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Creative Writing Prompts For High School Students
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Creative Writing Prompts For High School Students
How to Bake Chocolate Chip Cookies. How to Make Chocolate Chip Cookies. One of American School, my family’s treats is homemade chocolate chip cookies. From the smell of the kitchen to the gooey, hot cookies coming out of the oven, making chocolate chip cookies makes me a hero in my home. To Be Holland Center? As long as there is a gallon of milk in the fridge to go along with this yummy treat, my family is ready for chocolate chip cookies anytime. Oftentimes, my sister and I make the cookies together to enjoy some conversation and prompts American, time while making a delicious treat.
Chocolate chip cookies not only bring my sister and me together, but they provide us with a delightful treat, and they allow us to share them with our entire family once we have our finished product. Usually my sister and I prepare in how to a good, advance. We make sure we have enough ingredients between the two of us, and we make a list of missing ingredients to pick up from the grocery store. My sister usually comes to my house to bake. On her way, she stops to the store and brings the needed ingredients as well as the writing prompts Heritage, ingredients she had at her own house. For chocolate chip cookies, one of the many different types of cookies that we bake, we use the Pillsbury cookie recipe found on a travel article des Arts Appliques (LISAA) the back of the bag of chocolate chips. We have found through the years that this recipe is our family’s favorite.
Therefore, the most important ingredient is the prompts American, Pillsbury chocolate chips! This particular recipe is based on the eleven ounce packing that we often use. Depending on our final goal, we may use larger bags of chips, following the directions on the back, or we may double or triple the writing Queen School, amount on the back of the prompts American, eleven ounce bag. For this particular process, the eleven ounce bag is our guideline. When I know my sister is on the way, I preheat the oven to critical International Center, 350 degrees. The instructions say 375 degrees, but after lots of. How to Make Vegan Chocolate Cookies. . Writing Prompts For Essays Heritage School? One of write that essay University, my favorite things to bake (and eat) is chocolate chip cookies. However, since my kids have food allergies, we decided to try a new vegan chocolate chip cookie recipe that we found online. American? What comes to mind when you think of vegan chocolate chip cookies? Some people may think the words “vegan” and Institut, “chocolate chip cookies“ don‘t even belong in the same sentence, while most people think about wheatgrass and soymilk and instantly become uninterested.
Vegan chocolate chip cookies taste so close to traditional chocolate chip cookies that most people can’t tell the difference between the two. Today, we are going to show you how to make vegan chocolate chip cookies without the use of dairy products. However, before enjoying a batch of these delicious, mouthwatering treats, there are a few steps in preparing them. Three areas of importance are making sure all the prompts American Heritage School, ingredients are present, putting the ingredients together, and baking the cookies. First, gather all of the ingredients together. Check your cupboard for unbleached all-purpose flour, the Publix brand works just as good as the named brand. The following utensils and ingredients are also required: a standard mixer, a large mixing bowl, a whisk, a cookie sheet, measuring cups and spoons, parchment paper, beet sugar, baking soda, baking powder, salt, vegan chocolate chips, vegetable oil, soy milk, vanilla, and dark molasses. After gathering all of the utensils and ingredients, place them on the. Words: 495 - Pages: 2. . unwrap that small morsel of chocolate and pop it in international Margaret's School, the mouth without the guilt.
Think of it as helping the body. Writing Prompts American? Remember to eat in small portions is the writing, key but no one said how often it can be eaten, so dig in and enjoy the mouthwatering treat! This is the prompts for essays American, only treat people would not share. Sharing chocolate is also something so special that only one person can enjoy. Most people will have a stash of international essay writing, chocolate that no one knows about. People will be amazed at how many actually carry it around. Who cannot get enough of writing for essays Heritage, chocolate?
If someone says “I’m stuffed from lunch or dinner,” most of the time they will always have a spot for chocolate. Still feeling guilty? No guilt here just pure pleasure. Enjoying the white chocolate hidden in the bottom of the purse. It cannot get any better than knowing it is there waiting to be devoured. There is no such thing as a guilty pleasure when it comes to chocolate. Words: 697 - Pages: 3. . Physiological needs are the very basic requirements for sustaining life, ETHEL’S CHOCOLATE LOUNGE 5 such as food, air, and housing. Safety needs engage in individuals’ longing for stability and how to write a good essay Ross School, certainty in life.
People struggle over isolation through love, messaging, and companionship. Next come self-esteem wants or feeling worthy. Writing Prompts For Essays School? The utmost human need is self-actualization which expresses a person’s force to search his or her purpose. Critical Holland International Center? According to Maslow, people look to put their basic needs first, then they shift up to the next stage of the hierarchy to fulfill wishes at a more theoretical level. Marketing shows consumers how goods and prompts for essays Heritage School, services can meet their needs, so Maslow’s hierarchy recommend a valuable outline for expanding the international essay competition Margaret's School, marketing strategy.
As for Ethel’s Chocolate Lounges, the marketing based on the social aspect of the do-it- yourself concept because you earned it. Being in the “in crowd” as chocolate is the new black concept strongly advised that you can be hip by being a part of the Ethel’s experience. Writing For Essays American? This tells the realization of the social need or the sense of feeling for the consumer. International School? ETHEL’S CHOCOLATE LOUNGE 6 References Lamb, Charles W., Hair, Jr., Joseph F., McDaniel, Carl. Words: 1042 - Pages: 5. How to Bake Chocolate Chip Cookies. . Samquinten Lyons Ms. Writing Heritage School? Wanning Eng 101 Process/Analysis Essay 12 June 2013 How to Make Chocolate Chip Cookies One of my family’s treats is homemade chocolate chip cookies. From the smell of the kitchen to the gooey, hot cookies coming out Ross of the oven, making chocolate chip cookies makes me a hero in my home. As long as there is a gallon of milk in writing for essays Heritage, the fridge to go along with this yummy treat, my family is ready for chocolate chip cookies anytime.
Oftentimes, my sister and I make the cookies together to International Center, enjoy some conversation and time while making a delicious treat. Chocolate chip cookies not only bring my sister and me together, but they provide us with a delightful treat, and writing for essays American Heritage, they allow us to share them with our entire family once we have our finished product. Usually my sister and I prepare in advance. We make sure we have enough ingredients between the two of us, and we make a list of missing ingredients to to be critical International, pick up from the grocery store. Writing For Essays Heritage? My sister usually comes to my house to bake. On her way, she stops to the store and brings the needed ingredients as well as the ingredients she had at her own house. For chocolate chip cookies, one of the many different types of cookies that we bake, we use the Pillsbury cookie recipe found on the back of the bag of how to write essay for a Limkokwing University, chocolate chips. We have found through the years that this recipe is for essays American Heritage School our family’s favorite. Therefore, the most important ingredient is the Pillsbury chocolate chips! This particular recipe is based on the eleven.
Words: 1012 - Pages: 5. How Many Transitors Fit on a Single Chip. . How many transistors can fit into a single chip? Computers today are dominated by two major micro processing companies named Intel AMD, the how to write a good conclusion Ross, latest offering of microprocessor available from prompts for essays Heritage School Intel for a good essay conclusion School example contains billions of transistors and as a comparison the writing prompts for essays American, Intel 4004 chip from 1971 contained 2,300 transistors, the most common Pentium chip from Intel in 1993 contained 3,100,000 transistors. Over the years the technology behind transistors has changed so that they could be made smaller and more could be fitted into microprocessors giving faster processors.
The technology continues to to be International Study Center, make advances in miniaturization in manufacturing transistors and microprocessors. In 1965 Gordon E. Moore, the co-founder of Intel wrote a paper describing how the number of transistors in integrated circuits had doubled every year since the invention of the integrated circuit until 1965 and he predicted that the trend would continue for at for essays American School, least ten years. Forty Five years on essay writing Queen School and the prediction is still somewhat correct and is now commonly known as Moore's Law. Prompts For Essays American? In 2005 in an interview with Moore stated that the to be critical Center, continuation of the trend cannot continue as transistors would eventually reach the limits of miniaturization at atomic levels. However experts still insist that Moore's Law will continue for at least another decade or two. Computers need millions or even billions of writing Heritage School, transistors to complete tasks. Thanks to the reliability and write essay Monash, incredibly small size of individual. Words: 343 - Pages: 2. . Writing For Essays? How to Make Dark Chocolate People often mistake the terms “cacao” and “cocoa” to mean the same thing. How To Write A Good Ross School? The two terms used to have the same meaning, but over for essays American School the years they have come to have different meanings. The term “cacao” is used to describe the seeds (actual chocolate base), the tree (where the seeds grow) and the pods (a “container” that holds the actual cacao bean) (What is cacao?
Par. Essay? 7). The term “cocoa” is used to writing for essays American Heritage School, describe the processed and sweetened cacao-much like the infamous hot cocoa that is loved so much. From cacao we are able to make many different chocolates, like dark chocolate. Exploring how to make dark chocolate, the health benefits and the different types of chocolate is a fascinating topic because many people do not know how to make it or the health benefits that it has for writing our bodies. The first thing that we need to do is gain access to cacao beans. Writing For Essays Heritage? The infamous and hard to get cacao beans can be bought on write essay conclusion the internet and also where they originally came from, the cacao tree. The cacao tree is part of the evergreen family and is only found in specific regions in the world: South America, Central America, Africa, Asia and writing for essays Heritage, Mexico. International Competition Queen Margaret's? There are also four main types of the prompts for essays, cacao beans: Criollo, Forastero, Trinitario and international essay, Nacional.
The flavor of the prompts for essays Heritage School, bean depends on the variety, the temperature, the soil, and the amounts of sun and rain. Once you have found the cacao tree, it is now time to harvest the cacao pods. Mature cacao pods will be orange or. Words: 1751 - Pages: 8. . Chocolate Informative Speech Introduction • By a show of hands how many people like chocolate? • I’ve loved chocolate ever since I was a little, the texture, and write for a, incredible taste always have me going back for more • Chocolate is one of the oldest treats enjoyed by many people * I want to School, share with you the history of chocolate, types of chocolate, benefits from chocolate and some interesting facts about it. Chocolate is good for you • Chocolate decreases the risk of stroke • Dark chocolate is how to write a good essay Ross good for your skin (not too much) • Chocolate is an antioxidant, it helps the body get rid of nasty molecules in the body that cause disease. For Essays? Chocolate and Holidays • Easter Bunny’s • Halloween Candy • Chocolate Santa • Valentine Hearts • Hanukah Chocolate Types of write a good essay scholarship University, Chocolate (main types are bolded) • Milk chocolate • White chocolate • Dark chocolate • Sweet dark chocolate • Semi-sweet chocolate • Bittersweet chocolate • Unsweetened chocolate Dark chocolate that you should eat • Sweetriot; Organic, fair trade, all natural dark chocolate. Around 20 calories/square • Godiva; Not processed with alkali. 72% Cacao chocolate bars • Ghirardelli Intense Dark; 72% Cacao and 86% Cacao Chocolate Interesting Facts • Chocolate has been around for at least 3,500 years • The Olmec’s believed that Cacao trees were a gift from god • The Mayans took chocolate to the next level by for essays American, making hot coco during the period from to be critical Study 250 A.D -900 A.D • People spend more than $7 billion a.
Words: 334 - Pages: 2. . INTRODUCTION The purpose of this research report is to gain knowledge on chocolate and give an insight on its history, production and various types used for cooking and writing prompts for essays American Heritage, commercial uses. Moreover, proper understandings of how the different types of chocolate are being processed. Chocolate is a well-known confection produced from cocoa beans. Essay Monash? It is popular worldwide, having diverse tastes; sweet and writing for essays American Heritage School, bitter. Chocolates are generally expensive, however of very high demand.
It is used rarely in intellectual, homes for prompts American School cooking; most people simply purchase the product as a snack. Food and beverage outlets are mainly involved in the usage of chocolate for cooking. Write University? There are certain facts derived after the observation of chocolate consumption around the globe. It is noted that Europe dominates the market by holding 16 out of the top 20 chocolate consumers. Furthermore, Americans consumed approximately 3 billion pounds of prompts American Heritage School, chocolate in 2001.
Chocolate was mostly consumed in between meals and it is found that the winter season brings an increase in the demand for chocolate HISTORY OF CHOCOLATE The Pre-Columbian Experience 1200 B.C. — 1492 A.D. The history of chocolate dates back to writing a travel article L’Institut (LISAA), at least 4000 years and it is found that monkeys made the American, spectacular discovery of the cacao plant. They learned of the sweet, refreshing pulp concealed within the thick pods that hung from trees. Ancient man followed in their footsteps; picking the fruit off trees when walking past, eating the pulp and. Words: 4154 - Pages: 17. . CONSUMER MARKETS – JUNE 2014 A taste of the future The trends that could transform the chocolate industry kpmg.com T he outlook for the world’s chocolate industry is brighter than it has been for eight years. Euromonitor predicts the industry will enjoy a 6% rise in revenues in to be Holland Center, 2014, delivering record global revenues of US$117bn. This robust performance is driven by a 2.1% increase in volume, reflecting growing appetite for chocolate in emerging markets. For Essays American School? The challenge for the industry’s major players is how to for a scholarship how to prompts for essays Heritage, make best use of this boom to how to a good conclusion Ross School, profitably grow their volumes faster than the markets, achieve sustainable improvements in core operating margins and make the right investments – be they in capacity, acquisitions, the supply chain, marketing or RD – to seize the significant opportunities ahead. The single biggest factor improving the industry’s performance is the fact that, at writing prompts American School, long last, the global economy is showing signs of that University, sustained recovery. Growth in many major markets is accelerating.
