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Bank Teller Resume: Sample Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Bank tellers have a lot in common with mafia bosses. They have good people skills, and they can handle enormous amounts of money without batting an eye. But unlike mafia bosses, bank tellers need to be 100% honest and academic Mount, reliable to get the job. Since mafia bosses don’t need resumes, we’ll assume you’re here because you want a bank teller resume that will land you a position in a bank. Teller jobs offer great benefits, like family-friendly hours, retirement plans, and wages well above the hourly minimum. There’s one problem though. You’ll have less than 6 seconds to essay Auburn University convince your local bank’s HR manager that you have all the skills needed.
How can you prove yourself worthy of a bank’s trust in Hermon, under 10 seconds, you ask? We’ll show you exactly how. With this guide, you will learn: A bank teller resume example that gets attention. How to writing a essay yourself Durham University write a bank teller resume. The best format for a bank teller resume. The best way to write skills and keywords on a resume for bank teller. Essay Northfield Mount Hermon? Here's a sample resume for a bank teller made using our resume builder. Want to MacDuffie School save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and Mount, create your resume here . What’s the essays writing Best Format for a Bank Teller Resume?
You’re trustworthy, so all you need to do is academic Northfield Mount write so in essay writing University of South Carolina, the intro of academic writing your resume, right? In fact, there’s no quicker way to appear suspicious than to shower yourself with praise without providing any proof. To show hiring managers that you’re reliable, you need to prove that other people have relied on you in the past. That means your best choice when it comes to resumes for essays writing in english, bank tellers is to go reverse-chronological. How? Easy-peasy. List your experience, whether in banking or other areas, from newest to oldest. By doing so, you will let your potential new boss know that hiring you is essay writing Hermon a safe bet. Most banks will expect reverse-chronological format. These resumes also have the advantage of being readable by Applicant Tracking Systems. But if this format doesn’t fit your profile, you can explore other types of resumes before you make your decision.
Pro Tip: Bank tellers need to be lightning-quick while assisting customers. Essay University Carolina? Be sure to include any experience where speedy service is key, like fast-food restaurants, even if it’s not related to essay writing Northfield Mount banking. The overall format of a resume for bank tellers should be neat and clean no one likes a long, cramped resume. If you’re unsure what that looks like, go back to our bank teller resume sample and a discursive essay MacDuffie, observe the visual layout. Essay Writing Northfield Mount Hermon? Do you want to get a professional or entry-level bank teller resume that will bring you ten times more job offers? Follow the easy formula presented in list Westbourne, this guide: How to Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) . Contact Information Is Not as Basic as it Seems. Academic Hermon? Close your eyes and think about the last time you went to how to a discursive School the bank. Academic Essay Mount? What was the bank teller like? Chances are, he or she looked professional and competent. Step University Carolina? Now get this: there is a way to present your contact information that will make you come across as professional and essay Northfield Mount, competent, and there is a way that will do just the how to essay MacDuffie opposite. Which one is academic Mount Hermon which?
Here is a great example of a bank teller resume contact section: 54 Smythe Street, Springfield, VA 22150. The name stands out The address is complete and follows a standard format The email address is School email@example.com. Academic Writing Mount? Are you doing it right? If your contact details look anything like the example below, then the answer is a-g requirements list Westbourne no. Ja$on K. Springfield 54 Smythe. Avoid nicknames Format your address and essay Mount Hermon, phone number properly Create an official email address if you don’t have one already.
Here’s a thing you need to know about social media accounts: since banks often conduct background checks on potential employees, it’s quite likely that your social media presence will be closely examined. By including your social media handles, you show that you have nothing to hide. But first, make sure that your posts and write a criticism Academy, comments are well-written 72% of recruiters will disqualify candidates if they find typos on academic essay Northfield, their social media profiles! Pro Tip: Your firstname.lastname@example.org is already taken, and you don’t fancy being martindavies78349? Feel free to throw in your middle initial in there. Scientific studies have proven that people with a middle initial are perceived as more intelligent. Adding a LinkedIn handle to your bank teller resume will give your resume an extra boost, especially if your abilities are endorsed by former colleagues and employers. Bank Teller Resume Summary or Resume Objective. Remember how long hiring managers look at each resume? That’s right, a few seconds only.
That means that once they read the a discursive essay MacDuffie School contact information, they will give one single look at the summary of a bank teller resume and decide on academic essay Northfield Hermon, which pile it belongs. You literally have one shot at making a good impression. To get the most bang for your resume buck, write a resume summary that will tell managers all they need to know in as little time as possible. How To Write A Discursive Essay School? Think about it: even if they make they make snap judgments, bank managers are looking for Northfield Mount, a candidate who checks several requirement boxes. A-g Requirements Westbourne? So why not include a statement that will answer all their questions at essay Mount Hermon once?
While writing this section of your resume, keep in mind the usual tasks performed at a bank. What is a bank teller’s job description ? Customer service representatives in argumentative essay University, banks assist clients with deposits and withdrawals, log transactions, and sell additional bank services. Northfield Mount Hermon? Imagine you’re a hiring manager looking to find an employee who will perform these tasks. What are you looking for while scanning an a-g requirements list Westbourne, objective on a bank teller resume? A bank manager will look for three things: A record of successful customer service Proven math abilities, especially with money Attention to detail.
And that’s exactly what your summary should contain. Bank teller resume summary example. Essay Northfield Mount? Experienced customer service representative interested in essay, joining a bank. Flawless record with handling cash flow. Looking to essay Northfield apply my outstanding math skills and precision in a professional and challenging environment. With a section that can be read in less than 3 seconds, you have already positioned yourself as a strong candidate. Is there a wrong way to write a bank teller resume summary? Yes, there definitely is. Looking for step by step, a challenging job that will make the academic essay Mount most of my wide range of abilities. Pro Tip: Remember that even though you may be writing “I’m looking for” or “I would like to”, a resume summary is not about what you want.
Don’t go into your personal motivations for wanting a bank teller job (flexible hours, good salary, etc.) and how to write, stick to a statement that showcases your skill. HR staff will look at your resume with questions in writing Northfield, mind. And this gives them zero answers. How to a-g requirements list School Write a Resume Objective for a Bank Teller Position. If you just graduated or you’re looking to academic essay writing Northfield Mount Hermon change careers, you may want to consider writing a bank teller resume objective instead of a summary. Again, the trick is to look at the job description of a bank teller and match it to how to write a discursive your resume objective. Maybe you have no bank teller experience, but you can have a resume objective that shows you’re passionate about the responsibilities of a bank teller. Reliable and detail-oriented employee looking to apply my record keeping and academic essay writing Mount Hermon, accounting skills in a banking environment. My people skills and write MacDuffie School, accuracy will allow me to make a significant contribution to academic essay writing Mount any team. If you’re wondering how to sum up your experience in a way that will boost your chances of getting a bank teller job, check out How To Write A Resume Summary: 21 Best Examples You Will See . List School? For more tips on how to write a bank teller resume objective with no experience, read +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) . How to Describe Your Bank Teller Experience. Banks will ALWAYS give your resume a second look.
But how to make the most of Northfield Mount Hermon that second read? You have to keep them interested. Here’s where your experience section comes in. Essays In English? You already know that you should be listing your experience from newest to oldest, but the academic Northfield way you describe your previous employment is argumentative essay Auburn University what will keep an essay Northfield, employer reading. The best way to keep a potential boss engaged is to use descriptions that contain a Problem (P) , an Action (A) and a Result (R) . Persuasive Essay Auburn University? By using the essay Northfield Mount PAR structure , you show that your presence made a positive impact on your work environment. Saying you rock is easy, but with this formula, you’ll be proving it. For example, at your last job, you increased ice cream sales by 22% because you decided to always offer ice cream to customers whenever the weather rose above 80 F. Pro Tip: No matter where you’re working, be sure to always keep some data quantifying your positive impact. It will make your life much easier the next time you’re on a job hunt. Start by essay by step Carolina stating or implying what was the issue with the initial situation.
Then describe your initiative, and academic essay Northfield Hermon, finish up by adding the outcome. If you’re writing a bank teller resume with no experience, you can apply the same advice to essay writing step of South volunteering or academic situations. How to describe experience on a resume for bank tellers. Writing Northfield Mount Hermon? To raise customer satisfaction levels (P) , I created a customer satisfaction survey (A) that allowed our bank to double its levels of satisfied customers. (R) See how your impact stands out? If you were hiring, wouldn’t you choose someone who makes a difference, rather than someone who just does what they’re told? Greeted customers according to company script. This goes for professional bank teller resumes too. Make sure you let banks know that once you’re on board, their clients will get a better experience than before.
To raise customer satisfaction levels (P) , I created a customer satisfaction survey (A) that allowed our bank to double its levels of essay and Monson satisfied customers. (R) Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. Just because banks don’t have specific education requirements doesn’t mean they don’t care about it. Most banks will favor candidates with a high school diploma. A good resume for bank tellers should feature an education section with the name of your school, its location, and the year of your graduation. Here is the right format for Hermon, the education section on a perfect bank teller resume. Alexander Hamilton High School, Springfield, VA.
If you have a college degree, include your major/minor. Writing Step University Of South Carolina? If your GPA was above 3.0, you may want to include it. Here’s how: 2017 BA in Psychology. University of Virginia, VA. Writing Northfield Mount? Pro Tip: Education matters, but most banks will care more about your experience than your education. Essay Auburn? Put your experience first, then education. If you did not finish high school, or have some college education but no degree, you can still get a bank teller position. Writing Northfield? Find out how to write essay format incomplete education by reading How to Put Your Education on a Resume [Tips Examples] . How to Put Skills on a Resume for a Bank Teller.
At this point, you should have figured out what most banks are looking for in bank teller candidates. Look at bank teller job postings in your areas. Writing Northfield Mount Hermon? Most often, banks won’t tell you straight up what skills they’re looking for. They’re most likely to provide a list of responsibilities, like processing transactions and resolving customer problems. What the banks really mean is that they’re looking for someone with the how to MacDuffie skills to perform these actions.
And good luck to you if these skills are nowhere to academic essay Mount Hermon be found on persuasive argumentative Auburn University, your resume. Academic Essay Writing Mount Hermon? What are good skills for a bank teller resume, you ask? Let me give you a head start. As a rule, to perform the how to a criticism main responsibilities of a bank customer service representative, a candidate has to possess a unique mix of essay Northfield Hermon hard and write essay Wilbraham and Monson, soft skills: Friendliness and courtesy Patience with customers Salesmanship Attention to detail. Basic accounting Money handling Cash drawer maintenance Record keeping. There is a high likeliness that your local bank is academic Hermon looking for some combination of the write Wilbraham skills above. List all the relevant stuff and lose the rest. Here is what is relevant on a professional resume for bank tellers: Ability to work with money transactions with a high degree of accuracy Demonstrated accounting skills Able to solve customer issues efficiently and courteously. Timely Experienced copywriter Mastery of Adobe Creative Suite. Every job posting is unique and that your resume should be adapted to each application. Writing Northfield Hermon? Some financial institutions will require you to sell their services, while some others will need you to collaborate with their call center or their security services.
The key to success here is to provide the full range of skills necessary to carry out the listed responsibilities. Pro Tip: Banks often use specialized software to keep track of their operations. Include your skills with industry-specific software to show that you are able to master similar systems. Essays Writing In English? If you’re still wondering what are the best bullet points for a bank teller resume, be sure to check out this article: +30 Best Examples of essay Mount What Skills to Put on a Resume (Proven Tips) . How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Bank Teller Resume. A Criticism Wilbraham Academy? You listed all the academic essay Northfield right experience, you listed all the how to write a discursive right skills and you formatted your contact information just the right way. Done deal, right?
Sorry to disappoint you, but not yet. You’re one in a pile of a hundred applicants, and writing Northfield Mount Hermon, there’s a good chance someone else in a discursive, there also did everything right so far. So what does it take to academic essay Northfield Hermon get noticed? You need to have that little extra something that will make your resume stand out. Something that will make a hiring manager remember you when they’re driving back home and say, “Yeah, I think we should hire that guy with a blog about algebra.” Or “Maybe I’ll call the girl who got an how to a discursive essay MacDuffie School, award for customer service when she was working at Best Buy.” This is your time to show off. Won loads of awards and prizes? Create an writing Northfield Mount, award section. Have interesting hobbies that fit your bank’s style?
Create a hobby section. Went on internships and essays, study visits? That too can be a section. Academic Writing Northfield Mount? How to list your hobbies on a resume for bank tellers. World news and global economic trends. Argumentative? Fintech and app development.
While extra sections can often give a good bank teller resume a bit of zing, remember to keep things formal. Your political or religious affiliation or your social activism is academic essay writing Northfield best kept private at that point of the recruitment process. Pro Tip: Hobbies can be a subtle way to show off your skills as well. Basketball says team player, whereas chess says detail-oriented. This is about yourself Durham University only the tip of the iceberg when it comes adding a spark of individuality to academic Northfield Mount resumes for essay University, bank tellers. Read +20 Best Examples of Hobbies Interests to Put on essay Northfield Mount, a Resume to get 5 great tips on how to stand out. Writing Carolina? Here’s the Northfield Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. A Discursive Essay? You’re tired. You’ve been slaving over your perfect bank teller resume for the last 5 hours. You fixed every typo and academic Northfield Hermon, changed the font 5 times. Your finger slides towards the persuasive argumentative essay University send button You have to write a cover letter.
Really, you do. Surveys show that up to 45% of recruiters will reject an application without a cover letter . Some recruiters might think they’re unimportant, but if almost half of essay writing Mount Hermon them think they matter, do you really want to take that risk? Pro Tip: To make your cover letter look extra polished, keep the formatting and visual layout identical to the one you used in your resume. Cover letters offer additional possibilities. This is the perfect time to spell out why you want to work at essay by step of South Carolina that particular bank or to describe an especially impactful contribution you made at your last job. Clearly state why you’re applying, and academic Northfield, why you would be the best candidate for the job. There are simple but foolproof tricks to make your cover letter stand out. How To Write Essay And Monson Academy? To find out more, read How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] . Essay Northfield Mount? Composing a great bank teller resume is tricky business, but this is how you become a bank teller. There is room for creativity, but on the whole, your resume should follow these golden rules. You only get one first impression.
Your resume should say “hire me” at first glance. Include key skills in your resume summary, and make sure you’re not committing any formatting faux-pas. How To Write Wilbraham? It’s all about the skills. Academic Writing Mount Hermon? Recruiters will be looking for a very specific set of banking skills. List them in the skills section, prove them in the experience section, and MacDuffie, emphasize them with additional sections. (And for academic essay writing Northfield, the love of essays writing all that is holy, if you say you’re detail-oriented, fix all your typos before you press send.) Make the academic essay writing Northfield Hermon details work for writing about Durham University, you. Little things can reinforce your statement. A friendly cover letter will emphasize your people skills.
A neat format will show your eye for detail. Unusual but impressive hobbies will lend credibility to your skills. Academic Writing Mount Hermon? Ready to apply? If you have any other questions, just write them down in the comments section and we’ll answer! Got the how to write a discursive essay job you wanted? Let us know as well, we’ll pop open the champagne! As a freelance cultural manager, Lea Berriault often receives and sends resumes, so she likes to stay on top of trends in the hiring industry.
She hosts podcasts as a side gig, and she considers the day incomplete without reading and cooking.
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Remarks of President Barack Obama – State of the Union Address As Delivered. The White House is Northfield, once again making the essay MacDuffie School, full text of the State of the Union widely available online. The text, as prepared for delivery, is also available on Medium and Facebook notes, continuing efforts to meet people where they are and make the speech as accessible as possible. Through these digital platforms, people can follow along with the speech as they watch in real time, view charts and academic Northfield Hermon, infographics on key areas, share their favorite lines, and essay writing step of South Carolina, provide feedback. Mr. Speaker, Mr. Vice President, Members of Congress, my fellow Americans: Tonight marks the eighth year that I’ve come here to report on the State of the essay Northfield Hermon, Union. And for this final one, I’m going to try to make it a little shorter. (Applause.) I know some of you are antsy to a-g requirements, get back to Iowa. (Laughter.) I've been there. I'll be shaking hands afterwards if you want some tips. (Laughter.) And I understand that because it’s an election season, expectations for what we will achieve this year are low.
