washington Academy, method steps requires paying the CEO which, in writing a good College, this case, happens outside the U.S. In NTP v RIM the Federal Circuit made it clear that all steps of the of essay Stevenson Academy, method must occur in the U.S., or there can be no infringement of the method Claim under 35 USC 271(a). Just Visiting – that case involving pH ranges would be Hilton Davis. And you are correct in that estoppel for DOE can apply to writing a good essay conclusion, just one end of the range. Just Visiting said: “I vaguely recall an older case involving pH ranges that would allow arguing that amending the upper limit to get around the art would not affect the critical Abingdon, lower limit.” That case was decided by the Supremes in 1997. See Warner-Jenkinson Co., Inc. v. Hilton Davis Chemical Co., 520 U.S.

17. You remember correctly. The principal holdings were that DOE must be applied on a claim-by-claim basis, and that DOE should be applied within the context of essay conclusion Ardingly file wrapper estoppel. In Warner-Jenkinson, the record wasn’t clear on the patentee’s reasons for adding the lower limit (only the upper was necessary to avoid the prior art), and writing Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences so this issue was to be determined on remand. Good points Just.

When the EPO objects that an writing conclusion Ardingly College, intermediate limitation constitutes “new matter” I try to explain it to writing University of Applied Sciences, American clients as being “like your written description requirement”. As to ranges, I am always mystified why they should qualify under DoE for stretching. I should have thought that the range claimed is already at the limit of the imagination of the inventor/attorney, at the filing date. It’s unconscionable, to demand yet more scope of essay College protection, after the filing date. But, litigators, they have no shame, right?

I don’t think anyone mentioned a possible written description issue regarding an Washington, upper limit of 99 not being supported in the specification as filed. Also, there is a good conclusion, a fairly recent CAFC case regarding application of DOE to ranges. 9 is possibly equivalent to 10-100. Perhaps “10 or more” would be interpreted differently. I vaguely recall an older case involving pH ranges that would allow arguing that amending the upper limit to get around the art would not affect the lower limit.

Humorless, your name is truly ironic. I laughed a lot, on reading your above contribution. Compliments of the season to you, Sir or Madam. Frank H. Caligula, PhD, Esq? Hello Gopher, thanks for the kind seasonal greetings, in writing Stevenson Academy, excellent German.

In return, I would wish you a Happy Chr–tmas, except that it isn’t PC, right? Instead, Happy “holiday season” and a good “slide” into 2009. Writing A Good Essay Ardingly College! Anyway, I don’t know any US patent attorneys I would classify as “pesky”, only diligent ones, trying with all their honest their professional skills to advance the interests of their clients as best they can, in writing Wittenborg University, the difficult conditions that currently prevail in their jurisdiction. Or is conclusion, “pesky” a designation of full measure of professional competence attained, amongst your brother and sister attorneys at law (I’m here to writing a theme essay Academy, learn). No doubt this “hypothetical” was taken from writing essay, a real case, in which plaintiff’s counsel’s last name is of essay Academy, a homonym for a certain Roman Emperor… -5 for Dennis for naming this thread with the a good essay Ardingly College, same starting letters past the of essay Stevenson Academy, abbreviation point on “Recent Comments”.

Now, when I want to make sure I see what’s new, I will have to visit each thread, “scroll down and hit next” repeatedly (still). … 1. Outside the USA, but inside the legal field of patents for inventions, there are no issues.2. Who loses? The USA (but your readers don’t want to know that).Posted by: MaxDrei. On behalf of all us pesky u.s. patent attorneys: Froehliche Weihnachten und ein glueckliches neues Jahr! On the IC issue, the test for IC is intent and materiality. A Good Essay Conclusion College! Materiality is writing Academy, defined as anything that a reasonable Examiner would find important for examination. I think materiality is certainly present for the 100X reference. You can make an argument that intent is not given that the patentee may have thought they had a good basis for a good essay conclusion Ardingly not submitting the Washington, reference, but given the way that the CAFC hammers patentees and the current case law, this one would be absolutely dead at the CAFC. Also, it appears that the 100X reference doesn’t teach quite the same thing as the claim requires. A Good Essay College! The 100X reference teaches 100-times the average employee salary whereas the write essay for graduate Academy, claim recites the “average non-executive company employee income.”

You have Festo estoppel for any range above 100. Some examiners would 112 “the average non-executive company employee income.” I won’t touch the rest of the issues. Festo kills DOE. The narrowing amendment was made for a reason of patentability. Possibly invalid for a good Ardingly inequitable conduct for not pointing out the the art of essay writing Stevenson, reference to the examiner. The reference was probably material for 103 reasons, even if the claim had been narrowed to essay Ardingly College, avoid anticipation; but, if it wasn’t divulged because it really wasn’t considered relevant, the how to article Ely, patentee might win on intent.

“(believing that it was no longer relevant to the claimed invention). ” Woodruff that range right out of essay Ardingly town! And of course Bilski. Looks like the first poster beat me to em all anyway. Judgments Abingdon School! But yes he touched most all I see. I disagree with the DOE one though. 9 is not equivalent to 10 or more. Oh, and add that I would make a validity charge based on 103 and google some art additional art.

Also, 684 is right, there should be a page limit. Will keep my contributions short, Dennis, because: 1. Outside the USA, but inside the legal field of writing essay conclusion College patents for inventions, there are no issues. 2. Who loses? The USA (but your readers don’t want to know that).

I hope there is a page limit for that one. maybe invalid (103-the 100x reference) unenforceable (inequitable conduct) noninfringement (no evidence that Beta’s CEO pay is calculated, it could be negotiated to a value that happens to be 9x sec’s pay; no evidence that even if calculated, was calculated based on X factor, could be calculated based on current year times 1,000 which happens to be 9x sec. salary, etc.) infringement maybe under DOE (assuming salary is calc as 9x X factor, then need to argue that 9 is equivalent to how to do a of an article King’s Ely, 10 or more. Writing A Good Essay Conclusion! Didn’t give up that equiv when amended claims b/c only modifed the 120, not the write essay for graduate school, 10) geographical issues: method must be performed in writing a good essay conclusion College, US. location of how to do a King’s Ely method = where all the steps are performed. Whether all steps are performed in the US is key question –NTP–. Assume calculating was performed in US office. Writing A Good Conclusion Ardingly College! Where did paying occur? I’d argue it occured at site where order to The University of South, DD the salary occured (i.e., from writing a good conclusion Ardingly College, Beta’s US bank).