The stellar performers are India (expected to prompts American School, grow by 22% this year), Brazil (13%) and Superieur (LISAA), China (11%). The potential long-term growth in writing Heritage School, emerging economies – many of write a good for a, which have growing middle classes – is vast. To give just one example: the per capita consumption of chocolate in China is only a tenth of that in Switzerland. Yet, as this global tour of the chocolate industry suggests, the future is not without challenges. The immediate concern is the balance between supply of. Words: 9969 - Pages: 40. . Montreaux Chocolate USA is not ready to do a full scale launch of the writing, dark chocolate product right now 2013(Forecast Product(Quality Awareness ACV Mediocre High High Average Medium High Average High High Excellent Medium High Excellent High Medium Excellent High High Volume $32.8M $30.5M $35.9M $33.1M $32.1M $39.0M No launch strategy that meets the $30MM hurdle rate is on target for Montreaux’s 2013 goal of $51MM Very low levels of awareness (maximum of 20%) and ACV (maximum of 79%) for the current product Montreaux is to be critical Holland Center also undecided on the majority of its markeJng mix and launch strategy Montreaux needs to clearly de?ne the prompts for essays, product and the marke=ng mix What we know about the thinking Institut auf dem, product Price CompeJtor is launching a similar product Product type (fruit ?avoured dark chocolate) What We Can What we do not know about Determine Without the product Further Tes=ng PosiJon ? Mass Market vs. Prompts? Premium ? Target Audience ? Product Name. Words: 1438 - Pages: 6. . NEW CHOCOLATE BAR Development Project – MAJOR GRADE Directions: You work for a chocolate company (i.e.
Ghirardelli, Hershey’s, Kraft, Mars, Nestle, etc.). Your job is to do some market research, identify an unfulfilled need or an write essay University untapped market, and writing prompts School, create a new chocolate bar. In groups of no more than 3, you are to: 1. Survey - your target market of 12 to 19 year olds. A sample survey has been provided (you may add your own questions) for you to essay conclusion School, interview at least 5 people. Writing American Heritage School? The more surveys you get completed the writing a travel article Superieur (LISAA), better information for you to analyze. All surveys must be turned in with the project. Prompts For Essays American? 2. Screen ideas – discuss your ideas of new chocolate bar with other students, teachers, friends, and family. What do they think of your ideas? 3. Develop the product – create the chocolate bar that you feel had the best responses from survey and screening of your ideas to others. 4. Test the product – bring the product in on writing article L’Institut Superieur (LISAA) due date for testing (Extra Credit) 5. Introduce the for essays American Heritage School, product- prepare a Power Point presentation to present your product to the class as if we were buyers of a major grocery store chain.
You are trying to sell us on essay stocking your new product. 6. Evaluation Customer Acceptance- How does your new candy bar compare to your competition? We will analyze all candy bars after presentations are completed. Requirements: * Survey at least 5 people on their chocolate tastes (see sample questions on reverse side. Words: 748 - Pages: 3. . practitioners. The federal Medicare hospital CoPs require each hospital to govern their hospital privileges. Each hospital does their own appointing for each practitioner to the hospital’s medical staff or to grant hospital privileges. Writing Prompts American Heritage School? CMS requires that this criteria be the international writing Margaret's School, same for to all hospital practitioners. CMS would most likely insist that hospitals have the same credentialing and privileging requirements whether they are accredited, accredited with deemed status or non-accredited. (Klutz, Brenda 2010) In May 2015, a proposed rule to modernize the American, Medicaid managed care regulations will reflect changes in the usage of that Monash, managed care delivery systems. This rule will align the rules governing Medicaid managed care with those of other major sources of coverage.
This will include coverage through Qualified Health Plans and Medicare Advantage plans. By doing this will implement statutory provisions; strengthen payment provisions to enforce the accountability of Medicaid managed care program rates. Another benefit will promote the quality of care and strengthen efforts to reform delivery systems that serve Medicaid and CHIP beneficiaries. This rule also requires states to establish comprehensive quality strategies for CHIP programs regardless of how services are provided. This rule also implements provisions of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA) and addresses third party. Writing American? (Federal Register 2015). International Essay Writing Competition? CHIP Reimbursement CHIP. Words: 2618 - Pages: 11. . The inventor of the chocolate chip cookie, Ruth Wakefield, sold her cookie recipe to Nestle in exchange for American School a lifetime supply of chocolate.
21. Ben Jerry’s made the that Monash University, first cookie dough ice cream after receiving an anonymous suggestion on their flavor suggestion board in its Burlington, Vermont, shop. 22. There is a rare fourth kind of chocolate in addition to the classic milk, dark, and white varieties: blond chocolate. 23. The film Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory was financed by Quaker Oats to promote its new Wonka Bar candy. This is also why the film is called “Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory” instead of “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory” like the book it’s based on. Wolper Productions / buzzfeed.com 24. The first chocolate bar was invented in 1847 by prompts School, Joseph Fry. 25.
The chocolate industry is worth approximately $110 billion per year. 26. Milky Way candy bars are not named after the how to write a good essay conclusion, galaxy. The name came from the malted milkshakes whose flavor they originally intended to mimic. 27. Writing Prompts American Heritage School? Three Musketeers bars were originally three pieces to a package, in that Monash, chocolate, vanilla, and strawberry flavors. They switched to for essays School, just the essay Monash University, one chocolate bar after the price of strawberries increased. 28. In 1947 hundreds of Canadian kids went on strike and writing prompts Heritage, boycotted chocolate after the price of a chocolate bar jumped from 5 to thinking Institut Rosenberg, 8 cents. Writing American? kungfubonanza / Flickr: kungfubonanza / Creative.
Words: 900 - Pages: 4. . How to to be Holland International Study Center, Bake a Cake A favorite dessert at a birthday party or wedding is always a delicious cake. Most people look at it as the go-to dessert which comes in writing prompts for essays American School, many different flavors to suit everyone’s taste buds. Cakes that are made from scratch tend to taste way better than store bought cakes, but many may not know how to bake a cake; this will help you step by step on how to write scholarship Limkokwing University how to bake a cake for your next upcoming event. The first thing you will need to do is preheat the oven to 350 degrees. You need to start gathering all the writing prompts Heritage School, materials, such as milk, eggs, flour, sugar, baking powder, salt, shortening, vanilla extract, and the baking utensils. Depending on how big or small you want the international Queen, cake will determine what size pan you should use.
Make sure the pan is deep and round so it will rise while baking in the oven. For Essays American School? To begin the actually baking portion you must measure out the ingredients before adding them together so the intellectual Institut auf dem Rosenberg, process will go a little faster. All the for essays, measurements must be exact so the cake will taste how it’s supposed to. You will need to measure out 2 ? cups of flour, 1 ? cups of article L’Institut (LISAA), sugar, 3 teaspoons of baking powder, 1 teaspoon of salt, ? cup shortening, ? cup of prompts American Heritage School, milk, 1 ? teaspoons vanilla, ? cup of milk, and 2 eggs. Next, mix together the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt into how to write a good essay Limkokwing University, a large bowl.
Then, add in the shortening and pour in ? cup of milk and 1 ? teaspoons of vanilla. It’s best to writing for essays American, use an electric mixer, but if you don’t have one then a fork will do. Words: 467 - Pages: 2. . Chocolate Industry Chocolate. It seems as if the worlds revolves around chocolate. I can guarantee that out of 100 people at least 95 have ate chocolate before. Writing A Travel Article Superieur Des Arts Appliques? Not because it’s obviously tasty, because it can be found almost everywhere. If you go to a local Macys, a clothing store, you can find chocolate for for essays American sale next to the registers. So how did chocolate become so abundant around the world? Not only is chocolate an abundant supply but is also really cheap.
So how does one create a copious amount of something and sell it for cheap? Cocoa bean grows primarily in that essay University, Western Africa, Asia, and Latin America because of their tropical climates. The cocoa beans are what makes chocolate in general. 70% of the writing prompts for essays American Heritage, world’s cocoa is supplied by Western Africa countries such as Ghana and in the Ivory Coast. “The cocoa they grow and harvest is sold to that essay Monash, a majority of chocolate companies, including the writing for essays American Heritage School, largest in write a good essay for a University, the world.” However, as the years have gone by, news about child labor happening in this industry has hit the media multiple times. Journalists and organization try spreading the writing prompts American Heritage School, word on what’s happening with all the child labor in this industry, but it doesn’t always get the Institut auf dem, attention it should receive.
This can be because of prompts Heritage, no one really wants to know where all the good stuff is coming from. Another reason, why we do not know more about this child labor news in the industry is because the industry has become really secretive and thus creating journalist to have a hard time to get.
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The Kite Runner Argumentative Essay. The international best-selling novel, The Kite Runner was first published in 2003 by Riverhead Books, written by the Afghan-born American novelist and physician, Khaled Hosseini. He was born into a Shia family in Kabul, and prompts Heritage School, later on in his life when the family moved to Paris because of his father’s occupation, Hosseini’s family was unable to return to Kabul due to a good for a scholarship University the bloody Saur Revolution; hence they had to seek political asylum in the United States. Being as young as he was, roughly 11 years of Heritage, age, the actions of his home country must have left an impression on him. Holland Study Center! It is such a great read because among many other themes such as betrayal, redemption, bullying, inhumanities of revolution, discrimination, loyalty, hypocrisy, horrors of rapes etc. the main focus of this story is of a man who is haunted by his past demons. We see in some of the opening lines of the novel, “I became what I am today at the age of twelve, on writing prompts American Heritage a frigid overcast day in to be critical Holland International Study the winter of 1975… That was a long time ago, but it’s wrong what they say about the past, I’ve learned, about writing prompts for essays American School, how you can bury it. Because the past claws its way out.” These opening lines gets the ball rolling on what is to writing a travel (LISAA) come and to be expected from the story, of possibly an writing prompts American, aged man who is looking back at the past and justifying how it has made him the way that he is to date. The setting vividly takes place in the disorderly country of Kabul, Afghanistan in the 20th century. Hosseini, through the character of Amir, does an excellent job describing the intellectual thinking Institut, chaotic setting in contrast to any other parts of the prompts for essays American Heritage, western world such as Europe or North America. In this research paper I’ll be focusing on how to write a good the following contents; plot summary, major character analysis, themes, motifs and the conclusion. The story starts off with Amir.
. In the beginning of the story “The Kite Runner”, the narrator known as Amir begins by quoting, “I became what I am today at the age of twelve” (Hosseini, 1). He describes a mysterious crumbling mud wall and an alley besides a frozen creek in the year 1975. He then states that he has been “peeking into prompts for essays American School, that deserted alley for the last twenty- six years” (Hosseini, 1). Something is obviously bothering him, but it really takes affect after a chilling phone call from an old family friend Rhami Khan, in Pakistan. To Amir, it isn’t just Rahim Khan on the line; it is his past which is filled with sin for which he never reconciled for. After hanging up, Amir goes for a walk along Spreckels Lake on international writing Queen Margaret's the Northern edge of Golden Gate Park where he sees a pair of kites soaring in the sky. They remind him of writing Heritage School, his childhood friend Hassan, the hair lipped kite runner who had once told Amir “for you a thousand times over” (Hosseini, 67). Everything from 1975 floods back into his mind and he starts to remember how he became who he is today. Amir starts to remember his childhood memories of him and write University, Hassan climbing the popular tree in the drive way of his father’s home and playing with mirrors to reflect sunlight into the windows of the neighbor’s houses. He describes their boyish misbehavior due on his part and by always taking advantage of Hassan who he says would.
Words: 1168 - Pages: 5. Exploration Essay the writing prompts for essays American School, Kite Runner. . “Kite Runner” by write conclusion Khaled Hosseini is New York Times #1 bestseller. For Essays American! I loved reading this book. Essay Writing School! It discusses the sociological issues of writing prompts School, Afghanistan.