But, Mr. Speaker, I appreciate the essay writing Hermon, constructive approach that you and the other leaders took at the end of last year to pass a budget and make tax cuts permanent for working families. So I hope we can work together this year on some bipartisan priorities like criminal justice reform -- (applause) -- and helping people who are battling prescription drug abuse and persuasive argumentative essay, heroin abuse. (Applause.) So, who knows, we might surprise the academic Northfield Mount Hermon, cynics again. But tonight, I want to go easy on the traditional list of proposals for the year ahead. Essays Writing In English Haileybury! Don’t worry, I’ve got plenty, from helping students learn to write computer code to personalizing medical treatments for patients. And I will keep pushing for progress on the work that I believe still needs to be done. Fixing a broken immigration system. (Applause.) Protecting our kids from gun violence. (Applause.) Equal pay for equal work. (Applause.) Paid leave. (Applause.) Raising the academic essay Northfield Mount Hermon, minimum wage. (Applause.) All these things still matter to hardworking families.
They’re still the right thing to a-g requirements Westbourne School, do. And I won't let up until they get done. But for my final address to this chamber, I don’t want to essay writing, just talk about next year. I want to focus on how to write a criticism the next five years, the next 10 years, and beyond. I want to focus on academic writing Northfield Hermon our future. We live in a time of extraordinary change -- change that’s reshaping the way we live, the essays writing in english Haileybury, way we work, our planet, our place in writing Hermon the world. It’s change that promises amazing medical breakthroughs, but also economic disruptions that strain working families. It promises education for girls in how to essay the most remote villages, but also connects terrorists plotting an ocean away. It’s change that can broaden opportunity, or widen inequality. And whether we like it or not, the pace of this change will only accelerate. America has been through big changes before -- wars and depression, the influx of new immigrants, workers fighting for a fair deal, movements to essay writing, expand civil rights.
Each time, there have been those who told us to how to a discursive MacDuffie, fear the future; who claimed we could slam the brakes on change; who promised to academic writing Mount, restore past glory if we just got some group or idea that was threatening America under control. And each time, we overcame those fears. We did not, in the words of Lincoln, adhere to the “dogmas of the quiet past.” Instead we thought anew, and acted anew. We made change work for us, always extending America’s promise outward, to a essay, the next frontier, to more people. And because we did -- because we saw opportunity where others saw only peril -- we emerged stronger and better than before. What was true then can be true now.
Our unique strengths as a nation -- our optimism and work ethic, our spirit of discovery, our diversity, our commitment to rule of law -- these things give us everything we need to ensure prosperity and essay Northfield Mount Hermon, security for generations to come. In fact, it’s that spirit that made the progress of these past seven years possible. It’s how we recovered from the worst economic crisis in generations. It’s how we reformed our health care system, and a criticism essay and Monson Academy, reinvented our energy sector; how we delivered more care and benefits to our troops and academic essay writing Northfield, veterans, and essay writing step of South Carolina, how we secured the freedom in every state to marry the person we love. But such progress is not inevitable. Academic Essay Writing Mount Hermon! It’s the result of choices we make together. And we face such choices right now. Will we respond to list Westbourne, the changes of academic Northfield Mount, our time with fear, turning inward as a nation, turning against each other as a people? Or will we face the future with confidence in who we are, in what we stand for, in the incredible things that we can do together? So let’s talk about the future, and four big questions that I believe we as a country have to answer -- regardless of who the next President is, or who controls the next Congress.
First, how do we give everyone a fair shot at opportunity and security in this new economy? (Applause.) Second, how do we make technology work for us, and not against us -- especially when it comes to solving urgent challenges like climate change? (Applause.) Third, how do we keep America safe and lead the world without becoming its policeman? (Applause.) And finally, how can we make our politics reflect what’s best in us, and writing about yourself Durham, not what’s worst? Let me start with the economy, and a basic fact: The United States of essay Northfield Mount Hermon, America, right now, has the strongest, most durable economy in the world. (Applause.) We’re in the middle of the longest streak of private sector job creation in history. (Applause.) More than 14 million new jobs, the strongest two years of job growth since the ‘90s, an unemployment rate cut in half. Our auto industry just had its best year ever. (Applause.) That's just part of a manufacturing surge that's created nearly 900,000 new jobs in list the past six years. Writing! And we’ve done all this while cutting our deficits by almost three-quarters. (Applause.)
Anyone claiming that America’s economy is in decline is peddling fiction. Essays In English Haileybury! (Applause.) Now, what is essay writing, true -- and the reason that a lot of Americans feel anxious -- is that the a essay yourself, economy has been changing in Northfield Hermon profound ways, changes that started long before the Great Recession hit; changes that have not let up. Today, technology doesn’t just replace jobs on essays in english Haileybury the assembly line, but any job where work can be automated. Companies in a global economy can locate anywhere, and they face tougher competition. As a result, workers have less leverage for academic writing Mount, a raise. Companies have less loyalty to their communities.
And more and more wealth and income is concentrated at the very top. All these trends have squeezed workers, even when they have jobs; even when the economy is growing. Write A Criticism And Monson Academy! It’s made it harder for a hardworking family to pull itself out of essay writing Northfield Mount Hermon, poverty, harder for persuasive Auburn University, young people to start their careers, tougher for workers to retire when they want to. And although none of academic essay Northfield Mount Hermon, these trends are unique to America, they do offend our uniquely American belief that everybody who works hard should get a fair shot. For the past seven years, our goal has been a growing economy that works also better for everybody. We’ve made progress. But we need to make more. And despite all the political arguments that we’ve had these past few years, there are actually some areas where Americans broadly agree. We agree that real opportunity requires every American to get the writing step by step, education and training they need to academic essay Mount Hermon, land a good-paying job. Writing Haileybury! The bipartisan reform of No Child Left Behind was an important start, and together, we’ve increased early childhood education, lifted high school graduation rates to new highs, boosted graduates in fields like engineering. In the coming years, we should build on that progress, by Mount Hermon, providing Pre-K for all and -- (applause) -- offering every student the hands-on computer science and math classes that make them job-ready on day one.
We should recruit and support more great teachers for our kids. (Applause.) And we have to how to a criticism essay and Monson, make college affordable for every American. (Applause.) No hardworking student should be stuck in the red. We’ve already reduced student loan payments to 10 percent of a borrower’s income. Academic! And that's good. But now, we’ve actually got to cut the cost of college. Essay Writing University Carolina! (Applause.) Providing two years of community college at no cost for every responsible student is one of the best ways to do that, and I’m going to Northfield Hermon, keep fighting to get that started this year. Step University! (Applause.) It's the right thing to do. Academic! (Applause.) But a great education isn’t all we need in list School this new economy. We also need benefits and protections that provide a basic measure of security. It’s not too much of essay writing Northfield, a stretch to say that some of the only people in America who are going to work the same job, in the same place, with a health and retirement package for essay University, 30 years are sitting in this chamber. Academic Hermon! (Laughter.) For everyone else, especially folks in how to write a discursive MacDuffie their 40s and Northfield Mount, 50s, saving for retirement or bouncing back from job loss has gotten a lot tougher. Americans understand that at writing some point in their careers, in this new economy, they may have to retool and writing, they may have to retrain. But they shouldn’t lose what they’ve already worked so hard to writing, build in the process. That’s why Social Security and Medicare are more important than ever.
We shouldn’t weaken them; we should strengthen them. (Applause.) And for Americans short of retirement, basic benefits should be just as mobile as everything else is today. That, by the way, is essay Northfield Hermon, what the Affordable Care Act is all about. It’s about filling the gaps in essay writing step by step Carolina employer-based care so that when you lose a job, or you go back to school, or you strike out and launch that new business, you’ll still have coverage. Nearly 18 million people have gained coverage so far. (Applause.) And in the process, health care inflation has slowed. And our businesses have created jobs every single month since it became law. Now, I’m guessing we won’t agree on essay Mount Hermon health care anytime soon. (Applause.) A little applause right there. (Laughter.) Just a guess. But there should be other ways parties can work together to improve economic security.
Say a hardworking American loses his job -- we shouldn’t just make sure that he can get unemployment insurance; we should make sure that program encourages him to write essay and Monson Academy, retrain for a business that’s ready to hire him. Essay Writing! If that new job doesn’t pay as much, there should be a system of wage insurance in place so that he can still pay his bills. And even if he’s going from job to argumentative University, job, he should still be able to save for retirement and take his savings with him. That’s the way we make the essay Northfield Mount Hermon, new economy work better for everybody. I also know Speaker Ryan has talked about his interest in tackling poverty. America is about giving everybody willing to work a chance, a hand up.
And I’d welcome a serious discussion about strategies we can all support, like expanding tax cuts for low-income workers who don't have children. (Applause.) But there are some areas where we just have to be honest -- it has been difficult to find agreement over the last seven years. How To A Discursive! And a lot of them fall under the academic essay Northfield Hermon, category of what role the government should play in making sure the system’s not rigged in favor of the wealthiest and biggest corporations. Essay Writing Step By Step Of South Carolina! (Applause.) And it's an essay writing Hermon honest disagreement, and the American people have a choice to make. I believe a thriving private sector is the lifeblood of our economy. I think there are outdated regulations that need to be changed. There is red tape that needs to be cut. (Applause.) There you go!
Yes! (Applause.) But after years now of record corporate profits, working families won’t get more opportunity or bigger paychecks just by letting big banks or big oil or hedge funds make their own rules at everybody else’s expense. (Applause.) Middle-class families are not going to feel more secure because we allowed attacks on collective bargaining to go unanswered. Food Stamp recipients did not cause the financial crisis; recklessness on Wall Street did. (Applause.) Immigrants aren’t the principal reason wages haven’t gone up; those decisions are made in the boardrooms that all too often put quarterly earnings over long-term returns. It’s sure not the average family watching tonight that avoids paying taxes through offshore accounts. (Applause.) The point is, I believe that in this new economy, workers and start-ups and writing a essay about, small businesses need more of a voice, not less. The rules should work for them. (Applause.) And I'm not alone in this. This year I plan to lift up the essay, many businesses who’ve figured out that doing right by their workers or their customers or their communities ends up being good for writing in english, their shareholders. Academic Writing! (Applause.) And I want to list School, spread those best practices across America. Academic Essay! That's part of a brighter future. Write Essay Wilbraham! (Applause.) In fact, it turns out many of our best corporate citizens are also our most creative. And this brings me to the second big question we as a country have to answer: How do we reignite that spirit of innovation to meet our biggest challenges? Sixty years ago, when the Russians beat us into space, we didn’t deny Sputnik was up there. (Laughter.) We didn’t argue about the academic essay Northfield Hermon, science, or shrink our research and development budget. We built a space program almost overnight.
And 12 years later, we were walking on the moon. (Applause.) Now, that spirit of discovery is in our DNA. America is Thomas Edison and the Wright Brothers and writing yourself Durham University, George Washington Carver. America is Grace Hopper and academic essay writing Northfield Mount Hermon, Katherine Johnson and essay MacDuffie School, Sally Ride. Academic Essay Writing Northfield! America is every immigrant and entrepreneur from Boston to Austin to write a criticism and Monson, Silicon Valley, racing to academic writing Northfield Hermon, shape a better world. (Applause.) That's who we are.
And over the past seven years, we’ve nurtured that spirit. We’ve protected an open Internet, and taken bold new steps to get more students and low-income Americans online. A Essay About Yourself University! (Applause.) We’ve launched next-generation manufacturing hubs, and online tools that give an entrepreneur everything he or she needs to start a business in a single day. But we can do so much more. Last year, Vice President Biden said that with a new moonshot, America can cure cancer. Last month, he worked with this Congress to Northfield Hermon, give scientists at the National Institutes of essay by step Carolina, Health the strongest resources that they’ve had in over a decade. (Applause.) So tonight, I’m announcing a new national effort to get it done. Academic Northfield Mount Hermon! And because he’s gone to the mat for all of us on so many issues over the past 40 years, I’m putting Joe in charge of Mission Control. Essay! (Applause.) For the academic writing Northfield Mount, loved ones we’ve all lost, for the families that we can still save, let’s make America the country that cures cancer once and for all. (Applause.) Medical research is critical. We need the same level of commitment when it comes to developing clean energy sources. (Applause.) Look, if anybody still wants to dispute the science around climate change, have at a-g requirements list Westbourne it. Academic Writing Northfield Mount! You will be pretty lonely, because you’ll be debating our military, most of America’s business leaders, the majority of the American people, almost the entire scientific community, and 200 nations around the world who agree it’s a problem and intend to solve it. (Applause.) But even if -- even if the planet wasn’t at stake, even if 2014 wasn’t the warmest year on record -- until 2015 turned out to be even hotter -- why would we want to pass up the chance for American businesses to produce and sell the energy of the future? (Applause.) Listen, seven years ago, we made the single biggest investment in clean energy in our history.
Here are the results. In fields from Iowa to Texas, wind power is now cheaper than dirtier, conventional power. On rooftops from Arizona to New York, solar is persuasive essay University, saving Americans tens of millions of dollars a year on essay Northfield their energy bills, and employs more Americans than coal -- in jobs that pay better than average. We’re taking steps to give homeowners the essay writing University, freedom to writing Mount, generate and writing in english, store their own energy -- something, by the way, that environmentalists and Tea Partiers have teamed up to support. Academic Essay Mount Hermon! And meanwhile, we’ve cut our imports of foreign oil by nearly 60 percent, and cut carbon pollution more than any other country on Earth. (Applause.) Gas under two bucks a gallon ain’t bad, either. (Applause.) Now we’ve got to essays writing in english, accelerate the transition away from old, dirtier energy sources.
Rather than subsidize the past, we should invest in the future -- especially in communities that rely on essay writing Hermon fossil fuels. We do them no favor when we don't show them where the writing University, trends are going. That’s why I’m going to push to change the way we manage our oil and academic essay Northfield Mount Hermon, coal resources, so that they better reflect the School, costs they impose on taxpayers and our planet. And that way, we put money back into those communities, and writing, put tens of essays in english Haileybury, thousands of Americans to work building a 21st century transportation system. (Applause.) Now, none of essay writing Northfield Mount, this is going to happen overnight. And, yes, there are plenty of Westbourne School, entrenched interests who want to protect the status quo.
But the academic writing Mount Hermon, jobs we’ll create, the money we’ll save, the planet we’ll preserve -- that is the kind of future our kids and our grandkids deserve. And it's within our grasp. Climate change is just one of many issues where our security is linked to the rest of the world. And that’s why the a-g requirements list Westbourne School, third big question that we have to answer together is how to keep America safe and strong without either isolating ourselves or trying to nation-build everywhere there’s a problem. I told you earlier all the talk of writing, America’s economic decline is political hot air. Well, so is all the write essay Wilbraham and Monson Academy, rhetoric you hear about academic essay Northfield, our enemies getting stronger and America getting weaker. Let me tell you something. The United States of America is the most powerful nation on Earth. Period. (Applause.) Period. It’s not even close. It's not even close. (Applause.) It's not even close.
We spend more on our military than the next eight nations combined. School! Our troops are the academic Hermon, finest fighting force in the history of the world. (Applause.) No nation attacks us directly, or our allies, because they know that’s the path to ruin. List Westbourne School! Surveys show our standing around the writing Northfield, world is higher than when I was elected to this office, and when it comes to every important international issue, people of the world do not look to Beijing or Moscow to lead -- they call us. (Applause.) I mean, it's useful to level the set here, because when we don't, we don't make good decisions. Now, as someone who begins every day with an intelligence briefing, I know this is a dangerous time.
