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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Michel de Montaigne is widely appreciated as one of the most important figures in essay writings in english European University, the late French Renaissance, both for his literary innovations as well as for his contributions to philosophy. As a writer, he is credited with having developed a new form of a comparison contrast University of Southampton literary expression, the essay, a brief and admittedly incomplete treatment of essay writings Cyprus a topic germane to human life that blends philosophical insights with historical anecdotes and autobiographical details, all unapologetically presented from the author’s own personal perspective. As a philosopher, he is best known for his skepticism, which profoundly influenced major figures in paragraph University Amsterdam Foundation Campus, the history of philosophy such as Descartes and Pascal. All of his literary and philosophical work is contained in his Essays , which he began to write in 1572 and first published in 1580 in the form of two books. Over the next twelve years leading up to his death, he made additions to the first two books and completed a third, bringing the work to writings in english University Cyprus, a length of about one thousand pages.

While Montaigne made numerous additions to the books over the years, he never deleted or removed any material previously published, in an effort to represent accurately the changes that he underwent both as a thinker and as a person over the twenty years during which he wrote. Writing Essays Ashbury College? These additions add to the unsystematic character of the books, which Montaigne himself claimed included many contradictions. It is no doubt due to the unsystematic nature of the writings in english European Cyprus, Essays that Montaigne received relatively little attention from Anglo-American philosophers in the twentieth century. Long College? Nonetheless, in recent years he has been held out by many as an important figure in the history of philosophy not only for his skepticism, but also for his treatment of topics such as the in english University Cyprus, self, moral relativism, politics, and an essay school University (UCLA) the nature of philosophy. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne was born at the Chateau Montaigne, located thirty miles east of Bordeaux, in essay writings European University, 1533.

His father, Pierre Eyquem, was a wealthy merchant of essay College wine and fish whose grandfather had purchased in 1477 what was then known as the Montaigne estate. Montaigne’s mother, Antoinette de Loupes de Villeneuve, came from a wealthy marrano family that had settled in Toulouse at the end of the 15 th century. European Cyprus? Montaigne describes Eyquem as “the best father that ever was,” and mentions him often in the Essays . Montaigne’s mother, on the other hand, is almost totally absent from her son’s book. Amidst the turbulent religious atmosphere of sixteenth century France, Eyquem and his wife raised their children Catholic. Michel, the eldest of eight children, remained a member of the Catholic Church his entire life, though three of writing essays College his siblings became Protestants. Eyquem, who had become enamored of novel pedagogical methods that he had discovered as a soldier in Italy, directed Montaigne’s unusual education. As an infant, Montaigne was sent to live with a poor family in a nearby village so as to cultivate in him a natural devotion to “that class of men that needs our help.” When Montaigne returned as a young child to live at the chateau, Eyquem arranged that Michel awake every morning to music. He then hired a German tutor to teach Montaigne to speak Latin as his native tongue.

Members of the household were forbidden to speak to the young Michel in any language other than Latin, and, as a result, Montaigne reports that he was six years old before he learned any French. It was at this time that Eyquem sent Montaigne to attend the prestigious College de Guyenne, where he studied under the Scottish humanist George Buchanan. The details of Montaigne’s life between his departure from the College at age thirteen and his appointment as a Bordeaux magistrate in his early twenties are largely unknown. He is thought to writings in english European Cyprus, have studied the law, perhaps at Toulouse. In any case, by 1557 he had begun his career as a magistrate, first in the Cour des Aides de Perigueux , a court with sovereign jurisdiction in the region over cases concerning taxation, and later in argumentative essay articles Queen's, the Bordeaux Parlement , one of the eight parlements that together composed the highest court of justice in France. There he encountered Etienne La Boetie, with whom he formed an intense friendship that lasted until La Boetie’s sudden death in 1563. Years later, the essay in english Cyprus, bond he shared with La Boetie would inspire one of Montaigne’s best-known essays, “Of Friendship.” Two years after La Boetie’s death Montaigne married Francoise de la Chassaigne. His relationship with his wife seems to essay articles Queen's, have been amiable but cool; it lacked the spiritual and intellectual connection that Montaigne had shared with La Boetie. Their marriage produced six children, but only one survived infancy: a daughter named Leonor. In 1570 Montaigne sold his office in writings, the Parlement , and retreated to his chateau, where in 1571 he announced his retirement from how to an essay school of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), public life.

Less than a year later he began to write his Essays . Retirement did not mean isolation, however. Montaigne made many trips to essay writings European University Cyprus, court in Paris between 1570 and 1580, and writing a 3 paragraph essay of Amsterdam — Campus it seems that at essay in english European University, some point between 1572 and argumentative International of Management 1576 he attempted to mediate between the European University Cyprus, ultra-conservative Catholic Henri de Guise and how to write an essay high school University Los Angeles the Protestant Henri, king of Navarre. Nonetheless, he devoted a great deal of time to writing, and in 1580 published the in english University, first two books of his Essays . Soon thereafter Montaigne departed on a trip to Rome via Germany and Switzerland. Essay Articles? Montaigne recorded the trip in the Journal de Voyage , which was published for writings European University the first time in the 18 th century, not having been intended for publication by Montaigne himself. Among the reasons for his trip were his hope of write a comparison contrast essay of Southampton finding relief from his kidney stones in the mineral baths of writings Germany, his desire to see Rome, and his general love of travel. The trip lasted about a comparison contrast essay University fifteen months, and would have lasted longer had he not been called back to Bordeaux in writings, 1581 to serve as mayor.

Montaigne’s first two-year term as mayor was mostly uneventful. His second term was much busier, as the research University, death of the Duke of Anjou made the Protestant Henri de Navarre heir to the French throne. This resulted in a three-way conflict between the reigning Catholic King Henri III, Henri de Guise, leader of the conservative Catholic League, and essay writings European Henri de Navarre. Bordeaux, which remained Catholic during the religious wars that engulfed France for most of the 16 th century, found itself in for Bournemouth, close proximity to Navarre’s Protestant forces in southwest France. As a mayor loyal to the king, Montaigne worked successfully to keep the peace among the interested parties, protecting the city from seizure by the League while also maintaining diplomatic relations with Navarre. Essay In English University Cyprus? As a moderate Catholic, he was well-regarded by both the write school, king and writings European University Navarre, and after his tenure as mayor Montaigne continued to serve as a diplomatic link between the two parties, at one point in 1588 traveling to Paris on a secret diplomatic mission for Navarre. In 1588, Montaigne published the writing a 3 paragraph essay Foundation Campus, fifth edition of the Essays , including a third book with material he had produced in the previous two years. It is a copy of writings Cyprus this fifth edition (known as the “Bordeaux Copy”), including the marginalia penned by Montaigne himself in the years leading up to his death, which in the eyes of most scholars constitutes the writing International (ICMS), definitive text of the Essays today. The majority of the in english Cyprus, last three years of his life were spent at writing College, the chateau. When Navarre succeeded Henri III as king of France in 1589, he invited Montaigne to join him at essay Cyprus, court, but Montaigne was too ill to travel.

His body was failing him, and he died less than two years later, on September 13, 1592. 2. The Philosophical Project of the Essays. All of Montaigne’s philosophical reflections are found in his Essays . To contemporary readers, the term “essay” denotes a particular literary genre. But when Montaigne gives the title Essays to writing argumentative International College of Management, his books (from now on called the essay European University, book), he does not intend to designate the literary genre of the work so much as to writing College, refer to the spirit in which it is essay writings, written and the nature of the project out of which it emerges. How To Write Essay Of Southampton? The term is taken from the French verb “ essayer ,” which Montaigne employs in a variety of senses throughout his Essays , where it carries such meanings as “to attempt,” “to test,” “to exercise,” and “to experiment.” Each of these expressions captures an aspect of in english European Montaigne’s project in the Essays . Writing Long Essays? To translate the writings Cyprus, title of his book as “Attempts” would capture the modesty of how to write high school University Montaigne’s essays, while to translate it as “Tests” would reflect the essay in english University Cyprus, fact that he takes himself to be testing his judgment. Writing? “Exercises” would communicate the sense in which essaying is a way of working on European University, oneself, while “Experiments” would convey the exploratory spirit of the high University Los Angeles (UCLA), book. The Essays is a decidedly unsystematic work. The text itself is composed of 107 chapters or essays on a wide range of topics, including - to name a few - knowledge, education, love, the body, death, politics, the nature and power of custom, and the colonization of the New World. There rarely seems to writings University, be any explicit connection between one chapter and the next. Moreover, chapter titles are often only tangentially related to their contents. The lack of logical progression from one chapter to writing University Amsterdam, the next creates a sense of essay in english European University Cyprus disorder that is writing argumentative College (ICMS), compounded by Montaigne’s style, which can be described as deliberately nonchalant. Montaigne intersperses reportage of historical anecdotes and autobiographical remarks throughout the book, and most essays include a number of University digressions.

In some cases the digressions seem to writing a 3 paragraph essay Amsterdam, be due to Montaigne’s stream-of-consciousness style, while in others they are the result of his habit of inserting additions (sometimes just a sentence or two, other times a number of paragraphs) into essays years after they were first written. Finally, the nature of Montaigne’s project itself contributes to the disorderly style of writings in english University Cyprus his book. Part of that project, he tells us at the outset, is to paint a portrait of himself in words, and for Montaigne, this task is complicated by the conception he has of the nature of the self. In “Of repentance,” for example, he announces that while others try to school University Los Angeles, form man, he simply tells of a particular man, one who is constantly changing: I cannot keep my subject still. It goes along befuddled and staggering, with a natural drunkenness. I take it in this condition, just as it is at the moment I give my attention to it. Essay Writings In English European Cyprus? I do not portray being: I portray passing…. I may presently change, not only by school University Los Angeles (UCLA), chance, but also by intention.

This is essay writings Cyprus, a record of various and changeable occurrences, and of irresolute and, when it so befalls, contradictory ideas: whether I am different myself, or whether I take hold of my subjects in different circumstances and aspects. So, all in all, I may indeed contradict myself now and then; but truth, as Demades said, I do not contradict. (F 610) Given Montaigne’s expression of this conception of the self as a fragmented and ever-changing entity, it should come as no surprise that we find contradictions throughout the writing a 3 paragraph essay University Foundation Campus, Essays . Indeed, one of the apparent contradictions in Montaigne’s thought concerns his view of the self. While on the one hand he expresses the conception of the self outlined in writings University Cyprus, the passage above, in the very same essay - as if to illustrate the principle articulated above - he asserts that his self is unified by his judgment, which has remained essentially the argumentative essay articles Queen's, same his entire life. Essay Writings In English European Cyprus? Such apparent contradictions, in addition to Montaigne’s style and the structure that he gives his book, complicate the University Foundation, task of reading and have understandably led to essay in english, diverse interpretations of its contents. The stated purposes of Montaigne’s essays are almost as diverse as their contents. In addition to the pursuit of self-knowledge, Montaigne also identifies the how to an essay high school Los Angeles, cultivation of European his judgment and the presentation of essays Ashbury College a new ethical and philosophical figure to the reading public as fundamental goals of his project . There are two components to essay writings in english European, Montaigne’s pursuit of write an essay Los Angeles (UCLA) self-knowledge. The first is the attempt to understand the human condition in general.

This involves reflecting on the beliefs, values, and behavior of human beings as represented both in in english, literary, historical, and philosophical texts, and in his own experience. Research? The second is to writings European University Cyprus, understand himself as a particular human being. This involves recording and reflecting upon his own idiosyncratic tastes, habits, and dispositions. Thus in the Essays one finds a great deal of historical and autobiographical content, some of which seems arbitrary and insignificant. Yet for Montaigne, there is no detail that is insignificant when it comes to understanding ourselves: “each particle, each occupation, of a man betrays and reveals him just as well as any other” (F 220).

A second aim of essaying himself is to cultivate his judgment. For Montaigne, “judgment” refers to all of how to write a comparison essay University our intellectual faculties as well as to the particular acts of the essay writings European University, intellect; in effect, it denotes the interpretive lens through which we view the College, world. European? In essaying himself, he aims to cultivate his judgment in for Bournemouth University, a number of discrete but related ways. First, he aims to transform customary or habitual judgments into writings in english University reflective judgments by calling them into question. In a well-known passage from “Of custom, and not easily changing an accepted law,” Montaigne discusses how habit “puts to sleep the eye of our judgment.” To “wake up” his judgment from its habitual slumber, Montaigne must call into question those beliefs, values, and judgments that ordinarily go unquestioned. By doing so, he is International College, able to determine whether or not they are justifiable, and so whether to take full ownership of them or to abandon them. In this sense we can talk of European University Cyprus Montaigne essaying, or testing, his judgment. We find clear examples of this in essays such as “Of drunkenness” and “Of the resemblance of children to their fathers,” where he tests his pre-reflective attitudes toward drunkenness and doctors, respectively. Another aspect of the cultivation of judgment has to essay articles College, do with exercising it through simple practice.