It involves, opposite religions, tells about family and friendship, the presence and essay conclusion School, how into the feelings of poor and writing for essays American, rich, it also refers to writing article Superieur des Arts Appliques the war of Afghanistan and all its troubles. The narrator of the writing prompts for essays Heritage School, book, who also is apart of the story, is named Amir. Amir grew up peacefully when he was little, as he grew older, the essay, country’s revolution began and for essays School, Russian forces invade Afghanistan. There are two different kinds of Muslims, Amir was one kind and his servant, and also his one and only best friend, like a brother, is another kind of Muslim. Conflict between to different sides of the religion separates these two brothers apart, so does war. Essay Conclusion! Amir and writing prompts for essays American Heritage School, his father were rich, and Hassan and his father were poor. Amir and Hassan share the same father, who is Amir’s father, but nobody knows until it came time for the father to die. Amir and that essay, Hassans friendship fell apart for the fact that Amir was rich, and the presence of Hassan at his side at all times other than a servant embarrassed him. Also during the war, Amir and his father get away to America while Hassan and his father stay back in their country and try and live. This book shows you the different kinds of people.
How there are some that will fight for what they believe in, and prompts Heritage, others who will let it all go and run away from it no matter how much money they have. Words: 811 - Pages: 4. . In his tremendously bold and thought-provoking novel ‘The Kite Runner’, Khaled Hossieni leads his audience down the how to write Ross School, path of a young boy growing up in Afghanistan and prompts American, his road to find redemption. At the beginning of the novel, we find a grown man named Amir, still struggling to overcome his ‘shameful past’ of sins, lying and betrayal. As we are transported into the world of Amir in his home town of Kabul in North-East Afghanistan, we experience his life story; from write essay Limkokwing University early childhood, where he flew kites daily with his Hazara friend Hassan, to writing his adulthood in America where he struggled to live in the poor conditions with his ill father.
Amir’s wrong-doings back in his childhood forever haunt him and write essay Ross School, the secrets of his past drive him to seek redemption and endeavor to find amends for his sins. Amir’s childhood consisted of mockery and disloyalty to Hassan. Even after moving away to America with his father, Amir finds it difficult and cannot bury his guilt. Amir’s return to Afghanistan in writing order to ‘be good again’, is critical International a mere act of selfishness as his only motivation for returning was to relieve himself of the remorse that he felt for prompts for essays American, many years. In the beginning, Amir and International Study Center, Hassan’s friendship seems unbinding and they are practically inseparable. Whether flying kites out in the streets or reading books by the pomegranate tree, the two young Afghani boys did everything together. Hassan’s unyielding loyalty and willingness to serve Amir is truly astonishing and yet Amir tends never. Words: 1332 - Pages: 6. . The Kite Runner “That was a long time ago, but it’s wrong what they say about the past, I’ve learned, about how you can bury it. Because the writing American, past claws its way out. Looking back now, I realize I have been peeking into that deserted alley for the last twenty-six years.” That quote by Amir illustrates the Superieur Appliques, major theme of The Kite Runner, which is the past is always right behind you.
The author Khaled Hosseini lets the reader know this at the very beginning of the book when the older Amir says “I became what I am today at the age of twelve. ”, this lets us know that this whole book is based on the past and has always affected Amir’s actions. All the characters in this allow the past to control them. p Letting the past control your future will lead to writing prompts for essays American Heritage your downfall in life. Everybody has a past and everybody has regrets, this is a fact of life. That theme resonates throughout the book as you meet new people and learn about their history. Every character in this book clings to their past as if it were a lifesaver and they were stuck in the middle of the ocean. In reality them clinging to their past is more like tying themselves to a boulder and des Arts, sinking to the bottom of the ocean. If one cannot let go of the past one cannot move forward because they are always facing the wrong direction. For most of the for essays American Heritage, book Amir allow the past to dictate his actions. Amir, the protagonist, tries to that essay University find Hassan so he can get his kite back and show his father that he won.
After awhile he. Words: 384 - Pages: 2. The Kite Runner Argumentative Essay. . Research Paper on writing for essays American Heritage School “The Kite Runner” by Khaled Hosseini Introduction: The international best-selling novel, The Kite Runner was first published in 2003 by Riverhead Books, written by the Afghan-born American novelist and physician, Khaled Hosseini. He was born into a Shia family in Kabul, and later on in his life when the family moved to Paris because of his father’s occupation, Hosseini’s family was unable to return to Kabul due to the bloody Saur Revolution; hence they had to seek political asylum in the United States. University! Being as young as he was, roughly 11 years of age, the actions of his home country must have left an impression on writing prompts for essays American him. It is such a great read because among many other themes such as betrayal, redemption, bullying, inhumanities of revolution, discrimination, loyalty, hypocrisy, horrors of write that, rapes etc. the main focus of this story is of a man who is haunted by his past demons.
We see in some of the American Heritage, opening lines of the novel, “I became what I am today at the age of twelve, on a frigid overcast day in the winter of 1975… That was a long time ago, but it’s wrong what they say about the past, I’ve learned, about how you can bury it. Because the past claws its way out.” These opening lines gets the ball rolling on what is to come and to be expected from the story, of possibly an aged man who is international Queen Margaret's School looking back at the past and justifying how it has made him the way that he is to date. The setting vividly takes place in the disorderly country of Kabul. Words: 3060 - Pages: 13. . The search for writing prompts Heritage, redemption “That was a long time ago, but it’s wrong what they say about the past, I’ve learned, about write that essay Monash, how you can bury it. Because the past claws its way out. Looking back now, I realize I have been peeking into that deserted alley for the last twenty-six years.” Amir thought in the beginning of the novel “The kite runner”. For Essays Heritage School! In the novel we meet two boys from two different ethnic groups living in Kabul, Afghanistan. Amir copes with his decisions 26 years after betraying his best friend, Hassan to get the attention and acceptance from to be critical Holland Center his beloved father. The novel is written by Khaled Hosseini in 2003 and is a redemption story. Writing For Essays American! In order for Amir to cope with his guilt, he needed to find redemption of write a good conclusion Ross School, his betrayal of Hassan.
Amir develops through the story and is a dynamic person. The protagonist of the prompts for essays School, novel is Queen School Amir. Writing American Heritage School! He is the son of Baba, a wealthy man living in a travel L’Institut (LISAA) Kabul in prompts for essays American School Afghanistan. Amir and his father Baba are Pashtun, the larger ethnic group in Afghanistan. He thinks that his father blames him for write Monash University, killing his mother during childbirth, and he tries to get his father’s acceptance and attention. Amir as a young boy is very jealous of Hassan, and the attention Baba gives to him. The only time he really gets Baba’s attention and love is when he and Hassan wins the kite tournament i 1975.
Amir describes himself as a coward, a description that is made clearly when Hassan gets raped by writing prompts for essays Assef, when Amir is write Monash University watching without doing anything. “From just around. Words: 1051 - Pages: 5. . Writing Prompts For Essays Heritage School! The Roles Portrayed, by intellectual Rosenberg Women in Afghan Culture Identifying the roles of women in Afghan culture reveals the degrading attitude society displays. In Khaled Hosseni’s novel The Kite Runner there are various occasions when the roles of women are inferior in prompts American Heritage Afghan culture. Therefore it can be concluded the women of Afghanistan play degrading roles in Afghan culture because they are mistreated and exploited. By examining the roles of Soraya, Jamila, and Sanaubar, when these women are controlled in their decisions it will be shown that they are indeed mistreated by society’s expectations. The culture of Afghanistan is male-dominated and the women are inferior to the men of Afghan culture.
The women’s roles in Afghan culture are to obey the men, stay home and be a housewife. As well as cater to the needs of their husbands. Society is simply people in general, livening together in communities. The role of women in Afghan culture is ridiculed through the characters of Sanaubar and Soraya. The women of Afghan don’t have much of a choice when it comes to their marriage. Most women have arranged marriages, sometimes these men being much older than them.
When Ali a Hazara Afghan man also Baba’s servant, married Sanaubar society judged his decision. A Travel Article Superieur Appliques (LISAA)! “People had raised their eyebrow when Ali, a man who memorized the Koran, married Sanaubar, a woman nineteen years younger, a beautiful but notoriously unscrupulous woman lived up to for essays Heritage her dishonorable.” (Pp. 8, Hosseni). Ali is. Words: 329 - Pages: 2. . International Competition! Khaled Hosseini worked as a medical internist at Kaiser Hospital in Mountain View, California for several years before publishing The Kite Runner. In 1999, he learned through a news report that the Taliban had banned kite flying in Afghanistan, a restriction he found particularly cruel. The news struck a personal chord for him, as he had grown up with the sport while living in Afghanistan. Prompts American Heritage School! He was motivated to write a 25-page short story about two boys who fly kites in article Superieur Appliques Kabul. Hosseini submitted copies to Esquire and The New Yorker, both of which rejected it. He rediscovered the prompts for essays American Heritage School, manuscript in his garage in March 2001 and began to essay University expand it to novel format at the suggestion of a friend. According to Hosseini, the narrative became much darker than he originally intended. His editor, Cindy Spiegel, helped him rework the last third of his manuscript, something she describes as relatively common for a first novel. As with Hosseini's subsequent novels, The Kite Runner covers a multigenerational period and focuses on the relationship between parents and writing prompts, their children. The latter was unintentional; Hosseini developed an interest in the theme while in the process of writing. He later divulged that he frequently came up with pieces of the plot by drawing pictures of it. For example, he did not decide to make Amir and to be critical International Center, Hassan brothers until after he had doodled it. Like Amir, the protagonist of the writing, novel, Hosseini was born in. Words: 465 - Pages: 2. . The Influence of the Past The past will forever be a part of the present, it affects who we become and international essay School, how we live our lives. Depending on prompts for essays a specific past, future lives can be affected positively or negatively.
In the essay Monash University, novel The Kite Runner Baba, Amir and writing, Hassan all had violent pasts which negatively impacted their future and how they viewed themselves and their lives. There was a point in each of that Monash University, their lives where their childhood ended with just one event. Amir watched his friend/brother get raped for writing prompts for essays American School, the wellbeing of himself, Hassan’s mother left him when he was born mainly because of his appearance, and Baba and Amir lost a wife and mother at the time Amir was born. All these events attributed to a problematic childhood and future. Having a difficult past can limit how you perceive yourself, how you perceive others and how you look at life as a whole. In these following paragraphs I will discuss in that essay University detail about Hassan, Baba’s and Amir’s lives including specifics as to how their lives are different due to their intense emotional pasts. Facing rejection can be hard enough as is, however when the rejection comes from the one woman who brought you into this world, that’s when the real damage sets in. Hassan was merely a newborn boy when his mother rejected him the first time, for something so small, and for something he couldn’t control. After Sanaubar had given birth, she took “one glance at the baby in writing prompts for essays American Ali's arms, [saw] the cleft lip, and how to Ross School, barked a bitter laughter. Words: 2116 - Pages: 9. . What are the essential values and ideas presented in The Kite Runner?
Analyse and assess how effective their representation is Hosseini has expressed copious essential values and ideas in his novel The Kite Runner (TKR) including Loyalty, Culture, Gender and Ethnicity and Atonement. Hosseini has expressed these through the combination of style, structure, characterisation, themes and setting. Due to prompts for essays American the context of The Kite Runner, culture is an important idea presented because it has major significance in Afghanistan life and the characters are shaped by it. The majority of the novel is set in Afghanistan which is a country with a very strong culture. The culture of this novel is caused by thinking Institut the setting and is shown through language features, such as the use of Afghani words, and characterisation. “Tashakor.” Thank you This quote shows how Hosseini uses language features to demonstrate the culture and create a novel in which the characters seem real which gives it textual integrity. For Essays School! He uses these words to enrich the language but also explains what it means in English so that the reader can follow. Culture is also expressed in how to write essay for a scholarship this novel through characterisation.
Even when Amir and Baba go to America they still keep their Afghani culture and still partake in Afghani customs. This is shown in prompts American Heritage School the novel through the relationship between Amir and Soraya. Even though they are living in America they follow the Afghani culture in how to write a good essay University their courtship and writing prompts Heritage School, their engagement/wedding. Words: 1321 - Pages: 6. . ‘The Kite Runner’, written by writing article L’Institut Khaled Hosseini, is prompts Heritage School a novel based on the life journey of competition Queen Margaret's, a man named Amir. Although very dark, through the prompts American School, use of important themes the book is made strongly relatable to young people. Three of international writing competition Queen, these include: degradation, the writing prompts School, fragile relationship between a father and his son and the pursuit for redemption.
The fragility of a father and his son’s relationship is shown through the strong characterisation of both males and thinking Rosenberg, the constant use of proleptic irony embedded throughout their relationship. The symbols of rape express the theme of for essays American Heritage School, degradation and class discrimination, whereas the pursuit for redemption is conveyed through the dramatic sequences of international Queen School, events that occur during the course of the novel. Hosseini heavily emphasises the writing prompts American Heritage, Afghani class discrimination, with the how to for a scholarship Limkokwing University, ‘pure’ Pashtuns being the dominate race over the low class, minority group of Hazaras. This degradation makes it very difficult for anyone to marry into another class and the Hazaras are often victims of physical, emotional and psychological abuse at the hands of Pashtuns. Hosseini uses the act of rape since it carries a great deal of significance as it demonstrates a symbolic violation of the powerless by those who have power. Prompts For Essays Heritage School! In each instance of rape we see that the rapist is always in how to write a good Ross School a position of greater power both socially and physically.
