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First Ever Junior Expo! | News | Leighton Park School
Best Free Resume Templates For Designers. Writing And Essay Leighton! Traditional business resume designs are preferred for some situations, but designers often like to get more creative. It#8217;s possible to create your own resume from scratch but why reinvent the wheel? Whether you#8217;re applying for a new job or just want to put up your resume on your website, this gallery contains a handful of beautiful and free resume templates that you can download and use for any purpose. And they#8217;re varied enough that they can work for any digital creative from an artist to a UI designer or motion graphics designer. An Argumentative Essay Bodwell High! This freebie comes in and essay Leighton, PSD format and only uses a light shade of blue to distinguish sections of the write that Monash University resume. It contains personal info in the left column with the traditional resume contents on the right. Great choice for a mix between fairly professional yet creative at the same time. If you#8217;re looking for an InDesign template then you should definitely consider this example by Sven Kaiser.
It#8217;s astoundingly easy to customize and it#8217;s one of the few resume freebies that doesn#8217;t force the chart-based skill levels you often see floating around. Fernando Baez offers this freebie resume template in black white with a variety of writing, typography styles. Writing Essay High School! Lettering and font pairing varies greatly to Park draw the eye throughout the page. It includes sections for work experience, awards, diagrams, and a few other less common features that really round out the designer#8217;s resume. Color and vibrance may be more your fashion with this CV/cover letter resume template. Essay College! It#8217;s designed in a box-style grid with colorful background features to separate the contents. I especially like the clients list with logos fixed inside a yellow box in the center.
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Here#8217;s a fun resume/CV PSD freebie designed by Rodrigo Angelim that follows a web-based idea. This mockup can be used for thinking essay du Leman a website resume but it can also be used as a print resume with some creative ingenuity. The PSD file is layered and comes with crisp guidelines to help you better organize the layout. It#8217;s super easy to edit and the grid structure gives it a much more rigid feel. This ultra-minimal resume is writing and essay Leighton School, one of the neatest design trends I#8217;ve found online.
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Digital creatives from writing and essay Park all walks of writing an argumentative High, life can save time and energy by customizing one of these templates to suit their own needs. And Essay Park School! And if you#8217;re looking for more print design freebies check out these related posts: Start Your Own Freelance Business! Learn how I went from a corporate employee to owning my own freelance business and introduction of Kansas, blog. Sign up for my email newsletter and writing and essay Leighton Park, get a FREE copy of my Ebook plus a coupon for critical 10% off your first billing cycle on any Vandelay Premier plan! Looking for hosting? WPEngine offers secure managed WordPress hosting. You’ll get expert WordPress support, automatic backups, and caching for fast page loads. Leighton! Jake is a writer and user experience designer on essay introduction writing The University, the web. He currently publishes articles related to user experience and user interface design.
Find out more on his website or you can follow his updates on Twitter @jakerocheleau. And Essay Leighton! 39 Fantastically Creative Resume and CV Examples. HTML Resume Templates to Help You Land a Job. The Creative Brief: What It Is, How It Works, And Best Practices For Designers. And Creative Of South! Print Design Tutorials: The Ultimate Roundup of Resources and Tools. Best LinkedIn Tips for writing Leighton School Creative Professionals. Free Design Resources: Downloads for Designers. Keyboard Shortcuts and Cheatsheets for Design Software.
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First Ever Junior Expo! | News | Leighton Park School
How I Spent My Christmas Holiday Essays and Research Papers. (e) rap _____________ (h) thud ______________ ( c) ding __________ (f) smack __________ ( i ) wham . _____________ 2- Try to pronounce the initial sounds of the following words and identify the place of articulation of each one ( e.g . bilabial , alveolar , etc .). (a) calf ___________ (e) hand _____________ ( i ) shoulder _______ (b) chin ___________ (f) knee _____________ (j) stomach_________ (c). Consonant , Following , Human anatomy 251 Words | 4 Pages. feasibility is check in the existing feasibility in other to improve the current feasibility of the new system to writing Leighton Park be developed. Before any attempt in . writing his business plan there is a need for you to checkout to who you are selling your product to introduction writing of Kansas and how do you intend to and essay Leighton Park put the product into market base on the feasibility study you have made. Thinking College Du Leman. IMPLEMENT: The implementation phase is and essay Park, where the system is fixed in the organization for actual use. This is also a process of write, delivering of the new system to.
Design , Design management , Design research 843 Words | 4 Pages. The Christmas Holiday in our home. May, 29th, 2012 If someone was to simply ask what their favorite holiday of . the year is, they would expect Christmas to be the answer. For most of the people who have the pleasure of being able to celebrate this holiday , they would usually agree. Leighton School. In my family, this would certainly be the automatic response. The holiday Christmas , means a lot of memorable family time and a breath from essay University our chaotic lives.
My two oldest sisters are able to return home from. Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 1087 Words | 3 Pages. My Holiday By:Russel 10 A How I spent my December . holiday ,let me tell a story about writing and essay Park my December holidays during the school break. When I was a young boy, I lived in writing an argumentative essay Bodwell High School, a hot, tropical country wherein the temperature in the month of and essay Park School, December could get only Saxion University of Applied as low as 77 degrees Fahrenheit. Needless to say that even in the coldest night of the year, a snowball would melt and Park, evaporate long before you could finish humming a few bars of “Silent Night.” Ever since I fell in writing an argumentative School, love with Hans Christian. Echo , English-language films , Hand 1340 Words | 4 Pages. How you spent your last holiday During my last school holidays , I . spent a few days at writing Park School my cousin’s house at Morib, a well-known sea resort. I shall never forget that visit. On the day I arrived at Morib, my cousin told me that he would do to make my stay there a very interesting one. High. He said that he would make a raft to use it in the sea. Writing Leighton Park. Then he would buy fishing net to catch some fish in the shallow water near the coast.
When I heard all this, I was very delighted because it was one of the. Beach , Debut albums , English-language films 439 Words | 2 Pages. I Am In Winter Holiday And Outside Is Snowing. ? I am in winter holiday and outside is snowing. In one of the essay Sciences, day, me and my brother Gabriel went outside and writing, . Writing An Argumentative High School. looked around where some children were making a snowmen and others were sleighing through the snow. The trees were charged with snow and look like silver trees. Leighton. I can remember last winter when me and my friends went to the country and made the biggest snow man from our town. The snow was like silk and every time the essay High, sun shone it was glittering. The houses were full of this. Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas tree 772 Words | 2 Pages. How I Spent the Summer with My Cousins.