Thus Montaigne writes that in writings in english European, composing his essays, he is presenting his judgment with opportunities to exercise itself: Judgment is a tool to for Bournemouth, use on writings in english European Cyprus, all subjects, and comes in everywhere. Therefore in the tests ( essais ) that I make of it here, I use every sort of occasion. If it is a subject I do not understand at all, even on that I essay my judgment, sounding the writing argumentative International College, ford from in english Cyprus, a good distance; and then, finding it too deep for my height, I stick to the bank. And this acknowledgment that I cannot cross over writing of Management (ICMS) is a token of its action, indeed one of those it is most proud of. Sometimes in a vain and nonexistent subject I try ( j’essaye ) to see if [my judgment] will find the wherewithal to give it body, prop it up, and support it. Sometimes I lead it to a noble and well-worn subject in which it has nothing original to discover, the road being so beaten that it can only walk in others’ footsteps. There it plays its part by choosing the essay, way that seems best to it, and of a thousand paths it says that this one or that was the most wisely chosen. (F 219) The third fundamental goal of essaying himself is to present his unorthodox way of how to an essay Los Angeles (UCLA) living and thinking to in english Cyprus, the reading public of 16 th century France. He often remarks his intense desire to make himself and his unusual ways known to others.

Living in a time of war and intolerance, in which men were concerned above all with honor and their appearance in the public sphere, Montaigne presents his own way of life as an attractive alternative. While he supports the monarchy and the Catholic Church, his support is measured and he is decidedly tolerant of other views and other ways of life (see, for example, “Of Cato the Younger”). (ICMS)? He vehemently opposes the violent and cruel behavior of many of the supporters of the essay in english European Cyprus, Catholic cause, and recognizes the writing a 3 essay University Amsterdam Foundation, humanity of those who oppose them. Espousing an openness antithetical to essay writings in english European, contemporary conventions, he openly declares his faults and failures, both moral and writing argumentative of Management intellectual. Finally, he emphasizes the values of private life and the fact that the true test of one’s character is how one behaves in private, not how one behaves in public. Essay Writings University? In other words, Montaigne challenges the martial virtues of the University, day that he believes have led to cruelty, hypocrisy, and war, by presenting himself as an example of the virtues of essay in english University gentleness, openness, and compromise. Just as Montaigne presents his ways of life in the ethical and political spheres as alternatives to argumentative College of Management, the ways common among his contemporaries, so he presents his ways of behaving in the intellectual sphere as alternatives to the common ways of thinking found among the learned. He consistently challenges the Aristotelian authority that governed the writings European Cyprus, universities of his day, emphasizing the particular over the universal, the concrete over the abstract, and experience over reason. Writing Essays? Rejecting the essay writings in english University Cyprus, form as well as the content of academic philosophy, he abandons the rigid style of the medieval quaestio for the meandering and disordered style of the essay. Moreover, he devalues the faculty of argumentative articles Queen's memory, so cultivated by renaissance orators and educators, and places good judgment in writings Cyprus, its stead as the most important intellectual faculty.

Finally, Montaigne emphasizes the personal nature of philosophy, and the value of research paper for Bournemouth self-knowledge over metaphysics. His concern is always with the present, the concrete, and the human. Rather than discursively arguing for the value of his ways of being, both moral and intellectual, Montaigne simply presents them to his readers: These are my humors and my opinions; I offer them as what I believe, not what is to be believed. I aim here only at revealing myself, who will perhaps be different tomorrow, if I learn something new which changes me. I have no authority to be believed, nor do I want it, feeling myself too ill-instructed to instruct others. (F 108) Yet while he disavows authority, he admits that he presents this portrait of himself in the hopes that others may learn from it (“Of practice”). Writings? Thus the end of essaying himself is simultaneously private and essay College public.

Montaigne desires to know himself, and to cultivate his judgment, and yet at the same time he seeks to writings in english European University, offer his ways of life as salutary alternatives to those around him. Montaigne is perhaps best known among philosophers for his skepticism. Just what exactly his skepticism amounts to has been the writing of Management (ICMS), subject of considerable scholarly debate. Given the fact that he undoubtedly draws inspiration for his skepticism from his studies of the ancients, the tendency has been for scholars to locate him in one of the writings in english, ancient skeptical traditions. While some interpret him as a modern Pyrrhonist, others have emphasized what they take to be the influence of the Academics. Still other scholars have argued that while there are clearly skeptical moments in his thought, characterizing Montaigne as a skeptic fails to capture the nature of Montaigne’s philosophical orientation. Each of these readings captures an aspect of how to a comparison University Montaigne’s thought, and consideration of the virtues of each of European University them in turn provides us with a fairly comprehensive view of Montaigne’s relation to the various philosophical positions that we tend to identify as “skeptical.” The Pyrrhonian skeptics, according to Sextus Empiricus’ Outlines of Pyrrhonism , use skeptical arguments to bring about how to write a comparison contrast essay University what they call equipollence between opposing beliefs. Essay In English University Cyprus? Once they recognize two mutually exclusive and equipollent arguments for and against a certain belief, they have no choice but to suspend judgment. This suspension of judgment, they say, is followed by tranquility, or peace of mind, which is the goal of their philosophical inquiry.

In “Apology for Raymond Sebond,” Montaigne expresses great admiration for the Pyrrhonists and their ability to maintain the freedom of their judgment by avoiding commitment to any particular theoretical position. We find him employing the skeptical tropes introduced by Sextus in order to arrive at equipollence and then the suspension of how to essay of Southampton judgment concerning a number of theoretical issues, from the nature of the divine to the veracity of perception. In other essays, such as the very first essay of his book, ”By diverse means we arrive at the same end,” Montaigne employs skeptical arguments to essay writings, bring about the suspension of judgment concerning practical matters, such as whether the best way to obtain mercy is by submission or defiance. Introducing historical examples that speak for each of the two positions, he concludes that “truly man is a marvelously vain, diverse, and undulating object. It is hard to found any constant and uniform judgment on paragraph University, him” (F 5). We cannot arrive at any certain conclusion regarding practical matters any more than we can regarding theoretical matters. If there are equipollent arguments for and against any practical course of action, however, we might wonder how Montaigne is to avoid the practical paralysis that would seem to follow from the suspension of judgment. In English? Here Sextus tells us that Pyrrhonists do not suffer from practical paralysis because they allow themselves to be guided by the way things seem to a comparison essay University, them, all the while withholding assent regarding the veracity of these appearances. Thus Pyrrhonists are guided by passive acceptance of what Sextus calls the “fourfold observances”: guidance by nature, necessitation by feelings, the essay writings in english Cyprus, handing down of laws and customs, and the teaching of kinds of essay articles College expertise. The Pyrrhonist, then, having no reason to oppose what seems evident to her, will seek food when hungry, avoid pain, abide by local customs, and consult experts when necessary – all without holding any theoretical opinions or beliefs.

In certain cases, Montaigne seems to abide by the fourfold observances himself. At one point in ”Apology for Raymond Sebond,” for instance, he seems to suggest that his allegiance to the Catholic Church is writings in english University Cyprus, due to the fact that he was raised Catholic and paper for Bournemouth University Catholicism is the traditional religion of his country. In other words, it appears that his behavior is the result of adherence to the fourfold observances of Sextus. This has led some scholars, most notably Richard Popkin, to interpret him as a skeptical fideist who is arguing that because we have no reasons to abandon our customary beliefs and practices, we should remain loyal to them. Essay In English? Indeed, Catholics would employ this argument in the Counter-Reformation movement of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Research For Bournemouth University? (Nonetheless, the in english European, Essays would also come to paragraph University Foundation, be placed on writings in english Cyprus, the Catholic Church’s Index of College Prohibited Books in writings in english European Cyprus, the late seventeenth century, where it would remain for nearly two hundred years.) Yet, for all the affinities between Montaigne and the Pyrrhonists, he does not always suspend judgment, and he does not take tranquility to be the goal of his philosophical inquiry. Thus Montaigne at times appears to have more in common with the Academic Skeptics than with the Pyrrhonists. For the Academics, at certain points in writing a 3 paragraph essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, the history of essay writings in english Cyprus their school, seem to writing argumentative, have allowed for admitting that some judgments are more probable or justified than others, thereby permitting themselves to make judgments, albeit with a clear sense of their fallibility. Another hallmark of essay Cyprus Academic Skepticism was the (ICMS), strategy of dialectically assuming the premises of their interlocutors in order to show that they lead to in english Cyprus, conclusions at write a comparison of Southampton, odds with the interlocutors’ beliefs.

Montaigne seems to employ this argumentative strategy in European, the “Apology for Raymond Sebond.” There Montaigne dialectically accepts the premises of Sebond’s critics in order to how to write a comparison contrast University of Southampton, reveal the presumption and confusion involved in their objections to Sebond’s project. For example, Montaigne shows that according to the understanding of knowledge held by Sebond’s secular critics, there can be no knowledge. European? This is not the dogmatic conclusion that it has appeared to be to some scholars, since Montaigne’s conclusion is founded upon argumentative essay articles Queen's a premise that he himself clearly rejects. In English European Cyprus? If we understand knowledge as Sebond’s critics do, then there can be no knowledge. But there is no reason why we must accept their notion of knowledge in the first place. International (ICMS)? In this way, just as the Academic Skeptics argued that their Stoic opponents ought to essay writings in english European, suspend judgment, given the Stoic principles to which they subscribe, so Montaigne shows that Sebond’s secular critics must suspend judgment, given the epistemological principles that they claim to espouse. While many scholars, then, justifiably speak of Montaigne as a modern skeptic in one sense or another, there are others who emphasize aspects of research paper for Bournemouth University his thought that separate him from the skeptical tradition.

Such scholars point out that many interpretations of Montaigne as a fundamentally skeptical philosopher tend to focus on “Apology for Raymond Sebond,” Montaigne’s most skeptical essay. In English European University Cyprus? When we take a broader view of the Essays as a whole, we find that Montaigne’s employment of skeptical tropes is fairly limited and that for Montaigne, strengthening his judgment – one of his avowed goals in the Essays – does not amount to learning how to eliminate his beliefs. While working on his judgment often involves setting opinions against each other, it also often culminates in a judgment regarding the truth of these opinions. Thus Ann Hartle, for high University of California, (UCLA) instance, has argued that Montaigne’s thought is best understood as dialectical. In a similar vein, Hugo Friedrich has pointed out essay European Cyprus that Montaigne’s skepticism is not fundamentally destructive. How To Write A Comparison University? According to Friedrich, in cataloguing the diversity of human opinions and practices Montaigne does not wish to eliminate our beliefs but rather to display the fullness of reality. Interpreting Montaigne as a skeptic, then, requires a good deal of qualification. While he does suspend judgment concerning certain issues, and he does pit opinions and customs against essay in english Cyprus one another in order to undermine customary ways of thinking and behaving, his skepticism is certainly not systematic. Essays Ashbury College? He does not attempt to suspend judgment universally, and he does not hesitate to maintain metaphysical beliefs that he knows he cannot justify.

Thus the spirit of writings European Cyprus his skepticism is not characterized by principles such as “I suspend judgment,” or “Nothing can be known,” but rather, by his motto, the question “What do I know?” Moreover, as Montaigne demonstrates, constantly essaying oneself does lead one to a 3 of Amsterdam — Amsterdam, become more diffident of his or her judgment. In English European? Montaigne’s remarks are almost always prefaced by acknowledgments of their fallibility: “I like these words, which soften and moderate the rashness of our propositions: ‘perhaps,’ ‘to some extent,’ ‘some,’ ‘they say,’ ‘I think,’ and the like” (F 788). But it does not necessarily lead one to the epistemological anxiety or despair characteristic of modern forms of skepticism. Rather than despairing at long Ashbury, his ignorance and seeking to essay writings in english European Cyprus, escape it at how to write a comparison contrast essay, all costs, he wonders at it and takes it to be an essential part of the European, self-portrait that is his Essays . Moreover, he considers the clear-sighted recognition of his ignorance an accomplishment insofar as it represents a victory over the presumption that he takes to be endemic to the human condition. One of the primary targets of how to essay Montaigne’s skeptical attack against presumption is ethnocentrism, or the belief that one’s culture is superior to others and therefore is the standard against which all other cultures, and their moral beliefs and practices, should be measured. This belief in the moral and cultural superiority of Cyprus one’s own people, Montaigne finds, is widespread. It seems to be the default belief of all human beings.

The first step toward undermining this prejudice is to display the sheer multiplicity of human beliefs and practices. Thus, in writing a 3 paragraph essay University Amsterdam Foundation, essays such as “Of some ancient customs,” “Of Custom, and writings in english European University Cyprus not easily changing an accepted law,” and “Apology for a 3 paragraph essay University Amsterdam Campus Raymond Sebond” Montaigne catalogues the variety of behaviors to be found in the world in order to draw attention to the contingency of his own cultural norms. By reporting many customs that are direct inversions of contemporary European customs, he creates something like an essay writings European University Cyprus, inverted world for his readers, stunning their judgment by forcing them to question which way is up: here men urinate standing up and women do so sitting down; elsewhere it is the opposite. Here incest is frowned upon; in other cultures it is the how to an essay school University Los Angeles (UCLA), norm. Here we bury our dead; there they eat them. Here we believe in the immortality of the soul; in other societies such a belief is nonsense. Montaigne is not terribly optimistic about reforming the prejudices of his contemporaries, for simply reminding them of the apparent contingency of their own practices in most cases will not be enough. The power of custom over our habits and beliefs, he argues, is stronger than we tend to recognize. Indeed, Montaigne devotes almost as much time in the Essays to discussing the power of custom to shape the way we see the world as he does to revealing the various customs that he has come across in his reading and his travels.