But that’s not primarily because of some looming superpower out there, and certainly not because of diminished American strength. In today’s world, we’re threatened less by evil empires and a-g requirements list, more by failing states. The Middle East is going through a transformation that will play out for a generation, rooted in conflicts that date back millennia. Economic headwinds are blowing in from a Chinese economy that is in academic writing Northfield Hermon significant transition. Even as their economy severely contracts, Russia is pouring resources in to by step of South, prop up Ukraine and Syria -- client states that they saw slipping away from their orbit. And the international system we built after World War II is now struggling to Mount, keep pace with this new reality. It’s up to us, the United States of America, to help remake that system. And to do that well it means that we’ve got to writing about University, set priorities. Priority number one is academic writing Mount, protecting the American people and going after terrorist networks. (Applause.) Both al Qaeda and essay writing by step University of South Carolina, now ISIL pose a direct threat to academic Mount Hermon, our people, because in today’s world, even a handful of terrorists who place no value on human life, including their own, can do a lot of damage.
They use the Internet to poison the minds of individuals inside our country. Their actions undermine and destabilize our allies. We have to take them out./p But as we focus on destroying ISIL, over-the-top claims that this is World War III just play into their hands. Masses of fighters on the back of pickup trucks, twisted souls plotting in apartments or garages -- they pose an enormous danger to civilians; they have to be stopped.
But they do not threaten our national existence. (Applause.) That is the a essay about Durham, story ISIL wants to writing Mount Hermon, tell. That’s the kind of propaganda they use to how to write a criticism essay and Monson, recruit. We don’t need to build them up to academic essay writing, show that we’re serious, and we sure don't need to persuasive essay Auburn, push away vital allies in writing Hermon this fight by persuasive argumentative essay University, echoing the lie that ISIL is somehow representative of one of the world’s largest religions. (Applause.) We just need to Mount Hermon, call them what they are -- killers and fanatics who have to be rooted out, hunted down, and destroyed. (Applause.) And that’s exactly what we’re doing. For more than a year, America has led a coalition of more than 60 countries to cut off ISIL’s financing, disrupt their plots, stop the flow of terrorist fighters, and a-g requirements list Westbourne, stamp out their vicious ideology. With nearly 10,000 air strikes, we’re taking out essay Hermon, their leadership, their oil, their training camps, their weapons. We’re training, arming, and supporting forces who are steadily reclaiming territory in Iraq and Syria. If this Congress is serious about winning this war, and wants to send a message to essay step by step of South, our troops and the world, authorize the use of military force against ISIL. Take a vote. (Applause.) Take a vote. But the American people should know that with or without congressional action, ISIL will learn the same lessons as terrorists before them. If you doubt America’s commitment -- or mine -- to see that justice is done, just ask Osama bin Laden. (Applause.) Ask the academic writing Hermon, leader of al Qaeda in Yemen, who was taken out last year, or the perpetrator of the Benghazi attacks, who sits in a prison cell.
When you come after Americans, we go after you. (Applause.) And it may take time, but we have long memories, and our reach has no limits. (Applause.) Our foreign policy hast to be focused on the threat from ISIL and al Qaeda, but it can’t stop there. For even without ISIL, even without al Qaeda, instability will continue for Westbourne School, decades in many parts of the world -- in the Middle East, in Afghanistan, parts of Pakistan, in writing Northfield Hermon parts of Central America, in Africa, and Asia. Some of persuasive essay University, these places may become safe havens for new terrorist networks. Others will just fall victim to essay writing Northfield Mount Hermon, ethnic conflict, or famine, feeding the next wave of how to write essay and Monson, refugees. The world will look to us to help solve these problems, and our answer needs to academic essay writing Hermon, be more than tough talk or calls to carpet-bomb civilians. In English! That may work as a TV sound bite, but it doesn’t pass muster on the world stage. We also can’t try to take over essay Mount Hermon and rebuild every country that falls into crisis, even if it's done with the best of persuasive essay, intentions. (Applause.) That’s not leadership; that’s a recipe for quagmire, spilling American blood and Northfield Hermon, treasure that ultimately will weaken us. How To Write A Criticism Wilbraham And Monson! It’s the lesson of academic Northfield Mount Hermon, Vietnam; it's the lesson of Iraq -- and Haileybury, we should have learned it by now. (Applause.)
Fortunately, there is a smarter approach, a patient and disciplined strategy that uses every element of essay Mount Hermon, our national power. It says America will always act, alone if necessary, to writing a essay Durham University, protect our people and our allies; but on issues of global concern, we will mobilize the world to work with us, and make sure other countries pull their own weight. That’s our approach to conflicts like Syria, where we’re partnering with local forces and leading international efforts to help that broken society pursue a lasting peace. That’s why we built a global coalition, with sanctions and academic essay Northfield Hermon, principled diplomacy, to prevent a nuclear-armed Iran. And as we speak, Iran has rolled back its nuclear program, shipped out its uranium stockpile, and the world has avoided another war. Writing! (Applause.)
That’s how we stopped the spread of Ebola in West Africa. (Applause.) Our military, our doctors, our development workers -- they were heroic; they set up the platform that then allowed other countries to join in behind us and academic Northfield Hermon, stamp out that epidemic. Hundreds of writing in english Haileybury, thousands, maybe a couple million lives were saved. That’s how we forged a Trans-Pacific Partnership to open markets, and essay writing Northfield Mount, protect workers and the environment, and advance American leadership in Asia. It cuts 18,000 taxes on products made in America, which will then support more good jobs here in America. How To A Criticism Wilbraham Academy! With TPP, China does not set the rules in essay writing Northfield Mount that region; we do.
You want to show our strength in this new century? Approve this agreement. Give us the tools to enforce it. It's the right thing to do. Haileybury! (Applause.) Let me give you another example. Fifty years of isolating Cuba had failed to promote democracy, and writing Northfield Mount Hermon, set us back in Latin America. That’s why we restored diplomatic relations -- (applause) -- opened the door to travel and step Carolina, commerce, positioned ourselves to essay Mount Hermon, improve the writing by step University of South Carolina, lives of the Cuban people. (Applause.) So if you want to consolidate our leadership and credibility in the hemisphere, recognize that the Cold War is over -- lift the embargo. (Applause.) The point is American leadership in the 21st century is not a choice between ignoring the essay Hermon, rest of the how to essay and Monson Academy, world -- except when we kill terrorists -- or occupying and rebuilding whatever society is essay writing Northfield Mount, unraveling. Leadership means a wise application of military power, and how to write a criticism and Monson, rallying the world behind causes that are right. It means seeing our foreign assistance as a part of our national security, not something separate, not charity.
When we lead nearly 200 nations to the most ambitious agreement in history to essay writing Hermon, fight climate change, yes, that helps vulnerable countries, but it also protects our kids. When we help Ukraine defend its democracy, or Colombia resolve a decades-long war, that strengthens the international order we depend on. A Discursive MacDuffie School! When we help African countries feed their people and care for the sick -- (applause) -- it's the right thing to essay Northfield Mount Hermon, do, and it prevents the next pandemic from reaching our shores. Right now, we’re on track to list, end the scourge of HIV/AIDS. That's within our grasp. (Applause.) And we have the academic essay writing Mount, chance to persuasive Auburn University, accomplish the academic, same thing with malaria -- something I’ll be pushing this Congress to fund this year. (Applause.) That's American strength. About Durham University! That's American leadership. And that kind of leadership depends on the power of our example. That’s why I will keep working to shut down the prison at Guantanamo. (Applause.) It is essay Mount, expensive, it is unnecessary, and it only serves as a recruitment brochure for our enemies. (Applause.) There’s a better way. (Applause.) And that’s why we need to reject any politics -- any politics -- that targets people because of race or religion. (Applause.) Let me just say this. Persuasive! This is not a matter of political correctness.
This is a matter of understanding just what it is academic essay Mount, that makes us strong. The world respects us not just for our arsenal; it respects us for our diversity, and our openness, and the way we respect every faith. His Holiness, Pope Francis, told this body from the very spot that I'm standing on tonight that “to imitate the hatred and violence of how to write essay, tyrants and essay writing, murderers is the writing by step University of South, best way to take their place.” When politicians insult Muslims, whether abroad or our fellow citizens, when a mosque is vandalized, or a kid is called names, that doesn’t make us safer. That’s not telling it like it is. It’s just wrong. (Applause.) It diminishes us in the eyes of the world. It makes it harder to achieve our goals. It betrays who we are as a country. (Applause.) “We the People.” Our Constitution begins with those three simple words, words we’ve come to recognize mean all the people, not just some; words that insist we rise and fall together, and that's how we might perfect our Union. And that brings me to the fourth, and maybe the most important thing that I want to say tonight.
The future we want -- all of us want -- opportunity and security for academic writing Mount Hermon, our families, a rising standard of living, a sustainable, peaceful planet for our kids -- all that is School, within our reach. But it will only happen if we work together. It will only happen if we can have rational, constructive debates. It will only happen if we fix our politics. A better politics doesn’t mean we have to agree on everything. This is academic essay writing Hermon, a big country -- different regions, different attitudes, different interests. That’s one of our strengths, too. University Carolina! Our Founders distributed power between states and branches of government, and expected us to argue, just as they did, fiercely, over the size and shape of government, over academic essay writing Mount Hermon commerce and foreign relations, over the meaning of liberty and the imperatives of security. But democracy does require basic bonds of trust between its citizens. It doesn’t work if we think the people who disagree with us are all motivated by writing Haileybury, malice. It doesn’t work if we think that our political opponents are unpatriotic or trying to weaken America.
Democracy grinds to writing Northfield Mount, a halt without a willingness to compromise, or when even basic facts are contested, or when we listen only to those who agree with us. Our public life withers when only the most extreme voices get all the attention. And most of all, democracy breaks down when the average person feels their voice doesn’t matter; that the system is rigged in favor of the rich or the powerful or some special interest. Too many Americans feel that way right now. It’s one of the few regrets of my presidency -- that the rancor and suspicion between the by step University of South Carolina, parties has gotten worse instead of better. I have no doubt a president with the gifts of Lincoln or Roosevelt might have better bridged the divide, and I guarantee I’ll keep trying to be better so long as I hold this office. But, my fellow Americans, this cannot be my task -- or any President’s -- alone.
There are a whole lot of academic essay writing Northfield Hermon, folks in this chamber, good people who would like to see more cooperation, would like to see a more elevated debate in Washington, but feel trapped by the imperatives of getting elected, by essays writing Haileybury, the noise coming out of your base. I know; you’ve told me. Academic Northfield Mount! It's the worst-kept secret in Washington. Essays In English Haileybury! And a lot of you aren't enjoying being trapped in that kind of rancor. But that means if we want a better politics -- and I'm addressing the American people now -- if we want a better politics, it’s not enough just to change a congressman or change a senator or even change a President. We have to change the system to reflect our better selves. Academic Northfield! I think we've got to end the practice of write a criticism essay Wilbraham and Monson Academy, drawing our congressional districts so that politicians can pick their voters, and not the other way around. (Applause.) Let a bipartisan group do it. (Applause.) We have to reduce the influence of academic writing Northfield Hermon, money in argumentative our politics, so that a handful of academic Mount, families or hidden interests can’t bankroll our elections. How To A Discursive MacDuffie School! (Applause.) And if our existing approach to campaign finance reform can’t pass muster in Mount the courts, we need to work together to find a real solution -- because it's a problem.
And most of you don't like raising money. I know; I've done it. (Applause.) We’ve got to make it easier to vote, not harder. (Applause.) We need to modernize it for argumentative University, the way we live now. (Applause.) This is America: We want to make it easier for people to participate. Academic Mount! And over the course of this year, I intend to travel the country to push for reforms that do just that. But I can’t do these things on my own. A-g Requirements List School! (Applause.) Changes in our political process -- in not just who gets elected, but how they get elected -- that will only happen when the American people demand it. It depends on you. That’s what’s meant by a government of, by, and for the people. What I’m suggesting is hard. Academic Mount Hermon! It’s a lot easier to be cynical; to accept that change is not possible, and how to write Academy, politics is Mount Hermon, hopeless, and the problem is all the folks who are elected don't care, and to believe that our voices and actions don’t matter. But if we give up now, then we forsake a better future. Those with money and power will gain greater control over the decisions that could send a young soldier to war, or allow another economic disaster, or roll back the equal rights and writing about University, voting rights that generations of Americans have fought, even died, to academic essay writing Mount Hermon, secure.
And then, as frustration grows, there will be voices urging us to fall back into our respective tribes, to scapegoat fellow citizens who don’t look like us, or pray like us, or vote like we do, or share the same background. We can’t afford to go down that path. A-g Requirements List! It won’t deliver the economy we want. It will not produce the security we want. But most of Mount, all, it contradicts everything that makes us the envy of the and Monson, world.
So, my fellow Americans, whatever you may believe, whether you prefer one party or no party, whether you supported my agenda or fought as hard as you could against it -- our collective futures depends on your willingness to academic writing Northfield Mount Hermon, uphold your duties as a citizen. To vote. To speak out. To stand up for others, especially the weak, especially the vulnerable, knowing that each of us is essay Auburn University, only here because somebody, somewhere, stood up for us. Academic Essay Northfield! (Applause.) We need every American to stay active in our public life -- and how to Wilbraham and Monson, not just during election time -- so that our public life reflects the goodness and the decency that I see in the American people every single day. It is not easy. Academic Essay Northfield Mount! Our brand of list Westbourne, democracy is hard.
But I can promise that a little over a year from now, when I no longer hold this office, I will be right there with you as a citizen, inspired by those voices of fairness and vision, of grit and good humor and kindness that helped America travel so far. Voices that help us see ourselves not, first and academic writing Mount, foremost, as black or white, or Asian or Latino, not as gay or straight, immigrant or native born, not as Democrat or Republican, but as Americans first, bound by a common creed. Voices Dr. King believed would have the writing in english Haileybury, final word -- voices of academic writing Northfield Hermon, unarmed truth and essays writing, unconditional love. And they’re out there, those voices. They don’t get a lot of attention; they don't seek a lot of fanfare; but they’re busy doing the work this country needs doing. I see them everywhere I travel in this incredible country of ours. I see you, the American people. And in your daily acts of citizenship, I see our future unfolding. I see it in the worker on the assembly line who clocked extra shifts to keep his company open, and the boss who pays him higher wages instead of laying him off. I see it in the Dreamer who stays up late to finish her science project, and the teacher who comes in early because he knows she might someday cure a disease.
I see it in the American who served his time, and made mistakes as a child but now is dreaming of starting over -- and I see it in academic Northfield Mount the business owner who gives him that second chance. The protester determined to prove that justice matters -- and the young cop walking the beat, treating everybody with respect, doing the brave, quiet work of keeping us safe. (Applause.) I see it in the soldier who gives almost everything to save his brothers, the nurse who tends to a criticism essay Wilbraham and Monson, him till he can run a marathon, the community that lines up to cheer him on. It’s the son who finds the courage to academic writing, come out as who he is, and the father whose love for that son overrides everything he’s been taught. (Applause.) I see it in the elderly woman who will wait in line to cast her vote as long as she has to; the new citizen who casts his vote for step by step, the first time; the volunteers at the polls who believe every vote should count -- because each of them in different ways know how much that precious right is worth. That's the America I know. That’s the country we love. Clear-eyed.
Big-hearted. Undaunted by challenge. Optimistic that unarmed truth and unconditional love will have the final word. (Applause.) That’s what makes me so hopeful about our future. Academic Essay Writing Mount! I believe in change because I believe in you, the American people. And that’s why I stand here confident as I have ever been that the State of our Union is strong. (Applause.) Thank you, God bless you.
God bless the United States of about yourself Durham University, America.
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essay hotel ruanda Hollywood and the Holocaust in academic essay writing Northfield Mount Hermon, Central Africa. keith harmon snow. Reprinting permitted with proper attribution to: Text corrected, 1 November 2007 (see note [36-a]). W hat happened in Rwanda in 1994? The standard line is that a calculated genocide occurred because of deep-seated tribal animosity between the majority Hutu tribe in power and the minority Tutsis. According to this story, at least 500,000 and perhaps 1.2 million Tutsis—and some ‘moderate’ Hutus—were ruthlessly eliminated in a few months, and most of them were killed with machetes.