Comments are closed. Dennis Crouch Associate Professor, University of Missouri School of Law SSRN Articles Jason Rantanen Professor, University of Iowa College of Law SSRN Articles Occasional guest posts by IP practitioners and academics. About 25,000 individuals now receive Patently-O via e-mail each morning. We regularly post top patent jobs from leading firms, corporations, and government and educational institutions. Find a patent professional among the 15,000+ monthly visitors of the job board, many of whom are patent professionals at large firms and corporations.

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drawing essays Figure 1. Donald Judd, Untitled , 1967. Graphite on paper, 10 3/4 x 13 1/4 inches (27.3 x 33.7 cm) Art © Estate of Donald Judd/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. System, Seriality, and the Handmade Mark in Minimal and essay conclusion Ardingly College Conceptual Art. The exhibition Notations: Contemporary Drawing as Idea and Process presents drawings produced by how to essay school, seminal American artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, as well as a selection of a good essay College, works by artists of subsequent generations who continue to engage with the aesthetic strategies and procedures of their predecessors.

1 In some cases the drawings on view are self-contained and autonomous, but often they are studies for how to proceed to make a sculpture, an installation, or a site-specific work. The grid, the diagram, and serial ordering (all methods of de-skilling or noncomposition) are regularly employed as foils to subjective decision making. Yet the how to do a King’s Ely examination of a broad array of drawings by these practitioners reveals distinctive bodies of work that, far from writing essay conclusion being impersonal or uniform, are as diverse as the artists are innovative. A Theme Academy. While some artists tended to foreground thought and knowledge as the essential components of an artwork, others focused on the materials themselves with an equal degree of writing essay conclusion College, concentration. In both instances the visual and physical allure of their drawings is no less important than the apa essay University Sciences ideas that they convey. Central to the exhibition is the writing a good essay Ardingly College paradoxical compatibility between the use of a priori systems and how to do a summary the individual touch of the artist in an artistic environment that embraced an antiemotive “serial attitude” as something akin to an ethos. 2 Much has been made of the purported purging of writing a good essay conclusion, authorial intentionality and subjectivity in Minimal and Conceptual art, which placed a heightened emphasis on analytic rigor, systematic planning, and serial methodologies. This move is often characterized as a “cool” reaction to how to do a summary King’s Ely the “hot” psychologically transparent practices and rhetoric of heroic individualism associated with modernist abstraction in a good essay College the United States in the post–World War II era. 3 The purported shift from hot to cool—from gestural disclosure to rational, antiauthorial approaches—was, however, never definitive or clear-cut.

Drawing, a medium long associated with both the activity of ideation and the manual act of creation, played a central role in attempts by artists associated with the process-based and conceptually rigorous practices of Minimal and apa essay writing University of Applied Sciences Conceptual art to open up established understandings of aesthetic production as well as a generative site for the ongoing negotiation of the relationship between subjective and objective approaches, between touch and measured distance. Drawing thus offers a compelling means through which to reexamine the received narrative of the art of this period. Artists engaged in a variety of writing essay College, strategies and agendas—including Dan Flavin, Eva Hesse, Barry Le Va, and Sol LeWitt—readily embraced drawing’s salient attributes—its mobility and elasticity, its economy and antimonumental character, its exploratory nature, and its facility for acting as a mediator, translating abstract concepts into form—to produce works that are notational, diagrammatic, and reductive. Often small in scale, delicate, playful, and highly nuanced, these drawings suggest a level of intimacy and direct encounter with the how to essay for graduate artists’ thoughts and intentions that is less readily apparent in their work in other mediums. Drawing is approached here as a powerful if underrecognized lens through which to explore the productive tensions between rational calculation and subjective expression, concept and material form, and precision and disorder that animate much of the work on a good College, view in this exhibition.

Industrial Fabrication / Individual Notation. Employing basic forms, industrial materials, and writing essay Washington serial repetition, artists associated with Minimalism, such as Donald Judd and a good essay Dan Flavin, sought to free art from symbolic emotional content and of essay Stevenson Academy pretensions about its transcendent quality. A Good Ardingly College. While the how to essay school Academy established narrative of a good essay, Minimalism emphasizes an obscuring, even an erasure, of the artist’s hand through the how to a university The University (Navitas) use of industrial fabrication and readymade materials, the preparatory and working drawings (necessities given that their art objects were fabricated industrially) produced by these artists reintroduce the hand into the movement’s legacy. A Good Ardingly. 4 By revealing the idea of the system and the plan for construction, these drawings expose the process of critical judgments Abingdon School, creation and stand as vital counterpoints to the sterile perfection of the standardized industrial Minimalist object. The “literalist” position held by a good essay, Minimalism in the mid-1960s is exemplified by the work of Judd, whose 1965 essay “Specific Objects” set out the basic tenets of his approach: creating self-sufficient and self-referential objects based on how to write The University (Navitas), material specificity. A Good Conclusion Ardingly College. Using industrial materials such as Plexiglas, aluminum, and rolled steel rather than fine art materials, Judd placed his work in a continuum with the mass-produced commodity as opposed to the history of sculpture. The artist employed drawing to work out structure, proportion, and spatial relationships for sculpture but never considered his works on paper as anything other than technical instructions, a type of language used to Abingdon convey information for the execution of standardized three-dimensional forms. Hand-drawn works providing dimensions and writing essay College material specifications, such as his untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 1), paradoxically support his decidedly hands-off management style of delegation and supervision. 5. While Judd understood his working drawings as necessary supporting material for the creation of his serial sculptural works, drawing played a more essential role in the practice of his Minimalist contemporary Dan Flavin.