Custom, whether personal or social, puts to essay writings European University, sleep the eye of our judgment, thereby tightening its grip over us, since its effects can only be diminished through deliberate and self-conscious questioning. It begins to seem as if it is impossible to escape custom’s power over our judgment: “Each man calls barbarism whatever is not his own practice; for indeed it seems we have no other test of argumentative essay Queen's College truth and reason than the example and pattern of the opinions and customs of the country we live in” (F 152). Montaigne’s concern with custom and cultural diversity, combined with his rejection of ethnocentrism, has led many scholars to argue that Montaigne is a moral relativist, that is, that he holds that that there is no objective moral truth and writings Cyprus that therefore moral values are simply expressions of conventions that enjoy widespread acceptance at a given time and place. Yet Montaigne never explicitly expresses his commitment to moral relativism, and essays College there are aspects of the Essays that seem to contradict such an interpretation, as other scholars have noted. These other scholars are inclined to interpret Montaigne as committed to moral objectivism, or the theory that there is in fact objective moral truth, and essay Cyprus they point to a number of aspects of the Essays that would support such an interpretation. First, Montaigne does not hesitate to criticize the writing paragraph Foundation Campus, practices of other cultures. Essay European Cyprus? For instance, in writing International College of Management (ICMS), “Of cannibals,” after praising the essay writings European University, virtues of the cannibals, he criticizes them for certain behaviors that he identifies as morally vicious. For a relativist, such criticism would be unintelligible: if there is how to a comparison University, no objective moral truth, it makes little sense to criticize others for having failed to writings European, abide by it.

Rather, since there is no external standard by which to judge other cultures, the only logical course of action is to pass over them in silence. Then there are moments when Montaigne seems to refer to writing College (ICMS), categorical duties, or moral obligations that are not contingent upon either our own preferences or cultural norms (see, for example, the conclusion of “Of cruelty”). Finally, Montaigne sometimes seems to allude to the existence of objective moral truth, for instance in “Of some verses of Virgil” and “Of the useful and the honorable,” where he distinguishes between relative and absolute values. Thus Montaigne’s position regarding moral relativism remains the subject of scholarly dispute. What is not a matter of dispute, however, is that Montaigne was keenly interested in undermining his readers’ thoughtless attitudes towards members of essay in english European University cultures different from their own, and that his account of the force of custom along with his critique of ethnocentrism had an impact on important later thinkers (see below). Morally and politically, Montaigne has often been interpreted as a forerunner of modern liberalism.

This is due to his presentation of himself as a lover a freedom who is tolerant of difference and who wishes to maintain a rather robust distinction between the private and public spheres. The question of the extent to which he is trying to transform the political values of his contemporaries, as well as the question of the extent to which Montaigne takes his position to be founded upon metaphysical principles, are both subjects of argumentative essay articles debate. Some read him as writing the Essays with primarily political intentions, and among those who subscribe to essay writings University, such a reading, there is disagreement as to the nature of long Ashbury College his argument. On the one hand, some scholars argue that Montaigne’s political prescriptions are grounded on a theory of human nature combined with skepticism concerning the possibility of obtaining knowledge of transcendent truth. On the essay in english University Cyprus, other hand, some interpret Montaigne in essays Ashbury College, a more postmodern vein, arguing that he is essay Cyprus, not so much making an how to an essay of California,, argument on the basis of truth claims as he is Cyprus, simply changing the articles College, subject, diverting the attention of essay Cyprus his readers away from the realm of the transcendent and its categorical obligations to the temporal realm and its private pleasures. Still others hold that politics does not occupy the central place in the Essays that some might think, and that the political content of the Essays is neither dogmatic nor rhetorical, but rather is part and parcel of his fundamental project of seeking self-knowledge for himself and inspiring that same desire in how to school of California, Los Angeles, others.

On this interpretation, Montaigne’s political project is much more modest. He is simply offering a new moral and political figure to be considered, inviting readers to reflect for themselves on European Cyprus, their own beliefs and practices in an effort to act as a Socratic gadfly to the slumbering French body politic. Articles College? While it must be left to the reader to decide the extent to which a full-fledged political doctrine can be discovered in the Essays , as well as whether Montaigne is attempting to exert direct influence over his readers, it is nonetheless possible to essay writings European Cyprus, identify a number of attitudes, values, and commitments that are central both to Montaigne’s moral and political thought and to modern liberalism. First and foremost is Montaigne’s commitment to tolerance. Always amazed at the diversity of the forms of life that exist in essay Queen's, the world, Montaigne consistently remarks his tolerant attitude toward those whose ways of life or fundamental beliefs and values differ from his own; he is not threatened by such disagreements, and he does not view those who are different as in need of correction: I do not share that common error of judging another by myself. I easily believe that another man may have qualities different from mine. Because I feel myself tied down to one form, I do not oblige everybody else to espouse it, as all others do.

I believe in and conceive a thousand contrary ways of life ( facons de vie ); and in contrast with the common run of men, I more easily admit difference than resemblance between us. I am as ready as you please to acquit another man from sharing my conditions and principles. I consider him simply in himself, without relation to others; I mold him to his own model. (F 169) While radical skepticism does not in and of writings European University Cyprus itself entail a tolerant attitude towards others, it seems that Montaigne’s more modest skepticism, if combined with a commitment to an objective moral order the nature of which he cannot demonstrate, might explain his unwillingness to research for Bournemouth, condemn those who are different. Montaigne’s commitment to toleration of difference produces a fairly robust distinction between the private and essay writings University public spheres in his thought. When discussing his tenure as mayor in “Of husbanding your will,” for example, he insists that there is a clear distinction to be made between Montaigne the mayor and Montaigne himself. He performs his office dutifully, but he does not identify himself with his public persona or his role as citizen, and Ashbury he believes that there are limits to writings in english European Cyprus, what may be expected from writing long, him by University, the state.

Similarly, he makes a sharp distinction between true friendship and the sort of acquaintances produced by write a comparison, working relationships. While he believes he owes everything to his friends and he expects the same in return, from those with whom he is bound by some professional relationship, he expects nothing but the competent performance of their offices. Their religion or their sexual habits, for example, are no concern of his (see “Of friendship”). In part, Montaigne’s tolerance and his commitment to the separation of the private and public spheres are the products of his attitude towards happiness. Aristotelianism and Christianity, the two dominant intellectual forces of Montaigne’s time, emphasize the objective character of essay in english European University Cyprus human happiness, the core content of which is fundamentally the same for all members of the human species. These conceptions of happiness each rest on the notion of paper for Bournemouth a universal human nature. Cyprus? Montaigne, so impressed by a 3 paragraph University Amsterdam Foundation, the diversity that he finds among human beings, speaks of happiness in terms of a subjective state of mind, a type of satisfaction which differs from particular human being to particular human being (see “That the taste of good and evil depends in large part on the opinion we have of them,” “Apology for Raymond Sebond,” and “Of experience”). Convinced of the possibility that the content of happiness differs so significantly from one person to the next, Montaigne wishes to preserve a private sphere in which individuals can attempt to realize that happiness without having to in english Cyprus, contend with the interference of society. Another distinctively modern feature of Montaigne’s moral thought is the fact that when he treats moral issues, he almost always does so without appealing to theology. This is not to say that he does not believe that God underwrites the principles of morality (an issue which cannot be decided on the basis of the text), but simply that Montaigne’s moral discourse is research paper for Bournemouth University, not underwritten by theology, but rather by empathetic concerns for essay writings in english European University the well being of the other and the preservation of the social bond. Thus he identifies cruelty to other living beings as the extreme of all vices (see “Of cruelty”), while dishonesty comes second in writing a 3 paragraph essay University Foundation Campus, Montaigne’s ordering of the vices, since as human beings we are held together chiefly by our word (see “Of giving the lie”).

Other vices he treats in terms of the degree to which they clash with society. So, for instance, he finds that drunkenness is essay in english University Cyprus, not altogether bad, as it is not always harmful to society and writing essays Ashbury it provides pleasures that add greatly to our enjoyment of life (“Of drunkenness”). Montaigne has been thought by some to have been a hedonist, and while others would disagree with this interpretation, there is no doubt that he thinks pleasure is an integral part of a happy human life, and a very real motivating force in human actions, whether virtuous or vicious. Much of his ethical reflection centers around the question of how to live as a human being , rather than as a beast or an angel, and he argues that those who disdain pleasure and attempt to in english University, achieve moral perfection as individuals, or who expect political perfection from states, end up resembling beasts more than angels. Thus throughout the Essays the acceptance of imperfection, both in individual human beings and in social and articles Queen's College political entities, is thematic. This acceptance of imperfection as a condition of human private and essay writings European Cyprus social life, when combined with his misgivings about those who earnestly seek perfection, leads Montaigne to what has appeared to some as a commitment to political conservatism. Yet this conservatism is not grounded in theoretical principles that endorse monarchy or the status quo as good in writing International, and of itself. Rather, his conservatism is the product of circumstance.

As he writes in “Of custom, and not easily changing an accepted law,” he has witnessed firsthand the disastrous effects of attempts at political innovation, and essay European University this has led him to be generally suspicious of attempts to writing argumentative (ICMS), improve upon political institutions in anything more than a piecemeal fashion. Yet this rule is not without its exceptions. In the next breath he expresses the in english Cyprus, view that there are times when innovation is called for, and how to high school University (UCLA) it is the essay European Cyprus, work of judgment to of Management, determine when those times arise. Montaigne’s influence has been diverse and widespread. In the seventeenth century, it was his skepticism that proved most influential among philosophers and theologians. After Montaigne’s death, his friend Pierre Charron, himself a prominent Catholic theologian, produced two works, Les Trois Veritez (1594) and La Sagesse (1601), that drew heavily from the Essays . The former was primarily a theological treatise that united Pyrrhonian skepticism and Christian negative theology in an attempt to undermine Protestant challenges to the authority of the Catholic Church. The latter was more philosophically oriented, and is considered by writings in english Cyprus, many to be little more than a systematized version of “Apology for Raymond Sebond.” Nonetheless, it was immensely popular, and consequently it served as a conduit for Montaigne’s thought to many readers in the first part of the research paper for Bournemouth University, seventeenth century.

There is also clear evidence of Montaigne’s influence on Descartes, particularly in the latter’s Discourse on Method . There, in addition to skepticism, Descartes took up a number of Montaignian themes, such as the diversity of essay writings in english University values and practices among human beings, the power of custom to write a comparison essay University of Southampton, govern our judgment, and in english European Cyprus the decision, after having recognized that the philosophers have been unable to bring any of their questions to a decision after centuries of investigation, to engage in self-study. Ultimately, of course, Descartes parted ways with Montaigne quite decisively when he developed his dogmatic accounts of knowledge, the nature of the soul, and the existence of a comparison contrast essay of Southampton God. Pascal, on the other hand, also profoundly influenced by the Essays , concluded that reason cannot answer the theoretical question of the existence of University God, and that therefore it was necessary to inquire into the practical rationality of religious belief. In the eighteenth century, the attention of the French philosophes focused not so much on Montaigne’s skepticism as on his portrayal of indigenous peoples of the long essays College, New World, such as the tribe he describes in “Of cannibals.” Inspired by Montaigne’s recognition of the noble virtues of such people, Denis Diderot and Jean-Jacques Rousseau created the writings in english University Cyprus, ideal of the “noble savage,” which figured significantly in their moral philosophies. Meanwhile, in Scotland, David Hume’s Treatise of research Human Nature showed traces of Montaigne’s influence, as did his Essays, Moral and Political . A century later, Montaigne would become a favorite of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Friedrich Nietzsche.

In Emerson’s essay “Montaigne; or, the essay in english, Skeptic,” he extols the virtues of Montaigne’s brand of skepticism and remarks Montaigne’s capacity to present himself in the fullness of his being on the written page: “The sincerity and marrow of the man reaches into his sentences. I know not anywhere the book that seems less written. Cut these words, and they would bleed; they are vascular and writing essays alive.” Nietzsche, for essay writings European his part, admired Montaigne’s clear-sighted honesty and his ability to both appreciate and communicate the joy of existence. In Schopenhauer as Educator , he writes of Montaigne: “the fact that such a man has written truly adds to the joy of living on this earth.” In the twentieth century Montaigne was identified as a forerunner of various contemporary movements, such as postmodernism and pragmatism. Judith Shklar, in her book Ordinary Vices , identified Montaigne as the first modern liberal, by which she meant that Montaigne was the first to argue that cruelty is the worst thing that we do. In Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity , Richard Rorty borrowed Shklar’s definition of a liberal to introduce the figure of the “liberal ironist.” Rorty’s description of the liberal ironist as someone who is both a radical skeptic and a liberal in writing, Shklar’s sense has led some to interpret Montaigne as having been a liberal ironist himself.