For instance, Assef, a well-known bully, is prompts rich and has a politically powerful father, while, Amir’s friend and later, found to be. Words: 988 - Pages: 4. . In life, there is always a way to be good again because no matter what happens you can always redeem yourself. This statement is especially true for the novel “The Kite Runner” by Khaled Hosseini. In the write for a scholarship University, novel the main character is writing for essays American Heritage a Pashtun boy named Amir who is the son of critical Holland Center, a wealthy father and a Hazara boy named Hassan who is the son of a poor father. Hassan and his father Ali are the servents to Hassan and his father Baba located in Afghanastan. Prompts! In a land where reputation is like a gun which is aimed at you at all times Amir is constantly reminded of how poorly Hazara’s are treated throughout the novel. Amir and Hassan are no exception to the problems in a good conclusion Afghan society and prompts Heritage School, this is write that Monash University seen through Amir’s treatment and jeasolousy of Hassan. Throughout the entire novel all Amir wanted was his fathers love and writing prompts for essays American Heritage School, attenetion but he realized that he had to constantly live up to how to write a good essay School his fathers expectations in order to gain it. Amir wants to be the only person in his fathers life but instead he has to writing for essays American share the spotlight with Hassan as well who Amir claims is Rosenberg just a “Hazara boy”.
Amir feels guilty in many situations because Hassan always takes the prompts American School, blame for essay, Amir’s actions and always shows love and dedication to Amir even in the face of danger. Prompts For Essays American Heritage School! One such incident where Hassan was in the face of danger and even death was right after Amir and Hassan won the kite fighting championship. Hassan being Amirs servent decides to “run the kite” which means to intellectual thinking Institut auf dem Rosenberg get the kite that was cut and return it to. Words: 1079 - Pages: 5. . Simrat Sangha Ms. Hommen ENG3U0 December 7, 2014 In the novel, “Kite runner” by Khaled Hosseini the childhood of prompts School, a small town boy by the name of Amir unfolds, when we realize that he lives under a shadow of article L’Institut Appliques, guilt. He grows up, changes and for essays American Heritage, is affected by his environment –whether that is Afghanistan or California. Transforming into a portrait of an immensely likeable and Institut Rosenberg, dominant character. After proving himself honorable when he makes up for American, his mistakes, overcomes his fears and acknowledges his misdeeds.
Amir is a credible protagonist as he took the how to write a good essay scholarship University, recognition to become a better person and seek redemption for all his mistakes. Although at first he tried to writing prompts American School bury his sins by forgetting the past and living in the present day America, he was called home with an unexpected opportunity to how to write conclusion Ross School work towards forgiveness. “There is a way to for essays American Heritage School be good again…Rahim Khan had said on the phone just before hanging up, said it almost as an after thought.” (Hosseini, 202) Amir’s opportunity to be “good again” appears unforeseen, when suddenly returning to that Afghan seems like the only way to atone for his sins now. He seeks out for Hassan’s orphaned son, Sohrab as he risks his life in order to rescue him. American Heritage School! Through saving Sohrab’s life in a good scholarship a way, Amir has saved his own. “Been peeking into that deserted alley for the last twenty-six years.”(Hosseini, 1) This is a little teaser in writing prompts the beginning of the book that hints an event that has largely defined the course of Amir’s life ever since. This.
Words: 800 - Pages: 4. . To Be Critical International! Mariana Jimenez Period 1 The Kite Runner Final Essay It is normal for writing Heritage School, human beings to make mistakes that cause oneself to feel guilt, but what matters the how to write for a scholarship Limkokwing, most is how one fixes their mistakes that dictates what kind of person they truly are. Prompts For Essays Heritage! In the book, The Kite Runner, by Khaled Hosseini, it shows that the quest for redemption is the way to atone for guilt. The author uses the literary technique of symbolism to enhance the theme of essay Queen, feeling guilt and its quest for redemption throughout the book. Amir has done many things that cause him to feel guilt that cause him to go on a quest for redemption. For example, in the beginning of the book, Amir says, “That was a long time ago, but it’s wrong what they say about the past, I’ve learned, about how you can bury it. Because the writing prompts for essays American School, past claws its way out. Looking back now, I realize I have been peeking into that deserted alley for the last twenty-six years.”(Khaled Hosseini, 1) This shows not only how Amir has been feeling guilt for the last twenty-six years but also how one as a reader can see how Amir finds redemption later in the book. Amir has clearly stated that he has tried to bury his past, his mistakes, but they eventually “claw” back out, forcing Amir to face his guilt and redeem himself. Also, later in the book Amir says “I flinched, like I’d been slapped… Then I understood: This was Hassan’s final sacrifice for me… And that led to another understanding: Hassan knew.
He knew I’d seen everything in that alley, that. Words: 1221 - Pages: 5. . English A The Kite Runner Ending the Cycle of Violence The movie I chose was The Kite Runner along with the theme “There is a way to be good again.” I will be focusing on the character of Amir and thinking Institut, how he uses forgiveness to move on from his past and to end the violence. He shows this through many ways throughout the prompts Heritage School, movie with different people. To Be Critical Holland Study Center! Amir had a tough childhood in many ways but also was very privileged. He had challenges being friends with Hassan. They were from prompts for essays Heritage School two different social classes and Amir got teased and ridiculed because of it. When things got tough Amir froze Hassan out. For example when Hassan was physically assaulted.
Finally Amir and his dad left altogether when there home got taken over by how to a good conclusion soldiers after the fall of the Monarchy in Afghanistan. Amir was so guilt tripped for leaving his friend, in the movie he takes us on his journey of how he finds forgiveness and prompts for essays School, gives forgiveness to move on intellectual thinking Institut from his violent past. Amir does not try to contact Hassan when he left, trying to push it behind him but the writing for essays, guilt is too much and he is curious to what happened to his friend. He becomes a successful writer and takes a trip back to his home and finds out Hassan was killed when things got dangerous. Amir sets off to right his wrongs and starts with Hassan’s son. He tracks him down in an orphanage and makes a plan to rescue him from the dangers of Kabul. Seeking to do the right thing and right his wrongs from the past.
He tries to forgive himself.
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a better world essay Share your teaching story or professional reflection. subscribe to journal. on prompts School Place, Service, and Sustainability. Write That Essay Monash. Los Angeles, California. The Social and Public Art. Becoming More Human, Building a Better World. What is prompts American Heritage School, it all about?
Why engage in service-learning and place-based education—if not to improve ourselves and to improve the world around us? This question—how do individuals fit within and contribute to broader community?—has been driving liberal education, community education, and philosophy for quite literally hundreds of years. As many of the most interesting community development solutions and educational methodologies that exist today are profoundly place-based and a travel article Superieur (LISAA), culturally and temporally-specific, is prompts American School, there anything that unites us? The question presses harder as travel and communication become more affordable. We have the opportunity to engage in cooperative and community-based development efforts that span countries, civil societies, and citizenships. Locally, our cities and now towns are increasingly diverse. We may walk through several ways of being and knowing just on the way to the store. In our contemporary moment, conscious of the many harms done by a travel article des Arts Appliques universalizing logics and civilizing mandates throughout history, we must be able to imagine at least a tentative answer. We must be able to point, albeit loosely, the direction we’re headed. If we have not gotten better at writing American Heritage School a precise answer to how we improve ourselves and the world around us, we have certainly complicated the answer(s). We do not lack for passion in pursuit of the question.
In my role teaching and facilitating learning in university-community engagements in the US and intellectual Institut, around the world, I’ve seen the full range of tears, concerns, and fundamental life changes following from anger and outrage at our everyday, omnipresent injustices. A student named Andrea broke down in tears in a US shopping mall following her return from a service-learning experience in a Bolivian orphanage, where she everyday cared for babies whose lives would be fundamentally altered with just a fraction of the resources traded in that mall on a given day. A colleague named Maria left conventional study abroad—absolutely resigned from her staff position at a strong, established university—after her first experience with global service-learning. She saw how our conventional patterns of American learning, exchange, and politics continuously perpetuated a world of injustice. So she walked away. We don’t all need to walk away. We do all need to do our part. A community organizer who runs an all-encompassing human services agency up the street from my office shared it with me this way, “When we get new interns, I ask them if they’re interested in becoming more human.
If they’re interested in growing as people, in critical International Center, better connecting as people, in being better people, then we can work with them – because they’ll develop relationships with people in our community. If they just want technical skills, they’re not for us.”. Prompts For Essays American School. We do wish to become more human—or to be better citizens, or cosmopolitans, or global justice advocates, or, or, or… but our age is also marked by a ubiquitous uncertainty born of centuries of good intentions gone awry. This essay is about acting in the context of that broad awareness. It’s about intellectual auf dem Rosenberg understanding the legacy of writing prompts for essays Heritage racism, sexism, colonialism, and hundreds of years of other inequities and international essay writing competition Queen School, horrors, and nonetheless figuring out writing prompts for essays, how – today – we can still manage to cooperate and continue building a better world together. That better world includes US communities as much as it does communities elsewhere; in fact that world will not be built until we can think of others as brothers and sisters first and as nationalities second. It will also not be built until people from positions of writing a travel Appliques (LISAA) power and prompts for essays Heritage, privilege can cooperate with their economically devastated neighbors five miles away as much as they may cooperate with international charities and global justice efforts. This generation IS acting to address injustice.
There is ample empirical evidence: young people seek out and engage in service-learning; increasing numbers of students are daring to explore untraditional study abroad destinations; young people have founded NGOs to work with refugees in Africa or internally displaced people in Colombia; it was young people who played a major role in getting funding to fight AIDS in to be critical, Africa on the US agenda. We are pushing harder on global social issues than ever before. It is our responsibility to realize greater global justice. We can no longer pretend the world ends at the shore. Nor, of course, can we pretend that injustice only prompts American, begins at the shore. And yet we have so often organized our efforts through the exclusionary lenses of citizenship and faith. We are not merely citizens, we are not merely Christians. We are human.
Our efforts are making a broad difference. Queen School. Yet these efforts are hard to name precisely. That is writing prompts, both good and bad. Queen Margaret's. It’s hard to raise money for a movement that refuses to fit into a bumper sticker. It’s also hard to raise an writing for essays American, army. And that’s part of the Monash reason this generation’s movement is writing American School, itself deliberately pluralistic. It recognizes the writing a travel article Superieur des Arts Appliques (LISAA) long history of misguided attempts to promote the good. Yet continuing to build a better world binds us together. We explicitly recognize the great danger in supposing to solve others’ problems, in attempting to do justice, or simply in interacting with other cultures disrespectfully. That recognition and challenge requires that each person who works toward some sense of global community thinks about the prompts American impacts their actions have in travel, in service, and in their daily lived lives.
It requires listening to local voices and write essay scholarship University, perspectives about their specific wishes in relation to visitors who desire good works. And it requires thorough thinking that attempts to consider the nearly incomprehensible series of effects that our actions can have in this world of unprecedented interconnectedness. In many ways these things are not new. Writing American Heritage. People have always sought the des Arts world, have always explored. The Ancient Greek philosopher Diogenes declared, “I am a citizen of the world,” and writing for essays American Heritage, sought with other cosmopolitans to discern ethical actions for a citizen conscious of what lay beyond the walls, conscious – to do this is still an intellectual problem and paradox for us today – of the unknown, unexplored, or misunderstood. Write University. Gandhi advocated for a new social-economic-religious order based on the unity of humanity and the opportunity to writing for essays, be of service. Various traditions speak of how to essay Ross right, wrong, fairness, and justice. Today we have the opportunity to see the overlap and differences among these paths. And our communication technologies give us the knowledge that – by nearly any of the measures – justice would involve a radical departure from the world as we know it. This is our position, inspired by writing prompts American Heritage School the human impulse to thinking Institut auf dem Rosenberg, connect and to writing School, serve, informed by how to write a good essay scholarship University our actions and testing our ethics in the context of a continuous and dizzying flow of information that at once liberates from stock thinking and plunges into uncertainty. Not one, two, three, or four ways of knowing but countless.
Aware of the unintended impacts of writing prompts American past efforts to improve societies—cultures undone by the insertion of Christianity, millions killed in essay conclusion Ross, the name of proletarian revolution, warfare and genocide perpetrated due to writing prompts for essays American School, conjured ethnic identities and the employment of religious or national identity for enhanced senses of belonging – we still wish to build a better world. We know we must therefore do so humbly, through humble service and a humble approach to knowledge. This is where the impulse and competition Queen Margaret's School, action returns to us as ideas. Writing Prompts Heritage School. Ideas we may receive from and develop with others, share, reject and to be critical Holland Study Center, reformulate based on prompts American Heritage our core concern of valuing all human life equally, and living a life that reflects that equal value . This is the fundamental uniting concept—some call it global citizenship, others say it is writing L’Institut Superieur des Arts, simply becoming more human. The duty is clear. We must continuously return to the question: Do our actions, efforts, and outlooks reflect concern for each human being’s individual dignity? This is powerful and prompts for essays American School, persuasive on its own – or so it should be, but many people are inspired to access and to live through this reality based on their understanding of thinking Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism, Islam, and many other less popular understandings of the divine, the unknowable. It is that serious.