The killers in this story were Hutu hard-liners from the Forces Armees Rwandais , the Hutu army, backed by the more ominous and inhuman civilian militias—the Interahamwe—“ those who kill together.” “In three short, cruel months, between April and July 1994,” wrote genocide expert Samantha Power on the 10 th anniversary of the genocide, “Rwanda experienced a genocide more efficient than that carried out by the Nazis in World War II. The killers were a varied bunch: drunk extremists chanting ‘Hutu power, Hutu power’; uniformed soldiers and militia men intent on wiping out the Tutsi Inyenzi , or ‘cockroaches’; ordinary villagers who had never themselves contemplated killing before but who decided to join the how to frenzy.”  The award-winning film Hotel Rwanda offers a Hollywood version and the latest depiction of academic Mount this cataclysm. Is the film accurate? It is billed as a true story.
Did genocide occur in Wilbraham, Rwanda as it is widely portrayed and essay Northfield, universally imagined? With thousands of Hutus fleeing Rwanda in 2005, in fear of the Tutsi government and its now operational village genocide courts, is how to a discursive essay, another reading of events needed?  Is Samantha Power—a Pulitzer Prize winning journalist—telling it straight?  Is it possible, as evidence confirms, that the now canonized United Nations peacekeeper Lt. General Romo Dallaire was at the time an academic writing Northfield, agent of the Tutsi army? Or that the funding for Hotel Rwanda came from a company with powerful mining interests in Congo—where access is insured by the Rwanda government? Hundreds of thousands of people were killed, that’s clear. There was large-scale butchery of Tutsis. Argumentative Essay. And Hutus. Children and old women were killed. There was mass rape.
There were many acts of genocide. But was it genocide or civil war? “I think that’s a very good question and it is not adequately answered,” says Howard W. French, former East Africa Bureau Chief for the New York Times and author of Africa: A Continent for the Taking .  Howard W. French operated on Mount Hermon the ground in Central Africa (1993-1999) and his reportage of the RPF Tutsi rebel army hunting down and massacring hundreds of thousands of Hutus in Congo is exceptional.  “A minority of fifteen percent [RPF Tutsis] wages a determined effort to take over a country and rule in an ethnic way, by force of arms, and has been doing this for years. Two presidents are assassinated.” Howard W. Step By Step University Of South. French is adamant. “These are not excuses for butchery . But these are things that lead one in the direction of essay Northfield Mount Hermon civil war, as a descriptor, as opposed to how to write essay MacDuffie, the one-sided tale that we have been given, of academic essay writing Hermon these sweet, innocent Tutsis who remind us of Israel, versus the a essay about Durham University savage Hutus who cold-heartedly butcher people hand-to-hand for three months.”  From the very first words and frames, where the image has yet to appear and the screen is completely black, the film Hotel Rwanda sets up viewers to academic Mount, think a certain way about what happened in Rwanda in 1994. Here is a story about good versus evil.
An ominous African voice is heard, clearly the write essay and Monson Academy announcer on a Rwandan radio program, and essay writing Northfield Mount, he is describing the Tutsis as ‘ cockrrrRRROACHES .’ The voice is black and the cataclysm unfathomable, as anyone will tell you, and the black screen underscores the evil darkness of step of South Africa. This voice of terror returns throughout the film to haunt the innocent but terrified Tutsis, on screen, and the viewers gripping their seats. The good guys are the Northfield Hermon Tutsis, the victims of genocide. They are not killers in the movie: they are never killers. At the end of the film, when a well-attired guerrilla force is shown—the ‘rebels’ of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)—they are rescuers.
They are disciplined, organized. They keep a tidy United Nations camp safely behind their lines. They don’t kill Red Cross nurses, or orphaned children, in write a criticism Wilbraham Academy, the film: they reconnect children to their families. The Hutus in the standard Rwanda genocide stories are always the bad guys, and academic writing, they are all bad guys. How To Write MacDuffie School. Every Hutu is a genocidaire —to use the ominous French term deployed in English contexts to essay writing Northfield Mount, further underscore the how to School horror, the horror (sic). The Hutus are the essay writing devil incarnate. The Tutsis are saintly.
Indeed, they are beyond reproach, because they are the victims of genocide. A Essay About Durham University. The Hotel manager’s wife bears an obvious cross around her neck, to remind us that the Tutsis are the chosen people. When the now celebrated United Nations hero Lt. Gen. Romo Dallaire shakes hands with the devil—as his own popular book and essay writing Northfield, the subsequent film Shake Hands With the Devil concur—he is shaking hands with Hutu. Essays In English.  That is the essay writing Hermon ideological framework of the Hotel Rwanda film. There is, today, an persuasive argumentative essay Auburn, industry behind it. The Tutsis are dehumanized by the Hutus and by the Hutu media, in the film, and essay writing Northfield Mount Hermon, there was plenty of truth in this in essays in english, real life. Essay Writing Mount. But the RPF pro-Tutsi media that operated in Rwanda after 1991, for example, was equally dehumanizing, and equally vicious, but the a essay Durham film does not tell us this. Tutsi guerrilla forces—prior to 1970—were the academic essay Northfield Mount first to MacDuffie, describe themselves as Inyenzi or cockroaches: they were not equated with the insects that everyone loathes, they were well trained, secretive and coordinated military forces who attacked at night and withdrew by day.  The RPF would hit and run and academic Northfield Mount Hermon, kill with efficiency.
It was not a pejorative usage, as it has been used in the film Hotel Rwanda , although it was bastardized and writing a essay Durham, turned against the Tutsis by media outlets in writing Northfield Mount, Rwanda. Radio Mille Collines and the other anti-RPF media outlets of the President’s party, the National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND),  were not the list Westbourne only ones to incite hatred and murder. Indeed, RPF-controlled Radio Muhabura spread ethnic hatred and essay Northfield, incited widespread killings, but this was—according to Hollywood—a war with only essays writing in english Haileybury, one army, the Northfield Hermon ruthless Hutus. Writing Yourself Durham University.  The Pillars of Hotel Rwanda. When Human Rights Watch investigated the genocide, they sent Alison des Forges to tell the story, and the product of her long investigations was the fat treatise on genocide in Rwanda titled Leave None to Tell the Story . Irony is heaped upon irony when we consider that those who are left to writing Northfield, tell the story are silenced by the authorized storytellers like Alison des Forges. “Alison des Forges is a liar,” Cameroonian journalist Charles Onana, author of the book The Secrets of the Rwandan Genocide, Investigations on the Mysteries of a President , published in French in 2001, is adamant. Writing Yourself Durham. “She is a LIAR.”  Paul Kagame, RPF General and President of Rwanda, sued Charles Onana for defamation in a French court: Kagame lost. Academic Essay Northfield Mount.  “Des Forges has written a book which has become the bible regarding Rwanda,” says Jean-Marie Higiro, former Director of the Rwandan Information Office (ORINFOR) who fled the killing, with his family, in writing in english Haileybury, early April 1994. “Everyone points to academic writing Northfield, her book even though some of what she has produced is fiction. I don’t think she is an intentional liar, but I don’t know why she investigated Hutu human rights abuses but no RPF human rights abuses.” Hotel Rwanda is built on a discursive essay School the pillars of selective human rights reporting, but it really takes off from the celebrated text, We Regret To Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed With Our Families, by Philip Gourevitch, the New Yorker magazine’s premier Africa expert. “Gourevitch's short book should be compulsory reading for Heads of State and Ministers of Defence all over academic writing Africa,” wrote Guardian reporter Victoria Brittain, “as well as for all U.N. A Criticism Wilbraham And Monson Academy. officials involved in peacekeeping operations and humanitarian aid, from the Secretary General on down, and the heads of missionary orders in essay writing Northfield, the US, France and a-g requirements list School, Belgium.” Victoria Brittain is academic essay Mount Hermon, a Nation magazine contributor on genocide in Rwanda.  The International human Rights Law Clinic at American University for several years (at least) asked students to read Philip Gourevitch on in english genocide in Rwanda, in preparation for legal work with the essay Northfield Mount Hermon International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda.
Professor Melissa Crow, who worked with the Law Clinic, followed her term at Human Rights Watch (1994-1995) by working in writing about University, Kigali, Rwanda, under the RPF government, working for the Office of the Prosecutor for the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda. Following this she joined Foley, Hoag and Northfield, Elliot, the influential Washington D.C. law firm closely aligned with the U.S.-Uganda Friendship Council, which is closely tied to writing by step University of South Carolina, ChevronTexaco, Coca-Cola, the academic essay Northfield Hermon William Jefferson Clinton Foundation and the Pangaea Global AIDS Foundation. The latter foundations are also deeply involved in Rwanda . Notably, a U.S. Writing A Essay University. immigration judge in St. Essay Writing Northfield. Paul Minnesota imposed Gourevitch’s book as compulsory reading for all attorneys dealing with Rwandan refugees requesting political asylum.
But this is a dangerous and irresponsible precedent.  Funding for Gourevitch’s book came from the United States Institute for Peace, a State Department offshoot (with an Orwellian name). About Yourself.  What we never learn about Philip Gourevitch is Northfield Mount Hermon, that his brother-in-law, Jamie Rubin, was Madeleine Albright’s leading man and, through him, Gourevitch planted in the public mind a narrow perspective on Rwanda.  Philip Gourevitch is an intimate pal of Rwandan President Paul Kagame. I regret to inform you that Philip Gourevitch is not an impartial journalist, regardless of how much you may have liked his book, or have been moved by it, because he has taken sides, and he has told only one side of the story, and he has told it badly, and he has been rewarded for writing a essay, his fine job in telling it badly.  “Gourevitch begins the story with the Tutsi as these saintly victims,” the Times ’ Howard W. French says. “And I don’t think Gourevitch is a stupid guy.
I think that it’s just sheer intellectual dishonesty… Gourevitch was coming out in the New Yorker every other month with this very well written and—if you don’t know the facts—very compelling picture about Rwanda… as the Israel of Central Africa and academic writing Northfield Mount Hermon, the Tutsis as the Jews of Durham Central Africa. That’s powerful stuff. But I’m on the ground in Central Africa seeing that the reality is very, very different.”  The theme of genocide in Rwanda—whether true or false—has birthed an essay, industry that revolves around a standard, simplified plot. The appearance of the film Hotel Rwanda marks the coup de grace in the long process whereby the facts, the argumentative Auburn ugly realities and dirty details of what really happened in Rwanda have been distilled into a neat and tidy story that proliferates in the media, in film, in literature, at seminars on academic essay writing Northfield Mount Hermon genocide and a discursive essay School, workshops on reconciliation, and it is the predominant discourse in academic writing Northfield Mount Hermon, academia. Quebecois journalist Robin Philpot calls it “the right and writing a essay yourself Durham, proper tale.”  The Falsification of academic Hermon Amerikan Consciousness. It has become a mythology: the Rwanda genocide mythology or, better, the Tutsi Holocaust mythology . But as African scholar Amos Wilson puts it so simply in persuasive, The Falsification of Afrikan Consciousness , “you cannot understand the present unless you first understand the past.”
To understand the growth of the mythology on writing Northfield genocide in Rwanda, consider first the text of Hotel Rwanda—The Official Companion Book , which describes the process of a essay about University “bringing the true story of an African hero to film.”  The book deletes the most basic facts about the Rwandan Patriotic Front and its backers’ roles in the ongoing war for the Great Lakes region of Africa, war that has led to at least seven million people dead since the initial RPF invasion from Uganda in October 1990.  Instead the book offers an abbreviated timeline of events that accentuate or exaggerate those points that serve the predominant Hotel Rwanda mythology, and it excludes those facts that would undermine this mythology: the entire framework of the brutal, bloody war for control of Rwanda is obscured. October 1990 : Guerrillas from the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invade Rwanda from Uganda; the academic Northfield Hermon RPF is mostly made up of Tutsis. A ceasefire is signed on March 29, 1991.
First: the above statement uses the definitive term for the RPF action: invaded. Argumentative Essay Auburn. The Rwandan Patriotic Army invaded Rwanda from Uganda. However, the context of the RPF ascension to power is obliterated. RPF infiltration of Rwanda began around 1986 after Yoweri Museveni, with powerful western backers, shot his way to power in Uganda. Paul Kagame, current president of Rwanda, was head of Museveni’s Directorate of Military Intelligence, and later commanded the Northfield Rwandan Patriotic Front. But the RPF invasion was a gross violation of international law against a sovereign nation—a point the Hotel Rwanda industry ignores. Never condemned by the international ‘community,’ the RPF ‘struggle’ was supported by powerful western agents and institutions, including the World Bank and essay writing step University, the IMF, who shackled Rwanda with austerity programs in perfect synchronization with the RPF assault. This led to the heightened inculcation of structural violence throughout Rwanda. Combined with the crash of coffee prices on the world market, millions of academic writing Mount Rwandans found it impossible to how to write essay Wilbraham and Monson, make ends meet as the 1990’s began. Suffering hit new lows not seen in academic writing, Rwanda for decades. The majority of how to essay MacDuffie School people in Rwanda, besieged by the propaganda of competing factions—a spectrum of political interests aligned with or against the RPF or the Rwanda government of academic writing Hermon Juvenal Habyarimana—found scapegoats according to their positions in society.
Economic interests predominated as a few elites increasingly controlled the write a discursive essay MacDuffie life or death of the many. The rising insurgency and structural violence provoked hostility amongst and between groups, and elites controlling media outlets of writing Mount Hermon all stripes began to use their venues to sow ethnic rivalry as the veneer for the deeper agenda: class warfare. Hutus were dehumanized as often as Tutsis. “Pro-opposition newspapers represented MRND [Hutu government] leaders as essentially evil and corrupt,” writes Jean-Marie Higiro. They were “liars, idiots, animals, bloodthirsty murderers and warmongers. Some of these newspapers published drawings of essay Auburn University President Habyarimana covered with blood.”  The RPF and academic Hermon, Rwandan Tutsi Diaspora had their own publications.
The best known of these is Impuruza , published in the United States (1984-1994). Tutsi refugees joined Roger Winter, the Director of the United States Committee for Refugees, to help fund the publication. The editor, Alexander Kimenyi, is a Rwandan national and writing step University Carolina, a professor at academic essay writing, California State University. Like most RPF publications Impuruza circulated clandestinely in Rwanda amongst Hutu and Tutsi elite. “A nation in exile, a people without leadership, ‘the Jews of Africa’, a stateless nation,” wrote Festo Habimana, the write a discursive School president of the Association of Banyarwanda in Diaspora USA , in essay Northfield Mount, the premier issue of Impuruza . Habimana called for the unity of Tutsi refugees. “But our success will depend entirely upon a-g requirements list our own effort and unity, not through world community as some perceive… As long as we are scattered, with no leadership, business as usual on their part shall always be their policy. We are a very able and academic essay writing Northfield Mount Hermon, capable people with abundant blessings. What are we waiting for? Genocide?”  The Association of Banyarwanda in Diaspora USA , assisted by Roger Winter, organized the International Conference on the Status of a essay University Banyarwanda [Tutsi] Refugees in Washington, DC in 1988, and this is where a military solution to the Tutsi problem was chosen. Essay Writing Northfield Mount Hermon. The U.S.
Committee for Refugees reportedly provided accommodation and transportation.  Winter is intimate with USAID, and a long-time ally of Susan Rice, former Assistant Secretary of State on African Affairs (1997-2001), Special Assistant to President Clinton (1995-1997), and National Security Council insider (1993-1997). Roger Winter is a-g requirements School, also a staunch supporter of U.S. Rep. Donald Payne. Winter acted as a spokesman for academic essay writing Mount, the RPF and their allies, and he appeared as a guest on in english Haileybury major US television networks such as PBS and CNN . Academic Writing Mount Hermon. Philip Gourevitch and Roger Winter made contacts on behalf of the write a criticism RPF with American media, particularly the academic essay writing Mount Hermon Washington Post , New York Times and Time magazine. Roger Winter and U.S. Rep. Donald Payne continue to manipulate African affairs: most notable are there recent exaggerations about genocide in Darfur, Sudan, for which Donald Payne sponsored the Darfur Genocide Accountability Act. Second: the language of the above October 1990 timeline entry underscores the equally discrepant point that the RPF was “mostly made up of Tutsis.” According to the genocide mythology, the essays in english Haileybury cataclysm in academic writing, Rwanda was a tribal struggle between Hutus and Tutsis, with some involvement of write essay MacDuffie France.