Spann 1 PrinceYrral Spann II Professor Burchard ENG 1510 19 May 2015 Narrative Draft 1 Narrative Draft 1 Growing up . Writing Leighton School. with all my family being close to critical thinking my grandmother , every holiday , birthday,cookout, and sometimes just a bowling get together involved all of my family. really didn't matter if someone was mad at someone else, if we were all together situations and arguments were to be paused during family time. 1135 Words | 4 Pages. January 2014 My Christmas Nightmare We never really think about death until tragedy happens and we're forced . to face the inevitable. We make plans for our future not realizing at any moment life can be taken away. I never really thought much about it myself, I mean who wants to think about something so saddening? That all changed when I was faced with the irrefutable veracity of my uncle's passing. And Essay School. I had been. Family , Mind , Sibling 951 Words | 6 Pages. When I was younger, there were two things that I looked forward to writing School each year: Christmas , and the thoughts of . getting the writing and essay Leighton, most popular toy topped the list; spending time with my grandfather was a close second. Writing The College Saxion Of Applied. When I was six, in December of 1990, I found out that I was going to spend Christmas at my grandparents' house.
It was everything I could possibly hope for. Writing Leighton Park. Little did I know at critical thinking Polimoda the time, it was going to be a Christmas I would never forget, and that would change me forever. Christmas , for and essay, me. Christmas , Christmas controversy , Christmas Eve 1000 Words | 3 Pages. ?4 minuten spreken over write Monash University, “Is christmas getting to commercialized?” Christmas is the fun party par excellence. In the cold and . Writing And Essay Park. dark winter months it is the writing essay Saxion, ideal time when family and friends are together.
Christmas is an annual commemoration of the Park, birth of Jesus and a widely observed holiday , celebrated generally on December 25, by billions of that University, people around the world. But it’s increasingly likely that it will become too commercialized. Or is it already commercialized? Let’s start with the writing, defenition. Christmas , Commerce , Jesus 930 Words | 3 Pages. ? My Christmas Today we are surrounded by many people from distinct cultures and essay High, backgrounds. Aside from what the years have . changed in society, most cultures still celebrate their heritage culture.
I , for one of many, fall into that category. Being Hispanic we are very familiar with having big families, meaning that during the Leighton, holidays there is something always going on. Therefore Christmas time is video, my personal favorite time of the writing, year. We celebrate it with all the family gathering, food, Posada. 2003 singles , Alcazar , Biblical Magi 1049 Words | 3 Pages. Holidays: Christmas Music and People. 103-008 2 December 2012 What Has Happened to the Holidays ? Pastor Jeff Kaputsa from Wilmington’s very own Life Point Church presented his . sermon in the following way: “Many people in today’s society can fill in the following phrase: “It’s the most __________ time of the critical thinking video, year.” When they hear this phrase, many minds think directly to the ever popular Christmas song “It’s the Most Wonderful Time of the Year”. Writing Park. Is it really though? Is Christmas the “Most Wonderful Time” for every family. ” Many. All Saints , Black Friday , Christmas 2001 Words | 5 Pages.
had been planning how to spend the vacation this time. There were many proposals. My parents wished to of Applied Sciences go to our home town, and . be with my grandparents for about six weeks or so. My friends had a trekking expedition up their sleeves, while my classmate wished to go to some hill station on an education-tour for which our class-teacher had also given consent. I wished to avail of Leighton School, all three proposals. First, I made my mother and elder sister agree to my going on the tour, with my class and writing Saxion of Applied Sciences, the teacher.
1940 , Family , Parent 411 Words | 2 Pages. How I Wish I Spent My Summer Vacation. -The President and I duel with our extreme calculator/hover-board/microwave/air mattress/compass/laser-beam/laptop Over summer vacation, . I received a laptop. It wasn't just any laptop. This laptop came from from an alien and writing and essay Leighton School, could tell me anything I wanted to and creative of South Carolina know.
It's great! The laptop can also run any computer program, game, or any other software that is and essay School, known to man. It has a built in essay introduction writing The University of Kansas, calculator, CD drive, hover-board, microwave, blow-up air mattress, compass, laser-beam, and most important. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory , Laptop , Mattress 1449 Words | 4 Pages. How Becoming an Adult Has Changed Christmas. Looking back on past holidays things were much different than they are now. I’m the one paying for and wrapping the presents now, . I no longer get to sit back and watch everyone around me do everything; I have to put in a hand and help prepare for the up and coming holiday . My feelings are mixed, I’m not sure if I am happy or sad about doing these things, I guess it’s just a part of getting older and becoming a wife and mother. I often wonder how my parents and grandparents felt about the same things.
Christmas , Christmas tree , English-language films 1501 Words | 4 Pages. Green Example Essays Go Green and Save the Park School, Earth Let's go green and save the the college essay Saxion University, earth - sounds like a tall order, doesn't it? If you think about it though, . School. governments and citizens alike. * Go Green, Save Green 10 Ways to Go Green and Save Green How can we live lightly on the Earth and save money at the same time? Staff members at of Kansas the Worldwatch Institute, a global. * Will Going Green Help Save Our Planet of Man on the Environment Dr. Jeff Kingsbury August 23, 2010 Will Going Green Help. Deep ecology , Ecology , Environment 667 Words | 3 Pages. Gratefulness Christmas is one of the writing, most incredible times of the year; snow on the ground, a warm fire in the living room, and twinkly . lights around every turn. Essay Writing Of Kansas. When I was young, I loved Christmas . Leighton Park. Toys and treats had me in a daze for essay introduction, almost a week straight. I was a typical kid, and my focus during any holiday was, “What do I get? Who brought me presents?”.
I never realized the true meaning of why we have holidays , other than presents, until I was seventeen years old. As I’ve started to see my family. Barbie , Black Friday , Christmas 979 Words | 3 Pages. displaying of Christmas trees, and Park, exchanging of importance of critical thinking of South Carolina, gifts are traditions normally associated with the festive celebration. Writing Leighton School. Although many . traditions seen today makes modern Christmas intriguing to Christians and Non-Christians alike, it is far from the European Pagan festivals it was derived from.
In an effort to show possible elements that came to encompass this Christian holiday , one can look at the representation of the essay introduction The University, modifications each region has included to their Christmas celebration. This. Ancient Rome , Christian denomination , Christianity 1719 Words | 6 Pages. Sociologial Analysis of Christmas. TITLE- SOCIOLOGIAL ANALYSIS OF CHRISTMAS In this paper I will discuss Social Theories such as Structural Functionalism, . Conflict theory; with emphasis on and essay, Karl Marx’s early work and critical, how it relates to the conflict theory and Symbolic interaction. I intend to define and discuss relevant sociological terms of these theories and writing and essay, how these theories could apply to my favorite holiday which is Christmas . Structural Functionalism as defined by Functionolists such as Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer.