It is about how we understand the miracles around us, the writing American Heritage School complexity of the world, the human experience and L’Institut des Arts Appliques (LISAA), purpose. For many, a secular reconciliation of races will never ring as truly or strongly as Martin Luther King’s vision of the peaceable kingdom he shared the night before his assassination, “mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the prompts Lord!”. But we do not know if King’s Peaceable Kingdom is truer than Pope Benedict’s understanding of Love, nor whether we must understand Abraham in the context of Christian, Islamic, or Jewish teachings. A Good Essay Conclusion School. We know only that many teachings have understood the writing prompts for essays American School supremacy of Love. In villages around the world, without phones and without human rights traditions as articulated by the United Nations, human life matters.
And even our best secular articulations of the need for justice, fairness, equity, and essay competition Queen Margaret's School, basic rights can’t get started without an initial assumption of the prompts American Heritage worth of human life. We therefore may hold to Rosenberg, this as a fundamental truth, while we embrace the humility that allows us to value and writing prompts for essays American School, appreciate the many different – sometimes the strangeness astounds even the most culturally sensitive—paths to achieving this final outcome: valuing human life, helping more than hurting. International Writing Competition Queen Margaret's. That is how we become more human. That is how we build a better world. This humility means not only that we must be willing and able to writing prompts American School, distance ourselves from our cultural backgrounds and assumptions about ways of being and knowing, but also that we must recognize the need to be profoundly humble in terms of our ability to to be Holland International Study Center, even know. Gustavo Esteva and Madhu Suri Prakash (1997) have warned us of the inherent folly in ‘global thinking.’ There is arrogance, they argue, in pretending to God-like powers of cognition and analysis in ostensible service of a global society, the prompts for essays School contours of which we are fundamentally incapable of truly comprehending. They position themselves with Gandhi, Illich, Wendell Berry (1992) and others in arguing for the wisdom of thinking little.
Small and sustainable is still the experience of a large portion of the communities and economies in the world. To live locally without harming others through distant economic transactions or creating excessive pollutants may be a more ethical global citizenship than has been exhibited in the past by the architects of “great changes for the better.” Belgium colonists’ efforts to civilize Hutus and Tutsis, Maoist reforms, the Monash effects of prompts for essays Heritage Manifest Destiny on Native Americans, and various versions of conversion at the end of a gun are among the most widely known disasters of doing good, but many effects are much more subtle. People in the Sacred Valley of Monash University Peru are currently battling non-native and writing prompts School, invasive eucalyptus trees that the Peace Corps planted in the 1960s. Throughout the development era, many developing countries have become net importers of food (Escobar 1994); their citizens are less able to choose to how to a good Ross, live local, sustainable lifestyles. Doing good gone bad is not merely a phenomenon in developing countries; nearly every major US city has a strong example of a neighborhood or set of neighborhoods marginalized and destroyed due to reckless, top-down urban planning (Jacobs 1961). Change has costs and benefits. Humility means being very (extraordinarily!) careful. And this is writing prompts American Heritage, our position, to be conscious of these objections, warnings, and concerns, to be aware of different ways of being and knowing, and to choose the most ethical path we can, based upon article L’Institut Superieur Appliques (LISAA) what lies behind us and before us, based not only on what is but also on what is writing prompts for essays American, still possible. Because for all the folly and error – make no mistake implicit in those terms is death and destruction—there has been substantial beauty and write Ross, realization of possibility. Writing American Heritage. Life expectancies have risen, more people have access to education, and more people have the opportunity to determine the direction of their own lives. How To Essay School. Yet so many people—in the US and all over the world—still live short lives without breadth of opportunity.
That is it. We must realize the potential and possibility, the interrelated and for essays American School, overlapping ethical streams, the value of different ways of being and knowing, the profound skepticism we should give our own efforts, and the chance to bring people together peaceably, equitably, respectfully. Essay Writing. To do so would revolutionize our current experience. The possibility is better felt and understood than painted precisely. Writing For Essays Heritage School. Richard Falk (2002) writes of critical Study Center global citizen pilgrims working toward an as-yet-unimagined tomorrow. Our efforts must be rooted in the reality we have, but visionary in writing prompts American Heritage School, terms of imagining then creating a better tomorrow that more robustly recognizes all people equally. We are on the way. Different people will serve different ways. As engineers developing sustainable buildings, as editors allowing pluralistic voices, as revolutionaries and pragmatists, as business people developing and succeeding with fair trade products, as teachers making sure peace, justice, and writing a travel article L’Institut Superieur, diverse cultures are part of the curriculum, as writers, philosophers, poets, and small, local, sustainable farmers, as people who value their children and families and care to American School, live in ethical communities.
We will work toward it. We will address specific problems. We will end global poverty. We will reconsider poverty. We will stop calling healthy sustainable farmers poor just because they live differently than many of us. We will recognize human flourishing in its many forms. We will be skeptical, but we will work and hope in service of the central ethic that all of our sisters and brothers must be recognized as such and valued equally. We will continue this work, creating, allowing, and engaging possibilities. Writing Superieur Appliques. We will make our own best efforts to help realize the rhythm recognized by the great Northern Irish poet Seamus Heaney: But then, once in a lifetime. The longed-for tidal wave.
Of justice can rise up, And hope and history rhyme. Berry, W. 1992. Sex, Economy, Freedom, and Community. New York: Pantheon Books. Escobar, A. 1994. Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third. Writing American Heritage School. World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Esteva, G. and Prakash, M.S. 1997.
From Global Thinking to Local Thinking. In. Rahnema, M. and to be critical Holland, Bawtree, V. Prompts For Essays American School. eds. The Post-Development Reader . New York: Zed Books. Falk, R. 2002. “An Emergent Matrix of Citizenship: Complex, Uneven, and Fluid” in Dowers, N. and Williams, J. Global Citizenship: A Critical Introduction. New York: Routledge. Jacobs, J. 1961. The Death and intellectual Institut, Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House. Prompts For Essays American. copyright 1995-2018, Community Works Institute (CWI) All rights reserved.
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film theory essay Common Sense + Film Theory = Common-Sense Film Theory? Start with this question, which I think is one of the most fascinating we can ask: What enables us to understand films? All films? Well, set aside some hard cases, like Brakhage abstractions and transmissions of the Crab Nebula from the Hubble telescope (above). Let’s start with a prototype: a film whose moving images present more or less recognizable persons, places, and things caught up in what we intuitively call stories. In other words, an ordinary movie shown in theatres and on video. At one time, film theorists were considerably interested in the issue of comprehension. The heyday of film semiology, roughly from the mid-1960s to the end of the 1970s, brought forth vigorous conjectures about prompts, how we grasp images and comprehend stories. Critical Center? One of the boldest proposals was the idea that understanding rests upon codesrule-governed relations between the signifier (a material thing, like an image) and a signified (a concept). In other words, a shot of a cat not only for essays, picked out a particular cat but signified the concept cat.
Likewise, we understand a chase scene because we know the cinematic code for this concept. In Naked City , we see alternating shots of to be critical Study Center, two men running, and we decode the whole scene as showing a man pursued and his pursuer. Semiology was a promising attempt to study comprehension in writing prompts Heritage School a systematic way. This school of thought called our attention to the ways in which mainstream films are highly structured for audience pickup. Everything we understand in a movie could be taken as the result of our deciphering codes, governed by rules and presenting a coherent menu of alternatives. 1. For some thinkers, the concept of codes promised to give substance to the age-old “film grammar” metaphor. Despite some crucial differences, maybe film was really a sort of audiovisual language, with its own syntax. And since verbal languages vary dramatically across societies, so might the codes of picturing or of storytelling. Just as language must be learned, so too perhaps the writing a travel Superieur des Arts (LISAA), codes of cinema require learning. Semiological research reminded us that what seems natural is often very artificial, and relative to one society rather than another.
In another culture, the code of traffic signals might employ not red, yellow, and green lights, but any other colors. The notion of Heritage School, codes also suited an emerging view of what one influential book of the write a good essay for a scholarship Limkokwing University, time called the “social construction of prompts for essays Heritage, reality.” 2 Would people from critical Holland Center cultures without cinema or television be able to recognize the blobs on the screen as people and settings? Do codes go all the way down to the very core of our perception? At some point someone was sure to bring up the writing for essays American, idea that Eskimos had six or ten or thirty different words for a travel L’Institut (LISAA), what Americans just called “snow.” 3. Today, classic semiologists are rare in prompts American Heritage School film studies. You will seldom find a researcher talking of writing L’Institut des Arts (LISAA), codes, or raising questions of comprehension. Nevertheless the idea that filmic expression is quite arbitrary, socially constructed, and learned remains in writing for essays Heritage the ether. Film academics assume, along with most humanists, that once you set aside some uninteresting aspects of the human creature, usually summed up as “physiology,” culture goes all the way down. L’Institut Superieur Des Arts? Beyond cell division and digestion, let’s say, everything is cultural, and to invoke any other explanations risks rejection.
In Narration in the Fiction Film (1985), I asked how we could best explain our grasp of one aspect of cinema, the flow of story information I called narration. I argued that since most narrative films were made in order to writing for essays American Heritage School be experienced by viewers, we ought to study the strategies filmmakers used to elicit understanding. Most of those strategies, it seemed to me, exploited rather general human perceptual and a good for a cognitive capacities. Perceptual research of the 1970s was dominated by a school of thought derived ultimately from the great psychophysicist Helmholtz. Writing Prompts? “New Look” perceptual psychologists like Jerome Bruner and Richard Gregory held that the stimuli hitting our sense organs were noisy, incomplete, and ambiguous; we needed higher-level faculties to Ross sort them out. Illusions like the famous duck/ rabbit showed that when we could not decide between one visual configuration and Heritage School another, endless ambiguity was the thinking Institut auf dem, result. The eye, as was commonly said, was part of the mind. Seeing in the full sense was a kind of inference to the best explanation: What could be out there that would produce this pattern on the retina? At first, this research tradition meshed neatly with the emerging discipline of cognitive science. In the writing for essays American School, early 1980s, cognitive scientists were largely focused on matters of language, reasoning, applying categories, and making decisions about action. 4 As with New Look thinking, cognitive science saw mental activity as a quasi-Kantian interplay of input stimuli and conceptual structures, sometimes called schemas, that made sense of the a travel Superieur Appliques (LISAA), data.
Those structures might be all-purpose or specialized, diffuse (like, say, the writing prompts for essays American Heritage School, ability to solve problems) or single-purpose (the ability to recognize faces). Again, inference was the write essay, model, although some mental inferences, like those involved in vision, were held to writing prompts for essays Heritage School be fast, automatic, and “informationally encapsulated” (i.e., ignorant of anything outside their dedicated domain). 5 Eventually, the inferential approach would become the basis of a computational approach to both perception and Holland International Center cognition, and writing it probably remains the dominant view in psychological research. How adequate were New Look perceptual theory and Cog Sci mental mechanics to Ross School explaining everyday thinking? NiFF tried to be somewhat agnostic on certain points, but it did argue that these psychological frames of reference were helpful in studying films. Perceptually, films are illusions, not reality; cognitively, they are not the blooming, buzzing confusion of life but rather simplified ensembles of elements, designed to be understood. They are made to engage thought, particularly thought that goes “beyond the writing for essays American School, information given.” 6 Film narratives, like narratives in write essay University all media, abstract and streamline their real-world components for smooth pickup and invite us to fill in American School what is left unshown and unsaid. What outline drawings are to the eye, narratives are to article Superieur Appliques (LISAA) the mind. So NiFF claimed that we could study films as ensembles of cues that prompt inferential extrapolation at prompts, many levelsof perception, of comprehension, and Ross School of interpretation. In other words, films prompt us to apply schemas, or knowledge structures, to what we see moment by moment on the screen.
Those schemas can be based in School real-world knowledge or filmic conventions. Each type posed problems for the concept of codes. Real-world knowledge may not be as strictly structured as the concept of international essay competition School, code suggests. A schema is writing prompts for essays Heritage, less rigid than the traditional concept of thinking Institut Rosenberg, code; it may not exist as binary alternatives or rule-governed choices. Some schemas are fuzzy, with their members conceived as prototypes or core/periphery structures. Writing American Heritage School? So for write essay for a scholarship, us a robin is a prototypical bird, a penguin or ostrich is not. The latter might be prototypes for writing prompts for essays Heritage, people in other cultures, but that doesn’t invalidate the point that some categories are organized by “best-instance” criteria rather than hard and fast boundaries. Some cinematic conventions more crisply structured: You can end a scene with a cut or a fade or a dissolve or a wipe or a swish-pan.and that’s about it.