As many scholars have noted, the style of the Essays makes them amenable to a wide range of interpretations, which explains the fact that many thinkers with diverse worldviews have found the Essays to be a mirror in which they see their own reflection, albeit perhaps clarified to some degree by writings Cyprus, Montaigne’s penetrating insights into human nature. This would not be inconsistent with Montaigne’s purposes. In essaying himself publicly, he essays his readers as well, and in demonstrating a method of argumentative essay articles Queen's achieving self-knowledge, he undoubtedly intends to offer readers opportunities for self-discovery.

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Toys R Us Marketing Strategies: Success #038; Failure Essay. Introduction – There are many factors at play with regards to the rise of the toy company Toys R Us in global renown. One of the crucial factors at play here is the essay writings Cyprus, role of marketing and how the company’s marketing contributed immensely during the periods of great success and humbling defeat for the company. Toys R Us managed to realize one of the paragraph essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation, effective business formulas: sell something with a consistent market, and the toys that the company sell always have kids eagerly waiting for every doll, action figure, bicycle or basketball that adults will purchase at Toys R Us, lovingly wrap in a gift wrapper and lodge under the essay, Christmas tree or by the kid’s bedside. Unfortunately, the formula for success for argumentative articles Queen's College Toys R Us is not as simple as gift-wrapping or gift-giving, and this paper will try to identify some of the essay writings in english University Cyprus, key points that mark the success and failure of writing long Ashbury College, Toys R Us’ marketing strategies and efforts and provide an analysis on why things led to in english University Cyprus such eventuality. Successful marketing – There is no doubt that the marketing efforts of writing paragraph University Campus, Toys R Us in in english European Cyprus, the past were indeed successful. The company is school of California, (UCLA), very good in letting people know that Toys R Us is the place to go to for toys. The marketing effort of Toys R Us was so good that despite the essay European Cyprus, fact that most critiques do not find the stores of Toys R Us as at the very least appealing and enjoyable, parents and paragraph University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation, other adults in essay in english Cyprus, need of writing argumentative International College (ICMS), toys buck the Toys R Us experience simply because Toys R Us was able to stand true to the message of its marketing strategy – that every single toy is found inside every Toys R Us. Diorio (2001) wrote about this particular scenario wherein marketing and advertising totally outplayed the factors that might have pushed customers away, saying that “Toys R Us built a brand experience that brought customers into noisy, cavernous warehouses, where bikes and dolls and baby strollers were packed to the rafters and writings in english European, children were drag-racing around the aisles in shopping carts. International Of Management (ICMS)? Despite these unappealing features, adults packed the store, especially during the essay writings Cyprus, holiday season, because the Toys R Us brand was esteemed for its breadth and write a comparison University of Southampton, depth of inventory. Whatever the European, hot toy of the moment was, a parent could find it at argumentative College of Management (ICMS) Toys R Us (Diorio, 2001, p. Essay Writings In English European Cyprus? 75).”

Toys R Us, despite the argumentative, problems it faced in the past, should be commended nonetheless for the efforts that it continually explores and undertakes to provide its marketing strategy with the much needed flexibility. Toys R Us and its marketing efforts and strategies have consistently considered both the changing features of in english European University Cyprus, its target market as well as the changes happening among its production and manufacturing alliances. In doing so, Toys R Us and its marketing is providing the of Management, company with flexibility and more options for writings their current and future marketing attack. “Age compression has meant shorter and shorter life cycles. Therefore, toy retailers [and] manufacturers need to accelerate their response to the market. Toys R Us is proceeding in the right direction by how to write an essay high school University of California, Los Angeles, helping manufacturers to design toys. A proactive strategy with manufacturers that might even result in partnership marketing should be favorably viewed (Michman, Mazze, 2001, p. 204).” Seiter (2003) pointed out that “Behind My Little Pony and Ghostbusters toys stand developments and writings Cyprus, strategies now institutionalized in the US toy industry today; deseasonalization, the encouragement of toy buying at times other than the Christmas season; character licensing, the use of popular fictional characters for how to essay a fee or a share of the profits as the design or decoration on toys; consumer research, in the form of test marketing; and line extensions, new characters and accessories added to successful toys (Seiter, 2003, p. 194).” This idea points to the changing social condition which Toys R Us, through its intuitive marketing acumen, took full advantage of. No one is really sure which institution started the cycle that made the shift possible and writings in english European, society-altering; some say its television and the mass media while others say that there were conscious efforts for research for Bournemouth toy makers to add an additional thrust so that there is an every growing consciousness for the need to essay European Cyprus buy their products; some say it is the handiwork of the businessmen who foresaw the social changes that will make it perfect for the new role of toys in the human social life while others simply believe that it was a case of everything coming together and hitting the once in a lifetime jackpot that established the toy store as one of the Queen's, legitimate and solid industry in the facade of the modern business world.

Whatever the real reason was, the only thing certain is that Toys R Us and its marketing efforts were clearly in tune with the changes that happened in the course of time, allowing them to establish a niche for itself and a name that many other companies would attempt to defeat in the years to come. For what it is now, Toys R Us clearly owes it to strong and solid marketing of the brand. Marketing and essay European University, cross cultural efforts – Another solid point for research for Bournemouth University Toys R Us marketing is the vision of the company to expand outwards towards foreign countries and essay European, develop plans for cross cultural marketing which fitted like a glove. Take for example the case of the Toys R Us expansion in Japan: despite the writing long, prevailing status quo when it comes to toy marketing and selling, the pre-Toys R Us Japan have a more complex way of doing things, something that they are not ready to disregard in exchange for the new Americanized system. But because of the insistence and soundness of the approach that Toys R Us is writings in english University, bent on taking when it comes to how to write an essay their marketing and overall efforts in the Land of the Rising Sun, Japan and writings in english European Cyprus, its erstwhile unwavering style in toy selling finally yielded to the pressure made by argumentative essay articles Queen's College, Toys R Us. As Herbig (2005) noted in his book Handbook of Cross-Cultural Marketing, “Japanese toy manufacturers have traditionally sold through the convoluted, multi-tiered distribution system of Japan and initially refused to sell Toys R Us. Toys R Us retained its marketing strategy of essay writings, signing low-cost direct supply contracts with manufacturers who also provided promotional funds. Argumentative College Of Management? Toys R Us, by buying direct from manufacturers, eliminated the multiple layers of wholesalers which was so prevalent in essay writings University Cyprus, Japan (Herbig, 2005, p. 197).” The result was fast growth and essay Queen's College, great market acceptance.

By the writings Cyprus, time the company marked its second year stay in the island, Toys R Us already have 16 superstores, and it will increase to up to 35 two years later. The Japan operations of Toys R Us were letter perfect and yielded a very positive income report, even surpassing the $10 million dollars that the writing argumentative College of Management, US companies earned via the 20 million US dollars worth of income in the Japan base of operation. Clearly, the Japan expansion of Toys R Us once again showed the writings University, strength not just of the company’s operational capability, but also highlighted the success in the market project and marketing efforts that the company have designed and pursued in an essay high Los Angeles, the belief that it was the action plan necessary for success. Barging inside the essay writings European University, tightly-knit culture of Japan and paper for Bournemouth University, cornering the supply of one of the important aspects of Japanese childhood is no easy feat, especially with the fact that almost every business entity in Japan – wholesalers, retailers, owners of essay, lots for lease, etc – were hesitant to writing long College support the American brand that brings with it the American culture of trade and commerce. But Toys R Us managed to survive and essay in english University, pass with flying colors, a feat owed largely to the solid marketing of the company, making Toys R Us and its efforts in its Japan expansion one of the how to a comparison essay, textbook cases in essay in english Cyprus, cross cultural marketing.

As Melville (1999) puts it in University Foundation Campus, his book, “Toys R Us came to be as a test case, and it did successfully enter and challenged established Japanese toy wholesaler-retailers in price, variety and patronage. Its presence came as part of double blow to local toy suppliers, who were hit soon after by the recession. In 1991, the year Toys R Us entered Japan, seven Japanese toy retailers went bankrupt; in just the first ten months of 1996 there were 15 toy retailer bankruptcies (Melville, 1999, 198).” The failure in the Dutch front – While Toys R Us showed strength in marketing in the Japan front, there are also some weak spot for the overall cross cultural effort of Toys R Us. One of the essay writings University Cyprus, examples of the failures of the Toys R Us when it comes to writing argumentative College (ICMS) marketing competitively globally through sound marketing strategies happened in the Dutch operations of Toys R Us. When Toys R Us tried to establish itself as the toy supplier giant among the Dutch as it was among US and Japanese consumers, Toys R Us found out that its marketing strategies and efforts, along with some logistic and operational concerns, where not sufficient and sound enough to break the existing toy store blocs found in the country.

As Furse (2007) noted in his book The Law of Merger control in the EC and the UK, “Toys R Us was one of the largest toys retailers in the world, and the Dutch subsidiary was wholly owned by writings in english European Cyprus, the US parent. However, in the Dutch market, the Commission accepted that Toys R Us suffered from how to a comparison contrast of Southampton structural weaknesses and made marketing errors which severely limited its ability to in english compete strongly on the Dutch market (Furse, 2007, p. 175).” US cross cultural marketing – But the idea of cross cultural marketing strategy that Toys R Us was brandishing in countries outside of the United States will be put to good use when the issue of producing ethnically correct toys hit the consciousness of Toys R Us to brass. Despite being hailed as the land of the how to contrast University, free where everyone is created equal under God, the writings European University, gods of for Bournemouth University, toymaking seemed to be not putting too much attention to the fact that there is a growing concern in the fact that not all girls with ethnic background wants to be transformed into essay writings in english European University Cyprus the blonde, leggy Barbie; some are voicing concerns over the fact that despite being dubbed as the store with the largest selection of writing International College of Management (ICMS), toys, Toys R Us do not hold sufficient number of toys which are ethnically correct. The question now for Toys R Us is this – what if all of the essay writings in english University Cyprus, non-white girls clamor for dolls with skin color similar to them? The Barbie supply line cannot answer that, and counting the number of Ashbury, patrons that the company is set to lose if actions are not made immediately to address the supply of ethnically correct dolls, Toys R Us knew it did not need a calculator to have an writings Cyprus, overview of an impending massive income loss, ergo the shift towards supporting the creation and sale of ethnically correct toys. Chin (2001) wrote, “For minority toymakers, attempting to refashion the racial diversity on the shelves of a large retailer like Toys R Us or Target, their task is convincing these eight-hundred-pound gorillas that ethnically correct toys can make money, not that stocking their stores with a multicultural array of toys is the socially progressive thing to do. Toys R Us has been very supportive of up-and-coming manufacturers of ethnically correct toys notably Olmec and Playmates (Chin, 2001, p.161).” Signs of uncertainty in the marketing front – Some analysts wonder why it took so long for argumentative essay articles College Toys R Us to jump into the e-commerce bandwagon and protect its new sales channel: online purchasing. Kalakota and Robinson (2000) believed that Toys R Us, along with other big named entities, are not very much sold to the idea of essay in english European University Cyprus, selling online, guessing the reasons why these entities they called the paragraph essay University of Amsterdam — Foundation, ‘traditionalists’ are not willing disciples of the essay writings European Cyprus, new form of trade which many consumer opted for because of convenience, above all the other reasons. The unsure stance of Toys R Us when it comes to embracing e-commerce was no doubt one of the reasons why its marketing aspect experienced a temporary glitch.

But Toys R Us have a reason for opting towards hard, solid traditional marketing and market strategy. Research For Bournemouth University? “Opposing the trend and protecting the status quo are the old guard, big retailers such as Toys R Us, and manufacturers of brand names, such as Mattel, Hasbro, and Parker Brothers. The traditionalists are worried that selling to customers directly will wreak havoc on their finely tuned retail channels, pricing structures, and channel distribution (Kalakota and essay in english University, Robinson, 2000, p. 36).” The Folly of Toys R Us – Some would say that one way of looking at Toys R Us’ problematic 1999 year ender is to consider that the problem of the company originated from the argumentative articles College, fact that it was very, very good in marketing and advertising. But of essay, course, that is just one piece of the truth. A 3 Paragraph Essay University Amsterdam Campus? They were very, very good in essay in english European, advertising and marketing but was at how to school University (UCLA) the same time very, very bad in in english University Cyprus, logistics, preparation and management that the incompetency in the production and management line was somewhat attributed to writing (ICMS) the marketing and essay writings, advertising teams’ strong and consistent effort. People might ask what happened and how come some fingers are pointing towards the efficiency of marketing and advertising efforts for the problem that haunted Toys R Us before, during and a few months after the Christmas season. Here is a retrospective of the research paper for Bournemouth University, scenario that set off one of the most horrible moments in the history of Toys R Us and the performance of its marketing, advertising and essay writings European University Cyprus, production and stock inventory teams. By 1998, e-commerce was experiencing a very good upswing when it comes to consumer dependency on argumentative essay articles Queen's College, online purchasing.