The artist drew incessantly and for a variety of essay Washington Academy, purposes: to notate an idea or create working drawings for artworks in other media; to make quick renderings of essay conclusion Ardingly College, nature; to execute finished presentation drawings for sale; and to commission “final finished diagrams”—drawn in colored pencil on graph paper by his wife, son, and studio assistants—which acted as records of his site-specific fluorescent light installations. 6 The act of drawing increased in importance once Flavin’s practice shifted, around 1963, to writing a theme Academy making works employing readymade fluorescent lamps bought from the hardware store and installed by writing a good essay conclusion College, technicians. He used commonplace materials (ballpoint pen, office paper) to sketch and document possible arrangements for of an article, site-specific installations. Although he tended to downplay the graphic value of these drawings, they were essential to his practice, existing as residues of thought. Flavin was always careful to save and date each of these works on paper in order to record the sequence in which they were made.

Drawing thus became a way of projecting and planning situations and a means of archiving those plans, relating both to the future and to the past. 7. Figure 2. Dan Flavin, Four drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb.

12, 1973; Feb. 14, 1973 , 1973. Ballpoint pen on typing paper, 4 sheets, each 8 1/2 x 11 inches (21.6 x 27.9 cm) © 2012 Stephen Flavin / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Four Drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb.

14, 1973 (1973; fig. 2) is representative of writing essay, these working drawings. Rendered in the art writing Academy pen on white typing paper, these minimal graphic renderings are composed of a series of what Flavin described as “impetuous marks, sudden summary jottings . . . those of a kind of intimate, idiosyncratic, synoptic shorthand (by now, mainly my ‘style’).” 8 The four drawings that make up this group were produced over essay conclusion Ardingly, the course of a week. Flavin scribbled over and rejected the earliest drawing in how to of an article King’s Ely the series (Feb. 7, 1973), while the word final is writing a good conclusion College, written and underlined in his expressive handwriting at apa essay University of Applied Sciences the top of the sheet dated February 14, 1973. Memos run all over these pages, supplying information such as color, location, and dimensions. Fluorescent tubes are represented by writing out the name of the color horizontally and vertically (daylight, warm white, cool white, red, yellow, etc.), literally drawing with words.

One drawing includes a series of dedications to friends: “to Kay Foster,” “to Donna.” Personal dedications were common in Flavin’s practice, referring not only to friends but also to art historical figures such as Barnett Newman and to political events, as in a 1970s drawing dedicated “to the young woman and men murdered in Kent State and Jackson State Universities and to writing a good Ardingly College their fellow students who are yet to be killed.” The inclusion of these personal notes lends Flavin’s work a poetic and political dimension not normally associated with the technical, industrial look of the art of essay writing Academy, Minimalism. Drawing proved less well suited to the overall goals of other artists associated with Minimalism, for whom the medium gave undue preference to essay conclusion Ardingly the conceptual over the art Academy, the physical and temporal experience of their sculptural work and writing a good essay Ardingly College the ambiguities of that experience. How To Summary. The emphasis on the gap between conception and perception, or between the idea of the work and essay the experience of its physical form, inherent to drawing, troubled artists such as Carl Andre, who rejected a conceptual label for his practice, framing it instead as overtly materialist. 9 The viewer of his floor pieces, exemplary works of do a King’s Ely, Minimalist art, was meant to be ambulatory: “My idea of a piece of sculpture is a road. That is, a road doesn’t reveal itself at any particular point or from any particular point. . . . Most of my works—certainly the successful ones—have been ones that are in a way causeways—they cause you to make your way along them or around them or to move the spectator over a good essay conclusion College, them.” 10 An Andre floor sculpture is intended to provide a phenomenological encounter, extending into and articulating its surroundings; viewers can stand on top of and move across his horizontal works and not see them, experiencing a given piece through a tactile rather than an optical relationship.

Figure 3. Carl Andre, Blue Lock , 1966. Colored ink and felt-tip pen on essay Academy, graph paper, 8 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (22.2 x 24.8 cm) Gift of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, The Museum of writing a good essay, Modern Art, New York. Art © Carl Andre/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. Given the importance that he placed on both the materiality of the sculptural object and how to write The University Australia (Navitas) the viewer’s spatial encounter with it, Andre was resistant to resolving a given work in a single, fixed image, be it in the form of writing essay conclusion Ardingly College, a preparatory drawing or an installation photograph. In Blue Lock (1966; fig. 3), for example, he attempted to work against the static properties of drawing in order to convey both the conceptual simplicity and the perceptual complexity of the sculptural work to which it relates. 11 Working on graph paper, he registered his idea for summary of an King’s Ely, a floor sculpture as both a square and a rectangle made up of repeated rectangular units.

In two adjacent grids he filled the regimented squares of the paper with handwritten letters that spell out the words lock and blue . Written in all caps, the letters run in multiple directions, suggesting manifold views—the viewer is compelled not only to read across the grids but also to turn the writing a good sheet around to view it from how to write Academy diverse vantage points. 12. Richard Serra similarly grappled with the disjunction between the fixed nature of the conclusion Ardingly College preparatory sketch and how to summary of an article the physical experience of his large-scale sculptural work in space and time. Early in his career, the artist produced small working drawings executed in graphite on paper, denoting a process at once notational and projective. A Good Conclusion. Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for how to an admission school Academy, L.A.

County Museum) (1971; fig. 4) provides a bird’s-eye view of an initial concept for writing a good essay conclusion, a sculpture made of industrial sheets of steel, one that was destined to remain unrealized. While the drawing offers an overview of the form of the writing University sculpture, it remains unconcerned with the perceptual shifts unfolding over time and the transient experiences of a specific site, which would become a major feature of Serra’s monumental sculptural projects. A Good Conclusion Ardingly College. 13 The artist soon rejected such working drawings altogether, stating: “I never make sketches or drawings for the art Stevenson Academy, sculptures. I don’t work from an a priori concept or image. Sculptors who work from drawings, depictions, illustrations, are more than likely removed from the working process with materials and construction.” 14. Figure 4. Richard Serra, Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A. County Museum) , 1971. Graphite on writing Ardingly, paper, 17 3/4 x 23 1/2 inches (45.1 x 59.7 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Figure 5. Richard Serra, Titled Arc , 1986. Oil crayon on paper, 19 x 24 1/2 inches (48.3 x 62.2 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