So sometimes we encounter, particularly within certain cinematic traditions, a sort of menu of options we might call a code. But a lot of conventions, like those indicating the to be, overall space of writing prompts for essays American Heritage, a scene’s action, are looser. There is no rule that requires a long-shot to Monash University be followed by a close-up, the way a preposition in language requires an object. There is no code that dictates that a sexy scene must be red-tinted or accompanied by writing Heritage hazy saxophone music, but when such cues emerge, we make a probabilistic inference that seduction isn’t far off. Not all conventions, it seems, are coded. NiFF studied several of these conventions under the rubrics of causality, time, and space. Those three categories, NiFF claimed, are basic to narrative and to human cognition, and so they ought to play roles in critical International the process by which we understand stories.
Further, NiFF argued that the conventions that guide our inferential extrapolation don’t simply float free in space. Prompts Heritage School? There were recurring clusters of favored choices for presenting causality, time, and Institut auf dem space. These modes included “classical” narration, “art-cinema” narration, and others. The historical layout still seems valid to for essays American Heritage School me, and they seem to have proven useful to Superieur (LISAA) other researchers. Theoretically, however, NiFF ran into problems in the role it assigned to for essays School inference. At the time of Institut Rosenberg, writing NiFF , I was aware of the writings of J. J. Gibson and his insistence that perception evolved in Heritage environments very different from the impoverished information that New Look theorists assumed triggered perception. That Essay Monash University? In the three-dimensional world in which creatures like us live, the stimuli are not typically partial or degraded; they are in fact quite rich, even redundant.
Moving through space, we register an optic flow that specifies the layout of surfaces quite precisely. 7. NiFF finessed this problem by writing prompts for essays saying that even if Gibson’s account of a good essay Ross, ordinary perception were right, films don’t present the informational array afforded by the real world. Film imagesflat, often in black-and-whiteare in principle as ambiguous as the duck/rabbit. I invoked the splendid Ames Room as evidence that, being monocular, cinema images were inherently ambiguous. 8. This now seems to me misguided. Films, as Gibson himself pointed out, disambiguate their images to a huge extent by the sheer fact of movement. It would take a mental effort no one could summon up to see alternative ways to construe a normal shot of writing for essays American School, three men in a room. My mistake was the same as the New Look theorists: I picked the wrong prototype. Just as illusions aren’t fair samples of perception in the wild, so the writing article Superieur (LISAA), Ames Room is an extraordinary piece of filmmaking artifice, not a typical one.
My old friends Barb and Joe Anderson were right: Gibson has the best of this argument. 9 (That still won’t settle whether the inferential/computational approach or the for essays School, ecological approach is the better explanation of natural vision. Critical Holland? On that I retreat to the amateur’s agnosticism.) I was on surer ground, I think, in treating narrative comprehension as a version of inference-making. But NiFF pushed it in writing for essays a problematic direction. Considering narrative comprehension as inferential led me to bring in the Russian Formalist distinction between fabula and syuzhet . These two terms have been used in several ways, but the most plausible way, it seemed to me then and seems still, is to see fabula as the chronological-causal string of events that may be presented by the syuzhet , the intellectual thinking Institut Rosenberg, configuration of events in the narrative text as we have it.
Clearly the distinction is useful as an prompts American Heritage analytical tool, to study how a narrative can “deform” its underlying story for aesthetic purposes. But NiFF went beyond treating the distinction as purely a tool for analysis. It argued that it was psychologically real; that as we encountered events in the syuzhet , we were tacitly building up the write a good essay, fabula too. The process is writing prompts for essays Heritage School, a bit like double-entry bookkeeping, with the how to a good essay scholarship, viewer keeping track not only prompts for essays School, of what is happening each moment on a good conclusion, the screen but also slotting that into prompts for essays, the chronological pattern of fabula events. This seemed to be a clear case that melded bottom-up input with top-down cognition. Unfortunately, some people argued, it’s psychologically implausible. Eventually I had to agree. For one thing, we aren’t aware of to be Holland International, building up a fabula in our heads, the way we can be at least partially aware of, say, solving a crossword puzzle.
For another, we can’t access it easily; try stopping a film on video and reciting the writing prompts American School, entire chain of events leading up to the moment of pause. Worse, try at the end of the write a good Ross, movie to grasp mentally the writing prompts for essays American, entire fabula you’ve purportedly worked out. International Writing School? Chances are you can’t do it. For Essays Heritage? Given that our memories are reconstructive rather than photographic, creating an writing a travel L’Institut Superieur (LISAA) accurate fabula is prompts School, extremely difficult. More theoretically, Julian Hochberg and write a good conclusion Ross Virginia Brooks proposed some reasons that the viewer’s mental representation for the most part cannot reflect the underlying structure of the film. 10. I think that NiFF made the valid point that our understanding of narrative is often inferential, and we do flesh out what we’re given. But I now think that the inference-making takes place in a very narrow window of time, and it leaves few tangible traces.
What is built up in our memory as we move through a film is something more approximate, more idiosyncratic, more distorted by prompts for essays strong moments, and more subject to error than the fabula that the analyst can draw up. Indeed, the real constraints on what we can recall make deceptive narration like that in International Study Mildred Pierce and other films possible. Writing Prompts For Essays American Heritage School? 11. Still, I think the error was a productive one. To Be Critical International Center? In assigning to the spectator the writing prompts for essays, task of ongoing fabula construction, NiFF harmonized with one premise I consider central: a holistic sense of form. Essay Competition Queen Margaret's School? Even if we scan the entire narrative through a narrow slit, it’s important for the analyst and theorist to writing prompts for essays School consider the overall design of the Institut Rosenberg, work, the writing prompts School, more or less coherent principles that govern the unfolding tale.
I’m thinking of such matters as smoothly cascading character goals, psychological motives and how to write a good conclusion School personality change, gradual development of knowledge, shifts in viewpoint, repeated and prompts for essays American Heritage varied motifs, and intellectual Institut Rosenberg finer-grained patterns of writing prompts American Heritage, visual and sonic presentation. In an analysis of Margaret's, Jerry Maguire , for instance, I tried to show how such features were operating at many scales, creating a considerable formal richness. 12. Such design features need to be accounted for, especially when they crop up in writing for essays School an otherwise innocuous popular movie. Why are many movies more tightly organized than they need to be, given the write that University, drastic limits on viewer attention and memory? Clearly, goals, motifs, and the rest aim to shape the spectator’s experience in some respect, and we may well register many of them at some level of awareness.
NiFF posited a too-sapient viewer, but methodologically at least, it’s better to point up many things that a spectator could respond to, even if no real spectator grasps or recalls all of them. Indeed, some narrative traditions seem to try to pack things tightly, so that readers or viewers can return to the book or film and notice things that escaped them on a first pass. Here, as elsewhere, NiFF ’s desire to American mix formal analysis with an account of spectator response created some gaps in essay writing Queen School the theory, but in some respects it’s better to prompts American School have more to explain (about the architecture and detail of the film) than less. It’s a dynamic I’m still trying to refine many years later. For the article Appliques, most part, NiFF explicitly left aside the emotional dimensions of narration. That was done on writing Heritage School, the assumption that comprehension as such was relatively insulated from how to write a good University affective response. You can follow a story, I claimed, without being moved by it. This emphasis was again consistent with mainstream 1970s and 1980s cognitive science; the writing prompts American, index of Martin Gardner’s 1985 survey, The Mind’s New Science , contains no entry for “emotion.” And I did consider what we might call some “cognitive emotions”: curiosity, suspense, and essay competition Margaret's surprise, all called up by writing School the process of narration. In the decades since the School, book was written, however, the relation of emotion to cognition has become central to cognitive science, and writing American Heritage it has been explored by several film scholars working in the cognitivist paradigm. 13 It’s still not something I focus on, but it’s obviously of great importance.
Finally, someone might ask: Why contrast NiFF ’s cognitive approach with semiology, which was passing out of favor when the book was written? Surely the write that, dominant approaches emerging in the 80’s were neo-Marxism, psychoanalysis, cultural studies, and prompts for essays School the study of modernity and postmodernity. Here’s my answer. These perspectives don’t play a role in to be critical Holland International Study NiFF , or in this essay, because their proponents weren’t asking about how films are understood. These writers focused on questions of how social, cultural, and psychodynamic processes were represented in films. Typically those questions were answered by interpreting individual films, reading them for traces of the larger processes made salient by the given theory. 14 My concern was explaining, not explicating; I wanted functional and causal-historical accounts of why films in writing American Heritage various traditions displayed certain regularities in international competition Queen Margaret's their narrational strategies. Prompts For Essays American? That was, I thought, most pertinent to to be critical Holland International Center the semiological line of inquiry. In the period since NiFF was published, cognitive film studies has moved in writing prompts for essays American Heritage parallel with cognitive science generally.
We have had neurological studies of film viewing; we have seen appeals to international essay writing Queen Margaret's evolutionary psychology; we have seen studies of suprapersonal patterns of emergence. 15 These all seem to me fruitful. In what follows, I want to prompts for essays Heritage sketch out some ideas that I’d develop in a new and improved version of NiFF . A Travel Article L’Institut (LISAA)? These bear on our perception of images, on folk psychology, and on social intelligence. All of these have been developed, at least a little, in work I’ve done in more recent years. We speak of prompts American Heritage School, “reading” an image, but do certain kinds of imagesthose that common sense declares “realistic”demand anything like the deciphering that printed language does? How much does grasping an write essay University image depend on learned conventions of representation?
In NiFF I waffled on the question too much. Although I accepting that some aspects of image perception rode on writing prompts American, skills acquired in commerce with the world, I granted some role to learning and familiarity with a “carpentered world.” More subtle is Paul Messaris’s admirable Visual Literacy: Image, Mind, and Reality (1994). Messaris reviews the anthropological and psychological literature in a very clear fashion. He points out that some conventions for representing depth in still images may not be widely understandable; the classic example is the drawing above, which was interpreted by viewers in some African cultures as a hunter pointing his spear at a very tiny elephant. 16 This suggested that some pictorial depth cues require repeated exposure or training.
But when it comes to recognizing objects that viewers know from everyday experience, there is no problem. The African viewers recognized the tiny elephant as an elephant. When it comes to moving pictures, the issue is even clearer. Messaris finds no evidence that people previously unacquainted with movies fail to grasp the persons, places, and things shown on the screen. This is a travel article Superieur des Arts, congruent with more recent research by Stephan Schwan and Sermin Ildirar, who studied adult viewers’ first experience of watching films. 17 Indeed, all three researchers offer evidence that even some editing techniques are immediately understood by writing American Heritage School first-time viewers.
On the a good essay conclusion School, “film as language” question Messaris’s conclusions are clear: What distinguishes images (including motion pictures) from language and from other modes of writing prompts American School, communication is the fact that images reproduce many of the informational cues that people make us of in their perception of physical and social reality. Our ability to infer what is how to write a good essay School, represented in an image is writing prompts for essays, based largely on this property, rather than on familiarity with arbitrary conventions (whereas the latter play a primary role in the interpretation of language, mathematics, and a good School so on) . 18. Messaris’s review suggests that grasping pictures rides on our abilities to identify objects and writing for essays Heritage School spatial layouts in the real world. Some intriguing research on infants reinforces the point. In a famous experiment, Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks kept their son away from pictures during his first eighteen months.
He did occasionally see billboards and a few picture books and labels, but when a picture was encountered, the parents never pointed out its contents or tried to name them. At nineteen months, when the boy was starting to spontaneously call out names of things he spotted in writing article L’Institut (LISAA) accidental images, “It was evident that some form of parental response to such identification would soon become unavoidable.” In a series of tests the boy was shown line drawings and pictures of dolls, shoes, toy trucks, keys, and other familiar objects. He named them to a high degree of accuracy. Hochberg and Brooks concluded: It seems clear from the results that at least one human child is capable of recognizing pictorial representations of solid objects (including bare outline drawings) without specific training or instruction. This ability necessarily includes a certain amount of what we normally expect to occur in the way of figure-ground separation and contour formation.
At the American School, very least, we must infer that there is an unlearned propensity to how to conclusion Ross respond to certain formal features of for essays American School, lines-on-paper in the same way as one has learned to respond to the same features when displayed by the edges of write essay Monash University, surfaces. Hochberg and Brooks used only still pictures, although their son did once glimpse a horse on TV. Heritage? (He cried, “Dog!”) What about intellectual thinking Institut auf dem Rosenberg, moving images? For several years psychologists tested babies’ abilities to recognize facial expressions in for essays American Heritage School still pictures and movies, with mixed results. 20 Babies’ attention can be captured by external stimuli at an early age, and they start to control their focus and attention in the second month. By the seventh month, they are responding accurately to pictures and writing a travel L’Institut des Arts Appliques (LISAA) moving-image displays. Yet it’s possible that recognition starts much earlier. In ingenious experiments, Lynne Murray and Colwyn Trevarthen set up TV cameras so that nine-week-old babies and their mothers, stationed in prompts for essays American Heritage different rooms, could see each other on monitors. The experimenters wanted to record the interactions between them, as well as to vary the timing of responses through pauses and replays. 21. Murray and Trevarthen’s conclusions about the babies’ ability to synchronize their responses with the mothers’ expressions has touched off considerable debate and further experimentation.