Who were the essay writing Northfield Mount non-Tutsi elements of the “mostly” Tutsi RPF? What is the implication? They were Hutus? How could Hutus be fighting alongside Tutsis if Hutus were exterminating all Tutsis based on an organized, premeditated plan? The term “moderate Hutu” invites a similar conundrum: what is how to write a discursive essay MacDuffie School, a “moderate Hutu” in the international legal framework of genocide? Jean-Marie Higiro says it best: “Academics and journalists divide Hutus into two categories: moderates and extremists following the academic essay writing Northfield Mount myths of Hollywood. They never suggest that there were Hutu who did not belong to either category.
There were those who were terrified by both sides and who just fled for their lives. Academics and journalists never do the same [segregating] for Tutsis and of course never for the RPF even though the RPF was a conglomerate of Tutsi supremacists, Republicans and Wilbraham and Monson, monarchists. These supremacists are highly placed in the current government. Tito Rutaremara, one of the ideologues of the RPF is one of academic Northfield Mount them, and General Ibingira, the butcher of Kibeho [is another] of them.” The very definition of genocide would be called into question if it turned out that there were political, economic or class—as opposed to ethnic —motives behind the hundreds of thousands (or 1.2 million) of deaths that have been unequivocally attributed to Hutu genocidaires. A deeper examination of “genocide” in Rwanda raises just such inconvenient questions.
The determination of what constitutes genocide is not so cut and dry as Hutus versus Tutsis, or lists of targeted Tutsis versus no lists, no matter the terror now invoked in one’s soul on hearing the word Interahamwe . After the October 1990 entry, the essay timeline in academic Northfield, the companion book omits any reference to the RPF until February 1993, as if the supposed ‘heroic’ Tutsi rebels were patiently sitting out the write essay war from the Ugandan sidelines. But massacres occurred in northern Rwanda after the October 1990 invasion and writing Mount Hermon, after the 1991 ceasefire and they were committed by the RPF. Tens of thousands of Haileybury refugees fled the border districts in fear of ongoing RPF atrocities. (This author remembers well the traumatized tourist who disembarked from the essay writing bed of a small pick-up truck that crossed the border from Rwanda to essay University, Uganda in 1991. I was in Kasindi, in southwest Uganda. Academic Essay Writing Northfield Mount. The Rwandan man sitting next to this western woman was shot by an RPF sniper as the truck drove down the road; the truck was then stopped, searched by the RPF, and the dead man taken.) From 1990 on, RPF terror cells began infiltrating Kigali, the writing by step capital, and all other areas of Rwanda, and with them came atrocities that were frequently blamed on the Habyarimana government, including assassinations, massacres and Northfield Mount, disappearances. By March 1993, Rwanda’s internally displaced persons (IDPs) had reached one million people. The RPF practiced a scorched earth policy: they did not want to have to administer a territory or deal with local populations. The RPF displaced people, shelled the a criticism essay IDP camps, and marched on.
They killed some captives, buried them in mass graves or burned corpses, and used survivors as porters to transport ammunition, dig trenches or cook their meals. According to one Rwandan now in essay Northfield, the US: prior to 1994, most Tutsis who had a job in Rwanda collected contributions for persuasive essay University, the RPF political and military program; people were afraid to refuse to pay the compulsory tax levied by a ruthless military institution, the RPF. The Habyarimana government responded to terror with repression in kind, but the international human rights “community” had already taken sides in the war: the Hutu government of Habyarimana was accused of “genocide” against Tutsis as early as 1993; the RPF atrocities were ignored or explained away. “There were many RPF killings in Mount Hermon, Rwanda between 1990 and 1994,” says Jean-Marie Higiro, “but these were not investigated; they were automatically attributed to Habyarimana’s [MRND] party by Westbourne School, the international community. Even so, we know that the RPF used that kind of strategy to tarnish the academic essay Northfield Mount image of their opponents.” 
Jean-Marie Higiro also cites the Tutsi newspaper Impuruza , the publication edited by Professor Alexandre Kimenyi, with accusing the Habyarimana government of writing step by step University of South Carolina committing genocide against the Tutsis, and this was prior to 1993. February 1993 : The RPF again invades Rwanda. Hutu extremists cite the invasion as proof the Tutsis aim to eliminate them, and begin calling for academic essay Northfield Hermon, preemptive measures. To begin with, the RPF never left Rwanda, and they never stopped killing. Following the reasonable questions by journalist Robin Philpot, how would U.S. citizens respond if Canadian guerrillas—arguing that their parents were born or once lived in the U.S.—invaded from Toronto? Would we call Americans who complained “extremists”? What if a few Islamic militants purportedly invading the U.S. took out the how to write a discursive essay MacDuffie World Trade Center? Would the U.S. government call for preemptive measures? Would we call the invaders a “rebel army”?
Extremists? Would we call them terrorists ? “Is it normal in the search for justice to condemn one side in a war for human rights violations,” writes Robin Philpot, “and not even question the morality of the aggressors, those who violated the principles of all the charters of rights humanity has ever drafted? Is it right to writing Northfield Hermon, shout about how a government violates rights and turn a blind eye to the launching of an aggressive war?”  Like the about University film, the Hotel Rwanda Companion Book offers a gross and distorted simplification of academic essay Mount events in Rwanda. Trained by the U.S.
Army at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, USA, the RPF soldier and now President of Rwanda, Paul Kagame, is a regular visitor at the Pentagon, and he was not the a essay yourself only officer in Rwanda with ties to essay writing Hermon, the U.S. Persuasive. military. Under the Pentagon’s International Military Education Training Program (IMET), some $769,000 trained 35 Rwandan officers at U.S. military schools from 1980 to 1992, and $120,000 was earmarked for Rwanda for both 1994 and 1995. Essay Writing Northfield Mount Hermon. Further military assistance was provided by the U.S. to 1994, while the bulk of the arms and logistical support came from U.S. client states (France, South Africa, Egypt, Uganda and Zaire). The Pentagon has also trained large numbers of how to essay MacDuffie Rwandan soldiers under the Extended-IMET (E-IMET) and Joint Command Exchange and Training (JCET) programs. One of those trained was Bangladeshi Colonel Moen, the Chief Operations Officer for the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR), and another graduate of the U.S.
Army Command and essay writing, General Staff College in Leavenworth, Kansas (USA). Essay University.  From 1993 onwards the RPF continued to essay Northfield Mount Hermon, stick its bloody foot in the door of Rwanda, and the “international community” continued to essays writing in english, tighten the Northfield Mount Hermon screws on writing the Habyarimana government. Academic Mount. Ever vigilant and inflammatory in about yourself Durham, advertising the governments’ human rights abuses—whether manufactured, exaggerated or real—the human rights community continued to close its eyes to academic Northfield Hermon, RPF atrocities, terrorist infiltrations and bloodied land grabbing. Backed by powerful factions from the United States, England and Belgium, the RPF maneuvered and manipulated its way to the very seat of power, in Kigali itself, where—under the essay by step University of South Arusha Peace Accords negotiated in Arusha Tanzania in 1993—a battalion of RPF soldiers was based at a strategic site within the city center. The RPF immediately fortified its defenses under the watch of Mount Lt.
General Romo Dallaire—now universally regarded as a hero—the Canadian Force Commander of UNAMIR. The Hotel Rwanda Companion Book offers only the following tidy summary which, as popular mythology now holds, credits the RPF with the imperative of ‘stopping the genocide’ against Tutsis. Mid-July 1994 : The Tutsi RPF forces capture Kigali and list Westbourne, the genocide is over. Over a period of 100 days, almost 1,000,000 Rwandans were murdered. While it is alleged that “almost 1,000,000 Rwandans were murdered” in those 100 days, a claim that is certainly exaggerated, it is also true that the RPF slaughtered, bombed, massacred, assassinated or tortured hundreds of thousands of people—including Hutu and Tutsi soldiers, politicians and government officials, and innocent civilians. “All U.N. compounds were sheltering thousands of writing Northfield Mount fearful Rwandans,” wrote the a-g requirements Westbourne School former UNAMIR commander, Lt. General Romo Dallaire, “How could I possibly keep them safe?” Dallaire’s admission subsequent to the previous statement is very insightful, especially given his pro-RPF position: “We protected these citizens from certain death at the hands of the extremists or the RPF…” In this [previous] quote, Dallaire openly confirms the RPF’s role in killing, and his book repeatedly describes firefights he witnessed between the RPF and various government factions.  There were no firefights shown in Hotel Rwanda , there was none of the ongoing warfare that rocked Kigali before and after 06 April 2004: there were only ruthless, savage, Hutu killers and rapists, and the dead bodies that—by inference and innuendo—the Hutus slaughtered with machetes, pangas, axes and hoes. The RPF employed state-of-the-art information control and psychological operations tactics practiced by the US military: international reporters were embedded; access to battle zones was restricted; evidence of RPF massacres was erased, or massacres were blamed on Hutu extremists, Interahamwe militias or the government Forces Armee Rwandaise . British journalist Nick Gordon reported crematoriums where the RPF incinerated bodies.
CNN’s only journalist on essay writing Northfield Hermon the ground in Rwanda at the time, Gary Streiker, has admitted that he worked behind the RPF lines and followed RPF directives on reporting. In English. [27a] After the April 6, 1994 double presidential assassination the essay writing Northfield Hermon western press—including Joshua Hammer ( Newsweek ), and Raymond Bonner, James C. McKinley Jr. and Donatella Lorch ( New York Times )—went out of how to essay Academy their way to cite ‘professionalism’ and Mount Hermon, ‘discipline’ and ‘remarkable self-control’ exercised by the invading rebel RPF forces. The western press turned the double Presidential assassinations into ‘a mysterious plane crash,’ but this was a smoldering wreckage of the Westbourne School truth.  “In conjunction with the military build-up by Northfield Hermon, the RPF and its allies—including the infiltration into how to a criticism Wilbraham Kigali, the capital city, of up to 10,000 RPF soldiers,” writes ICTR barrister Chris Black, “western journalists and western intelligence services masquerading as “human rights” organizations began a concerted propaganda campaign against the [Habyarimana] Government and Northfield, through it the Hutu people, accusing it of essay by step of South various human rights abuses, none of which were substantiated.”  U.N. Essay Northfield. High Commission for Refugees investigator Robert Gersony reported in September 1994 on the RPF’s killing of more than 30,000 ethnic Hutus—in a period of two months—and gave a detailed account of locations, dates and University, nature of crimes, as well as the writing Northfield Mount Hermon methods used to kill and to make the bodies disappear. A Criticism Academy. Gersony also identified RPF leaders responsible for academic essay writing Mount Hermon, the killings. Persuasive Argumentative. The classified U.N. report has never been released. Interested moviegoers might want to hack through the perception management of Hotel Rwanda to academic essay Northfield Mount Hermon, get to United Artists parent company Metro Goldwyn Meyer.  MGM directors, unsurprisingly, given what the film does not tell you about the true U.S. role in Rwanda, include current United Technologies director and U.S. General (Ret.) Alexander Haig.
United Technologies is in the business of war and “I’m in charge here!” Al Haig served as secretary of state under a Hollywood actor named Ronald Reagan. The other producers of Hotel Rwanda include an unknown company called Kigali Releasing Ltd., and another called the Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa Ltd. A-g Requirements Westbourne School. The latter is a major shareholder of, and writing Northfield Mount Hermon, mining partner with, Iscor Ltd., one of the companies named by the U.N. How To Write A Criticism Essay Wilbraham And Monson. Panel of Experts Report (2002) for the illegal exploitation of resources from the Congo. . U.S. military involvement in Rwanda has included ‘counterinsurgency’ training, ‘psychological operations’ and tactical Special Forces: Special Operations Command oversees Navy Seals, Army Rangers and Delta Force: elite units deployed as special operatives in covert operations.  The hotel in the film is not the real Hotel des Mille Collines. The Tutsi RPF rebels did not enter Kigali, Rwanda’s capital city, and save the day, they were in Kigali all along.
The RPF gained a foothold in Kigali through their constant deceptions and manipulations of the “peace process,” and with the support of their international backers, especially the United States. The RPF ‘rebels’ were better trained, better equipped, better organized than any and all other combatants in Rwanda and, notably, numerous sources claim that the RPF had the capacity to academic writing Mount Hermon, stop the essay University of South killings. Sources also report that the Forces Armees Rwandais —the Rwandan government army—didn’t have the resources to fight both the RPF and the Interahamwe . Professors Christian Davenport (U. Maryland) and academic essay, Allan Stam (Dartmouth) published research in 2004 that showed that the writing yourself killings began with a small, dedicated cadre of Hutu militiamen, but quickly cascaded in an ever-widening circle, with Hutu and Tutsi playing the roles of both attackers and victims. Academic Essay Hermon. Their team of researchers also found that only 250,000 people were killed, not the essay by step University Carolina 800,000 plus advanced by the RPF, and that for essay Mount Hermon, every Tutsi killed two Hutus were killed. The research unleashed a firestorm: the media jumped on essay Wilbraham and Monson Academy them for denying genocide. “Our research suggests that many of the victims, possibly even a majority, were Hutus—there weren’t enough Tutsis in Rwanda at the time to account for academic essay writing Northfield Mount Hermon, all the reported deaths… When you add it all up it looks a lot more like politically motivated mass killing than genocide. A wide diversity of individuals, both Hutu and Tutsi, systematically used the mass killing to settle political, economic and personal scores.”  “When you look at the motivations of the Interahamwe leadership and young people in the Interahamwe they were motivated by money,” notes former ORINFOR director Jean-Marie Higiro. Some Hutu businessmen were giving out loans, contributing to political parties of writing University of South both the Rwandan government and the RPF rebels. Essay Writing Mount Hermon. “These guys wanted to do business: people were motivated by different interests.” “Many Hutu and Tutsi businessmen prospered under the Habyarimana regime,” Jean-Marie Higiro notes. Essay Writing Step By Step University Carolina. “They received government contracts and loans from government banks and suddenly became rich. During this period of uncertainty they contributed money to the RPF, MRND, and opposition parties—always speculating on the winner.
That is why, after the war, very few Hutu businessmen who had contributed to the RPF reopened their business immediately. That is why some Tutsi businessmen who contributed to the RPF made an excellent calculation. After the war they reaped off the academic essay Mount benefits.”  Some facts in the film are true. To begin with, in every sense of the terms “human rights” and writing step University of South, “humanitarianism,” the western powers betrayed the people of Rwanda. The whites were rapidly evacuated, the blacks abandoned, including the academic essay writing Northfield many African staffers of international agencies. The French armed the Hutu side, and they evacuated key Hutu elite at the first opportunity, but the United States, U.K. and Belgium armed the Tutsis. There was a Rwandan man named Paul Rusesabagina and he would, one day, be working at the Hotel des Mille Collines, but he was the manager of the Hotel des Diplomats. How To Write MacDuffie. The Tutsi rebels were blamed with the assassination of the presidents of Rwanda and Burundi, but the film convinces us they didn’t do it, when everything suggests they did.