Drawing would remain a fundamental practice for Serra nevertheless. The Art. He began to reverse the medium’s traditional role, however, sketching his sculptures after they were completed as a means of thinking through formal problems and understanding what he sees and encounters. 15 With Tilted Arc (1986; fig. 5), one in a series of sketches in notebooks made with oil crayon, drawing becomes a means to revisit a piece, in this case his work of conclusion Ardingly College, public art of the same title constructed in 1981 at Federal Plaza in New York. While photographs of the sculpture fulfill the roles of documentation and dissemination, Serra’s drawing—consisting of a few bold, black lines in oil crayon—performs another function, that of distilling his physical experience of the piece on-site. The process of making the work is palpable: the actions of the hand, its movement and pressure, are visible and felt on the surface of the apa essay writing Wittenborg University paper. Much like the a good conclusion College quick notations and personal dedications found in Flavin’s work—which subvert the cold, detached character of his light installations—Serra’s physically expressive and gestural drawing works to destabilize the how to a university of South Australia (Navitas) aggressive character of his monumental sculptural practice.

Begun during the prolonged public hearings and lawsuits relating to Tilted Arc , which would result in writing essay conclusion Ardingly the removal and ultimate destruction of the sculpture in 1989, this series of sketches also retains what Yve-Alain Bois has described as a “sense of mourning,” a sober look back at judgments Abingdon School a project that can never again be experienced in real time and space. 16. Prescribed Procedures / Amorphous Results. By the late 1960s, the writing a good essay College emphasis on materiality and physicality of experience, evinced in both Andre’s and Serra’s distinctive approaches to drawing and sculpture, was pervasive. Many artists attempting to how to essay Thornton extend or, in some cases, react against the principles of Minimalism explored process, performance, installation, and site-specific approaches to creation. Barry Le Va’s opening up of the boundaries of sculptural experience with his antiformal dispersals of nontraditional materials exemplifies a larger shift away from the pristine, manufactured look of Minimalism toward an exploration of the ways in which a work of art literally comes into being. The term Process art encompassed practices like Le Va’s, in which the importance of a work of art is understood to lie more in its materiality and essay conclusion Ardingly how it was made than in the final product. Process-based works frequently took the form of ephemeral actions, such as the performance of common tasks detached from subjectivity, as well as temporary, site-specific installations. Of An Article King’s Ely. Preparatory and presentation drawings are often the only remaining witnesses (besides documentary photographs) to writing a good conclusion Ardingly College the transient events that these artists enacted and an admission for graduate Thornton Academy the materials that they engaged with.

Figure 6. Barry Le Va, Wash , 1969. Ink on graph paper mounted on paper, 18 1/2 x 22 inches (47 x 55.9 cm) © 2012 Barry Le Va. In 1966 Le Va began producing his distribution pieces, floor-based installations that rejected traditional notions of a strictly ordered composition. These works exploited the properties of everyday materials—felt, chalk, flour, broken glass, mineral oil, iron oxide—and the relative relationships established through loose juxtaposition. Despite the accidental nature of Le Va’s mutable compositional strategy, drawing remained central to his sculptural practice, in the form of diagrammatic sketches or flexible blueprints that brought order to the formlessness that characterizes his contingent installations.

17 He drew “to be alone with myself,” “to discover and clarify my thoughts,” “to visualize my thoughts,” and “to convince myself some thoughts are worth pursuing.” 18 Certainly one can detect a sense of essay conclusion Ardingly, disegno in his conception of drawing—that is, a projective and idealist belief in the medium as uniquely capable of revealing the artist’s mind at work and exposing the mechanism of the creative process. Yet Le Va’s employment of the diagram (a form typically associated with architecture, engineering, and writing Wittenborg University of Applied mathematics rather than with art) in works such as Wash (1968; fig. Writing A Good Ardingly. 6), a study for a distribution piece, complicates the romantic idea of drawing as an unmediated reflection of the a theme mind of an individual as registered through the autographic mark. His methodical ordering of space on the page belies the accidental appearance and unstable dispersal of materials that define his distribution pieces by revealing the predetermined nature of the overall arrangement of the work. Writing Ardingly. 19 Orderly and precise in process and appearance, his works on paper enact a reversal of the traditional understanding of drawing as a flexible site for spontaneous creation. In Le Va’s case, spontaneity is ultimately deferred onto the unfolding of events occurring in for graduate Academy the space of the gallery itself. Wash (1968) exemplifies the generative tension between the random and the orderly that Le Va actively cultivated in his early works. The drawing includes passages of graph paper on conclusion Ardingly College, which the artist first mapped out the distribution of pieces of felt and shards of glass. School Thornton. Le Va and a good essay conclusion Ardingly College many of his contemporaries frequently used graph paper, not so much for its look as for its suitability for the transfer of ideas into form. As the artist Mel Bochner reasoned, “graph paper reduces the tedious aspects of drawing, and permits the easy and immediate alignment of writing Stevenson Academy, random thoughts into writing a good essay conclusion Ardingly College, conventionalized patterns of reading and forming.” 20 Le Va cut up the uniform graph paper into writing, random shapes, repositioned the fragments atop a sheet of white paper, and connected the pieces through a series of colorful stains made using red, black, and gray ink.

The artist’s handwritten inscription placed under the drawing makes it clear that the stains are meant to reference specific materials: red or black iron oxide and mineral oil. This diagram was apparently never realized in sculptural form but is related to a series of writing a good Ardingly, impermanent installations that Le Va would complete at an admission school the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in 1969. Essay. These installations involved minerals in different states of saturation (wet, damp, and dry) and their potential chemical reactions. Substances were poured directly on writing of Applied Sciences, the gallery floor and were allowed to dissolve and run into one another, eventually drying, cracking, and staining over time. 21 The strict formal economy of Le Va’s drawn plan simultaneously contradicts and enhances the flux, flexibility, and physical damage unleashed in writing a good essay College the space of the gallery. Figure 7. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 1973. Graphite on paper, 7 5/8 x 11 1/8 inches (19.4 x 28.3 cm) Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in St. Summary King’s. Louis, Gift of Mr. and Mrs.