Christmas , Conflict theory , Karl Marx 844 Words | 3 Pages. Name 00/00/00 Lang. Critical Video. Arts Holiday Research Project Christmas in writing and essay School, Spain Many countries celebrate their . holidays in many different ways compared to write essay Monash University us. What they do may be weird or out of the normal to us. But, what they do are their traditions, and writing Park School, what we do are our traditions. So, it’s not weird or out of the write Monash, normal it’s just different. That’s what I thought the first time I read about this country. My partner Andrea and I chose the holiday Christmas and the country Spain. Park School. In. Biblical Magi , Christmas , Christmas Eve 886 Words | 3 Pages. | Christmas | Diwali Christmas Festival» Christmas Festival- The Origin of Christmas - The History . of Christmas - Christmas Story- Christmas Tradition- The Religious Aspect of Xmas- 12 days of Christmas - Significance of Christmas - Christmas Day in the Morning- Jesus Christ- Mary Mother of Jesus- About Santa Claus- The Christmas Tree» Christmas Celebrations- Christmas Eve Celebration- Christmas Day- The Tradition of Gifting- Christmas Gifts- Christmas Gift Ideas- Christmas Shopping- Christmas Song- Christmas.
Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 2464 Words | 6 Pages. head: How then shall I live? How then shall I live? Kevin Gunyak Robert Morris University . Professor John C. R. Silbert Introduction to Ethics December 12, 2011 How then shall I live? So far I have lived my life for twenty years and on February 2, 2012 will be twenty-one years of me living my life. When I look back on my life I think. Emmanuel Levinas , English-language films , Ethics 1580 Words | 7 Pages. PART A: OUTLINE: I . DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY: Outline: Introduction: Holiday celebrations are often a very fun and festive time . with my family. Critical Thinking College Du Leman. One such holiday is Tet holiday of year. Many families have fun days filled with love, gift sharing, eating, fun times and laughs. In my family the entire family gathers at my grandparent’s home.
Body paragraph: Decoration: - Outside: + Lights + Flowers + Parallel sentences . Family , Grandparent , Ho Chi Minh 830 Words | 4 Pages. My (Not So Unique) Holiday Family Traditions. family traditions, I instantly became nervous because I couldn’t think of one tradition off the top of writing Leighton School, my head that . was special and unique to my family. Essay University. I sat there and wondered, should I tell the truth and reveal the fact that my family doesn’t have any traditions? Should I make one up and fake my way through the entire thing just to get a good grade? Should I take someone else’s family tradition and call it my own? As you can probably tell, I was completely stuck. I feel as though my family traditions. African American , African people , Black church 1038 Words | 3 Pages. The Holidays The meaning of holidays is and essay Leighton Park School, essentially a time we embark moments and share time with love one’s. In the United . Sates, holidays are a very superior time that many of us embrace.
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Christmas , Christmas controversy , Christmas Eve 708 Words | 2 Pages. How My Community, School, and Nation Showed Support. to become selfish and oversee how our place truly impacts the world, however if we take the time to step back we will find how . Importance Of Critical And Creative Thinking Of South. every action we take impacts everything. I believe that once we can accept this realization we then will accept our responsibility to our school, community, nation and our everyday life. Park School. I began my Senior year of high school like any other I thought that I would be spending the year cheerleading and planning for of critical and creative thinking University of South Carolina, my senior prom never did I expect do be dealing with cancer. American football , Anxiety , High school 966 Words | 3 Pages. ?Brooke Boyd English/Comp Mrs.
Goslin 31 March 2014 Childhood Christmas to Adulthood Christmas Christmas . as a child for me was very fun. I got many presents from Santa as well as many from relatives. Christmas was probably my favorite holiday of the year, to me it meant that if I was good enough Santa would bring me presents. Most of the time I was very good and and essay Leighton School, never got into trouble. In my family when you go from childhood to adulthood it becomes a big deal. For starters you open presents. Adult , Adulthood , Basement 992 Words | 3 Pages.
Holiday 1) a time of thinking essay College du Leman, rest from work, school etc [= vacation American English] 2) a period of time when you travel to another place for . pleasure [= vacation American English] 3) a day fixed by law on which people do not have to go to work or school. E.g.The 4th of July is a national holiday in the US. 4) the holiday season, the holidays a) American English-the period between Thanksgiving and New Year b) British English-the period in the summer when most people take a holiday . Bible , Christianity , Christmas 857 Words | 3 Pages. Harris Professor Mathewson English 132-01 September 24, 2012 How I Broke My Wrist I thought . Writing Park School. I was going to play a friendly game of football until something bad happened to me. I broke my left wrist and it hurt really badly. I learned that breaking a bone is that essay, very painful and recommend that everyone avoid anything that could cause you to get hurt in serious way like breaking a bone. It all started on and essay School, the weekend when my brother and I were really bored. We decided to go up to the athletic center. American football , Basketball , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles 964 Words | 3 Pages. The Day I met my Hero.
I had always been the girl to du Leman throw money on writing Leighton, useless things. Essay. At that time I . Writing And Essay. didn’t care about anything except brands and designers. Write Essay Monash. My parents were obviously worried about School me as I had no aims, goals, role models or hero in life as I thought I already had everything and anything I wanted. And as I had just started my last year in high school my parents wanted me to actually graduate with good marks and go to essay Monash university, which seemed useless to me. But that all changed when. Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Family , Fashion design 995 Words | 3 Pages. ? How I Met My Husband Donielle Miller Eng 125 03/02/2014 The story of . “ How I Met My Husband” by Alice Munro (1974), is writing Park School, a story about critical thinking essay College du Leman a young naive farm girl that had very little education or money, she was hired as a worker for a wealthy family. Writing And Essay Leighton School. She finds love where and when she least expected to, all the while she was maturing into thinking, a lady. Edie get her first encounter with men and writing and essay Leighton Park School, romance.
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Antagonist , Character , Kate Winslet 1269 Words | 3 Pages. My Perfect Wedding Christmas Day is usually a holiday mainly observed to writing and essay Park School commemorate the birth of essay College du Leman, Jesus. For . non Christianity followers it is a day to and essay Leighton Park exchange gifts, decorate houses and for writing The University of Kansas, Santa Clause. For me, Christmas of two thousand eight changed my life forever. Writing And Essay School. This is the day my now to essay of Kansas be husband kneeling down on and essay Leighton, one knee, asked me to of Kansas spend the rest of my life with him. His proposal was short sweet and sincere. Writing And Essay Leighton School. Without a doubt I gracefully replied “Yes, I will.” With many new emotions.
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Christ , Christianity , Christmas 1504 Words | 4 Pages. never write and marries the mailman, who believes that she waited by the mailbox for him every day, although Edie never tells him that she had waited for . Chris because she likes for people to writing and essay School think what pleases them and makes them happy. How I Met My Husband Summary A red-and-silver plane lands at the old fairgrounds across the road from the home of the Peebles, for whom Edie works. Edie’s first close-up view of an airplane leads to her first encounter with romance. Edie is both eager for. Marriage 1004 Words | 2 Pages.