Among those which were sought and paid online were toys. By Christmas, the writings, peak of the toy-buying frenzy, Toys R Us, with its weaker online presence compared to its competitors, was nowhere near the writing College of Management, top 20, let alone the top slot. Diorio (2001) reported about Toys R Us’ dismal performance online, “Online, Toys R Us got a late start into essay in english University electronic selling. First mover advantage went to long essays, which became the fifth-most-visited retail website over writings University the 1998 Christmas season. Write Essay Of Southampton? came in essay in english European, a dismal 33rd in the same year’s ranking and posted a $132 million net loss for the quarter (Diorio, 2001, p. 75).” Because of this humiliating experience, Toys R Us promised to return with a vengeance, and it did. Bolstered by a strong online presence the following year, Toys R Us is positioned where they should have been the previous year, at the top of the a 3 paragraph University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, list of consumers who are looking at buying their toy supplies for the season online. By the time Toys R Us knew they were top of store based and internet based toy selling, everyone was satisfied with the essay writings in english European University, way marketing and advertising outmuscled the odds and reversed the an essay high, situation at Toys R Us in less than twelve months. But the air of celebration will be short lived, because an impending tragedy is set to hit Toys R Us, impacting them with the same blow as they experience the previous year, only in a different form.

With orders coming from online purchasers for toys pouring in a fast pace, the company found out soon that it does not have enough to cater to in english European University customers. Long before Christmas, the company stopped receiving and taking online orders, and many consumers were outraged over Toys R Us, with what seemed to be a case of misleading marketing and research paper for Bournemouth University, advertising campaigns by the company; for the consumers, it was simple – they were made by the marketing and advertising efforts to believe at something that the company cannot really deliver. “In the debacle that followed, lawsuits were filed, thousands of writings Cyprus, disgruntled customers were issued credits and write an essay high school University (UCLA), $100 gift certificates, and the company paid a $350,000 fine to the US Federal Trade Commission to settle claims that it had misled customers. Hundreds of news reports disparaged the company name. While eToys also reported some inventory problems, the brand damage was far worse at Toys R Us (Diorio, 2001, p. Essay Writings? 75).” Conclusion – Over the years of long essays College, its operation, Toys R Us have learned many important lessons because of its success and failure in the marketing side of operations. Essay Cyprus? Take for example the meltdown in 1999; the important marketing strategies that Toys R Us learned from that particular experience include customer care and the opting for intelligent operations for particular course of action.

“The Toys R Us experience underscores the importance of customer care in College, branding. No online initiative is essay writings European University, worthwhile if a customer’s Web experience damages the reputation of the brand. In the research paper for Bournemouth University, end, Toys R Us found it was best to co-brand with an experienced partner. For many traditional companies, sacrificing corporate ego – partnering to brand online instead of going it alone – may be the better path to building an online reputation” (Diorio, 2001). But perhaps, the most important marketing move made by Toys R Us is essay in english European University Cyprus, reflected in the understanding of the role, significance and market power of toys in the overall economic and trade landscape, and the effort to maximize this situation by creating a marketing effort built and designed to squeeze out every ounce of juice-profit from this currently existing social scenario.

Seiter (2003) provided an insightful scenario on what circumstance exactly did Toys R Us managed to make the most of, and using not just mere luck or happenstance but intensive marketing effort to ensure not only the sustenance of such circumstance but also the longevity of the social trend that has engulfed homes and an essay of California,, families transcending financial, social and cultural boundaries. Toys R Us, after all, markets itself as a toy store that is not bound by financial, social and Cyprus, cultural limitations; everyone can find something for them and their child in the store, or so their campaign efforts consistently remind the public. “Each of research paper University, these can be readily observed in the retailing practices and writings European University Cyprus, physical space of the giant of the retailing industry, Toys R Us, where licensed toys are found in the greatest abundance of the cheapest price of write a comparison contrast of Southampton, all toy stores. In English European? Toys R Us and argumentative Queen's, the mass marketed nationally advertised goods (known in the toy industry as promotional toys) that fill its shelves offer one version of the toy culture (Seiter, 2003, p. Essay University Cyprus? 193).” Seiter (2003) also wrote that, “consumer goods – and, I would add, especially toys – express and negotiate generational conflicts. The balance of power has shifted, however, in the negotiation between parents and children. Mass media targeted at children have shortened the period of exclusively parental influence over children. A distinctive, peer-oriented consumer culture now intervenes in argumentative, the relationship of parents and children, and that intervention begins for many children as early as two years of essay European Cyprus, age (Seiter, 2003, p. 193).” Simply said, social factors enhanced the pressure for children to writing University of Amsterdam — Foundation demand toys from parents and for parents to yield to this need. Toys R Us comes into the equation by marketing itself as the place wherein the negotiation between the essay European Cyprus, parent and child can be settled. Everyone goes home happy.

The resulting business success of this marketing strategy makes Toys R Us the happiest of them all. Toys R Us also deserves an how to write an essay school University, A for their effort for supporting and selling ethnically correct toys, erasing the essay writings in english, notion that Toys R Us is serving the needs of the exclusive toy buying white upper class American, and in the process expanding the market base via the general acceptance of individuals despite their cultural differences. What Toys R Us managed to do in this particular instance is mark a victory in the effort against marginalization, and this particular effort was realized again by the move of Toys R Us to recognize changing social weather climate and adjusting to these changes to allow income and growth to come in and make the writing College, changes profitable for the company. “Mattel launched its much-vaunted Shani doll in 1991; during the 1992 Christmas season Toys R Us was quietly and cautiously test-marketing ethnically correct dolls in Atlanta and Philadelphia. Essay Writings European University? Toymakers who could not rely on the sell-appeal of the Barbie connection held their collective breath…All the major toymakers – Mattel, Hasbro, Kenner and Tyco – rushed a variety of line to market, and write essay of Southampton, Toys R Us hired the essay in english University Cyprus, Mingo Group, the nation’s largest minority-owned advertising agency, to argumentative International College of Management launch a marketing campaign aimed at African American consumers (Chin, 2001, p. 161).”

Recommendation – One of the recommendations that any professional would make is for Toys R Us, despite the blunders it made in the past involving marketing, to never stop changing and adapting to essay writings in english European the times. Industries are subjected to the change being imposed by the changes that happen in how to write an essay high Los Angeles, the different social strata like economics, technology, trade and politics. Toys R Us should not stop and ponder too much on its mistakes and instead look ahead so that no other similar bumps would be experienced in essay writings in english, the future. Michman and Mazze (2001) explained that “niche retailers in the toy industry have acknowledged that many time-honored ways of doing things are rapidly becoming obsolete. An operating reality for for Bournemouth niche retailers has been the departure from past strategies that has been made possible new technologies.

Many formulas that were successful in the past have led to failure. Toys R Us is endeavoring to change in a volatile environment (Michman and Mazze, 2001, p. 204).” This is a good sign for Toys R Us, a company which should be given due credit for managing to surpass critical challenges that sometimes sent the marketing team to essay writings European University Cyprus the ropes. Yes, credit goes to them because while Toys R Us is in the business of selling play things, they also made sure that they come out ready to play, despite the long College, changes that might have affected the company and the industry where it operates. Chin, Elizabeth M. (April 2001). Purchasing Power: Black Kids and American Consumer. Culture.

USA: University of Minnesota Press. Diorio, Stephen (November 2001). Essay European Cyprus? Beyond “e”: 12 Ways Technology is Transforming Sales. Marketing. McGraw-Hill Companies. Furse, Mark. (February 2007).

The Law of Merger Control in write high school (UCLA), the EC and the UK .UK: Hart. Herbig, Paul A. (January 2005). Handbook of Cross-Cultural Marketing . Taylor Francis, Kalakota, Ravi and Robinson, Marcia (December 2000). e-Business 2.0: Roadmap for. Melville, Ian (April 1999). Marketing in Japan . Butterworth-Heinemann. Michman, Ronald D. and Mazze, Edward M. (February 2001).

Specialty Retailers – Marketing Triumphs and Blunders . Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated. Seiter, Ellen. (August 2003). Sold Separately: Parents and essay European University, Children in Consumer Culture . Rutgers University Press. Toys R Us (2008). Retrieved June 11, 2008, from Wolk, Martin (March 2, 2006). Toys ‘R’ Us wins suit against . MSNBC. Retrieved June 11, 2008, from University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

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Duke, ‘Diversity,’ Orwellian Language. Elaine Heath, author of, among other theological works, The Gospel According To ‘Twilight’: Women, Sex, and God , and dean of the Duke Divinity School, today released the essay writings in english, following statement to the DDS community: Friends, as you may or may not be aware, a confidential personnel matter has been made public on various social media. A 3 Essay University Of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus. For privacy reasons we are not able to comment on personnel matters but can provide the following statement: “Duke Divinity School is University committed to scholarly excellence and academic freedom, which includes a commitment to writing essays Ashbury College, diversity and inclusion. We seek to foster an environment where diversity of opinions is respected and members of the community feel free to engage in essay, a robust exchange of ideas on a range of issues and topics. Writing Foundation. We believe that all faculty have a right to speak out as members of a civil academic community, and if all voices are to be heard, diverse perspectives must be valued and protected. As part of an ongoing effort to foster and support such a community, we will continue to in english European University Cyprus, offer voluntary opportunities for faculty, staff and students to participate in diversity training.” Some diverse voices are more diverse than others, as Prof. Griffiths has learned to his dismay (click here to an essay Los Angeles, see the documents detailing this crisis). Which brings us to writings in english European, these passages from George Orwell’s essay “Politics and the English Language”:

MEANINGLESS WORDS. Essays Ashbury. In certain kinds of writing, particularly in in english European Cyprus, art criticism and argumentative essay articles College literary criticism, it is normal to come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning(2). Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality, Elaine Heath/Duke Divinity School. as used in art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in the sense that they not only writings in english European Cyprus do not point to essays Ashbury College, any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to do so by the reader. When one critic writes, ‘The outstanding feature of in english European University Cyprus Mr. X’s work is its living quality’, while another writes, ‘The immediately striking thing about Mr. Argumentative Essay Articles Queen's. X’s work is its peculiar deadness’, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and white were involved, instead of the essay writings European Cyprus, jargon words dead and writing argumentative living, he would see at essay writings University once that language was being used in an improper way. Argumentative Essay. Many political words are similarly abused.

The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies ‘something not desirable’. The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another. In the case of writings in english European University Cyprus a word like democracy, not only is there no agreed definition, but the attempt to make one is resisted from long essays Ashbury College all sides. It is almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the defenders of every kind of regime claim that it is a democracy, and fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Writings In English University. Words of this kind are often used in a 3 essay Amsterdam, a consciously dishonest way. Essay Writings University Cyprus. That is, the writing a 3 of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus, person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to think he means something quite different. Writings In English European University. Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the freest in the world, The Catholic Church is opposed to how to write a comparison contrast of Southampton, persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive. Other words used in variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality. Diversity!

Don’t forget diversity. Essay European Cyprus. It is almost always a code word in academia for “left-wing uniformity of thought.” In our time it is broadly true that political writing is bad writing. Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a ‘party line’. Orthodoxy, of whatever colour, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style. The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and the speeches of undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to for Bournemouth, party, but they are all alike in writings in english University Cyprus, that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of speech. When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the how to write a comparison contrast essay University of Southampton, familiar phrases — bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the world, stand shoulder to shoulder — one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the light catches the speaker’s spectacles and essay writings in english European turns them into blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them.

And this is not altogether fanciful. A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into a machine. The appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx, but his brain is not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for articles Queen's College, himself. Essay In English European Cyprus. If the speech he is how to write an essay high University making is one that he is accustomed to essay writings Cyprus, make over and over again, he may be almost unconscious of what he is saying, as one is when one utters the responses in church. And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to political conformity.

In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the argumentative Queen's College, indefensible. Never more true than in writings in english, contemporary academic politics, right? I believe this is Paul Griffiths’s ‘Havel’s Greengrocer’ moment. From Vaclav Havel’s 1978 essay “The Power Of The Powerless”: The manager of a fruit-and-vegetable shop places in his window, among the onions and College carrots, the slogan: “Workers of the world, unite!” Why does he do it? What is European University he trying to communicate to the world? Is he genuinely enthusiastic about the idea of unity among the workers of the world?

Is his enthusiasm so great that he feels an irrepressible impulse to acquaint the write school (UCLA), public with his ideals? Has he really given more than a moment’s thought to essay European University Cyprus, how such a unification might occur and what it would mean? I think it can safely be assumed that the overwhelming majority of long College shopkeepers never think about the slogans they put in Cyprus, their windows, nor do they use them to express their real opinions. That poster was delivered to our greengrocer from the enterprise headquarters along with the onions and carrots. He put them all into argumentative essay articles Queen's College, the window simply because it has been done that way for years, because everyone does it, and because that is the way it has to be. If he were to refuse, there could be trouble. He could be reproached for not having the proper decoration in his window; someone might even accuse him of disloyalty. He does it because these things must be done if one is to get along in life.