And it is certainly true that hundreds of thousands of Rwandans died. Hotel Rwanda is a work of academic writing Hermon fiction. As a cultural artifact produced by an affluent entertainment industry in the West, and for affluent western consumers, but focused on a distant and writing, exoticized culture about which the affluent western consumers know very little, or nothing at all, it serves to consolidate the ideological pillars of disinformation that came before it, and upon which it was built. According to many and varied knowledgeable sources, including hotel insiders: Rwanda was not abandoned by the western powers: Belgium, France, Canada, England and the United States were all militarily involved in writing Northfield Hermon, the 1994 conflict. Because there are Israeli connections to the current government, it is likely that Israeli military agents were also involved. These were no bystanders to genocide, as Samantha Power and writing step University Carolina, the Atlantic Monthly and others would like us to academic essay Mount, think, but active participants in a ruthless international military conflagration. Note that amongst Atlantic Monthly’s primary advertisers [read: sponsors] is Lockheed Martin [aerospace and defense] Corporation. The hotel was not under a state of siege early on as the movie suggests—an elegant wedding took place there during the fray, and it married the sister of the Tutsi businessman Kamana Claver, who had contracts with the Hutu government. According to one guest, powerful Hutus and step University, Tutsis regularly came and went. When the Mount water to the hotel was shut off, forcing the ‘refugees’ to drink the water from the swimming pool, it was not shut off by the Hutu genocidaires , as implied in the film, but by essay writing by step, the Tutsi RPF army, who cut power to the city.
General Bizimungu appears in the very first scenes of the film, prior to the double presidential assassination: yet when the academic essay Hermon plane was shot down on write essay Wilbraham April 6, 1994, General Bizimungu was still a Colonel, and he was far from Kigali. According to one hotel guest, who remains unnamed for fear of retribution, Paul Rusesabagina, the academic essay Mount film’s hero, in no way wielded the kind of influence as depicted throughout the film: “Paul was a very simple man like me in front of the Interahamwe . If he succeeded to save some Tutsi from his home he was most probably helped by some influential Interahamwe friend, say Georges Rutaganda. He was as vulnerable as I was and could not oppose any action against the will of the militia and much less of the army. He lies when he feints to call General Bizimungu for help, because the Hotel des Mille Collines was under the jurisdiction of Colonel Renzaho. Bizimungu lived at the northern war front lines, and University, he only came to Kigali four days after the essay writing Northfield Hermon plane was shot down and I never saw him at a-g requirements Westbourne School, the hotel.”  “There is overwhelming evidence,” wrote Rutigita Macumu, in an opinion piece titled “Paul Rusesabagina Not a Hero!” that appeared in Rwanda’s The New Times state-owned newspaper on November 5, 2005, “that Paul Rusesabagina did not particularly go out of his way to bring the people, who were being hunted, to the Mille Collines Hotel haven, to protect them once they were in the hotel, to procure them food or even water when they were unable to pay for academic Northfield Mount, them, or to devise any uncommon means to fend off the killer gangs outside the hotel. It is highly apparent that he only fulfilled his duty, as directed by his Sabena bosses, to run the hotel well and cater for how to write a criticism and Monson Academy, all its occupants.”  Georges Rutaganda, the Rwandan man misportrayed as the devil beer salesman and erstwhile murderer of Tutsis in academic essay Northfield Hermon, Hotel Rwanda , writes that Paul Rusesabagina was no disinterested, apolitical hotel manager, but an important activist member of a national political party. On 12 April 1994, Rusesabagina shifted to how to essay MacDuffie, the Htel des Mille Collines where he acted as its new director because the academic essay Northfield Mount other, the Htel des Diplomats where Rusesabagina was working, had been evacuated by foreign troops. Hotel Rwanda depicts Rusesabagina at the Htel des Mille Collines prior to the double presidential assassinations of 6 April 2004. Rutaganda claims to have visited the hotel and seen guests from both Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups, including: Rubangura Vedaste; Mutalikanwa Flicien; Dr. Writing In English Haileybury. Gasasira Jean Baptiste; Kamana Claver; Kajuga Wicklif; Rwigema Celestin; Kamilindi Thomas; and others.
Rutaganda claims that very few UNAMIR soldiers were around, and they were incidental to security: the Hutu Gendarmes of the Mount Hermon FAR army were manning a roadblock at the main entrance. He also claims that the “refugees” in the U.N. convoy that were turned back at essays writing, a roadblock “were the real elite cream of Tutsi ethnic tribe. Had one been really spurred by bad intentions this would have been a great occasion to decapitate the Tutsi ethnic group. Families of academic Northfield Mount Hermon former ministers, of how to essay Wilbraham doctors, of lawyers, of big business men, of highly educated men, of academic essay writing Mount Hermon professors, etc, were among them.” If the ‘genocide’ were so organized and calculated, and quick to strike, then Rutaganda has a very interesting point: how did it happen that the elite of the yourself Durham Tutsi tribe were protected and evacuated by writing Northfield Mount, UNAMIR troops and Hutu Gendarmes? Of course, all Hutus are killers, and list Westbourne, no one will believe a genocidaire : Georges Rutaganda was sentenced to life in prison by the ICTR.
Can George Rutaganda’s claims be corroborated? “Georges Rutaganda cooperated with the U.N. to save all those people.” ICTR investigator Phil Taylor offers a compelling portrait of the Hotel Rwanda ’s supposed devil himself: Rutaganda didn’t incite hate crimes, he called for calm and respect for the Red Cross; Rutaganda was never accused of the rape and academic essay Northfield, sexual slavery depicted in the film; and list School, Rutaganda never traded in machetes. Indeed, Human Rights Watch in January 1994 identified an English businessman who had imported tens of thousands of machetes into Rwanda. More importantly, virtually everyone in essay Mount, Rwanda (and Congo) owns a machete and writing about Durham University, they use it for farming; what would be unusual is if someone did not have a machete. Anyways, it was not machetes that did the most killing. Rape was off the agenda at the ICTR until Hillary Clinton showed up in Arusha and academic writing, pledged $600,000 to be paid after the first ICTR rape conviction, and that’s where the Tutsi women collected in the fictitious Rutaganda compound in Hotel Rwanda come from. Hillary Clinton visited the ICTR and bribed the court, and the issue of rape was immediately elevated and a perpetrator needed to be found to satisfy the court, no matter their innocence or guilt, and meet Hillary Clinton’s conditions for $600,000 bribe. “I was Georges Anderson Nderubumwe Rutaganda's lead trial counsel,” said Attorney Tiphaine Dickson, “and [I] was present in Arusha, in the courtroom, in fact, the very day Hillary Clinton paid her visit. There were no ‘pinning’ charges of rape against my client.
No such allegation ever appeared on any indictment against him, so naturally, he was not convicted of any such offense. Essay By Step Of South Carolina. Jean-Paul Akayesu, however, also on academic Northfield Mount trial at that time (the trials were heard concurrently, and by the same panel of judges) did see his indictment amended, after the Prosecution had rested, to include rape, and he was convicted in what the ICTR trumpeted was a ‘landmark’ decision on September 2nd, 1998.” [36-a] The Hollywood Rwanda film offers a fictitious U.N. How To Write A Discursive. Colonel Oliver (Nick Nolte) as a substitute for the Canadian Lt. Gen. Romo Dallaire, who is absent from the film. (It is believed that Dallaire asked too much money from the filmmakers for the use of his name or character.) Romo Dallaire allegedly worked not as an Northfield Hermon, impartial United Nations commander, but as an agent for the invading RPF army. Dallaire reportedly approached Hutu military commanders to convince them to writing in english, follow the winds of change and embrace the RPF program. Dallaire was rarely present at the hotel, according to witnesses, but his substitute (Nick Nolte) is always there, and he is painted as a sympathetic and neutral humanitarian. Dallaire mentions in his book how he passed by the Htel des Mille Collines, but in his own meticulously detailed recounting of the daily events and travels around Kigali from 06 April to 10 April, 1994, for academic, example, Dallaire stops at the Htel des Mille Collines only once. 
According to Chris Black, a lead counsel at the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda (ICTR) since 2000, U.N. documents brought into testimony at the ICTR in write a discursive essay MacDuffie School, October 2005 clearly establish that UNAMIR’s Lt. Gen. Academic Essay Writing Mount Hermon. Romo Dallaire: was an a essay about, agent of the RPF; helped shoot down the plane in the double presidential assassination; covered up the preparation of the final RPF offensive assisted by Uganda, the U.S. and academic essay Northfield Mount, U.K.; lied to his United Nations boss Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh about it. Contrary to the caring, humanitarian character of Colonel Oliver—as presented by Nick Nolte in the film—in real-life General Dallaire allegedly arranged for the closure of the western approach to the Kigali runway at the request of the RPF. This made it easier for writing, the RPF and others to track the presidential plane as it came in Mount Hermon, from the east. The Belgian contingent of the U.N. List Westbourne School. force was in writing Northfield, control of the airport area and the area from which the missiles were fired, and a Belgian military unit (the “peacekeepers” killed later) were the only people caught by writing step University, the Hutu army coming out academic Mount Hermon, of the firing area after the plane was shot down, after the army threw up a cordon to persuasive Auburn University, try to catch the academic essay writing Northfield Mount Hermon culprits. “All of Dallaire’s actions only make sense in this light,” lawyer Chris Black explains. “Dallaire admits in his book that he was close to Paul Kagame and writing step University Carolina, admired him. He helped Kagame by covering up the RPF build-up for an offensive in violation of the Arusha Accords, while at the same time helping with the academic essay writing Northfield Mount Hermon anti-government propaganda of the a discursive essay MacDuffie RPF. The Belgian’s actively engaged on the side of the RPF and academic essay writing Mount Hermon, once the plane was shot down they attacked FAR army and writing a essay yourself University, gendarme positions alongside the academic essay writing Hermon RPF. We have radio intercepts of the RPF talking about their help from the Belgians and others.
By saying Dallaire was an RPF agent I am of course really saying he worked for the Americans under the orders of a essay yourself Durham Ottawa.”  Lt. Academic Northfield Mount Hermon. General Romo Dallaire was no peacekeeper: he was an essays writing in english, active military strategist—a war-maker. The Political Economy of Genocide. Prior to the cataclysm of academic writing Hermon 1994, the RPF set up its political base in Belgium. When Belgian “peacekeepers” are murdered by “Hutus” in Hotel Rwanda —the blue helmets are scattered on the ground in front of our horrified U.N. hero, Colonel Oliver (Nick Nolte)—the false inference is that the genocidaires’ calculated killing of the Belgians would provoke a UNAMIR withdrawal from a-g requirements list Westbourne Rwanda. This is a central pillar of the genocide theory: with the Belgian ‘peacekeepers’ out of the way, the academic essay writing Hutu killing machine had free reign to shift into high gear. I n reality, the essay step University of South Carolina Belgians were immediately killed because they were the political accomplices of a ruthless bunch of terrorists, the invading RPF army. Substantial evidence entered into academic Hermon public record in the ICTR’s so-called ‘Military I’ and persuasive argumentative, ‘Military II’ trials (both began in writing, 2005) contradicts the fundamental premise above—and the writing by step University Carolina central theory of the ICTR prosecution—by showing that Hutu officers charged by essay writing Mount Hermon, the ICTR with complicity in a essay Durham University, the Belgians’ murder actually risked their lives trying to save the Belgian soldiers.
The U.N. Force Commission—set up immediately after the attack on the Belgians by U.N. Force Commander General Dallaire—concluded the writing same. Eyewitness testimony by a U.N. Military Observer also states that there were not ten Belgian soldiers killed, but thirteen. “This is a point of some interest in persuasive argumentative Auburn, Belgium,” writes Chris Black, “where the government claims to have lost only ten men.”  So who were those three Belgian soldiers and what was their mission? Hotel Rwanda dares not introduce such questions: to do so would be heresy. Essay Writing Mount Hermon. But the United States knows, and the RPF knows and persuasive argumentative essay Auburn University, the legal ‘experts’ at the ICTR all know that the genocide theory would crumble under the admission of the truth. According to ICTR lawyers, U.N. Academic Mount Hermon. documents show that Lt. General Romo Dallaire was aware, at least from December 1993, and probably before, that the RPF, with the support of the Ugandan Army, was daily violating the list Arusha Accords by essay writing Hermon, sending into Rwanda men, materiel, and light and heavy weapons.
That is how the U.S., Belgians and Canadians assisted the RPF/A in preparing for the final solution in Rwanda—total military victory over the Hutus.  “The RPF engaged in assassinations of a discursive essay MacDuffie School officials, politicians and civilians, and attempted to academic essay Northfield, cast the blame on writing in english Haileybury the government,” writes Chris Black. “Dallaire assisted in this campaign by suppressing facts concerning these crimes and academic essay writing Northfield Mount, openly siding with the persuasive essay RPF propaganda statements.”  It was not UNAMIR soldiers who guarded the academic essay Northfield Mount H otel but Gendarmes (paramilitary police) dispatched by the Hutu government. How To Essay Wilbraham And Monson. This fact flies in the face of the “genocide” mythology. If the hotel was full of Tutsis targeted by genocide, why was it being protected by essay writing Northfield, the very same architects of that supposed genocide? The Hotel was not filled only with Tutsis (refugees from genocide): it was full of powerful Tutsis and Hutus (with Tutsis in the majority) with political and economic connections to powerful factions both inside and outside of Rwanda. Questions about the composition of the argumentative ‘mostly Tutsi’ RPF invaders provoke questions about the ethnic composition of the Interahamwe militias and commercial relationships that transcended ethnicity. Such details are overlooked in the western reductionism on Rwanda—because they contradict the official and burgeoning Rwanda holocaust industry and the U.S.
State Department fictions. Academic Writing Mount Hermon. The following ethnic inconsistencies are very revealing: Robert Kajuga, was the Tutsi President of the notorious “genocidal” Rwandan Interahamwe ; Kamana Claver was a Tutsi businessman and frequent recipient of large government-awarded contracts from the “genocidal” Hutu government; Celestin Sebulikoko was a Tutsi businessman and strong supporter of the main Hutu political party (MRND); he is a-g requirements Westbourne School, believed disappeared by the RPF; A Tutsi named Mpangaza, who worked for the Rwandan government firm TRANSINTRA, reportedly manned a powerful machine gun at an Interahamwe roadblock in downtown Kigali in 1994; he was a well-known Interahamwe ; he lives peacefully in Rwanda today; The son of Juvenal Gatorano, a Tutsi customs agent with the Habyarimana government’s Ministry of Finance, was always seen at Interahamwe rallies. These facts, if true, provide compelling evidence that it was not a coordinated genocide that occurred in Rwanda in 1994, but a civil war, and academic essay writing Mount Hermon, a western proxy war, with deep political, economic and military motivations behind the atrocities. Acts of genocide certainly occurred, as did crimes against humanity, but “acts” of genocide do not constitute genocide as defined by the international legal frameworks on genocide. An entire ethnic group could be wiped out, say the last 100 Penan nomads in Sarawak, for example, but if they are incidentally eliminated in the calculated and argumentative Auburn University, racist process of logging their forests—which is Mount, exactly what has happened to a criticism, the Penan—it is not necessarily “genocide” according to the narrow international legal frameworks of the Genocide Convention. Equally troublesome, the U.S. might have annihilated every last Japanese citizen in academic Northfield, 1945, but few today would characterize the atomic bombings in argumentative essay, Hiroshima and academic essay Mount, Nagasaki as genocidal in nature or intent. The calculated nature upheld as the basis for genocide in how to a criticism essay Wilbraham and Monson, Rwanda has always revolved around the supposed “lists” created by Hutu genocidaires : lists of Tutsis who were subsequently eliminated because, first and foremost, they were Tutsis; such “lists” were purportedly created by essay writing Mount Hermon, the Hutu genocide machine. “Any army would have lists of their political enemies,” notes ICTR investigator Phil Taylor. “This is not unusual.” The Rwandan government likely had its lists, the RPF had their own lists, and essays writing Haileybury, both went about assassinating their enemies. Phil Taylor notes that the prosecution at the ICTR has not produced any lists—of any kind—as evidence subsequently used for Rwanda genocide convictions.
In the aftermath of the World Trade towers attack the intelligence armies of the United States generated an extensive list of “enemies of the state”—a list they maintain today—most of academic Northfield whom were/are of Islamic ethnicity. Do the existence of essay and Monson Academy these lists constitute genocidal intent? “There is a stunning lack of Mount Hermon documentary evidence of a government plan to commit genocide,” write lawyer Chris Black. Write A Discursive School. “There are no orders, minutes of meetings, notes, cables, faxes, radio intercepts or any other type of documentation that such a plan ever existed. In fact, the documentary evidence establishes just the opposite.”  U.S.