Gary Wolff, 2011. © 2012 William Anastasi. Figure 8. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 2009. Graphite on writing a good essay Ardingly College, paper, 8 x 11 1/2 inches (20.3 x 29.2 cm) © 2012 William Anastasi. William Anastasi’s subway drawings (figs. 7, 8) engage a similar process-driven dynamic—highly prescribed yet open to unforeseen occurrences—while reflecting a very different intention from the deliberate, diagrammatic approach employed by essay, Le Va.

Beginning in the late 1960s, Anastasi developed his unconventional series of writing essay conclusion College, “unsighted” works—blind drawings, pocket drawings, and subway drawings—as means of abdicating rather than establishing control by submitting the graphic process to how to write an admission essay Thornton Academy chance. To create his ongoing series of subway drawings, he sits on a subway train, places a sheet of paper on a good essay Ardingly College, a board on his lap, takes a pencil in a theme Washington each hand, rests the points on the paper, closes his eyes, dons headphones to a good essay College block out all ambient sound, and lets the an admission essay Thornton Academy movement of his body in transit determine the composition of each work. Rather than relying on essay conclusion, vision, he creates the work by assigning himself a simple task and arbitrary limits: each drawing is produced in judgments Abingdon the time it takes him to a good conclusion Ardingly College get from point A to point B on the subway and is finished when he gets off the train at a predetermined destination. By drawing blind and incorporating chance, Anastasi subverts the critical judgments School tradition of drawing as a synthesis of vision, knowledge, and manual skill. In carrying out a good essay Ardingly College, this prescribed act, which is both meditative and absurd, the artist places his focus squarely on phenomenology.

Phenomenological impact became a key aspect in some strains of Minimalist sculptural production in the late 1960s as artists such as Carl Andre, Robert Morris, and Richard Serra were preoccupied not only apa essay writing Wittenborg University of Applied with the Ardingly College process of production but also with how a work was perceived by the viewer in real time and space. The Art Writing. 22 These artists often forced the spectator’s body into a confrontation with an object or a visual field as a form of defamiliarization, exhorting viewers to become conscious of their own processes of perception in order to a good College see beyond the prevailing conventions of writing Academy, art. With Anastasi’s more modest drawings, however, it is not the spectator’s active experience of a sculptural work that is writing a good conclusion, highlighted but that of the artist himself. Judgments. His body becomes a key instrument in the overall performance, serving as a passive implement that absorbs and records motion. Always consisting of two scribbled clusters of lines that move in all different directions, the subway drawings read as residues of a durational performance and as records of Anastasi’s travels across New York, revealing the temporal experience of the artist. Systematic in approach and detached in procedure, this brand of embodied mark making nevertheless proffers a significant reopening to the bodily subject. Sol LeWitt pushed the process- and systems-based approach to artistic production in still another direction. Rejecting any focus on writing a good essay College, the performing body of the artist, he elevated the working through of an how to write essay for graduate school, idea to a position of importance, which he understood as equal to that of the resulting work.

Though initially associated with Minimal art, LeWitt emerged as one of the essay Ardingly leaders of Conceptual art. In his “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art” (1967), which became in effect a manifesto for the movement, he crystallized a radically divergent move in postwar art toward praxis as idea based: “If the artist carries through his idea and makes it into visible form, then all the steps in the process are of how to of an article King’s Ely, importance. The idea itself, even if not made visual, is as much a work of art as any other aesthetic product. All intervening steps—scribbles, sketches, drawings, failed works, models, studies, thoughts, conversations—are of interest.” 23 Given the importance LeWitt placed on writing, the “intervening steps” in the manifestation of an idea, both drawing and language (visual experience and Sciences linguistic experience) hold a privileged place in his body of work. Figure 9. Sol LeWitt, Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 , 1967. Ink and graphite on paper, 11 3/4 x 23 3/4 inches (29.8 x 60.3 cm) © 2012 The LeWitt Estate / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Three-Part Variations on writing essay Ardingly College, Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 (1967; fig. 9) is a drawing of a series of three-dimensional structures related to concurrent sculptural explorations.

LeWitt plotted different permutations on three-cube constructions or, as he wrote at the top of the the art writing Stevenson Academy drawing in capital letters: “three three-part variations in which the top and bottom cube have one side removed (3) while the middle cube is writing, solid (1).” The artist replaced traditional principles of sculptural organization and compositional relational order with a chosen permutational system that can be rationally calculated and write a university of South Australia (Navitas) thus understood by the viewer either mentally or in Ardingly material form. The cubes are drawn in essay Washington Academy isometric perspective (a technique commonly employed in a good conclusion technical or engineering drawings) on a hand-drawn grid. The use of the grid emphasizes the uniformity of the how to write Thornton cubes: each cube is two grid squares tall and a good conclusion two grid squares wide. The grid and the technical rendering give the appearance of an ordered sequence intended to provide objective visual information, expressing a universalizing vision of industrial-age perfection based on the art Stevenson, serial production. It appears that LeWitt used this language of efficiency in order to subvert it, however. 24 The seemingly endless potential for variation implied in writing essay conclusion his system gives the lie to the fundamental arbitrariness of his concept and the subjective decision making that orders it. He employed the grid, the cube, and serial structure as checks to subjective choices, yet his drawing and its system of rules paradoxically work to reaffirm the creative role of the artist. 25.

Although the how to an admission essay Thornton Academy serial is commonly associated with the a good College rationalism found in Minimalist works by apa essay Wittenborg University, artists such as Judd, Andre, and Flavin, it always holds within it a relationship to its opposite: the random or antirational. LeWitt acknowledged as much in his second text on Conceptual art, “Sentences on Conceptual Art” (1969), making a distinction between the logical approach of scientific or industrial production and that of aesthetic experience: 1. Conceptual artists are mystics rather than rationalists. They leap to a good conclusion Ardingly conclusions that logic cannot reach. 2. Summary Of An Article Ely. Rational judgments repeat rational judgments.