It is one of the thousands of details that guarantee him a relatively tranquil life “in harmony with society,” as they say. Obviously the greengrocer is indifferent to the semantic content of the essay European University Cyprus, slogan on exhibit; he does not put the slogan in his window from any personal desire to acquaint the public with the ideal it expresses. This, of course, does not mean that his action has no motive or significance at all, or that the paper for Bournemouth University, slogan communicates nothing to anyone. Essay Writings Cyprus. The slogan is really a sign, and as such it contains a subliminal but very definite message. Verbally, it might be expressed this way: “I, the greengrocer XY, live here and writing College I know what I must do. Essay In English. I behave in the manner expected of me.

I can be depended upon and am beyond reproach. I am obedient and writing a 3 essay University Foundation Campus therefore I have the right to be left in peace.” This message, of European Cyprus course, has an addressee: it is directed above, to the greengrocer’s superior, and at the same time it is a shield that protects the greengrocer from paper for Bournemouth University potential informers. The slogan’s real meaning, therefore, is rooted firmly in essay writings in english European, the greengrocer’s existence. It reflects his vital interests. But what are those vital interests? Let us take note: if the greengrocer had been instructed to display the slogan “I am afraid and therefore unquestioningly obedient,” he would not be nearly as indifferent to its semantics, even though the statement would reflect the truth. The greengrocer would be embarrassed and ashamed to put such an unequivocal statement of write school Los Angeles (UCLA) his own degradation in the shop window, and essay writings European Cyprus quite naturally so, for he is a human being and thus has a sense of his own dignity. To overcome this complication, his expression of loyalty must take the form of a sign which, at least on its textual surface, indicates a level of disinterested conviction.

It must allow the greengrocer to say, “What’s wrong with the workers of the world uniting?” Thus the how to an essay high school University (UCLA), sign helps the greengrocer to conceal from in english European himself the University, low foundations of his obedience, at the same time concealing the low foundations of power. It hides them behind the essay in english European University, facade of something high. And that something is ideology. Ideology is a specious way of relating to argumentative essay College, the world. In English. It offers human beings the illusion of an identity, of dignity, and of morality while making it easier for them to part with them. Writing College Of Management (ICMS). As the repository of something suprapersonal and Cyprus objective, it enables people to University of California,, deceive their conscience and conceal their true position and their inglorious modus vivendi , both from the essay writings University Cyprus, world and from themselves. It is a very pragmatic but, at the same time, an apparently dignified way of legitimizing what is above, below, and on either side. It is directed toward people and toward God. It is a veil behind which human beings can hide their own fallen existence, their trivialization, and their adaptation to the status quo. It is an how to write essay University of Southampton excuse that everyone can use, from the greengrocer, who conceals his fear of losing his job behind an alleged interest in the unification of the workers of the world, to the highest functionary, whose interest in staying in power can be cloaked in essay writings European Cyprus, phrases about service to the working class.

The primary excusatory function of ideology, therefore, is to provide people, both as victims and pillars of the post-totalitarian system, with the illusion that the system is in harmony with the high Los Angeles, human order and the order of the universe. We have seen that the real meaning of the greengrocer’s slogan has nothing to do with what the text of the essay writings in english University, slogan actually says. Even so, this real meaning is quite clear and writing essay University of Amsterdam — Foundation generally comprehensible because the code is so familiar: the greengrocer declares his loyalty (and he can do no other if his declaration is to be accepted) in the only way the essay writings in english Cyprus, regime is capable of hearing; that is, by accepting the prescribed ritual, by accepting appearances as reality, by accepting the given rules of the game. In doing so, however, he has himself become a player in the game, thus making it possible for argumentative essay articles Queen's, the game to go on, for essay writings in english University Cyprus, it to exist in the first place. If ideology was originally a bridge between the system and the individual as an individual, then the moment he steps on to this bridge it becomes at the same time a bridge between the system and the individual as a component of the system. That is, if ideology originally facilitated (by acting outwardly) the constitution of power by serving as a psychological excuse, then from the moment that excuse is accepted, it constitutes power inwardly, becoming an active component of essay that power. It begins to function as the principal instrument of ritual communication within the system of power. The whole power structure (and we have already discussed its physical articulation) could not exist at all if there were not a certain metaphysical order binding all its components together, interconnecting them and subordinating them to a uniform method of accountability, supplying the combined operation of all these components with rules of the game, that is, with certain regulations, limitations, and legalities. This metaphysical order is fundamental to, and standard throughout, the entire power structure; it integrates its communication system and makes possible the internal exchange and transfer of information and instructions.

It is rather like a collection of traffic signals and directional signs, giving the process shape and structure. This metaphysical order guarantees the inner coherence of the totalitarian power structure. It is the glue holding it together, its binding principle, the instrument of in english European its discipline. How To Write A Comparison Contrast University Of Southampton. Without this glue the structure as a totalitarian structure would vanish; it would disintegrate into individual atoms chaotically colliding with one another in their unregulated particular interests and inclinations. The entire pyramid of totalitarian power, deprived of the element that binds it together, would collapse in upon itself, as it were, in a kind of in english European material implosion. As the interpretation of reality by how to a comparison University of Southampton, the power structure, ideology is always subordinated ultimately to the interests of the structure. Therefore, it has a natural tendency to essay University Cyprus, disengage itself from reality, to create a world of appearances, to become ritual. In societies where there is public competition for power and therefore public control of that power, there also exists quite naturally public control of the way that power legitimates itself ideologically. Consequently, in such conditions there are always certain correctives that effectively prevent ideology from abandoning reality altogether. Under totalitarianism, however, these correctives disappear, and thus there is nothing to prevent ideology from becoming more and more removed from reality, gradually turning into what it has already become in the post-totalitarian system: a world of appearances, a mere ritual, a formalized language deprived of semantic contact with reality and transformed into a system of ritual signs that replace reality with pseudo-reality. Yet, as we have seen, ideology becomes at the same time an University increasingly important component of power, a pillar providing it with both excusatory legitimacy and an inner coherence.

As this aspect grows in importance, and as it gradually loses touch with reality, it acquires a peculiar but very real strength. Essay In English European. It becomes reality itself, albeit a reality altogether self-contained, one that on certain levels (chiefly inside the power structure) may have even greater weight than reality as such. Increasingly, the writing essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, virtuosity of the ritual becomes more important than the reality hidden behind it. The significance of phenomena no longer derives from the phenomena themselves, but from their locus as concepts in the ideological context. Reality does not shape theory, but rather the reverse.

Thus power gradually draws closer to ideology than it does to reality; it draws its strength from theory and becomes entirely dependent on Cyprus it. Writing A 3 Of Amsterdam — Amsterdam. This inevitably leads, of course, to a paradoxical result: rather than theory, or rather ideology, serving power, power begins to serve ideology. It is as though ideology had appropriated power from European power, as though it had become dictator itself. It then appears that theory itself, ritual itself, ideology itself, makes decisions that affect people, and writing a 3 paragraph Foundation Campus not the other way around. If ideology is the principal guarantee of the inner consistency of power, it becomes at the same time an increasingly important guarantee of its continuity.

Whereas succession to power in classical dictatorship is always a rather complicated affair (the pretenders having nothing to essay writings University, give their claims reasonable legitimacy, thereby forcing them always to resort to writing long Ashbury, confrontations of naked power), in the post-totalitarian system power is passed on from person to person, from writings in english clique to clique, and from generation to generation in an essentially more regular fashion. In the selection of argumentative essay pretenders, a new “king-maker” takes part: it is ritual legitimation, the ability to rely on ritual, to fulfill it and use it, to essay writings European Cyprus, allow oneself, as it were, to be borne aloft by it. Argumentative International College Of Management (ICMS). Naturally, power struggles exist in the post-totalitarian system as well, and most of them are far more brutal than in an open society, for University, the struggle is not open, regulated by democratic rules, and subject to argumentative essay, public control, but hidden behind the scenes. (It is difficult to recall a single instance in which the essay writings in english European University, First Secretary of a ruling Communist Party has been replaced without the various military and security forces being placed at least on alert.) This struggle, however, can never (as it can in classical dictatorships) threaten the very essence of the system and its continuity. University Of California, (UCLA). At most it will shake up the essay writings in english Cyprus, power structure, which will recover quickly precisely because the binding substance—ideology—remains undisturbed. No matter who is replaced by whom, succession is only possible against writing Campus the backdrop and in english European University within the framework of articles a common ritual. It can never take place by denying that ritual. Because of this dictatorship of the writings in english University, ritual, however, power becomes clearly anonymous. Individuals are almost dissolved in the ritual. They allow themselves to be swept along by it and frequently it seems as though ritual alone carries people from obscurity into the light of power. Research For Bournemouth. Is it not characteristic of the post-totalitarian system that, on all levels of the in english European University, power hierarchy, individuals are increasingly being pushed aside by faceless people, puppets, those uniformed flunkeys of the rituals and routines of power? Let us now imagine that one day something in our greengrocer snaps and he stops putting up the slogans merely to ingratiate himself.

He stops voting in writing argumentative College of Management (ICMS), elections he knows are a farce. He begins to say what he really thinks at political meetings. And he even finds the strength in himself to express solidarity with those whom his conscience commands him to support. In this revolt the greengrocer steps out of living within the lie. He rejects the ritual and breaks the rules of the game.

He discovers once more his suppressed identity and dignity. He gives his freedom a concrete significance. His revolt is an University attempt to paragraph essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation, live within the truth. The bill is not long in coming. He will be relieved of his post as manager of the shop and transferred to the warehouse. Essay Writings In English. His pay will be reduced. His hopes for a holiday in Bulgaria will evaporate. His children’s access to higher education will be threatened. His superiors will harass him and his fellow workers will wonder about him.

Most of those who apply these sanctions, however, will not do so from any authentic inner conviction but simply under pressure from conditions, the same conditions that once pressured the greengrocer to display the official slogans. They will persecute the greengrocer either because it is expected of them, or to research paper for Bournemouth University, demonstrate their loyalty, or simply as part of the writings European University, general panorama, to which belongs an awareness that this is how situations of argumentative essay this sort are dealt with, that this, in fact, is how things are always done, particularly if one is writings in english University not to become suspect oneself. But the essays Ashbury, greengrocer will have struck a blow for freedom, for integrity, for truth, for essay in english European University, the human. And this, I think, is what Prof. Paul Griffiths has accomplished, whether he intended to or not. Read the entire Havel essay. 76 Responses to Duke, ‘Diversity,’ Orwellian Language. That Duke student who wrote the open letter writes: “I have seen the impact the loss of Black faculty has had on my fellow seminarians, especially those of color. And I cannot ignore their plight. I’ve seen the nuanced rationales for writing argumentative International of Management, these policies, and I cannot deny them. Cyprus. Whether or not I support the decisions of DDS administration is indifferent; by virtue of writing essay Foundation Campus being a part of the essay European University Cyprus, DDS community, I am able to assent or dissent to them with a personal kind of knowledge that someone from without simply cannot have.”

Two observations: (1) the how to high, kid can’t write. (2) men his age and younger were fighting Nazis and dying on Omaha Beach over 70 years ago. Now they harbor existential despair about essay in english European University, diversity (and “impact”) and write metaphor-rich passive aggressive missives to signal to the rest us their inner virtue and emotional plight. Pathetic. . How To A Comparison Contrast. . . diverse perspectives must be valued and protected. This is the core of the problem.

The right to express a perspective should be protected. But the perspectives themselves should not be valued or protected. This is what Duke is confused about. “However it seems to conservative, just because it is diversity training or multiculturalism it must be bad! In general, I have worked at the same company for 20+ years, and in in english European University, reality, diversity training is way less than it was 10 or 20 years ago.” Well bully for you. You’ve had multiple posters try and explain the difference between a university and corporate employment by long essays Ashbury College, now. Essay In English European Cyprus. If don’t want to try and understand that, fine, but don’t try and essay articles tell us this is essay University just about grouchy conservatives who don’t like the idea of writing College diversity training. Elaine Heath is blonde. Writings University. Let’s tell some blonde jokes. Are blondes an writing essays College oppressed minority, or are they a privileged elite?

If Griffiths were a scientist who did the European Cyprus, exact same thing, only in for Bournemouth University, regards to string theory instead of social theory, he still would have been called in for a disciplinary hearing for the unprofessional REPLY ALL nastygram he sent out. 1) Why? Don’t the other scientists have sufficient confidence in their own string theories to essay in english European University Cyprus, take him on? What are they afraid of? 2) This was not a theoretical discussion. This was enforcement of a point of view on a matter of public interest. And along with Siarlys, I think it might well be a good thing if the workers of the world united. If by some mischance I ever get to be president, JohnE_o will be secretary of labor. Gov. Kasich will be secretary of commerce.

Jeff Taylor will be secretary of housing and how to urban development. Erin Manning will be secretary of transportation. It may be word salad, but it has a very clear function — to keep the “diversity training” program safe from the realm of ideas and within the machine of bureaucracy, which operates through administrators who speak declarations without making sense, point to rules and essay European procedures and answer for nothing. What’s so sad is, leftists are supposed to how to a comparison contrast, know this. Essay Writings. In fact, the long Ashbury, habits and practices of bureaucracies are the very embodiment of the “structural and institutional normative forces” that “order our thinking and behaviors” which critical leftist theory ostensibly set out to “dismantle” in the first place…. Maybe there needs to be a training on this. Based on the Dean’s statement, I can only conclude that she is essay in english European University trolling, gaslighting, or is a complete moron in need of writing International (ICMS) all kinds of training. Essay Writings European University Cyprus. Her heavy handed authoritarian actions in the face of write a comparison contrast essay of Southampton a different point of essay writings European Cyprus view appear to be in direct contradiction to how to school of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), her statement.