Pentagon lawyers imported to the ICTR from the Judge Advocacy General (JAG) Corps have heavily skewed the ICTR in favor of the U.S.-supported RPF. Also, the ICTR has not returned a single verdict against RPF Tutsi soldiers or Tutsi leadership; former ICTR prosecutor Carla Del Ponte was removed for academic Hermon, her attempts to prosecute Tutsis.  “The ICTR risks being a part of the problem rather than the solution,” wrote Filip Reyntjens, Belgian historian and expert witness on genocide in Rwanda, in write and Monson Academy, 2004. “I cannot any longer be involved in this process.”  The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), the essay writing Northfield Mount sister of the Hague Tribunal, consolidates the popular mythology on genocide in Rwanda by playing its role as an a criticism Academy, international judicial body which, by default, must be beyond reproach or bias. While demonizing the Hutu leadership and writing Northfield Mount, justifying the RPF dictatorship now in control of Rwanda, writes Chris Black, it also serves as a means of presenting a completely false history of the events in essay University of South, Rwanda, and covering up the academic writing Northfield murder of the two Hutu heads of state and the massacres of hundreds of thousands of innocent people by the RPF and its allies.  In Hotel Rwanda , the genocidal Hutus blame the how to write essay and Monson Academy Tutsi RPF rebels for Northfield Hermon, shooting down the plane that killed the two presidents, and writing a essay yourself University, because the film demonizes every Hutu, the academic essay writing viewer is convinced that the a essay Durham University Hutu’s are lying, deflecting attention from essay their own nasty deeds. However, evidence suggests that an how to write a discursive essay, RPF terror cell in Kigali shot down the Presidential airplane. Also on the plane was a Forces Armee Rwandais general, a pivotal target for essay Hermon, the RPF. A-g Requirements Westbourne. Former U.N. Essay Writing Northfield Hermon. Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali offered journalist Robin Philpot the claim that the Central Intelligence Agency was almost certainly involved. “As early as 1997,” writes a Spanish legal team that in 2005 filed suit against Paul Kagame and his RPF cadre, “a team of investigators appointed by the ICTR—Michael Hourigan, Alphonse Breau and James Lyons—released reports, then held as classified, which revealed that the attack was masterminded by high-ranking RPF military and a essay yourself Durham, not by essay Mount, Hutu extremists as had been believed until then. These disclosures were corroborated in 2004 by the remarkable testimony of Abdul Ruzibiza, a member of the RPF commando unit which perpetrated the attack on the presidential plane.”
I am an Haileybury, eye witness to what took place when the SA-16 was fired because I was present, writes Ruzibiza in his recently released book, Rwanda: L'histoire Secrete ( The Secret History of Rwanda ). Academic Essay Writing Mount Hermon. Ruzibiza alleges that after the essays writing in english missile attack on the plane, soldiers of the writing Northfield Hermon RPF who had been readied in advance were assembled to immediately launch attacks that culminated in the fall of Kigali on July 4, 1994. Essays.  There is also the academic definitive statement by Paul Mugabe, a Former Intelligence Officer of the RPA, titled: Declaration on the Shooting Down of the Aircraft Carrying Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana and Burundi President Cyprien Ntaryamira on April 6, 1994 . Paul Mugabe alleges that two weeks before the crash of the Presidential aircraft, [then] Major General Kagame sent [then] Lt. Colonel James Kabarebe to bring the SA-7 surface-to-air missiles to the RPA detachment in Kigali, and to give final instructions for attacking Rwandese Army forces (FAR) and shooting down the plane. Two RPF leaders, Colonels Kanyarengwe Alexis and Lizinde Theoneste, who had earlier served in the Habyarimana Government, gave information and instructions as to where the missiles should be placed. (Col. Lizinde Theoneste, who later defected, was subsequently assassinated in 1998 by a essay about yourself Durham, RPF operatives in Nairobi, Kenya, in order to ensure the secrecy of the missile operation.) Two weeks before the double presidential assassination, 12 artillery systems were brought from Uganda, and arrived at RPA headquarters. Other RPF defectors also credit the RPF with shooting down the plane carrying the Rwandan and academic essay writing Hermon, Burundian leadership. Long-time RPF officer Lt.
Aloys Ruyenzi claims that the assassination plan was hatched at argumentative essay Auburn University, an RPF meeting on academic essay writing Hermon 31 March 1994: “The Chairman of the meeting was Major General Paul Kagame, and the following officers were present: Colonel Kayumba Nyamwasa; Colonel Thoneste Lizinde; Lt. Colonel James Kabarebe; Major Jacob Tumwine; and Captain Charles Karamba. I heard Paul Kagame asking Colonel Lizinde to report about yourself Durham University his investigations and I have seen Colonel Lizinde giving to academic essay writing Northfield, Paul Kagame a map of the selected place for the plane shooting etc.”  Lt. Aloys Ruyenzi also accuses General Paul Kagame and (now) General James Kabarebe of overseeing the massacres of Hutu and Tutsi civilians, both in the field and at crematoriums set up to dispose of the evidence. Ruyenzi is just one defector with a compelling story. He claims he has witnessed helicopter gunships shelling villages, and massacres, tortures and persuasive argumentative essay Auburn University, summary executions as policy. Essay Writing Hermon. Many of the human rights atrocities committed by the Kagame regime have been documented by human rights organizations. “Gen. James Kabarebe was the commander of the reverse-genocide army,” says Howard W. French, referring to the military campaign where hundreds of thousands of Hutu refugees were hunted down and slaughtered by the Tutsi RPA and their western allies in Congo.  Eighty percent of these Rwandan refugees were women and children; 50% were under 15 years old. 
This genocidal reign of about University terror to hunt down and massacre non-combatant Hutu men, women and children was spearheaded by the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and Ugandan People’s Defense Forces (UPDF), who were running the show for Laurent Kabila’s Allied Front for the Democratic Liberation of Congo (AFDL)—and it was backed by government and private factions from the United States, the U.K., Canada and Belgium. One eyewitness to the skeletons piling up pinpoints mass graves that were later sanitized in advance of the United Nations mission to investigate the RPF/UPDF/AFDL massacres of hundreds of thousands of academic writing unarmed Hutu civilians.  The contra- genocide against write a criticism essay and Monson Academy Hutus continues today: at this writing the forces are aligned to exterminate the remaining 40,000 Hutus in Congo: they are all written off as genocidaires who fled Rwanda in 1994, even though most surviving FDLR were too young to have participated in genocide.  Sabena officials were not surprised and horrified to be getting a call from some hotel manager in Rwanda, as depicted in the film: one week prior to the October 1990 invasion of Rwanda by the RPF, Sabena Airlines rerouted its airline crews (pilots, hostesses) away from the Hotel des Mille Collines and academic essay writing Northfield Mount Hermon, off to Burundi for their overnights. This was no random decision: it was a calculated policy action meant to how to essay and Monson Academy, insure the safety of company employees in the face of a coming war. Sabena was well informed. A Belgian firm born out academic Hermon, of the post-Leopold aviation era in Congo, Sabena was later used to ship diamonds, and how to write essay MacDuffie School, probably coltan (columbium-tantalite), out of essay writing Northfield Mount Kigali by the RPF elites, whose base, again, was in Brussels. It is write a criticism and Monson, believed that Sabena’s eventual “bankruptcy” was intended to cover their tracks and shield principals from any possible future legal actions stemming from their pillage in the Congo.
What about the elusive American diamond magnate Maurice Tempelsman and his connection to Bill and academic writing Mount, Hillary Clinton and essay Wilbraham Academy, the diamonds coming out of Kigali? “I don’t think that’s ever been written about in the New York Times ,” said Howard W. French. Academic Northfield Mount.  Howard W. French conferred that Maurice Tempelsman employed Lawrence Devlin, former CIA station chief from Mobutu’s Zaire, and that he maintains close ties with the CIA. Tempelsman is also on the board of directors of the Harvard AIDS Institute and the Africa-America Institute (Donald Payne is essay Wilbraham and Monson, also deeply involved, as is Gayle Smith, formerly Bill Clinton’s National Security Council advisor on African Affairs). Maurice Tempelsman was Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis’s lover, he was reported to be Madeleine Albright’s lover, and academic writing Northfield, he was one of the 99 people who accompanied Bill Clinton on his 1998 Africa victory tour. Tempelsman is one of the many untouchables behind the quagmire in Central Africa.  Why has the United States blocked all attempts to investigate the shooting down of the plane and the double presidential assassination that sparked the cataclysm on April 6, 1994? Why hasn’t the United Nations pursued an inquiry? It is a very mysterious scandal,” wrote author Robin Philpot. “Four reports have been made on Rwanda: the French Parliament Report, the Belgian Senate Report, Kofi Annan's U.N. report, and the Organization of Haileybury African Unity report. All four say absolutely nothing about the shooting down of the academic Northfield Mount Hermon Rwandan President's plane. That just goes to show the power of the intelligence services that can force people to be quiet.”
Philpot continues: “The only partial exception is the seven year investigation conducted by the French anti-terrorist judge Jean-Louis Bruguire. That investigation has implicated current Rwandan President Paul Kagame and essay, the Rwandan Patriotic Front for having planned, ordered and carried out the April 6 assassination.”  Says ICTR lawyer Chris Black: “President Mobutu’s chief of essay writing Mount Hermon intelligence, Honore Ngambo, in his book published in write a criticism Wilbraham and Monson Academy, France a few months ago [ Western Crimes in Central Africa , 2005] relates the meeting between Habyarimana and Mobutu two days before Habyaramana was murdered. The Hutu President told Mobutu that he had been warned by Herman Cohen—the U.S. African Affairs man—that unless he ceded all power to the RPF his body would be dragged through the streets and his government tried before an international tribunal. Habyarimana received the same threats from the Belgians, and the Canadian General Dallaire was involved. Habyarimana was informed by Northfield Hermon, his agents in the RPF camp at list, Mulindi that his plane would be shot down. He didn’t know the exact date.”  The RPF opposed any military intervention in Rwanda after 6 April 1994.
The RPF knew the military situation of the Rwandan army (morale and ammunition) and it did not want any military intervention to essay writing Northfield Mount Hermon, snatch its victory from it. The RPF’s official sponsors in Washington, London and Brussels told whoever would listen that any international force would be met with RPF military resistance. The RPF was the only force that had the capacity to stop the how to essay killing, but they didn’t. ICTR lawyer Chris Black verifies that U.N. Essay Writing Mount Hermon. documents entered in the ICTR record establish that the Gendarmerie did all it could with the resources it had to restore calm, but could not, and in english Haileybury, that the FAR army could not both fight the RPF and restore calm among the civilians. This following statement comes from an unnamed survivor who was in Kigali in April, 1994, where he lost his entire family to the killings: some of essay Northfield Mount his family were Hutus, some Tutsis, and he began by stating he does not support the ideologies that align themselves along ethnic fault lines. The interview took place in essay writing by step, Bukavu, DRC, in August 2005: “Many Hutus lost family members on the border with Uganda after the writing Northfield Mount RPA invaded in 1990. This is where Hutu hatred of Tutsis started. The Tutsi continued to perpetrate crimes to weaken the government of Habyarimana even while the government was being forced to negotiate with the RPF.
Each Tutsi family had sent one or two boys to the RPF army in Uganda. We knew these boys – they used to say, ‘O.K. goodbye. We are going to Uganda.’ “ “Hutus saw this. The Tutsis [RPF] were pushing the hatred higher and higher every day. Even Hutus knew that all Tutsis had to Auburn University, attend meetings at the end of the Northfield Mount month to raise money for the RPF. List School. I heard Habyarimana every day saying on the radio, ‘Don’t kill Tutsis: if you do you will lose everything.’ Even as the Arusha Peace Accords were going on Hermon  the RPF were starting to kill the intellectuals, the Hutu leaders, in Rwanda.” “They [RPF] were putting bombs in public places, in markets and writing of South Carolina, gare routieres [roundabouts], and in night clubs—I almost died in one night club attack.
The Tutsis [RPF] knew what they were doing but the Hutus didn’t know what was happening. Essay. The RPF waited until the fruit was really ripe—when there was deep hatred of Tutsis by Hutus—and then they [RPA] killed President Habyarimana.” “They killed Habyarimana because they knew he was the only one who could stop the Hutus from killing Tutsis. That is why, every day, I say that: the genocide was not planned by Hutus, it was planned by essays writing in english, Tutsis: it was planned by the RPF . Even after the Interahamwe killed my wife, even after all the horrible things that have happened to me, I believe the Tutsis created the genocide. And for me it was a war between brothers: the Hutus had an army and the Tutsis had an army and there was fighting at every level.”  Notably, the source for the Hotel Rwanda Companion Book timeline chapter is the Central Intelligence Agency World Factbook 2004 (the previous chapter is filled with the essay Northfield standard deceptions, and it appears without attribution). 
It is not surprising then that the persuasive Auburn University roles of the U.S. and other outside Western powers and multinational corporations are hidden. The most egregious omissions revolve around the Democratic Republic of Congo: the academic essay writing ongoing destruction and depopulation of Congo receives remarkably little press coverage in contrast to the Darfur region of neighboring Sudan, despite the obvious evidence that the essay University scale and nature of atrocities against innocent civilians in Congo has been far worse, over a longer period of time, and with profound but unnecessary human suffering. After consolidating power in Rwanda in academic essay Hermon, 1994, and following on massive crimes against humanity there, the RPF shelled and dismantled refugee camps in eastern Congo (then Zaire) in the summer of 1996, in further massive and egregious violations of international law and the Geneva Convention. List Westbourne School. The new RPF government has never wavered in its efficacious crusade of calling attention to an ongoing genocide against the Tutsis —the Jews of essay writing Northfield Africa—who were “abandoned by the United States and Europe” to ostensibly suffer the fate of a criticism Wilbraham and Monson Academy genocide, but this is an affront to the Jewish people and, in particular, to the Holocaust victims and writing Northfield Hermon, survivors of World War II. The pretext of write essay and Monson Academy ongoing ‘genocide’ against academic essay Mount Hermon the Tutsis has been used by the RPF over and over to justify the most egregious and hostile violations of international law and human rights. Continuing to implement what is essay, now clearly a well-coordinated and premeditated plan, and academic essay writing Northfield Hermon, with complete logistical and tactical military support from the Pentagon and its outsourced private military companies—including Halliburton, Ronco, and Military Professional Resources Incorporated—the RPF followed its Rwanda victory by invading the a essay about sovereign territory of Congo (Zaire), its huge western neighbor. 
Drawing on its previous military alliance, training and rear bases in academic writing Northfield Hermon, Uganda, the RPF allied with Yoweri Museveni and a essay yourself, the Ugandan Peoples Defense Forces (UPDF) to march across the Congo, unseat Habyarimana’s close friend, Congo’s (Zaire’s) President Mobutu Sese Seko, and academic writing Hermon, conquer the vast, mineral rich Congo. “The international community has refused to bring effective pressure to bear on Rwanda to create conditions of argumentative University security,” wrote Rwanda scholar David Newbury, in 1996.  Marginalized groups like the Rally for the Return of Refugees and Democracy in Rwanda have repeatedly echoed this obvious truth. “The continuous prevalence of impunity has encouraged the leaders of the RPF/RPA to writing Hermon, perpetrate crimes against about Durham University humanity, war crimes and academic essay writing Northfield Mount Hermon, acts of genocide in Rwanda and DRC without fear of prosecution. It has consolidated the power and the wealth of criminal elements within the RPF-led dictatorial regime.”  And so it continues today. Paul Kagame and James Kabarebe and the Tutsi RPF-dominated government of Rwanda continue to destabilize the Great Lakes Region of how to write a criticism Wilbraham and Monson Africa, with infiltration of terror cells throughout the neighboring Congo, just as they did in Rwanda (1985-1994). They are appeased or courted, the academic essay Northfield Hermon saintly victims of genocide, and they enjoy total impunity and essay, all the benefits of an elite club. Similarly, the Human Rights Watch press alert of July 1, 2005, for example, targeting the Congolese government, is a veiled defense of Rwandan-US interests in essay Northfield Mount, DRC: it is written by Alison Des Forges, from Kigali.  Both the Hotel Rwanda film and companion book neatly encapsulate the entire mythology of genocide in Rwanda and the invented heroism of now president Paul Kagame and the Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF). Writing A Essay Durham University. The true and deeper facts that receive little attention, if any at all, are: the RPF’s illegal invasion of academic Rwanda from Uganda in 1990; its record of war crimes committed from writing Carolina 1990-1994; the RPF double assassination of the Northfield Hermon Hutu presidents of Burundi and Rwanda on April 6, 1994; the RPF’s massive contre -genocide of hundreds of thousands of how to write Wilbraham and Monson Hutu refugees in academic essay writing Mount Hermon, Congo (Zaire), of refugees returning to Rwanda from Congo, and of Hutus in Rwanda itself; 5 the writing a essay about Durham RPF’s repeated invasions and continuing looting and devastation of the Congo, with the writing Northfield Hermon involvement and sanction of RPF officials at the highest level, that continues today; and the collaborating roles of Western institutions, individuals and corporations, and essays writing, the economic and political benefits that accrue to them, at the expense of Africa and her people. What has motivated Paul Rusesabagina?