3. Irrational judgments lead to new experience. 4. Formal art is essentially rational. 5. Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and logically. 26. LeWitt uses the word irrational loosely in this text. Employed in this context as a means of signaling the essay College polar opposite write an admission essay Thornton Academy, of rational judgment and sound logic, the term also implies a type of action that is Ardingly, completely beyond human control, a meaning that seems to move outside the bounds of the dichotomy that he strives to set up between the rational and how to write an admission essay for graduate school Academy the subjective.

While LeWitt held on to a systematic approach to artistic production, he recognized that only by moving past the tautological thinking of rationalist aesthetic approaches could one arrive at new forms and a good essay College experiences. Figure 10. Eva Hesse, Untitled , 1967. Ink on graph paper, 11 x 8 1/2 inches (27.9 x 21.6 cm) © The Estate of Eva Hesse, Hauser #038; Wirth Zurich London. Eva Hesse also probed the relationship between order and disorder, between serial methodology and antirational processes, yet her work delineates an how to write The University of South (Navitas), opposing limit of this practice. Although she was part of the circle of Minimalist and Conceptual artists who worked and socialized in writing essay conclusion College New York in the 1960s and write essay The University of South Australia (Navitas) 1970s, her artistic production is often characterized as Postminimal, a term that acknowledges her move to open up the a good essay conclusion College constrained structures of Minimalism by writing, giving geometric form an organic and bodily dimension. Hesse’s work is notable for the way in a good essay conclusion Ardingly which it implicates the writing Wittenborg University Sciences body in new ways—the body understood as a psychic site rather than the neutral or passive one of a good conclusion Ardingly College, Anastasi’s subway drawings and much Minimalist art. Drawing played a central part in this expansion of boundaries. By 1966 Hesse began making a series of drawings using black ink on graph paper. She worked with the controlled grid, but was equally interested in the potential for how to do a summary Ely, accident, embarking on what has frequently been described as a form of compulsive repetition and accumulation.

The artist herself gave credence to such an interpretation with statements such as, “Series, serial, serial art, is a good essay Ardingly College, another way of repeating absurdity.” 27 Her untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 10) is the art of essay writing Academy, exemplary of this series of works in which the basic element of the circle is repeated over and over to fill in the form of the grid. Although relatively sparse, the drawing exudes a concentrated intensity that works to heighten the psychological dimension of Minimalism’s embrace of geometry and repetition. The recurrence of the circle involves a mechanical gesture, yet the end result is decidedly uneven; upon writing a good Ardingly, closer inspection, the irregularities of how to article King’s Ely, each circle reveal themselves. Diversity and variation are achieved not as a function of writing essay Ardingly, rules of permutation, as in LeWitt’s drawing, but as a result of the uneven pressure of the artist’s hand on the paper. This endows the drawing with a decidedly personal, tactile dimension that opposes the strict reductivism of how to article Ely, LeWitt, her Conceptualist contemporary. Minimal and Conceptual Drawing and its Legacy. Although their approaches and a good agendas were notably distinct, all the artists discussed here were working through the how to summary of an article King’s Ely fallout of a modernist vision of conclusion Ardingly, art and society, self-consciously rethinking and writing essay Washington Academy challenging established traditions of artistic practice. Created during a liminal moment between modernism and postmodernism, their drawings represent less a stylistically coherent body of work than an intensive mode of thinking about redefining the writing a good essay Ardingly College material and conceptual conditions of art-making.

While attempting to move away from the critical emotive claims of their Abstract Expressionist predecessors, artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual practices wanted to uphold the freedom of experimentation with form and materials initiated by artists such as Jackson Pollock. Writing Essay College. The climate of write essay school Thornton, analysis and material experimentation of the 1960s and 1970s in the United States not only writing a good conclusion Ardingly addressed the artwork and apa essay University of Applied standards of artistic production but also extended to the critique of institutions, the writing essay conclusion role of the artist and audience, the write essay The University (Navitas) dissemination of artworks in the market, and a good conclusion the industrial conditions of modern society. Australia (Navitas). 28 Drawing was certainly not the only medium to reflect these tendencies, but its diverse implementation, immediate character, and ability to convey process made it a particularly apt means of writing Ardingly College, registering the Wittenborg University of Applied generative tension between analytical strategy and individual creation that underpins much of the art produced at this time. Figure 11. Writing A Good Essay. N. Dash, Commuter , 2011. Graphite on paper, 14 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (37.5 x 24.8 cm) In the do a of an King’s Ely four decades since the 1970s, several significant paradigm shifts have reshaped the writing a good essay conclusion political and social world in how to for graduate Thornton which we live, including the rapid rise of the digital age and an increased global connectedness accompanied by conclusion College, greater mobility, standardization, and homogenization. Summary Article King’s Ely. Art has continued to adapt to these new conditions. A Good Essay Ardingly College. Many of the issues that motivated the artistic struggle to work through and against modernist endgames—the idea that art is predicated on a progressive model of invention or the essentialist notion that something like the absolute essence of Wittenborg Sciences, painting or sculpture exists—are of little interest to subsequent generations of writing essay conclusion College, artists. 29 They no longer feel compelled to grapple with the rules of such a limited approach; nor are they constrained by postmodernism’s negative and apa essay Wittenborg University nostalgic appraisal of the modernist past. Rather, artists working today openly reference and revise the art historical past, including the history of modernism, exploiting the possibility afforded them of freely engaging with the a good essay conclusion Ardingly College creative process to arrive at new forms and writing Stevenson ideas.

Figure 12. A Good Ardingly College. Jill O’Bryan, 40,000 Breaths Breathed Between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 , 2000-05. Graphite on paper, 60 x 60 inches (152.4 x 152.4 cm) The artists N. Dash and Jill O’Bryan, for instance, adopt a range of modernist strategies, including repetitive and serial processes as well as body and a university The University of South performance art, all of writing a good conclusion Ardingly College, which emerged in the 1960s and early 1970s. They take these strategies down markedly different paths, however, placing overt emphasis on aesthetic gratification, material exploration, and do a of an article individual gesture coupled with a strong engagement with the tasks and rhythms of daily life. Rather than explicitly linking the practice of Ardingly College, drawing to large-scale sculptural installations and other conceptual projects—as was the case in the work of essay Washington Academy, Flavin, Serra, Le Va, and LeWitt—both artists embark on highly hermetic forms of writing essay, creation through which the properties of drawing are probed and developed. They highlight labor-intensive methods of manual craft and the materiality of the specific medium being employed yet also implicate the artist’s body. N. Dash’s Commuter Works (ongoing since 2010) move beyond the notebook, the preparatory sketch, and writing Wittenborg the traditional form of pencil on paper (fig. 11). Her works appear conceptually in line with Anastasi’s subway drawings in that they record the artist’s bodily movements while riding public transportation in New York, but they are created without the use of a drawing implement, revealing a desire for a more immediate connection between the maker’s hand and the materials.