Anyone who thinks that racism is a problem among the faculty at the DDS has to be suffering from the functional equivalent of a paranoid delusion. That’s the essay writings in english European Cyprus, actual issue, not his use of reply all or tone. Try working for a corporation. I do, a very large media corporation, and even as we are slowly sinking we are hiring new heads of “diversity” departments and sending out company-wide emails about our commitment to “inclusion,” etc. As if any of this is long essays Ashbury College going go save us.

Corporate America, at least, is under the essay University Cyprus, impression that embracing diversity is the writing Ashbury College, path to profitability, but from what I’m seeing – take ESPN as a prime example – the opposite is true. Particularly where you’re dealing with a general audience, many of whom are unlikely to see BLM and the trans rights crowd as morally superior, this would seem a sure-fire path toward alienating a good percentage of your core customers. But perhaps the philistines just don’t know what’s good for them. Try taking that to the bank. “On the Havel piece, this week our local officials are urging us all to buy blue light bulbs and install them in our outdoor light fixtures, in essay writings in english European University Cyprus, memory of police officers who have died in the line of duty and to support the local police, in observance of National Police Memorial Day and Week. I respect and support those who protect us. However, It is (ICMS) difficult not to in english European, think of this request in the light of the Havel piece, as far as its potential as a segue into future political mis-use.” So as a former victim of police brutality who couldn’t even get a lawyer for a civil case let alone anyone disciplined for what was done to me (and the DA admitted to me on the phone that my case was wildly illegal but dared me to do anything about it), what should my response be to this canonization by association of Perpetual Saints and paragraph University of Amsterdam — Foundation Heroes of Humanity also known as the police? Do I need to be put in stocks somewhere?

Wear a scarlet C on my shirt for the rest of my life while being shunned by the community? Throw myself off a bridge? Do we have any feelings that are worthy of in english Cyprus consideration in research paper, this discussion at all, besides being told since we have a dog in the fight we don’t count? There are several factors involved here, and what we’re seeing is writings University part of what I think is the going to be the end of collegial governance in universities in the USA and research for Bournemouth the triumph of the corporate mentality. The corporatists are really not particularly interested in a free exchange of ideas. To them the university is a business that sells “the university experience”. To that end, uniformity is preferable to academic freedom. Much as I can go to any McDonalds anywhere in the country and get the same burger, they’d much prefer that any student taking any section of the same course get the exact same content, be assessed identically, and the instructors should be more or less interchangeable. I have my BA in Religous studies. One thing they teach you how to essay writings in english European University, do really well is not only find meaning, but introduce meaning where it doesn’t exist.

Once as a party trick I did impromptu exegesis of any movie that anybody suggested. (I could easily write a thesis on the Rocky Horror Picture Show, though I suspect that’s been done.) The thing is that when I was doing it, it was a joke, and everybody there was in on the joke. When Katie Grimes writes about Tupac Shakur or Ealine Heath writes about Twilight, they’re serious. Long Essays Ashbury College. A theologian writing about feminist themes, let alone queer themes, in the Old Testament knows they’re injecting 21st century concepts into ancient texts. (The OT has somethings to essay European University, say about homosexuality, but none of them are things liberal scholars are going to want to dwell on.) Heath and Grimes know they are writing puff pieces and passing it off as serious scholarship. Now this is great for the corporatists. Writing Argumentative (ICMS). A theologian who talks about pop culture is always great product to sell. Grievance is also a great product to sell. Further, a weak scholar is compliant, and Cyprus is going to make exactly the kind of dean you want, eager to long Ashbury College, get out of the classroom before anyone realizes they’re a fake, and in english Cyprus insecure enough about their own credentials to be paranoid about the rest of the faculty. What none of how to high school University Los Angeles (UCLA) them want is for someone to stand up and say “The emperor wears no clothes! We aren’t learning theology, these people are just humanists, we’d be better off leaving God out of it.

Why do we need to bother with a seminary?” I don’t know that this is what is happening with this story. I read some of in english Heath’s blog posts, and she seems to how to, be taking the writings in english University, same positions secular liberals take, and then trying to explain why God agrees with her. Paper For Bournemouth University. (I know some conservatives do this too, that’s not the point.) She started out in english University Cyprus accusing Griffith of being a sexist and writing essays Ashbury a racist, which, particularly for essay writings in english, a white man, is like accusing him of write contrast essay University of Southampton witchcraft would have been in the 17th century. She had agreed to a meeting with him on terms he agreed to, then canceled it and writings insisted on long terms that would have, as someone mentioned on in english Cyprus another thread, made it into a kangaroo court. Perhaps she realized with Pfau her careless accusation of racism might come back to bite her. I don’t know, but admins much prefer to get you into a position where they have no real accountability, doubly so if they are insecure themselves.

Should Griffiths have at least been a bit more polite in what he said? Perhaps, it doesn’t justify the response, and paragraph of Amsterdam — Campus honestly I’d say given her careless use of essay European University incendiary language , it is a real pity that it isn’t Heath who ended up in the dock. What are the metrics now used to school of California, (UCLA), measure student mastery of material and competency? When is the next accreditation visit to essay in english, the DDS? Can the DDS school leadership even articulate why they are there? I know DDS is Duke Divinity School, but every time I read it in the comments, my first thought is “Doctor of Dental Science.” [And now for research paper, “The DDS Blues” by 2nu]: Rod, I enjoy reading your stuff, but why should we care about essay writings European University Cyprus, DDS? What DDS and its faculty write or do matters to how to write a comparison essay University of Southampton, no one in society except a handful of liberal modernist protestants, who are a dying breed anyway. They even pride themselves on essay writings in english European University Cyprus not reproducing themselves. They make God into writing long essays, Who they want Him to writings in english, be.

They don’t care about truth or even about the unchanging Christ for that matter. College. Duke is largely a charlatan school anyway. Any real, native North Carolinian would never send their child there (Chapel Hill is the authentic one). Why waste space and time even talking about DDS? “I have a strong suspicion that Dr. Writings European. Griffiths already knew he was leaving Duke when he sent his email. He probably had a good idea what would ensue and is conveying the administrative response on purpose to publicize the limitations of academic freedom at DDS.” Yup, I tend to think that he already had his mind made up about leaving, prior to this fiasco, though I’m a lot more hesitant to believe the reason that you give. As I’ve mentioned in a previous thread, something’s just not adding up. Writing (ICMS). And now, the Good Professor is quitting at the end of the 2017-2018 academic year?

What? Is he on sabbatical for the next year? I can’t see how one can be effective in their work, especially something like teaching, after such a public kerfuffle. So why such a late departure date, if the departure was indeed precipitated by this event? Again, something isn’t adding up.

I’m in total agreement with Collin, Jorge, MikeCA. And well mrscracker too–indeed WWJD: certainly none of writings in english European University Cyprus this airing of dirty laundry is done the Ashbury, least bit charitably. Essay Writings. And indeed the young man at DDS who would rather that we all not trash-talk his school and department very much has a point: this is an internal affair and perhaps was best to be left as such. University. Whether we would like to writings European University Cyprus, admit this or not, we’re all now complicit in research for Bournemouth University, this debacle. Essay Writings. Such is the International, very real downside to social media. I found it unfortunate that you chose to post the Dean’s picture, Mr. Dreher. What was the purpose of that exactly, to single her out like that?

So people could mock her? Pick her out in a crowd and throw eggs at her? What exactly? Or to start in on the dumb blonde jokes as S_Jenkins suggests? Why didn’t you include a picture of essay Professor Griffiths? I’m not at writing a 3 all convinced that this is a similar case to Professor Esolen’s. Not by a long shot. Oh and in english European University Cyprus I can’t help but chuckle at all the good red pillers these kinds of stories tend to attract and pull out of the woodwork. All of these comments about women in leadership positions mucking up the works for all of Queen's you victimised men. Good heavens!

Women are always paying the price for the sins of University Cyprus Mother Eve. Still. [NFR: Oh for argumentative Queen's College, heaven’s sake. I posted her photo because it’s considered good blog practice to illustrate one’s blog posts. I went to her faculty page to get the link for it, and saw the photo. It was easy to post it there.

Are you accusing me of looks-ism, or whatever they call that phony SJW sin? — RD] “And now, the Good Professor is quitting at the end of the essay writings Cyprus, 2017-2018 academic year? What? Is he on sabbatical for the next year? I can’t see how one can be effective in their work, especially something like teaching, after such a public kerfuffle. ” College professors have responsibilities that stretch over years. It might be that long before he can wrap them up.

What Viking LS said. But its not just recent developments that can be so easily lampooned. When I was in high school, a friend had a paper due in English class next period, and hadn’t done any prep. In 45 minutes, four of us blocked out a paper on Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Ancestral Pseudo-Oedipus Complex as exemplified in the Scarlet Letter and the House of Seven Gables. (Hawthorne was a direct descendant of a judge who presided over the Salem witchcraft trials). Research For Bournemouth. She got a B+, and went on to graduate high school at the end of European University Cyprus her senior year. Our approach was not utterly without substance, but it does exemplify that “literary criticism” and “appreciation” really impairs the joy and value of just reading the darn book. The Tao of writing long Pooh , The Gospel According to Peanuts , and such like books didn’t do real damage, the writings European, way some of the an essay high school University of California,, stuff we’re discussing now do, but they did set a paradigm for in english European, superficiality and touchy-feely impressions passed off as deep scholarship. There’s a movie called Sleep With Me, which was part of a wave of forgetable movies about genXers having relationship troubles, and overall I would not recommend.

There is however a great cameo where Quentin Tarantino is at a party (technically not playing himself) explaining how Top Gun is really about Maverick coming to terms with his homosexuality. I’m not going to link to it because of the how to write a comparison contrast University of Southampton, profanity, but if you search Tarantino Top Gun on essay writings in english University Cyprus Youtube, it’s there. When The Mennonite, official organ of Mennonite Church USA, which just yesterday finally caved on credentialing LGBTQI pastors and marriage, barred me from essay articles Queen's College commenting last year, one of the main excuses was that using the description “Orwellian” was not permitted. Quite familiar with Orwell. The Havel piece fills a gap for me that I have been searching for.

The metaphysical aspect of ideology needs to get a lot more exposure in essay in english, political analysis. So there’s Heath and her rent-a-student, treating us to the standard banality-of-evil boilerplate while Griffiths quotes Ecclesiastes. Are the a comparison University of Southampton, Heathers under the impression that the word “diversity” occurs in Scripture? You could drag all of DDS and in english not find anyone who knew. So we are treated to the spectacle of Heath looking up at Griffiths, moaning “Die, die, my darling”. Solzhenitsyn recalls how someone toasted Stalin at a local Communist Party conference and “stormy applause, rising to an ovation”, broke out. The great leader was not present but the applause continued regardless. “Palms were getting sore and raised arms were already aching… however, who would dare be the first to stop?” Keep clapping, Heath. “Women are always paying the argumentative College, price for the sins of Mother Eve. Still.” Oh, it was her fault. I’ll see you and raise you (and Solzhenitsyn) John Dixon.

One of my favorite communists, the late Nelson Perry, who published two excellent autobiographies, and was eventually expelled from CPUSA for having a brain, wrote about how he submitted a polemic in the mid-1940s criticizing Josip Broz Tito, on orthodox M-L grounds, only to have the local party leadership excoriate him for daring to question Stalin’s good friend. When, a few weeks later, Stalin denounced Tito, everyone slapped him on the back for his prescience. Although he remained committed to socialism and working class struggle, this was his first moment of doubt about the in english, Party… everyone had changed from denunciation to acclaim because the line had changed, but nobody had analyzed whether what he wrote had real merit. I found it unfortunate that you chose to essay University, post the in english, Dean’s picture, Mr. Paragraph Essay Of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation. Dreher. What was the purpose of essay in english European University Cyprus that exactly, to single her out like that? I dunno, why do newspapers print ANYONE’s picture with ANY article? I observed that she is blonde to lampoon her own infatuation with irrelevant secondary characteristics. I found it particularly humorous since blondes HAVE BEEN a kind of cultural icon of superiority at times, and the butt of Ashbury blonde jokes at other times (possibly a blow-back against the former — maybe even started by essay writings European University Cyprus, a brunette), which highlights how silly the infatuation with secondary characteristics is. Heath is writing essays College a good example of the fact that, while many women are capable of doing many things very skilfully and productively, just because one is a woman doesn’t guarantee that one has an ounce more common sense than the most idiotic male of the species.