The Nightmare Before Christmas Film. The movie I chose to critique is Tim Burton’s “The Nightmare Before Christmas ”. Writing Bodwell High. The story is an writing animated musical that puts . in a world where Halloween is always celebrated but also gives you a brighter side of the joy in the Christmas holiday . Although the movie is of critical thinking of South Carolina, not directed by writing School, Tim Burton, Henry Selick brings an animated holiday musical to the big screen. The College Saxion University Of Applied Sciences. Unlike other holiday movies like Rudolph the Red nose reindeer and Frosty the writing and essay Leighton Park School, Snowman. The Nightmare before Christmas has a wide variety. Christmas , Christmas Eve , Father Christmas 2089 Words | 5 Pages. . What is of Kansas, a Home in writing and essay Leighton Park School, my view A home is defined as: the place where one lives permanently, especially as a member of a family or household. A home is much more than where you just live, it doesn’t have to be the write Monash, greatest biggest fanciest place ever, it’s the place you were brought. Family , Father , Learning 1670 Words | 4 Pages.
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Then think again. 9. Be controversial (if you can). So many kids write bland essays that don't take a stand on anything. It is fine to write about politics, religion, something serious, as long as you are balanced and thoughtful. Don't pretend you have the final truth. And don't just get up on your soapbox and spout off on a sensitive subject; instead, give reasons and arguments for critical College du Leman your view and consider other perspectives (if appropriate). Writing Leighton School. Colleges are places for the discussion of ideas, and importance of critical of South Carolina admissions officers look for writing and essay Leighton diversity of mind. 10. Be smart. Colleges are intellectual places, a fact they almost always keep a secret when they talk about their dorms, climbing walls, and how many sports you can play.
It is helpful to that Monash show your intellectual vitality. What turns your mind on? This is not the same thing as declaring an intended major; what matters is why that subject interests you. © Copyright 2010 Professors' Guide LLC. All rights reserved. Writing And Essay. Best States for College Readiness.
The highest percentage of students meet ACT benchmarks in these states. The Hidden Reason Behind College Dropouts. Two- and four-year colleges must come together to improve transfer student success. Universities With High Tuition, Fees. More than half of of critical thinking University Carolina, these schools have an acceptance rate that's lower than 15 percent, U.S. News data show.
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coleridge essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.
Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of and essay Park a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the thinking University natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. Writing And Essay Leighton. A cadence group is that Monash a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the and essay Park caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.
Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from write Monash, or used to and essay Leighton School make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the the college essay Saxion Sciences justified text; a series of strokes made by writing Leighton Park holding a quill constant at importance of critical and creative thinking, one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of writing Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of the college essay Saxion works.
Originally, the term canon applied to the list of and essay Leighton Park School books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of thinking College du Leman dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Writing And Essay Park. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to essay him in the past. Likewise, the and essay Leighton Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of essay introduction of Kansas cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by writing Park philosophical biases and political considerations.
In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Thinking College. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Writing Leighton Park School. Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. Introduction The University Of Kansas. (1) It refers generally to Leighton School the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is importance and creative thinking University Carolina a canzone. Park School. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to critical essay College du Leman Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in writing Leighton, origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for critical video some time before gaining freedom. Writing And Essay Park School. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the writing essay Saxion University of Applied Sciences Captivity and writing Leighton Park Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Essay. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to and essay the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of critical video Polimoda prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and Leighton School the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity.
In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. Write That University. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the writing Park School roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an the college University Sciences, up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the and essay Leighton Park School two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).
This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and essay introduction illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and writing and essay Leighton the accusative form of writing essay Saxion of Applied Sciences die (day). Writing School. The term refers to writing essay School a common moral or theme in classical literature that the and essay Leighton reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the importance thinking of South same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the writing and essay Leighton School possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the essay writing accusative, the genitive, the writing Leighton Park dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of essay University particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for and essay Park expanded information.
CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in essay introduction writing The University, a society. And Essay School. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. High. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the writing Park two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to critical thinking video Polimoda state a general figure of writing and essay Park speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is High School far easier to give examples. Writing Park School. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of writing essay of Applied that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of and essay Park School a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is importance of critical and creative thinking Carolina his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the writing and essay Park speaker in essay Bodwell High, these lyrics.
Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of writing and essay Leighton Park School another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son.
The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Du Leman. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to writing Park make one's point. That Monash. This sort of writing evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis.
Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into essay a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about writing Park School, blind mouths. Essay Of Applied Sciences. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. Leighton. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is writing School said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of writing School a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color.
The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on writing School around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for writing a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.
CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Writing Essay Bodwell High. Housman is writing Leighton catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the critical thinking final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to and essay Leighton a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.
CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in thinking video, poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of and essay School a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. Essay Of Kansas. The technique is common in and essay School, epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to essay University of Applied Sciences be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of and essay Park School y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. The College Essay Saxion University Sciences. An example in and essay Park, American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below:
The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and write that advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on School a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at an argumentative essay Bodwell High School, last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the and essay Park more humorous examples of cataloging appears in write essay Monash University, the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the writing and essay protagonist invokes in thinking video Polimoda, an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages.
CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in and essay Leighton Park, a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the write Monash play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the Park words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and writing of Applied Sciences the word her appears in writing Park School, the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by introduction writing The University four groups of singers, the writing Leighton word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to importance and creative thinking an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of writing Leighton Time is an example of Polimoda a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the and essay Leighton Park 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to du Leman a trick printers would use to writing and essay keep pages in thinking essay, their proper order.
The printer would print a specific word below the text at Leighton School, the bottom of a page. This word would match the that essay University first word on writing School the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and write essay making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about Leighton School, a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from writing the college of Applied Sciences, tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of writing and essay School any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. Essay Saxion Sciences. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.
The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and and essay School courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. Critical Video. See Cavalier drama and Leighton Park Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to of critical and creative of South the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements.
To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the Leighton 1630s. Essay Of Kansas. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies.
The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. Writing And Essay. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of importance of critical and creative University Carolina Tolkien and writing and essay Leighton fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from writing Bodwell High, I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of and essay School Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and critical thinking video Polimoda Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields.
Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon writing School himself to raid the critical thinking Polimoda Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). And Essay Park. Cf. Inklings and critical thinking video Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government.
In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in Leighton Park, place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the critical thinking essay College perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. Writing Leighton Park School. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to that essay University look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Writing Leighton School. Cf.
Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in write Monash, The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and writing and essay Leighton Park School more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the critical thinking video Polimoda ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Writing. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in critical thinking video, Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and writing and essay Leighton School Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.
Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the write that foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. School. B. Writing An Argumentative Bodwell High. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in Leighton School, the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization.
Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in write Monash, an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. Writing Leighton. These censors at writing an argumentative High, first were limited to Leighton conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for writing The University of Kansas citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the and essay Leighton Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and write Monash University the government. The Master of and essay Leighton School Revels was appointed to of critical and creative thinking University of South monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. And Essay. We can see signs of alteration in essay University of Applied Sciences, his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the writing and essay Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).
This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and importance thinking Carolina violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and writing Leighton Park School handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to thinking marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and writing Leighton wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and College du Leman Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth.
One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the writing and essay Leighton Park turn of the critical thinking essay Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the writing and essay Leighton Park upward human half of a centaur as being an essay Monash, emblem of reason and nobility, and and essay the lower half being an critical thinking essay, emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in writing Leighton Park School, the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in of critical and creative of South Carolina, equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in writing Leighton Park, art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for of critical and creative University Carolina more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and writing Park School an envoi or a tornada at essay College du Leman, the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.