22 That’s not what matters for how to write a good essay Limkokwing, us as students of cinema. What’s relevant for writing for essays Heritage, us is that the babies evidently did, in both real time and in tape delay, recognize the essay writing Margaret's, moving images of their mothers. What was methodology for Murray and Trevarthen is substantive evidence for us. Very young babies could grasp the video image, at prompts for essays American Heritage School, least to some extent, as a representation of the most familiar person in their lives. If babies do need to learn to international writing Queen Margaret's School recognize images, that learning seems to take place very fast.
In fact, we might better speak of elicitation rather than learning: Given normal circumstances of human development, all that’s needed is exposure to real-world persons, places, and things. Recognizing such things in a moving-image display seems to come along for free. This account makes sense in the light of evolution, as others and I have argued elsewhere. 23. Folk psychology: Success stories. There is a lot more to be said and studied about grasping moving images as representations of real-world items, most saliently people, but let me turn now to some matters of narrative that I’ve rethought since NiFF was published. Recognizing the writing American Heritage, contents of realistic images, I’ve suggested, depends heavily upon that University our everyday perceptual abilities. Similarly, filmic storytelling relies upon cognitive dispositions and habits we’ve developed in a real-world context.
That’s not to prompts American say that films capture reality straightforwardly; as we’ll see, there are plenty of dodges and feints. A Good Essay Scholarship Limkokwing University? It’s simply to say that ordinary perception and cognition ground what narrative filmmakers do. American Heritage School? On that foundation quite various, even fantastic, edifices can be built. Central to narrative psychology, I’ve come to write that suspect, is that elusive thing called folk psychology. Prompts For Essays? Folk psychology calls on “common sense”our everyday habits of attributing qualities, beliefs, desires, intentions, and the like to ourselves and to people around us.
There is considerable evidence that many core procedures of common-sense reasoning are cross-cultural universals. 24. Consider “person perception.” We tend to arrive at quick impressions about those around us. At a glance we judge a person’s age, gender, race, and personal attributes (Birkenstocks tell us one thing, bling another). Write That? From their facial expressions, gestures, and voice, we judge their emotional states. Our habits obviously transfer to stories, which present persons, or at least person-like creatures like Daffy Duck. To follow the story we have to assign the characters certain qualities. When introducing a character to Heritage School us, a film narrative simply hijacks our everyday capacities to international writing Queen School build up a quick impression, even (or especially) if that relies on stereotypes. That impression may be confirmed, tested, or repudiated as the story develops, but our quick and dirty habits of person perception provide a point of departure. We also indulge in mind-reading. We attribute beliefs, desires, and intentions to for essays ourselves and to essay Limkokwing University others.
You want a burger; you stop at a burger joint to get one. You act on your desire based on writing prompts School, beliefs about the world, most notably the essay, belief that you can get a burger at that joint. Maybe you did it all without explicit thinking, but in retrospect you create a little story of coherent causes. Writing For Essays American? We interpret others’ actions the same way. If my friend says he wants a burger, and then I see him head for a burger joint, I infer that he’s acting on his beliefs and desires.
Of course that inference can be overridden; later I might find that he went to get a milkshake or to flirt with a waitress. But even revising the article L’Institut Superieur des Arts (LISAA), inference requires the same schema. Prompts For Essays Heritage School? ( Aha, he really wanted a shake, or a date for tonight .) From first to last, stories ask us to apply what Daniel Dennett calls “the intentional stance,” or what many would just call common sense. Intellectual Thinking Institut? 25 At the start of The Big Clock (1947), we see George Stroud slinking along a corridor and for essays American School avoiding a guard. He dodges behind a pillar and lets the guard pass before we hear his voice-over: “Whew! That was close.” George proceeds along a corridor, looking back nervously, as the voice-over continues: “What if I get inside the clock and the watchman’s there?” From George’s disheveled appearance and furtive movements, as well as the stream-of-consciousness commentary, we have no trouble inferring his beliefs (he’s being hunted) and his desire (to take refuge). We’ll accordingly judge his future actions as advancing his intentions to writing Superieur Appliques (LISAA) escape detection, even as his plans and prompts for essays Heritage his backstory will get specified further. The centrality of characters’ goals in classical filmmaking, of writing a travel article Appliques (LISAA), which Kristin and I have made much on this site and in writing prompts American Heritage our research, fits our folk-psychological tendency to write that essay University pick out actions that fulfill desires in the light of characters’ beliefs.
The web of intentions can get very complicatedthink of all the beliefs and desires at play in The Godfather but we’re very good at tracking them because we expect that social situations exhibit what people are planning to achieve. To bring babies back in, it seems that they too can do mind-reading. Writing For Essays American School? One-year-olds attribute goals to to be critical International Center robotic blobs that chirp and Heritage move as if they had intentions. 26. There are enormous philosophical debates around the thinking auf dem Rosenberg, belief-desire component of folk psychology. 27 Is it truly explanatory, or just vacuous? But we don’t have to worry about whether it’s true; what matters is that filmmakers invoke it and film viewers follow their lead. Storytellers are practical psychologists, preying (usually in a good sense) on writing for essays, our habits of mind in order to produce experiences. Still, there are important ways in which folk psychology leads us astray. Film exploits those too.
Folk psychology: The downside. In Everything Is Obvious* (*Once You Know the Answer) , Duncan J. Article Superieur (LISAA)? Watts points out that one problem with classic belief-desire psychology is that it is designed to explain individual behavior in concrete circumstances. Writing For Essays Heritage School? It doesn’t scale up well to writing Superieur Appliques explain large-scale trends. A big event like the recent recession/ depression or the quieting down of violence in Iraq is easy to attribute to decisions taken by Bush or Obama or Petraeus. Prompts American Heritage? In fact, the actual causes of such macro-events are likely to be multiple, complex, and not visible to us. We tend to writing Margaret's School apply person-perception habits to writing for essays American School events that occur on a scale beyond that of individual action. Watts’ book is a contribution to how to write “Wrongology,” the study of our tendencies to overestimate our abilities, make simple logical errors, and act inconsistently. The research area has its roots in the studies of prompts American, heuristics and biases conducted by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky. 28 Rationality, as postulated by philosophers and Monash University economists, seems to be a rare gift. To take a now-classic example:
Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations. Now, which is more likely? Linda is a bank clerk and a feminist. Most people say the latter is more probable, although it can’t be. By adding a second condition to the first, we make the prompts, second statement less likely.
If people reasoned according to formal logic, they would recognize this as a fallacy of conjunction. Clearly social beliefs about fairness are involved, along with some mind-reading on Veronica’s part ( If I offer her too little, she could get vindictive and how to a good conclusion I could lose it all ). Writing Heritage? Such factors have made the players’ behaviors depart from strict economic rationality. Economists and psychologists who recognize such “predictably irrational” pressures have created a discipline called behavioral economics. So folk psychology has its own biases. Essay Queen? Linda is said to for essays American Heritage be a bank teller and a feminist because her profile fits a stereotype of feminists. This is sometimes called the availability heuristic , the tendency to apply the handiest schema to to be critical a situation. For Essays American School? There is as well confirmation bias , the Ross School, habit of prompts for essays, looking only for evidence that supports the idea you’re leaning toward. Once you’ve decided you’d really like an to be Study Center iPad, you’re likely to writing American School overlook all the critical comments on the gadget in reviews. If you believe in how to write essay conclusion School astrology, you’ll tend to writing prompts American School remember the times that your horoscope seemed to predict what happened to you and forget the more numerous times when it failed to do so. Watts points out the how to write a good essay for a Limkokwing University, reconstructive nature of prompts American Heritage School, memory as another biasing effect. We tend to recast our recollection of what happened in light of present circumstances.
One of my favorite biases is the primacy effect , already discussed in a blog entry. Logically, the order in which items on a list are presented should not affect how we think of them, but it does. Take Hong Kong supermogul Leonard Ho’s three daughters. Which of essay for a, their names doesn’t belong with the other two? Obviously, it’s Pansy that’s out of step, since she doesn’t rhyme with her sisters. But present them in reverse order: and the outlier is writing for essays School, Maisy, who isn’t named after a flower.
The first item in a series tends to serve as a benchmark against which we measure the ones that follow. Intellectual Institut Auf Dem Rosenberg? I’ve always felt sorry that a brilliant writer like Donald Westlake inevitably sits low and American Heritage distant on paperback racks while hacks like Jeffrey Archer benefit from the scholarship University, primacy effect. Again and again, narratives manipulate our psychological biases. For instance, once you’ve decided that George Stroud in The Big Clock is fleeing someone, everything he does tends to confirm that. The filmmakers exploit confirmation bias. Writing Prompts For Essays? Likewise, the to be International Study Center, syuzhet layout relies on the primacy effect. American School? The film starts at to be critical Holland International Study, a point of crisis, with George fleeing his boss’s goons. The narration then flashes back to the beginning of the action, when George tried to escape from Janoth’s overweening control by taking a long-promised vacation with his family.
The prologue warns us to watch for anything that will push Stroud into danger, and we quickly expect that he will not go on the vacation. Had the film begun with the for essays Heritage, more prosaic events that come earliest in the fabula , we would not have been on the alert for Stroud’s plunge into a critical situation. The prologue also signals the importance of the clock as a sinister force and thinking Institut auf dem time as a motif through the film. Alternatively, narratives can upset our biases, as when we’re forced to reevaluate a character about whom we formed firm initial impressions. We’re obliged to do this with Danny Ciello in the closing moments of for essays American School, Prince of the essay writing competition Margaret's, City . Here the film lures us with the primacy effect and the availability heuristic (Catholic cop plagued by guilt decides to go straight).
Confirmation bias keeps our sympathy with him across the film; everything supports him as righteous victim. But at the end a question emerges: might Danny be more corrupt than we had thought? Meier Sternberg describes this as the “rise and fall of first impressions,” and it often depends on the power of the primacy effect. 29 At the limit, a narrative film can try to avoid setting up any clear-cut first impressions, as happens in writing for essays American Heritage School “art films” like In the City of Sylvia . Write A Good Essay Ross School? 30. Sometimes one aspect of folk psychology can rescue another. For instance, Watts points out that the Ultimatum Game doesn’t work the prompts for essays School, same way in all societies. Essay Writing Competition Queen Margaret's? In experiments with the Machiguenga tribe of Peru, the moneyed partner tended to offer only about a quarter of the total, and nearly all offers were accepted. Prompts American Heritage School? Both parties were being more “rational” by the economists’ standards. But now belief-desire psychology kicks in. International Essay Writing Competition? In Machiguenga society, the primary bonds are with the immediate family, and strangers are of lower status.
So the moneyed partner felt little obligation to make a fair split, and the recipient was happy with whatever was offered. Once we know this, the Machiguenga strategy makes sense. 31 A similar sort of thing happens in fantasy and science-fiction films. Once we learn the unique laws and etiquette of Hogwarts or the Matrix, then familiar belief-desire-intention patterns can lock in. Folk psychology takes us beyond the purely perceptual level I started with; it carries us into the realm of social intelligence. Mind-reading requires us to detect, sometimes on very faint cues, what people are expressing or signaling through their behavior.
Elsewhere I’ve talked about this in cases involving eye behaviorblinking and eyebrows, in particular. But there’s much more to be done with the ways in which cinema mobilizes our social intelligence in order to writing for essays American Heritage School track a narrative. Sometimes the narrative eases our task by making things redundant and intellectual Institut clear; sometimes the for essays Heritage, film throws up problems, making it hard to understand characters’ intentions or reactions, as in the enigmatic veteran played by Henry Fonda in Daisy Kenyon . I found the concept of social intelligence especially useful in explaining a form of write essay for a Limkokwing, cinematic storytelling that has become prominent since the 1990s, what I called the network narrative. Prompts Heritage? These “degrees of separation” tales rely on our socially cultivated ability to track how people are connected to others by proximity, kinship, or acquaintance, and how their different states of knowledge create dramatic tension. 32 We might as well call it the to be critical International Study, soap-opera effect. Again, however, such films are likely to prompts for essays American streamline the vast complexity of real-world social networks: the networks in movies like Love, Actually and Sunshine State tend to be simple and redundantly stated.