Dash produces these works by folding, rubbing, creasing, and writing a good refolding sheets of paper and then applying pigment (graphite or indigo powder) to them by hand in order to highlight the progressive accumulation of wrinkles and marks. Her practice is based less on an exploration of automatic processes, chance occurrences, or a sublimation of the subjective self, as are Anastasi’s subway drawings, and more on an examination of the means by which bodily expression can be embedded into the support materials associated with painting, sculpture, and drawing. Jill O’Bryan’s large-scale 40,000 Breaths Breathed between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 (2000–2005; fig. 12) also turns drawing into a recording device as the artist meticulously tracked her individual breaths over the course of five years, using only pencil marks on paper. Writing Washington. In a manner similar to the accumulative gestures seen in Hesse’s gridded drawing, the graphic patterns that emerge across O’Bryan’s large sheet are not rigid or precise but rather organic and a good conclusion Ardingly College irregular, undulating with a gradation of tones based on the amount of pressure the artist exerted on the paper. The final drawing appears as nothing less than a test of endurance, one that resonates with certain approaches to write The University of South (Navitas) body art and feminist agendas.

With its emphasis on time and repetition, the work emerges as a fragile, obsessive attempt to explore the conditions of selfhood and register something of the writing conclusion Ardingly daily experience of art. Figure 13. A Theme Academy. Janet Cohen, San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4-0 , 2004. Graphite on paper, 9 1/4 x 13 inches (23.5 x 33 cm) © Janet Cohen, 2004. Janet Cohen’s ongoing practice of meticulously charting popular activities such as the essay conclusion seemingly random events of a baseball game offers yet another variation on this internal and indexical approach to mark making, one that appears to speak simultaneously to the fragmentation of contemporary life and nostalgia for a sense of completeness. Her clustered diagrams of overlapping numbers and letters in black and white pencil are the result of her own idiosyncratic system for estimating locations where pitches cross the strike zone and the results of the actual pitches during a given baseball game. Works such as San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4–0 (2004; fig.

13) exist as both abstract representations of these events and as highly individual catalogs of time and thought whose underlying system is understood by writing essay Washington, the artist alone. What exactly is at stake today in this intertwined desire for an immediacy of touch within prescribed limits? Marking up a blank piece of writing essay conclusion Ardingly, paper—experiencing a concrete and immediate way of making art within an evolving digital landscape that often removes us from experiencing “the real” and ourselves—appears to offer itself as an inherently human activity. The use of predetermined parameters complements such individual efforts, providing a means of organizing thought, tracking time, and perhaps bringing a sense of order and the art writing Academy consistency to the disorder of daily events. A Good College. Drawing has always served as a vital means of making sense of the world around us and the forces that animate it, mediating rather than mirroring our lived condition. In the 1960s and 1970s artists grappled with industrial conditions then shaping their everyday lives by engaging systematic and programmatic procedures to guide their work. In many instances, the pronounced engagement with seriality and repetitive marking, charting, and diagramming offered a means not of apa essay Wittenborg of Applied, adopting the rational logic of industry but of essay conclusion, highlighting art’s potential escape from it.

It seems apt in today’s contemporary climate of ongoing upheaval and perpetual advancement of digital technologies that the desire to draw, to essay Australia (Navitas) mark, to track is embraced by artists who, much like their historical predecessors, seek to essay Ardingly College expand the capacities for invention while working to regain a sense of human experience. 1. All the works in the exhibition are drawn from the collection of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, New York; several of them have been donated by the couple to The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Over the write essay The University of South Australia (Navitas) past few decades, the Kramarskys have amassed a collection that provides an impressive overview of canonical Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, while continuing to collect works by emerging artists whose work is in line with this core aesthetic. 2. The term comes from Mel Bochner, “The Serial Attitude,” Artforum 16 (December 1967): 28–33. 3. See Irving Sandler, “The New Cool-Art,” Art in writing a good College America 53 (February 1965): 96-101, and Pepe Karmel, “An In-Between Era,” in New York Cool: Painting and Sculpture from the NYU Art Collection (New York: Grey Art Gallery, New York University, 2008), 21–35. In recent years, several scholars have begun to rewrite the received history of postwar American art. See, for example, Catherine Craft, An Audience of Artists: Dada, Neo-Dada, and the Emergence of Abstract Expressionism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012). 4. The language of late capitalist efficiency and organization informed many of apa essay, these projects as artists mimicked the division of labor into mental and manual realms by commissioning others to realize their ideas or, in some cases, sidestepping actual material production altogether. For an in-depth analysis of the relationship between artistic production, labor, and writing essay Ardingly the shifting socioeconomic context in 1960s America, see Helen Molesworth, Work Ethic (Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of Art, 2003), and Julia Bryan-Wilson, Art Workers: Radical Practice in the Vietnam War Era (Berkeley: University of summary of an King’s, California Press, 2009).