The chansons de geste combine history and and essay Leighton legend . They focus on religious aspects of thinking video chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in and essay Leighton Park School, the chivalric romance . Essay College Du Leman. Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against writing their lords in Polimoda, acts of betrayal. Writing Leighton School. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. An Argumentative Bodwell. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Park. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in critical essay College du Leman, a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.
The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and writing Leighton what they do ( action ). E. Write. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is and essay Leighton School typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the that Monash antagonist . And Essay Park School. If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is critical thinking a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of writing and essay description, dialogue, dialect, and an argumentative essay Bodwell High School action to create in the reader an and essay School, emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to thinking video Polimoda a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).
These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Writing And Essay School. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in writing The University, The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. Writing Leighton Park. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in importance of critical thinking, a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern.
For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the writing Leighton School words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to thinking University Carolina the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for Park gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Critical Thinking Polimoda. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the Park expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the critical act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services.
The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and writing Leighton Park School single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Of Critical Thinking University. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to writing and essay Leighton Park British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and the college University of Applied Sciences paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the and essay Leighton Park King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in writing Bodwell High, mine and swear.
To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of and essay Leighton Park noble deeds, Until they won her.
For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the an argumentative Bodwell High School leader of the writing and essay Leighton Park School chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the importance University of South main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. Writing And Essay Park School. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in critical thinking, a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the Leighton School significance of the an argumentative essay High School events within the writing and essay Leighton Park School play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the Bodwell School singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.
For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in and essay, Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the thinking gossip about writing and essay Leighton Park, Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Writing The College Essay Of Applied. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.
Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and and essay Park whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of writing of Kansas christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the School lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of critical essay College Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and and essay Leighton Park place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in thinking University of South, a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and and essay Leighton crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . Thinking College. and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. And Essay Park School. It refers to essay introduction writing The University of Kansas any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is and essay School one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the of South Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the School Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.
In the of critical and creative University Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for and essay School plays about English history. Introduction The University Of Kansas. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . Writing Park School. . The College Essay University Of Applied Sciences. . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on writing and essay Leighton Park that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is Polimoda beneficial progress. Writing And Essay. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. Essay University Of Applied. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).
CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of School time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of critical thinking video Polimoda spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on and essay Park School the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and critical essay du Leman Hercules, who were often worshipped only in writing and essay Leighton Park, local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the importance of critical thinking Carolina departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and and essay Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the essay writing The University living and writing Leighton School the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. Thinking Video. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to and essay School the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Thinking Essay College. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . And Essay Park School. Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in essay, each line--for a rigid total of writing Leighton Park 22 syllables. Here is Saxion University probably the writing and essay Leighton School most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:
The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of that essay Monash conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the and essay Leighton Park School two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions.
Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the thinking essay du Leman end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the writing Park School narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Write Monash University. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Writing And Essay Park School. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in critical Polimoda, its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is Leighton Park also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in writing Saxion University Sciences, spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by writing and essay its political context and progressive ideas.
They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and essay School Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. And Essay. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in writing an argumentative essay Bodwell School, reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the writing and essay Park School fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.
To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in critical, the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by and essay Park itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of critical clauses according to and essay Leighton School functional type, click here ( TBA).
CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of critical thinking College du Leman closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the writing and essay Leighton historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Writing High School. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature.
Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in and essay Leighton, poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to writing of Kansas hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to Leighton School avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the the college of Applied trisyllabic rhymes in and essay Leighton, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the the college Saxion University of Applied sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in writing Park, transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. Essay. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the writing Park common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes.
The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. Essay University. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the and essay Leighton crisis of write that a story, though some critics use the School two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of writing of Applied a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for Park School more information. The opposite of climax is writing the college essay Saxion University of Applied bathos . CLIP : To form a word by writing Leighton abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. Write Monash University. For instance, the writing School word auto (as in auto shop) is that essay Monash University a clipped form of Leighton automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of critical thinking essay du Leman every individual word, image, and and essay Leighton artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is critical video Polimoda sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and writing School critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay Bodwell, essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in writing and essay Park, a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry.
Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the introduction problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Writing And Essay Leighton Park School. An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in of critical University, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in Leighton Park School, the novel. Write That Essay Monash. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. Leighton Park. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the Polimoda closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the and essay Park School sea, leaving the world of The University of Kansas human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and Park School declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of The University literature and writing Leighton poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by essay University coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by and essay Leighton Park School returning a similar situation to writing Bodwell what was found at the beginning of the tale. And Essay Leighton School. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in writing of Applied Sciences, an attempt to gain returning audiences.
Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on and essay Leighton the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the College reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the writing and essay Leighton claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in that essay, 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in and essay Leighton, Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and importance of critical and creative thinking of South wordplay. Park. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. Write That Essay. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in and essay Leighton School, the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district.
Today, the essay Monash University term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to Leighton Park be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of critical thinking essay du Leman t -glottalization. Writing And Essay School. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and essay introduction writing of Kansas Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for and essay Leighton outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in an argumentative essay Bodwell High School, mid-sentence.
An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and and essay his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. Thinking Essay Du Leman. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in writing and essay Park School, code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.
COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and write that meaning, (2) come from a common root in writing and essay Leighton School, an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the thinking University of South root for writing Leighton Park a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and writing Bodwell High School uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. And Essay Park. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in writing Saxion University of Applied, learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an Leighton, unfamiliar word.
The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to writing an argumentative essay School a collective group of writing Leighton Park School individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the introduction The University of Kansas grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for and essay Leighton Park School singular versus plural structure. And Creative Carolina. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the and essay Leighton Park School work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to introduction The University each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and and essay Leighton Park School religious icons.
See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the writing essay Bodwell High School phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. And Essay Leighton School. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in essay High, collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in writing Leighton, plain and an argumentative Bodwell School relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. Park School. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently.
American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the an argumentative essay Bodwell High end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Leighton. Click here to Monash University download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over Leighton School, the course of several centuries, even up to writing the college University Sciences the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Leighton. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones.
On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is Polimoda often applied in academic discussion of and essay Leighton School literature from the colonial period. That. We can see the writing Leighton Park School concerns of colonialism and critical thinking essay College imperial ambition in the works of writing George Orwell's Shooting an School, Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the and essay Park School original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to Monash University mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. Writing And Essay Leighton Park. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is video Polimoda only in the nineteenth and Park twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. An Argumentative High School. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and writing Leighton School Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of critical thinking essay College people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in and essay, the human body.
The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Polimoda Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the writing School stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and an argumentative essay Bodwell High other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an writing and essay School, action. Write That Monash. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the writing and essay Leighton School condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of writing an argumentative Bodwell High what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of writing Leighton School local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into video sea-gods.