It is interesting to note that Rusesabagina has been widely lauded and financially rewarded for his story, the rights to his story, and for writing Northfield Mount, his alignment with U.S. government and military officials in service to various political and military agendas. In 2000 he was awarded the Immortal Chaplain’s prize, and essay step University of South Carolina, received the essay writing Mount Hermon award with a handshake from a-g requirements Westbourne School U.S. Republican Senator Bob Dole.  “As for Paul Rusesabagina,” wrote Rutigita Macumu, in Rwanda’s The New Times newspaper, “he will go down in the annals of history as a man who sold the soul of the Rwandan Genocide to amass medals, including, among others, the academic Northfield Amnesty International's Enduring Spirit, the Immortal Chaplain Foundation's Prize for Humanity, the Tigar Center's Human Rights Award, the writing in english Haileybury National Civil Rights Museum's Freedom Award, and now the prestigious Presidential Model of Freedom Award from the sitting American president, George W. Bush.”  In 2004, Paul Rusesabagina traveled with a Pentagon escort and his namesake actor Don Cheadle to Darfur, Sudan, to draw attention to the popularized, officially accredited ‘genocide’ occurring there.  This author had a chance to interview Paul Rusesabagina in 2007. The interview, and this story, both stand uniquely alone, developed as they were in a certain chronological order. (See: THE GRINDING MACHINE: TERROR AND GENOCIDE IN RWANDA , interview with Paul Rusesabagina, April 15, 2007 http://www.allthingspass.com/journalism.php?catid=47). Rwandan Defense Forces were dispatched to Darfur where, along with the African Union and some U.S. military, they serve as U.S. Academic Writing Hermon. proxy warriors: these are troops responsible for some of the most egregious acts of genocide and a-g requirements School, crimes against humanity committed in Rwanda and Congo.  Hotel Rwanda is merely the essay writing Mount Hermon latest production in a protracted campaign of psychological warfare. It is School, a dangerous work of agitation propaganda because it wets the wide and naive eyes and touches the open and caring hearts of Western viewers. Essay Writing Northfield Mount. It is deceptive and when viewers depart the cinema with popcorn and chocolate stuck between their teeth they leave thinking they know something about what happened in Rwanda.
We as viewers enjoy the idea that we are being educated, when instead we are being indoctrinated, and the insidious effects of the indoctrination are unappreciated. Hotel Rwanda exemplifies the careless, simplistic reductionism that is how to write essay MacDuffie, universally manifest in essay writing, the West’s representations of Africa. Phil Taylor, former investigator for the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda (ICTR) says it aptly. “For anyone who followed closely the 1994 crisis in Rwanda the highly touted film Hotel Rwanda is merely propaganda statements interrupted by bouts of acting.”  The racism and segregation that played out in the Rwanda cataclysm of 1994, where there were very different conditions and a-g requirements School, outcomes between whites and blacks, continues to Hermon, be played out persuasive argumentative essay Auburn, today. The telling and re-telling of the Rwanda ‘genocide’ story by its very nature revolves around a system of institutionalized segregation. Powerful whites in powerful ‘gatekeeper’ positions in essay, the West hold a virtual monopoly over the information. Alongside of them are the select voices of non-whites who validate the how to write a discursive essay MacDuffie predominant discourse.
These ‘experts’ include Alison des Forges; Romo Dallaire; Philip Gourevitch; Victoria Brittain; Samantha Power; Mahmood Mamdani; and many, many others. “They believe Alison des Forges because she is white and they don’t believe me because I am black and writing Northfield Mount, I don’t speak English so well,” says Jean-Marie Higiro. “She is the how to write essay Wilbraham expert, even though she was an observer and I was a participant.” We can’t intimately know the academic essay writing Northfield Mount Hermon hardships of Paul Rusesabagina, or the trauma of Romo Dallaire, or the sorrows of Jean-Marie Higiro, or the suffering of the other survivors of the cataclysm in Rwanda, and we must search our own souls on their behalf: the struggle of good versus evil reigns within us all. Indeed, there is writing about Durham, a certain arrogance behind this writing, because neither was I a participant in Rwanda. But any hesitation I have in challenging the ‘right and academic Northfield, proper tale’ is overwhelmed by the obscenity of the obvious injustice and the machinations of empire behind it. If truth is the first casualty in war, then those of us who are lucky observers must endlessly work to a-g requirements Westbourne, resurrect it. In Central Africa, today, truth mingles with the souls of the dead, forsaken amidst the unheard cries of some seven million—mostly innocent people—whose life on this earth ground to a gruesome, meaningless conclusion. keith harmon snow. First published: 04 July 2005; Text Modified: 05 November 2005;
Final Version: 04 December 2005; Updated Final: 10 January 2006. Corrected: 18 July 2007. Corrected: 1 November 2007.  Samantha Power, “Remember the Blood Frenzy of Rwanda,” Los Angeles Times , April 4, 2004.  Village genocide courts, or Gacaca tribunals, began operating in Rwanda in March 2005.
See: Edras Ndikumana, “Rwanda’s Hutus Flee Genocide Courts,” 19 April 2005; and “Rwandan President asks Fleeing Residents to academic essay Mount, Return,” Reuters , June 3, 2005.  Samantha Power, A Problem from Hell: America in the Age of Genocide , HarperCollins, 2002.  Private interview: Howard W. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005.  Howard W. French, “In Zaire Forest Hutu Refugees Near the End of the Road,” New York Times , March 13, 1997; see also Howard W. Westbourne School. French, Africa: A Continent for the Taking: The Tragedy and Hope of Africa .  Private interview: Howard W. Essay Hermon. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005.  Lt. General Romo A. Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in essay step by step University of South Carolina, Rwanda , Arrow Books, 2003.  Rene ў Lemarchand noted in his authoritative text Rwanda and Burundi (Pall Mall Press, 1970) that “the term Inyenzi is currently used within and outside Rwanda to refer to essay Northfield Mount, small-scale Tutsi-led guerilla units trained and list Westbourne, organized outside Rwanda and varying in size from essay writing about six to ten men.”  Mouvement Republicain National pour la Dmocratie et le Dveloppement or National Republican Movement for a discursive School, Democracy and Northfield Hermon, Development (MRND).
 The Iceberg of the Conflict in Africa of the Great Lakes Region: Lawsuit Against Those Responsible for the Concealed Crimes Against Humanity, International Forum for Truth and Justice in the Great Lakes Region of Africa , www.veritasrwanaforum.org.  Private communication: Charles Onana, Paris, France, February 2004.  The Book published in November 2001 entitled, Les Secrets Du Gnocide Rwandais, Enqute Sur les Mystres D’un Prsident [ The Secrets of the about Durham University Rwandan Genocide, Investigations on the Mysteries of a President ], was the subject of President Kagame’s initial law suit that was heard in the 17th chamber of the Mount French High court against Cameroonian Journalist Charles Onana.  On James Rubin: see Wayne Madsen, Genocide and Covert Operations in Africa, 1993-1999 , Mellen Press, 1999.  See: Pierre-Damien Mvuyekure, Philip Gourevitch's Platonic and Conradian Eyes on essays in english Haileybury the Genocide in Rwanda,” in Ishmael Reed’s Konch .  Private interview: Howard W. Essay Writing Northfield. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005.
 Robin Philpot, Rwanda: Colonialism Dies Hard , the English translation of in english a ne s’est pas pass comme a Kigali (That’s Not How It Happened in Kigali), published in English on-line by the Taylor Report, http://www.taylor-report.com/Rwanda_1994/ .  Terry George, Ed., Hotel Rwanda – The Official Companion Book , Newmarket Press, 2005.  The Iceberg of the essay Northfield Hermon Conflict in Africa of the Great Lakes Region: Lawsuit Against Those Responsible for the Concealed Crimes Against Humanity, International Forum for essays writing in english Haileybury, Truth and Justice in the Great Lakes Region of writing Mount Hermon Africa , www.veritasrwanaforum.org.  A paper scheduled for publication, Spring 2006, by Jean-Marie Vianney Higiro.  Some of them are: Alliance edited by Alliance National Unity (RANU), an organization that later changed its name into Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF); Congo Nil , edited in Belgium by Francois Rutanga; Impuruza, edited by Alexander Kimenyi in the United States; Inkotanyi, edited by the RPF; Intego, edited by Jose Kagabo in France; Munyarwanda , edited by the Association of Concerned Banyarwanda in University, Canada; Avant Garde ; Le Patriote ; Huguka ; and Umulinzi .  The term Banyarwanda refers to ethnic Tutsis, and has been most often used to academic writing Northfield, describe Tutsi refugees in Congo (Zaire).  Mouvement Republicain National pour la Dmocratie et le Dveloppement or National Republican Movement for essays writing in english, Democracy and Development (MRND).  Robin Philpot, Rwanda: Colonialism Dies Hard , the writing Northfield Mount Hermon English translation of a ne s’est pas pass comme a Kigali (That’s Not How It Happened in Kigali), published in English on-line by the Taylor Report, http://www.taylor-report.com/Rwanda_1994/ .  See US Department of Defense, Foreign Military Sales, Foreign Military Construction Sales, and Military Assistance Facts , (US Doc D1.2, F76, 996) 1997; see also: Lt. Gen. Romo A. Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda , Arrow Books, 2003: p. 273.  Lt. Gen.
Romo A. Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Durham University Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda , Arrow Books, 2003: pp. 263-265. [27a] Private telephone interview, Gary Streiker. See King Kong: The Curious Activities of the essay Mount International Monkey Business in Central Africa , keith harmon snow and Georgianne Nienaber.  See, e.g.: “Donatella Lorch: Rwanda Rebels: Army of Exiles Fights for a Home, New York Times , 09 June 1994:10; and Rwanda Rebels' Victory Attributed To Discipline, New York Times , 19 July 1994: 6; Raymond Bonner: How Minority Tutsi Won the War, New York Times , 06 September 1994:6; and Rwandan Refugees Flood Zaire as Rebel Forces Gain, New York Times , 15 July 1994:1; Joshua Hammer, Rwanda: Situation Is Desperate, Newsweek , 20 June 1994:44-46; Darkness Visible, The New Republic , 09 May 1994:9; and Why Not Rwanda, The New Republic , 16 May 1994:7; Editorial, Double Tragedy in Africa, New York Times , 10 April1994.
 Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com .  “Perception management” is the contemporary term for argumentative University, the formerly used term “propaganda,” and it too is an academic, industry.  Africa Research Bulletin , August 1997.  Private communication, Jean-Marie Vianney Higiro, August 2005.  Personal communication, name withheld for security reasons, July 2005.  Rutigita Macumu, “Paul Rusesabagina: Not a Hero!” The New Times (Kigali), 15 November 2005,  Frank Smythe, Arming Rwanda , Human Rights Watch, January 1994. [36-a] In the earlier versions of this publication, Hotel Rwanda, I incorrectly claimed (published) “that’s when they decided to pin rape on a essay yourself Georges Rutaganda.”  Lt. General Romo Dallaire, Shake Hands With The Devil , Arrow Books, 2003: pp.
268.  Private communication: Chris Black, Barrister, International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda, October 2005.  Chris Black, “Persecution Not Prosecution,” October 2004, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com .  Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com .  Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com .  Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com .  See Ralph G. Academic Essay Writing Hermon. Kershaw, “Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: International Justice According to a-g requirements list School, Washington,” Covert Action Quarterly , No. 74, Fall 2002.  See: Rory Carroll, “Genocide Tribunals ‘Ignoring Tutsi Crimes,’” Guardian, January 13, 2005.  Chris Black, “Persecution Not Prosecution,” October 2004, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com .  The Iceberg of the Conflict in essay writing Northfield Mount, Africa of the Great Lakes Region: Lawsuit Against those responsible for the Concealed Crimes Against Humanity, The International Forum for Truth and Wilbraham and Monson, Justice in the Great Lakes Region of academic essay Mount Hermon Africa , www.veritasrwanaforum.org.  “Kagame Ordered Shooting Down of Habyarimana's Plane – Ruzibiza,” Hirondelle News Agency (Lausanne), 14 November 2005.  Second Lt Aloys Ruyenzi, Major General Paul Kagame Behind the Shooting Down of Late President Habyarimana’s Plane: An Eye Witness Testimony , Norway, July 5, 2004.  Private interview: Howard W. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005.
 David Newbury, “Convergent Catastrophes in Central Africa,” November 1996, www.udayton.edu/  Private interview: name withheld to protect the witness, Democratic Republic of essays Congo, August 2005.  Front for the Democratic Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) forces in eastern Congo number 40,000. See also: keith harmon snow, “OPERATION IRON FIST: U.N. Essay Writing. Launches Largest Ground Troop Operation in essay Wilbraham and Monson, DR Congo Peacekeeping; In South Kivu Hills Rwandan Rebels Cornered,” July 17, 2005, http://www.allthingspass.com .  Private interview: Howard W. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005.  See: Wayne Madsen, Genocide and Covert Operations in Africa, 1993-1999 , Mellon Press, 1999.  Robin Philpot, “Second Thoughts on the Hotel Rwanda: Boutros-Ghali: a CIA Role in the 1994 Assassination of academic essay Mount Rwanda's President Habyarimana?,” Counterpunch , 26/27 Feb. How To A Discursive Essay MacDuffie School. 2005, http://www.counterpunch.org/philpot02262005.html .  Private communication: Chris Black, Barrister, International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda (ICTR), October 2005; Herman Cohen is a former US Secretary of State for African affairs who served under the elder George Bush.  Private interview, name withheld, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo, 11 July 2005.  On Ronco Company shipping weapons into Rwanda: see testimony by Kathi Austin, Hearing of the House International Relations Committee , July 16, 1997.
 David Newbury, “Convergent Catastrophes in Central Africa,” November 1996, www.udayton.edu/  RDR Calls for writing Mount Hermon, the Prosecution of Crimes Against Humanity and Other Violations of the International Law Committed by writing a essay about yourself, the Rwandan [RPF/RDF] Army, Rally for academic essay Northfield, the Return of Refugees and Democracy in Rwanda, Press Release, 9/2001, September 2001.  Alison Des Forges, “D.R. Argumentative. Congo: Civilians Killed as Army Factions Clash,” Human Rights Watch, Press Release, July 1, 2005.  Rutigita Macumu, “Paul Rusesabagina: Not a Hero!” The New Times , (Rwanda State Newspaper) November 15, 2005; see http://www.allafrica.com , November 16, 2005.  See: Phil Taylor, “Carving Sudan: Hollywood's Helping Hand,” The Taylor Report , www.taylor-report.com ,17 February 2005.
 “Rwanda Defense Forces” was the writing Northfield Hermon name eventually adopted to rename the writing step of South formerly named army (Rwanda Patriotic Army) of the Rwanda Patriotic Front.