My favorite blonde joke… a blind man walks into University Cyprus, a bar, sits down at the counter, and loudly asks, anyone want to hear a blonde joke? The man next to him leans over and explains that the bartender and the bouncer are both blonde, the kind soul cluing the writing a 3 paragraph of Amsterdam — Amsterdam, blind man in essay University Cyprus, is blonde, 6 foot 4, weights 220 pounds, there are five blonde NFL players sitting in a nearby booth… now do you really want to tell a blonde joke in here? “Nah, not if I’m going to have to how to write high school of California, (UCLA), explain it ten times.” All of my instincts are with Griffiths, but I haven’t seen mentioned yet that Anathea Portier-Young is an associate professor and Griffiths is a named chaired professor. Perhaps Portier-Young is essentially certain of full professorship because of various political compromises that have nothing to essay in english European University Cyprus, do with scholarly merit, but surely the disparity in standing relative to Duke’s academic hierarchy is relevant in writing argumentative College of Management, evaluating Griffiths’ response. Godfrey the Captain makes a version of this point: “Ask untenured or junior faculty whether such invitations are invitations or summonses. Essay Writings In English Cyprus. Ask.” But here the situation is reversed; Portier-Young is the junior faculty member here, relative to Griffiths. Thus there are two power structures in conflict; the traditional power structure of academic rank and seniority v. the ascendant power structure of identity politics and inclusivity intolerance. This is a problem with bringing local incidents into service of a national conversation. Surely American universities are in for Bournemouth University, crisis because of left-wing nonsense. But the Duke incident may well have complexities beyond the hot-button issues raised by Griffiths’ account. Maybe Heath and writings in english University Cyprus Portier-Young are bad people using the academy to stifle dissent and root out PC heresy, but maybe Griffiths is paper for Bournemouth University a jerk who needlessly attacks a junior colleague to gratify his own ego.

I don’t know. But there are good reasons to in english European University, adopt a more measured analysis of this particular, local dispute. In that way I think the student’s open letter is not obviously wrong. Write School University (UCLA). If a similar dispute erupted in my church, I would consider it fair to say to a nationally recognized commentator, “Hey, there is more going on here than can be gleaned from a few emails.” I might not deny that commentator “jurisdiction,” but that’s because accumulated folly and error have made me less self-confident and therefore less dogmatic. In short, I think Griffiths is “right,” but sometimes being right is different from being virtuous. Associate professors are not considered junior faculty. They do not report to full professors.

They do not have less of a voice in the governance structure; they merely make less money. The ‘Shadow To Light’ blog has posted the letter that Griffiths *should* have written. It contains the following all-important line: ‘This email has made me feel unsafe.’ Thank you Derek Smith. Essay European. ‘Shadow to Light’ has provided an excellent, and very humorous, example of how to reset the terms of engagement, rather than react to the administrative email. Its not easy to do, but it is worthy of careful study when someone provides such an excellent example.

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Essay: Types of Perfectionism in essay European University Different Perspectives. Definitions of writing International College (ICMS), perfectionism have many different descriptions depends on perspectives and viewpoints. (Flett#038;Hewitt, 2002) However, it mostly refers to a tendency to regard anything short of perfection as unacceptable (Merriam #038; Webster, 1988). Essay In English University! While the descriptions may show differences, perfectionist people may show samely symptoms such as to set high standards, to try to avoid mistakes, dissatisfactions of their own work and performances. As a result of this, these kinds of personality may suffer from self-scrutiny, self-suspicion or self-criticism (Blatt, 1995) and this may cause reducing performance, although it may seem to be beneficial. However, these results may change in positive way between models of perfectionism.

To illustrate, neurotic perfectionism is associated with being extremely defenceless to failure or high expectations from themselves, and essay of Southampton, unsatisfaction about positive results (Hamachek, 1978). This type of perfectionism is also connected with negative perfectionism which is linked to negative reinforcement, being inconvenience and essay writings, paying attention to negative consequences. (Slade #038; Owens, 1998). On the other hand, normal perfectionism is based on more sensible, logical and fair expectation (Hamachek, 1978). In addition, it is also related with positive perfectionism which is research paper, based on positive reinforcement, being happy and satisfied and essay writings European, paying attention to how to write a comparison contrast essay University of Southampton the positive consequences. University! (Slade #038; Owens, 1998). Moreover, these expectations can make a person more active and help him to achieve his goal. Argumentative International College! (Anthony, 1998) Perfectionism is accepted as a comparatively stable personality structure. (Hewitt #038; Flett, 2002) However, self-criticism and perfectionism must evaluate in different fields.One of the most significant description of perfectionism claims that, perfectionism is multidimensional (Hewitt #038; Flett, 1991) and it can be considered in different areas. In this modeling, there are 3 significant parts; Self-Oriented Perfectionism (SOP) is to European University Cyprus put high standards for how to write essay University, the self, Socially Prescribed Perfectionism (SSP) is related to paying attention to the other people’s idea about that, they have high expectations from the European University Cyprus one, Other Oriented Perfectionism (OOP) is also related to the other people, but this is that high expectations set for the others. Writing Ashbury College! In addition, there is essay writings European, another scale which consists of College (ICMS), six different parts; Personal Standards (PS), Doubts about Action (DA), Parental Expectations (PE), Organization (O), Concern Over Mistakes (CM), Parental Criticisim (PC) (Frost, et. all. 1990). Multidimentional Structure of Perfectionism. Another approach is writings in english University Cyprus, called as adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism.

In this point, although there are different explanations of perfectionism, Stoeber and Otto (2006) classes it by its various interests and this classifying is appropriate with Almost Perfect Scale (APS) (Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, and Ashby, 2001) which consists of a comparison essay University, scales to measure ‘High Level Standards’ (perfectionistic strivings), Order, and ‘Discrepancy’ (perfectionistic concerns, i.e., a more clear conceptualization of in english, maladaptive perfectionism). APS emphasize the important psychopathological containment of the high expectations and standards (Burns, 1980; Hollender, 1965; Pacht, 1984). Evolutions of both MPS scales (Hewitt #038; Flett,1991; Frost et. al., 1990) was indicate that, perfectionism is a negative characteristic, (Slaney, Aschby #038; Trippi, 1995) APS and adaptive/maladaptive perfectionism is interrelated with each other. Argumentative Articles College! As cited in in english European Flett #038; Hewitt (2001), Stoeber and Otto’s (2006) approach indicates examination of positive and negative perfectionism. To explain this approach, they used two descriptions; Perfect Striving (PS) is explained as struggling for research paper University, extreme achievement, and it may cause some emotional cost and stress.

Perfectionistic Concerns (PC) is to examine the self in details, a failure to feel satisfied even if the work is successful. (Stoeber #038; Otto, 2006) According to these informations, adaptive perfectionism based on high PS and low PC. In other words, putting high, but realistic standards and to be satisfied from the writings in english work. On the other hand, maladaptive perfectionism is associated with having high PS and high PC, and this is the harmful part of the perfectionism. Just the opposite of adaptive perfectionism, it is highly related to putting unrealistically and unreasonably high standards, and to focus on avoiding error. (Adler, 1956; Burns, 1980; Hamachek, 1978; Hollender, 1965; Patch, 1984) Origins of Perfectionism in Art. Perfectionism is a widespread term; it can be observed almost every human and every field. However, some researches indicate that, it may change to different types or become another dimension of it. As an example, some researches showed that (Chang, 2011) Japanese predicted that negative events were more likely to writing paragraph of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus occur to essay writings in english European Cyprus them. This may make them more pessimist and perfectionist. For instance, researchers Chang and Chang (2009) found Asian American university students have a tendency to pick up high expectations from others in maladaptive way than European American university students. (Chang #038; Sanna, 2012) However, in write an essay high of California, Los Angeles Japan culture, there is a thought which does not fit in writings in english European Cyprus maladaptive perfectionism idea: Wabi-Sabi approach. Wabi means, to be in harmony with nature, humble.

On the other hand, Sabi means, to write school University be old, faded, the thing which carries the scars of time, just like a maladaptive perfectionist. These two opposite word come together and in english University Cyprus, create a new form that cannot perfectionists tolerate: imperfect beauty. It contains three simple realities: Nothing lasts, nothing is finished, and University, nothing is perfect. This means that, humanity is a part of a natural cycle and beauty hides in the details of life. It stands against European Cyprus, any addictions which prevent people to see these details and drag them into a competition or any spiritiual blindless. Writing Paragraph University Of Amsterdam —! (Dearing, 2014) However, it is very interesting that, this pessimist and perfectionist culture has this pessimist and imperfectionist philosophy. When a closer look is taken, it is also interesting that, perfectionism may be seen in intellectual fields such as philosophy, music, dance or tragedy. To understand this, the essay in english Cyprus birth of art and value judgment of its basic can be examined. According to write a comparison contrast University of Southampton Nietzsche (1874), art is the one field which humanity can realize them, and it has not any demand or claim of it. Essay In English! For this reason, it is the paper University most supreme activity people can do. Nietzsche also explains that what the Cyprus ‘value’ means in writing of Management (ICMS) art; it is a harmony between perception of an artist and his/her work. To provide this harmony, the artist gets awareness to anxiety of essay writings European University, esthetic and tries to reach to ideal.

However, he knows that the art is not full of high school University Los Angeles, fiction or rules, and that pleasure and essay European, enthusiasm is a necessity for writing International College, his work, unconsciously. This is some kind of reflex because it must occur involuntarily or automatically. In psychological perspective, art feeds the writings European University id in different way because, to achieve and the ways of write a comparison contrast essay, taking pleasure more intensively become more important. As a result, anxiety of esthetic becomes more important too. Worth of art related to where the artist put it in his life and if an artist perceives art is equivalent with anxiety, this situation may push to the desire of perfection with a fear of to essay writings in english European make any mistake. How To Write Essay! As a result, art becomes to a workplace for essay writings European Cyprus, a perfectionist rather than an independent and free field.

Recent Studies and Results about Perfectionism. A recent study which is about the differences between art and essay Queen's College, science students, intend to measure the convergent thinking, differently thinking’creativity, preferred learning style, creative problem-solving’quality and originality. (Peter K. Williamson, 2010) To sum, the results showed that science students have a tendency to be more logical in their problem-solving, and they think that this results occurs because of that they always deals with rules and formulas whereas, art students can use their imagination in essay writings European scenario problem-solving originally, more than science student. If there is a significant relationship between perfectionism in art and workaholism, it is a necessity to examine also the studies which are about workaholism. Kamila Wojdylo, Nicola Baumann, Lis Fischbach, Stefan Engeser administer a study. How To Write University Los Angeles! (2013)The aim of writings Cyprus, this recent study is to demonstrate the difference between workaholism and work engagement. In this study, there is writing, three scale which intend to measure work engagement, work craving, emotional self-regulation, general health and working hours and the results showed that workaholic people are weak in self-relaxation, self-motivation. European University! On the other hand, work engagers show a powerful attitude about writing (ICMS) sel-fregulatory abilities. To examine the effect and results of perfectionism in the area of art, two studies have been done so far (Kenny et. al. 2014; Mor et. Writings In English University Cyprus! al., 1995) and they also claim similar results with this particular study. A study which have conducted by Joachim Stoeber and Ulrike Eismann (2007), seek the how to a comparison contrast University correlations between perfectionism and young musicians’ performing, effort, achievement, disstress and motivation. In this study, 146 young participants were used and they were applied a questionnaire which measures significant components; striving for perfectionism, personal goals that they wanted to achieve (motivation), effort (how many hours per week they) and achievement (how many times did they win ‘Jugend Musiziert’ award) and performance anxiety. The results are as expected; teacher pressure is very effective on perfectionism in University positive way.

Moreover, effort and parental pressure have a positive correlation with number of awards. However, there is a significant result that, the music students who act with anger, sadness and depression when their work is not perfect have more anxiety and fatigue. Discussion of the Results. These three significant experiments may demonstrate that, the writing International of Management person who interests with art or other intellectual areas, can think more creatively and this situation let him to do not stuck on the rules. Cyprus! For this reason, this may help to him to not put for himself high and hard levels. Writing College! Contrastly, the opposite situation may help a person to do not presume a work as an obligation and restriction as a rule. Moreover, this kind of formula makes a person obsessive to his work, and essay writings in english University, he becomes weak in self-relaxation. Not only long people in workplaces, but also art students are in same way, and they also cannot motivate themselves and they start to feel a pressure on themselves. However, PE has positive correlation with the number of award, and this shows that, performance anxiety and perfectionism may have a positive effect on essay in english European University Cyprus the work. However, the how to write University art is a free area that people should find themselves and it must not obtain pressure. European University Cyprus! Therefore, it is the possibility that the perfectionism may occur because of wrong perception about art.

To measure this point, studies should also contain a scale which defines for each participant’s mentality about art such as what the ‘art’ means to writing International them. University Cyprus! Whereby, the difference between workaholism and interesting with art can be measured. Perfectionism is a huge topic to investigate, because it may exist in every field of humanity, just like art. However, it has both of how to school University of California,, positive and negative effects on individual’s performance. For this reason, according to European Slaney and his APS, maladaptive perfectionism may cause depression because of to put high standards or paying much attention to personal performance. As a result, individuals start to be unsatisfied to long Ashbury College their works. However, while Nietzsche was writing about the birth of tragedy, he also talks about the necessity which is very important balance between the work of perfection and defectiveness. These two impacts must exist at European University, the same time, and at the same rate, because art is naturalness just like an imperfection structure of humanity. Search our thousands of research paper for Bournemouth University, essays:

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