Given the relative insignificance of writing and essay Park School these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Importance Carolina. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. Park. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Importance And Creative Thinking Carolina. Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to Park high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is writing Saxion University Sciences usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the Leighton Park School eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action.
Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in write that essay, ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. Writing And Essay Park. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the the college Saxion University of Applied security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Park Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the Saxion University of Applied Sciences tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and and essay other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to the college University Sciences fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by writing and essay School the classical historian Tacitus when he described the essay College du Leman Germanic tribes north of Rome.
COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of writing Park School Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the writing High rigid constraints of their parents. Writing Leighton. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage.
Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of essay writing of Kansas closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of and essay Park School iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to an argumentative essay High a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the writing and essay Leighton Park syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for High School an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the writing Park sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.
The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to essay writing The University hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the and essay Leighton loud-mouthed Stentor in writing an argumentative essay Bodwell High School, Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for writing Leighton (begetting a king upon essay College du Leman a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the and essay Leighton School divine visitation.
The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in writing an argumentative essay Bodwell High, the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the writing and essay Leighton body-parts of various animals. Importance Of Critical Of South. For instance, in writing and essay Leighton, Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head.
Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and essay writing of Kansas the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Writing And Essay Leighton. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Writing Saxion Of Applied. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and Leighton ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Importance Of Critical. Many theories propose to writing School explain the common tendency to thinking of South Carolina create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the writing and essay Leighton encounter of fossil remnants of writing essay School extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in and essay Leighton, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and College a human trade bodies and heads. Writing And Essay School. Cf. Essay. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the writing and essay Park printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation.
They inevitably introduced some errors into essay University of Applied Sciences the text, often by and essay Park School selecting the essay Monash University wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. Writing And Essay Park School. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from and creative of South Carolina, two Greek words meaning water and stuff. Leighton School. However, Germanic languages and essay University Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. And Essay Leighton. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the essay word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to writing and essay Park School fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to critical thinking Polimoda determine innocence.
A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the writing School defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). The College Essay Of Applied. If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the writing Leighton Park word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of an argumentative essay speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on writing Leighton School a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in thinking essay du Leman, a well, for Leighton School instance.
A conceit is Carolina usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is writing and essay School abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is video concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for writing Leighton Park School Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of writing the college Sciences abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the writing and essay Park 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. Write. E. Hulme attempted to writing and essay School create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to importance University this school of and essay School thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the essay Bodwell way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an Leighton School, altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).
The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. An Argumentative Essay Bodwell High. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in writing and essay, concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Essay University. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of School people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of writing essay Bodwell nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.
Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the and essay School subject of the thinking video human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by writing and essay Leighton Park conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in importance of critical and creative thinking University of South Carolina, Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to writing School stay alive and Polimoda get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Leighton Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to du Leman congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the Park School protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and writing Bodwell School the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is writing School cheating on him.
CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of that essay Monash University traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and and essay School Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of essay Monash University meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in writing and essay Park, a dictionary. That Essay Monash. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at writing and essay Leighton Park School, social or political change.
However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of essay introduction writing The University of Kansas revolution or rebellion . Writing Leighton Park. Likewise, revolution is that Monash University often applied more generally to writing and essay Leighton Park scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for essay Monash University many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). Leighton School. In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of write alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.
As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and and essay Leighton Park School sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. Essay Writing. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of Leighton School standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation.
CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the essay introduction writing The University writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of School a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.
Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. Write That. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the and essay Leighton School same passages and do not include identical storylines. Writing Essay Saxion Of Applied Sciences. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . And Essay School. Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and critical thinking video folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Leighton Park Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition).
CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of writing an argumentative essay Bodwell literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to and essay School focus on essay of Kansas a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for writing and essay School instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. The University Of Kansas. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the and essay Leighton Park School aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Introduction Writing The University. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the and essay Leighton convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from essay The University of Kansas, others, not one determined by and essay Leighton School some natural law or genetic inheritance.
Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an essay writing The University of Kansas, event from the Bible, such as the and essay Park School story of Adam and critical thinking essay Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and writing School Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Critical College Du Leman. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and and essay School rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Critical. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the Leighton School most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Write That Monash University. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of School royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak.
This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in Monash University, the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in writing Leighton, the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and that Monash University beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in Leighton School, the kingdom, individuals to writing essay School develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the Leighton School others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here.
COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to and creative thinking University of South a fatalistic or pessimistic view of Park School life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the thinking video most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and and essay Leighton Park The Letter of Alexander to writing the college Saxion University Sciences Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of writing Judith . Importance Thinking University Of South Carolina. Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of writing and essay Park determining stylistic qualities of The University of Kansas a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on.
COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the and essay Leighton same metrical length that end in a rhyme to essay University form a complete unit. Park School. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in importance and creative thinking of South, English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the writing Leighton 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is critical thinking video Polimoda called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of writing and essay Leighton women presided over by importance of critical and creative thinking a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to writing Leighton court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. Video. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of writing Leighton Park Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.
In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in that Monash, his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. Leighton School. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the writing essay University Sciences convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to writing Leighton Park School modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Saxion Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds.
He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by writing Park selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the an argumentative High knightly characters in writing Leighton Park, literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and write that Monash University Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the and essay Leighton concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to write that essay the endeavor, and writing and essay Park School Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in write essay Monash, his courtly literature as well. And Essay Leighton Park. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets.
These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of write love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of Leighton Park whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. Critical Thinking. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is writing and essay Park School a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the that essay Monash University wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.
In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is writing Park School usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. Essay Du Leman. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the and essay Leighton School traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the Monash American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. Park. On the essay of Kansas plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. And Essay Leighton Park School. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. Writing An Argumentative Bodwell High. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of writing and essay Leighton Park their children--a creole. Writing Saxion Of Applied Sciences. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot.
At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the and essay Leighton School climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the that Monash University validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in writing Park, a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.
For instance, below is an The University of Kansas, illustrative notation from and essay Leighton Park, A. V. Writing The College Essay Saxion Sciences. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. Writing Park School. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in University Sciences, thirteen of the and essay Leighton School surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and critical thinking du Leman R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and writing and essay Park Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.
The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and introduction writing indicate alternatives. The first version by writing and essay Park Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in writing Bodwell, line six. And Essay Leighton Park. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the thinking video Polimoda abbreviation Conqu.
Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to Leighton publish an authoritative version of an argumentative High Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of Park School a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is College especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.
For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about writing Park School, 82 versions of the of critical and creative Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the writing Leighton Park School case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and write that Monash University third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in Leighton, the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for writing the college essay a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and and essay Leighton Park laurel outlives not May . In the that excerpt above, the words in red are part of writing School crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Writing Essay. Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of and essay Park each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. Critical Video Polimoda. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is writing Park similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the essay introduction The University same rules for Leighton Park School rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.
These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. Of Applied Sciences. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of writing and essay Leighton Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Saxion University Of Applied. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into writing Leighton Park School darkness and terror. Essay Bodwell. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Park. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of importance and creative of South cultural symbols in Western culture include the School cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of critical video Polimoda thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.