5. Writing A Good Essay Ardingly. Judd’s drawings, and the significant revision of the role of the artist that they suggest, would meet with controversy later in his career, when the Italian collector Giuseppe Panza authorized the how to write a university (Navitas) fabrication of sculptures from the artist’s working drawings without Judd’s permission. Judd declared these works forgeries, insisting that his oversight was required in the fabrication of his work. See Susan Hapgood, “Remaking Art History,” Art in America 78 (July 1990): 114–17. See also Molesworth, Work Ethic , 163. 6. Numerous publications since the 1970s have explored the role that drawing played in Flavin’s artistic practice. See Emily S. Essay Conclusion Ardingly College. Rauh, Dan Flavin: Drawings and Diagrams, 1963–1972 (Saint Louis: Saint Louis Art Museum, 1973); Dan Flavin: Drawings, Diagrams, and Prints, 1972–1975 (Fort Worth, TX: Fort Worth Art Museum, 1977); and Dan Flavin Drawing (New York: Morgan Library, 2012). 7. Briony Fer, “Nocturama: Flavin’s Light Diagrams,” in Dan Flavin: New Light , ed. Jeffrey Weiss (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 2006), 46. 8. Dan Flavin, statement on view at the Kunstmuseum Basel in article Ely the exhibition Zeichnungen, Diagramme, Duckgraphik, 1972 bis 1975, und Zwei Installationen in fluoreszierendem Licht von Dan Flavin (1975), reprinted in Dan Flavin (1976), 6. 9. In a 1970 interview with Phyllis Tuchman, Andre states, “I am certainly no kind of conceptual artist because the physical existence of my work cannot be separated from the idea of it….My art springs from my desire to have things in the world which would otherwise never be there.” See Phyllis Tuchman, “An Interview with Carl Andre,” Artforum 8 (June 1970): 60.

10. Andre, ibid., 57. 11. The drawing relates to Andre’s planar floor sculptures Blue Lock Trial (1966), Blue Lock (1967), and Black Lock (1967). The latter two works have since been destroyed. 12.

Christine Mehring provides a compelling reading of writing a good essay Ardingly College, this drawing. See Mehring, “Carl Andre: Blue Lock, 1966,” in Drawing Is Another Kind of Language: Recent American Drawings from a New York Private Collection , by Pamela M. Lee and Christine Mehring (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, 1997), 28–29. 13. Yve-Alain Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes: On Richard Serra’s Drawings,” in Richard Serra: Drawings, Zeichnungen, 1969–1990 (Bern, Switzerland: Bentelli, 1990), 17. 14. Richard Serra, “Interview: Richard Serra and Bernard Lamarche-Vadel,” New York, May 1980, first published in Artistes (November 1980), reprinted in Richard Serra: Interviews, Etc., 1970–1980 (Yonkers, NY: Hudson River Museum, 1980), 146. 15. Critical. For an a good, in-depth analysis of Serra’s approach to drawing across his career, see Bernice Rose, Michelle White, and Gary Garrels, eds., Richard Serra Drawing: A Retrospective (Houston: Menil Collection, 2011). 16. Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes,” 28.

17. Klaus Kertess has aptly described Le Va’s drawings as having “the clarity and write for graduate Thornton Academy conviction of a topographic map or a computerized analysis of atmospheric turbulence.” See Klaus Kertess, “Between the Lines: The Drawings of Barry Le Va,” in Barry Le Va, 1966–1988 (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon Art Gallery, 1988), 27. 18. Barry Le Va, “Notes” (undated), reprinted in writing a good essay conclusion Ardingly Accumulated Vision: Barry Le Va (Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, 2005), 89. 19. Ingrid Schaffner has perceptively noted that while Le Va’s installation photographs might tell us “how Le Va sees his installations,” it is write a university (Navitas), his drawings that “tell us how to writing conclusion Ardingly read them.” See Ingrid Schaffner, “Accumulated Vision and Violence, Barry Le Va,” in Accumulated Vision , 61. 20. Mel Bochner, “Anyone Can Learn to Draw,” press release for Drawings , Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich, 1969, reprinted in Bochner, Solar System #038; Rest Rooms: Writings and writing Academy Interviews, 1965–2007 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 61.

21. Marcia Tucker describes the 1969 installations in Tucker, “Barry Le Va: Work from 1966–1978,” in Barry Le Va: Four Consecutive Installations and Ardingly College Drawings, 1967–1978 (New York: New Museum, 1978), 12. Writing A Theme Essay Washington. For photographs of the installation, see ibid., 24, 25. 22. See particularly Robert Morris’s series of writing a good College, essays, “Notes on apa essay writing University, Sculpture” (February 1966) and “Notes on Sculpture, Part II” (October 1966), reprinted in Continuous Project Altered Daily: The Writings of writing College, Robert Morris (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993). 23. Wittenborg Sciences. Sol LeWitt, “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art,” in Open Systems: Rethinking Art, c. 1970 , ed. Donna DeSalvo (London: Tate Modern, 2005), 180; originally published in writing a good Ardingly Artforum 5 (Summer 1967). 24.

James Meyer, Minimalism: Art and Polemics in the Sixties (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 187. 25. In the 1960s LeWitt was attracted to how to write the cube and the square as “grammatical devices from which the work may proceed.” He went on writing a good essay conclusion Ardingly College, to elaborate: “They are standard and universally recognized, no initiation being required of the viewer. How To Do A Of An King’s. . A Good College. . . The use of a square or cube obviates the necessity of inventing other forms and reserves their use for invention.” See Sol LeWitt, untitled statement in apa essay University Sciences Lucy Lippard et al., “Homage to the Square,” Art in America 55 (July–August 1967): 54. 26. Conclusion Ardingly. LeWitt, “Sentences on Conceptual Art,” in Sol LeWitt: Critical Texts , ed.

Adachiara Zevi (Rome: I Libri di AEIOU, 1994), 88, originally published in 0–9 (New York, 1969). 27. University Of Applied. Eva Hesse, quoted in Lucy Lippard, Eva Hesse (New York: De Capo, 1976), 96. 28. Josef Helfenstein, “Concept, Process, Dematerialization: Reflections on essay Ardingly, the Role of Drawings in Recent Art,” in Drawings of Choice from a New York Collection , ed. Write A University The University Australia. Josef Helfenstein and Jonathan Fineberg (Champaign, IL: Krannert Art Museum, 2002), 13. 29. Yve-Alain Bois examines the end of modernist painting in terms of play and gaming, suggesting that painting is never an endgame but a game comprising different matches. See Yve-Alain Bois, Painting as Model (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), 241–42. Jordan Kantor also takes up Bois’s analogy in her essay “Drawing from the Modern: After the essay conclusion Endgames,” in Drawing from the critical judgments Modern, 1975–2005 (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2005), 53–54. Error: Twitter did not respond.

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