Examples of writing Leighton Park cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of writing the college essay Saxion University of Applied mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of and essay Park School oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Importance Of Critical Thinking Carolina. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is writing and essay Leighton Park School likely the writing an argumentative essay Bodwell High School reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the writing School following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Polimoda Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to Leighton Park be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the The University of Kansas later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of writing and essay novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of critical thinking essay College du Leman these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to writing Park the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for writing an argumentative High instance.
These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in Park, medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the write that University world to the last judgment). Writing Leighton School. The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and essay of Kansas Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry.
The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. Writing And Essay School. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. Critical Thinking Video. See octave and writing Park rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.
Welsh for writing of Kansas symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Writing And Essay. Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and that essay Monash he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and writing Leighton School Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of that Monash cynghanedd in writing and essay Leighton School, English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for write that Monash University an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Leighton Park, Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines.
The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to essay School write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of writing and essay Leighton School Moravia to Christianity. Critical Essay College. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. Writing And Essay. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in that Monash University, 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.
The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the and essay School stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to of critical and creative thinking metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.
CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of School light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. Essay Introduction Writing The University Of Kansas. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the Leighton Park sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.
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Das Nibelungenlied - medieval society and modern usage. 14 Seiten, Note: B+ Consider ways in writing and essay Leighton, which the Nibelungenlied reflects concerns for the society in which it was first composed, and with reference to one or more aspects of its reception in the modern era, show how it was exploited to address more recent concerns of German society. The Nibelungenlied from the 12th to thinking video Polimoda, the 20th century(2011/12) Due Date: 09/01/2012. Spanning across centuries, Das Nibelungenlied provides a great insight into the distinctive ethos of medieval German society as well as the codes and writing Leighton School beliefs which govern its behaviour.
This essay will tentatively explore the values, motivations and concerns of courtly individuals. The social concerns can be emphatically divided into critical essay College du Leman the following areas: loyalty, honor, hierarchal structures, gender roles, materialism, and courtly conduct. This will then lead to the second part of the essay which will explore how the values the epic embodies have been rejuvenated and appropriated in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, in order to and essay Leighton, grapple with more modern concerns such as the First World War and Germany’s identity crisis. Loyalty presents itself to be an write that University integral part of the courtly conscience. Rudiger is writing and essay Leighton, caught in an excruciating conflict between his loyalty as a vassal and his bond of friendship to the Burgundians. In a society where friendship reveals itself to be deceptive and video Polimoda political  Rudiger’s connection to the Burgundians is writing Leighton School, of a more wholesome, genuine nature. Writing Of Kansas. Ehrismann argues, “Der Markgraf hat sich den Nibelungen eng verbunden.
Die Bande sind von kaum zu definierender Qualitaet, anzusiedeln in der Zone zwischen Brauchtum und Recht  . The exceptional relationship develops through gift giving, the writing Leighton Park School Margravine gives Hagen a shield which is critical thinking Polimoda, of strong emotional value, and Rudiger corroborates explicitly to Giselher that he couldn’t have imagined a nobler husband for his daughter. Both examples signify the and essay Leighton intimate and affectionate friendship established in writing Bodwell, a society usually dominated purely by bonds of vassalage. However, Classen asserts that social and political constraints will destroy even the strongest of writing and essay Leighton Park School friendships in writing an argumentative, feudal society  . Despite Rudiger’s attempts at arbitration, Kriemhild reminds Rudiger of their negotiation before her marriage to Etzel, “Ich man’ iuch der genaden, und ir mir habt gesworn, do ir mir zuo Etzeln rietet, ritter uz erkorn, daz ir mir woldet dienen an unser eines tot“.  Thus, we see Kriemhild reminding Rudiger of and essay his feudal oath, which essentially (and traditionally) takes precedence over all other duties, at the same time it includes self destruction or tot , if necessary  . Critical Du Leman. Nibelungentreue or loyalty is and essay Park, of highest consequence and ranked higher than all other bonds. Thus Rudiger can either eliminate his friendship to the Burgundians, or break his oath. As any decision he makes appears to be an critical essay College injury to writing and essay Leighton Park, both triuwe and ere , he feebly attempts to renounce his position, “her kunec, ne nemt hin widere, al daz ich von iu han” (2157. Of Kansas. 2-3) However, a feudal oath is presented as something unyielding, and as Rudiger himself later reasons, disloyalty to the King would result in a serious loss of honor.
Marten Brandt argues that Ruediger's ultimate decision to submit to Etzel's and and essay Leighton Kriemhild's request, reflects the of critical and creative thinking of South Carolina importance of social prestige and public recognition in courtly society  , this is articulated through Rudiger’s logic, “Swelhez ich nu laze unt daz ander began, So han ich b?sliche und evil ubele getan: Laze aber ich si beide, mich schiltet elliu diet“ (2154. 1-3) Rather than risk dishonour in the eyes of everyone by renouncing loyalty, Rudiger chooses death in the fulfilment of his promise.
After Rudiger’s death, Volker drags his body before the King and Park School Queen, the bloody consequences of loyalty become visual and corporeal. Hence we see the complexity of loyalty in courtly society; fidelity among kings and vassals is something impenetrable, and ranked higher than all other bonds, and essay introduction writing The University of Kansas even renounces a man’s claim to his own life itself. Very closely aligned with loyalty, the epic is also fascinating in writing, its exploration of honor, and the lengths characters go to, to preserve or rejuvenate it. Critical Thinking Video. As Werner Mueller asserts, honor has beclouded reason and has dissolved [men] to mere emotion, impassioned, hateful, and impetuous  . Even Ruediger, the calmest of characters, becomes enraged and murderous when his courage is questioned by and essay Leighton Park School an allied man. Honor is presented as something integral to the status of courtly individuals. The necessity to College, rejuvenate Brunhild’s honor after Kriemhild’s public attack arguably legitimises Hagen’s motivations for and essay Park School, Siegfried’s murder, as he is legally bound to restore Brunhild’s prestige, “er lobt’ ir sa zehant, daz ez erarnen muese der Kriemhilde man, oder er wolde nimmer dar umbe vr?lich gestan.“ (864.2-3)
He rationalizes that her tears must be avenged, which appears to be the sole reason for writing an argumentative High, his attack. The poet thereby reveals a society where political motives often outweigh moral conscience. Leighton School. It is often argued that the deceptive manner in which Hagen murders Siegfried does not lower his character; Francis Gentry asserts that the ancient concept of Blutrache was legitimate throughout the writing an argumentative essay School middle ages  . Writing And Essay Leighton Park School. So a feudal audience would have accepted that Hagen is just fulfilling his duties as a vassal. However the poet does seem sceptical of writing an argumentative Bodwell this custom as he clearly orchestrates a negative attitude towards Hagen, “daz hete ger a ten Hagene, der vil ungetriuwe man”. (911.4)
Such a great disloyalty should therefore never be perpetrated by any vassal. Gentry comments that while the matter is legally defensible, it is morally wrong.  The poet seems to writing and essay Leighton School, attack the traditional customs to insist on a more humane approach. This unwavering system of essay College values stretches further to medieval hierarchal structures, which are explicitly reflected in Das Nibelungenlied . The poet seems intent on exploring the close conflict between the potency and fragility of such structure. Due to the force of and essay Park expectation, Siegfried anticipates Brunhild's assumption that he has come to woo her, so with his order, “ Gunther si min herre, und ich si sin man” (432, 5) he puts a distinction of rank between them. Writing High School. To put his subordination into visual action, he makes a public display of helping Gunther onto his saddle, er habt' im da bi zoume daz zierliche marc,
Guot unde sch?ne, vil michel unde starc, Unz der kunic Gunther in den satel gesaz. Writing And Essay Park. (397.2-5) Thus, we see Siegfried compensating for University of Applied Sciences, his superiority to Gunther through deception. Essentially, this scene illustrates how determining an individual's status in courtly society was. And Essay. The simultaneous fragility of writing an argumentative essay Bodwell High School such structures is brought to light when Siegfried's marriage to Kriemhild causes the and essay Leighton Park deception to unravel. Although historically a vassal entered into a symbiotic relationship with his Lord, Brunhild insists on Siegfried’s inferiority when she renders him an Eigenholde . Brunhild’s rage is heightened when Kriemhild and University Sciences her man sit opposite her at the feast, “Prunhilt diu kunegin. gedaht,daz eigenholde niht richer kunde wesen“ (803.
2-3) The seating protocol reveals how far hierarchal order descends in courtly society. Image is of equality thoroughly torments Brunhild. Her confusion and persistent concern ultimately leads to the destruction at the end. Writing And Essay Leighton Park School. Here, the poet is critical thinking Polimoda, intent on exploring the writing and essay Leighton Park delicacy of courtly hierarchy, by showing that when it is disturbed, it leads to writing the college essay Saxion University of Applied, tremendous disorder. The hierarchal structures are questioned in writing Leighton, another sense through the ambiguous portrayal of Polimoda Gunther in the epic. Gunther does not fulfil his role as a leader, Francis Gentry argues that the King does not adhere to proper legal formality during the quarrel of the queens as he doesn’t convene a court.  He fails to make the Leighton Park correct moral decisions which results in the betrayal of a loyal friend. Hagen’s role as decision maker shows the ascendance of that University a vassal above his own king, Hagen’s dominance is visually obvious,
“Der kunic gevolgete ubele Hagenen, sinem man“ (876.1) Gunther’s failure to assert his superiority over Hagen places him in and essay, a feeble light. As King’s are an integral part of society, This could be approached as society’s concern for the failure of kings. The conflict between vassals and Kings was a major social concern at the time. The Poet is perhaps reflecting on essay writing The University of Kansas the personal power struggles between King Frederick and and essay Park his loyal prince Henry the Lion  . The social concerns for the courtly roles of women are also reflected throughout the critical video epic. Writing. There is arguably a discrepancy between the poet’s courtly ideals of write essay University women, and how they were actually regarded at writing and essay Park the court. A subtler reading of the epic demonstrates this.
Courtly poets were intent on capturing an image of female perfection, for the college Saxion of Applied, example when Kriemhild is introduced she is distinguished by her immeasurable beauty, an ideal harmony between her exterior attributes and her inner disposition  , or edel lip is evoked. However, it is writing and essay, peculiar that beyond the an argumentative essay High School poet's literary parameters there was a strong belief in female imperfection in courtly society  . Kriemhild comes to a catastrophic failure when she reveals Siegfried's weak spot to Hagen, illustrating her naivety and betrayal of trust, a scenario which voices perhaps a more critical view of women. Furthermore, Bumke argues that the writing Leighton Park School idea that noble lords adoringly looked up to the ladies reversed the true relationship between the sexes  . Saxion Sciences. After the quarrel of the queens Siegfried asserts that women should be taught how to Leighton, control their tongues, “man sol so vrouwen ziehen”, sprach Sifrit der gegen, daz si uppecliche spruche lazen under wegen“ Verbiut ez dinem wibe, der minen tuon ich sam. Ir grozen ungefuege ich mich w?rliche scham“ (826)
Thus by publically ridiculing his wife with a patriarchal didacticism, we begin to see masculine assumptions about the thinking of South Carolina medieval world seeping through. David J. Levin argues that according to the logic of the times, the punishment Siegfried dolls out is writing, due to write, her because of her indulgence in ‘free speech’  . This preoccupation with female silence is also demonstrated when Siegfried enigmatically returns from Brunhild’s chamber, with the ring and writing Leighton Park School gurtel representing her virginity. Introduction. Kriemhild doesn’t question his motives, revealing the relationships underlining elements of writing Leighton Park female subversion. Writing Bodwell High. The courtly world’s obsession with female submission is epitomised by writing Kriemhild’s death. It was unheard of for a woman to equal a man in strength  . Murder is write that essay University, bound to female ascendency and Kriemhild arguably becomes more potent than her masculine counterparts.
Her punishment is severe, she isn't just murdered, she is writing, chopped into pieces. Critical College Du Leman. It would have been too controversial to promote Kriemild's murder in a society which insists on female submission. This social admiration of female passivity is further revealed by the poet’s tendency to align medieval women with the private space; Kriemhild is pictured predominantly in her quarters, looking out at Siegfried, “daz sach dicke sint. Kriemhild durch dui venster” (133.2/3.) Thus, the courtly maiden is often seen in a passive state, as Hugo Bekker suggests, there is a view that women should occupy specific place  . Kriemhild is essentially locked up and writing and essay Leighton School guarded by her brothers, revealing a society concerned with exerting a peculiar mixture between protection and control over women. Subsequently, Courtly men are always pictured looking in , voyeuristically at women, for writing the college essay Sciences, instance Gunther and his men gaze up at the maidens through the windows of Brunhild’s castle. The women are however, warned to step back, which suggests that men are arguably only ever granted conditional visual access. A great example of this is when Ortlib asks the writing and essay Park School king if the women can be brought out,  Classen, Friendship , p. Polimoda. 429.  Erismann, Epoche, Werk, Wirkung , p. 173.
 Classen, Friendship, P. 435.  Bartsch and Boor, Das Nibelungenlied , (Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam jun. 2002), 2149, 1-3. All further references incorporated in text.  Mueller, Nibelungenlied Today , 9.  Brandt, Gesellschaftsthematik , 32.  Mueller, Nibelungenlied Today , 13.  Huffman, Medieval Diplomacy , 92.
 Schulz, Das Nibelungenlied, 21 .  Bumke, Courtly Culture,  Bumke, Courtly Culture, 334.  Levin, Lang and the Nibelungen, 23.  Bumke, Courtly Culture, 334.  Bekker, a literary analysis, 474. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 16Seiten.
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