More elliptically narrated films like Edward Yang Dechan’s Terrorizers and Benedek Fliegauf’s Forest may require more careful sorting and later rethinking of character connections. Another aspect of folk psychology, crucial to narrative but neglected in NiFF , merits more study: emotional response. In particular, some psychologists point to the infectiousness of emotion. Babies share smiles with us, perhaps partly as an evolutionary strategy to make us want to nurture them. To Be Holland International Study? (Even blind newborns smile, so it can’t be something learned from watching others.) Some researchers argue that our capacities for empathy depend on “mirror” cells tuned to respond to others’ movements and emotion and allow us to register some degree of mimicry. 33 Macaque monkeys’ mirror neurons fire not only for essays Heritage School, when they watch a mate grasping a cup but also when they watch a film of writing article L’Institut Superieur, a mate doing it. (More evidence that film images require no special code-learning.) V. Writing For Essays Heritage School? S. Ramachandran suggests that mirror neurons could explain the fact that a mother sticking out a travel article Appliques (LISAA) her tongue provokes her newborn baby to writing for essays Heritage School do the same, a presumably innate response. 34 If assumptions about mirror neurons in humans turn out to competition Queen School be well-founded, we may find that cinema, with its ability to capture gesture and the flickers of facial expressions, is an ideal medium for triggering involuntary reactions (kinesthetic, emotional), which can in turn can be recruited for narrative purposes. Uncommon sources of common sense. Someone might suggest that this general line of thinking leads to observations that are quite superficial. What viewer doesn’t see that George Stroud in The Big Clock is writing prompts Heritage School, trying to avoid the guards? I’d reply that once we move beyond the moment to look at intellectual Institut auf dem Rosenberg, strategies of patterning at different scales, we find things aren’t so obvious; that was the primary task of NiFF . But I grant that our point of departure will seem very commonsensical. In fact, NiFF and other things I’ve written have been charged with committing “common-sense film theory.”
In one way that’s true. The humanities have in general suffered from straining for the most far-fetched accounts of how art, literature, and music work. For Essays American Heritage? In the literary humanities in particular, ingenious interpretations often relying on free-association, wordplay, and talking points lifted from favored penseurs get more notice than plausible explanations do. In various places I’ve argued for naturalistic and essay Queen Margaret's empirical explanations as the best option we have in answering middle-range questions, and even bigger ones like “How do we comprehend movies?” Sometimes our answers will not be counterintuitive. To say that looking at images recruits our skills of looking at the world will not surprise many people; but it is likely to be true. What’s likely to be counterintuitive are the discoveries of mechanisms that undergird perception. Writing Prompts Heritage School? Would common sense predict that an Holland International Center object’s form, color, movement, and spatial location are analyzed along distinct pathways in the visual system? Personally I find this idea more exciting than postmodernist puns and term-juggling. 35.
More important, we can embrace common sense at a meta-level. Recognizing that it is in play in narrative comprehension makes it something we need to for essays Heritage analyze. We can understand filmic understanding better if we recognize what’s intuitively obvious, and then go on to ask what in to be critical Center the film, and in our psychological and social make-up, makes something obvious. American Heritage School? And those factors may not be obvious in themselves. In other words, we may need a better understanding of how common sense works, and how films play off it and play with it. That understanding may in turn oblige us to accept empirical experiment, evolutionary thinking, and that Monash neurological researchall of which most literary humanists find worrisome. So worrisome, in fact, that many don’t recognize naturalistic explanations as being theoretical at all. For them, the only theories that exist are Big Theories, and so efforts like the one I just mentioned are condemned as expressing a disdain for or suspicion of theorizing tout court . But that objection, feeble to writing prompts American start with, was blocked back in 1996 by the opening sentences Noël Carroll and I wrote in our Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies : Our title risks misleading you.
Is this book about the end of film theory? No. It’s about the end of Theory, and international essay Margaret's what can and should come after. 36. That introduction and many of the pieces included in the volume float arguments for writing prompts for essays American School, theorizing as an activity that asks researchable questions and comes up with more or less plausible answerssome commonsensical, some not, and some probing what counts as common sense. Ironically, just as filmic interpretation is amenable to task analysis from a cognitive standpoint, a surprising amount of Grand Theory seems to thinking Rosenberg me to rely on writing prompts for essays School, the sort of folk-psychological schemas and shortcuts that we find in ordinary life.
But that’s a whole other essay. 1 : The most influential, and still informative, account of one such code was Christian Metz’s Grand Syntagmatique of writing L’Institut Superieur (LISAA), narrative cinema. Writing Heritage? See Metz, “Problems of Denotation in the Fiction Film,” in how to write essay scholarship Film Language: A Semiotics of the Cinema , trans. Michael Taylor (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), 108146. Metz’s more general consideration of cinematic codes is to be found in his Language and American Cinema , trans. Intellectual Auf Dem Rosenberg? Donna Jean Umiker-Sebeok (The Hague: Mouton, 1974).
2 : Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (New York: Anchor, 1967). 3 : On this Golden Oldie of humanities lore, see Geoffrey Pullum, The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax and Other Irreverent Essays on the Study of Language (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 159175. 4 : See Howard Gardner, The Mind’s New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution (New York: Basic Books, 1985). 5 : The phrase appears in Jerry Fodor’s milestone 1983 book The Modularity of Mind (Cambridge: MIT Press), 6486. 6 : The phrase became something of a slogan for the New Look school.
See Jerome S. Bruner, Beyond the Information Given: Studies in the Psychology of Knowing , ed. Jeremy M. Anglin (New York: Norton, 1973). 7 : J. J. Gibson, Perception of the Visual World (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1974 [orig. 1950]; J. J. Gibson, The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966). 8 : On the Ames Room, see William H. Ittelson, The Ames Demonstrations in writing prompts American School Perception, together with An Interpretive Manual by a good essay for a scholarship Limkokwing University Adelbert Ames, Jr. Writing Prompts? (NewYork: Hafner, 1968). Go here for many videos employing the principles of the Ames Room. Thinking Institut Auf Dem? Interestingly, many of the voice-over commentators on these videos assume that prior knowledge, expectations, and writing for essays School other cognitive factors influence perception, indicating that New Look psychology remains a dominant paradigm for perceptual researchers. 9 : Gibson made his arguments about movies in The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979), 292302.
See Joseph D. Anderson, The Reality of auf dem Rosenberg, Illusion: An Ecological Approach to Cognitive Film Theory (Carbondale: University of prompts for essays School, Southern Illinois Press, 1996) and the articles collected in Moving Image Theory: Ecological Coniderations , ed. Joseph D. Anderson and Barbara Fisher Anderson (Carbondale: University of Southern Illinois Press, 2005). International Essay School? Had I been more alert, I would also have had to consider arguments in John M. Writing Prompts? Kennedy’s A Psychology of Picture Perception (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974). 10 : Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks, “Movies in the Mind’s Eye,” in In the Mind’s Eye: Julian Hochberg on the Perception of Pictures, Films, and the World , ed. Mary A. Institut Auf Dem? Peterson, Barbara Gillam, and H. A. Sedgwick, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 387395. 11 : See my “Cognition and for essays American School Comprehension: Viewing and Forgetting in how to a good scholarship Limkokwing Mildred Pierce ,” Poetics of Cinema (New York: Routledge, 2008), 135150. The chart in for essays American School the essay was printed inaccurately; an accurate one is at http://www.davidbordwell.net/books/poetics.php.
12 : See The Way Hollywood Tells It: Story and Style in Modern Movies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 6371. 13 : Major examples include Ed Tan, Emotion and to be International Center the Structure of Narrative Film: Film as an American Heritage Emotion Machine (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1996); Torben Grodal, Moving Pictures: A New Theory of essay competition Margaret's, Genres, Feelings, and Cognition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), Carl Plantinga and Greg M. Smith, eds., Passionate Views: Film, Cognition, and Emotion (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), Greg M. Smith, Film Structure and writing School the Emotion System (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), and Carl Plantinga, Moving Viewers: American Film and the Spectator’s Experience (Berkeley: University of to be critical Holland Center, California Press, 2009). 14 : In another book, I tried to show how theory-driven interpretations, like interpretations that weren’t theory-driven, were amenable to cognitive and rhetorical analysis. See Making Meaning: Inference and Rhetoric in the Interpretation of Cinema (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989). 15 : See my blog entry, “Now you see it, now you can’t” for more discussion of these trends. 16 : See William Hudson, “Pictorial Depth perception in Subcultural Groups in Africa,” Journal of Social Psychology 52 (1960), 183208, and prompts for essays American “The Study of the Problem of Pictorial Perception among Unacculturated Groups,” International Journal of a good essay Ross, Psychology 2 (1967), 89107. 17 : See Stephan Schwan and Sermin Ildirar, “Watching Film for the First Time: How Adult Viewers Interpret Perceptual Discontinuities,” Psychological Science 21 (2010): 970976.
Online access is at http://pss.sagepub.com/content/21/7/970.abstract. 18 : Paul Messaris, Visual Literacy: Image, Mind, and Reality (Boulder: Westview, 1994), 165. 19 : Julian Hochberg and writing prompts for essays Heritage Virginia Brooks, “Pictorial Recognition as an that essay Monash Unlearned Activity: A Study of American, One Child’s Performance,” in In the Mind’s Eye , 64. 20 : For a review of Monash University, early experiments, see Charles A. Nelson, “The Perception and Recognition of Facial Expressions in Infancy,” in Social Perception in Infants , ed. Tiffany M. Field and Nathan A. Writing For Essays American? Fox (Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1985), 101125. Later experiments in infant cognition are considered in the light of “folk” theories of mind, physics, and a travel article Superieur des Arts the like, in Steven Pinker, How the American, Mind Works (New York: Norton, 1997), Chapter 5. 21 : Lynne Murray and Colwyn Trevarthen, “Emotional Regulation of Interactions between Two-month-olds and Their Mothers,” in Social Perception in Infants , ed. Field and Fox, 177197. Ellen Dissayanake has proposed a fascinating theory of the origins of art based in writing L’Institut mother-child interactions; see Art and Intimacy: How the writing prompts Heritage, Arts Began (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000). 22 : See, for example, Phillipe Rochat, Ulric Neisser, and Viorica Marlan, “Are Young Infants Sensitive to Interpersonal Contingency?” Infant Behavior and Development 21, 2 (1998): 355366. 23 : See Anderson, Reality of Illusion , Chapters 35; see my “Convention, Construction, and Cinematic Vision,” in Poetics of Cinema , 5782.
24 : See for a summary Donald E. Brown, Human Universals (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991), 130140. 25 : Daniel C. Writing Article L’Institut Superieur Appliques? Dennett, The Intentional Stance (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987). 26 : Alison Gopnik, The Philosophical Baby: What Children’s Minds Tell Us about Truth, Love, and the Meaning of Life (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009), 98. 27 : To get the flavor of some of the debates, see Barry Loewer and Georges Rey, ed., Meaning in Mind: Fodor and His Critics (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1991), especially Daniel C. Dennett, “Granny’s Campaign for writing School, Safe Science,” 8794 and Fodor’s reply: “The enormous practical success of belief/desire psychology makes a prima facie case for its approximate truth” (277). By the way, I should make it clear that I use “intentions” in L’Institut Superieur des Arts Appliques this paper in a nontechnical sense, not in writing Heritage the philosophical sense, as in Fodor’s references to “intentional states.” 28 : See Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic, and Amos Tversky, eds., Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982). 29 Meir Sternberg, Expositional Modes and Temporal Ordering in Fiction (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978), 99102.
More generally, a great deal of Narration in the Fiction Film , including its focus on curiosity, suspense, and surprise, is for a scholarship Limkokwing University, indebted to Sternberg’s book, a trailblazing work of modern narratology. 30 : I discuss Prince of the City ’s narrational tactics a little bit here and a crucial sequence of In the Heritage, City of Sylvia , at greater length, here. 31 : Duncan J. Watts, Everything Is Obvious* (*Once You Know the Answer): How Common Sense Fails Us (New York: Crown, 2011), 1213. 32 : “Mutual Friends and Chronologies of Chance,” in Poetics of Cinema , 189250. 33 : See Giacomo Rizzolatti and Corrado Sinigaglia, Mirrors in write for a scholarship the BrainHow Our Minds Share Actions and prompts for essays American School Emotions , trans. Frances Anderson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008) and Marco Iacoboni, Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others (New York: Farrar, Straus and write that Monash Giroux, 2008) 34 : V. Prompts For Essays? S. Write That Essay University? Ramachandran, The Tell-Tale Brain: A Neuroscientist’s Quest for What Makes Us Human (New York: Norton, 2011), 121128. 35 : See Margaret Livingston and David Hubel, “Segregation of Form, Color, Movement, and Depth: Anatomy, Physiology, and Perception,” Science 240 no 4853 (6 May 1988): 740749. Available at writing prompts American School, http://www.sciencemag.org/content/240/4853/740.abstract. 36 : “Introduction,” Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies , ed.
David Bordwell and how to essay for a University Noël Carroll (Madison: University of writing prompts for essays, Wisconsin Press, 1996), xiii. More generally, much of what I’ve said in this online essay was said more pointedly in Carroll’s pioneering 1985 article, “The Power of that, Movies.” See Carroll, Theorizing the Moving Image (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 7893. have comments about the state of writing American Heritage School, this website? go here.
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Instead, attach them at the top of the page containing your extensive job history. You have 2 primary goals for your curriculum vitae: Make it easy to read and International Center make every word count. In order to prompts American School, accomplish this, you need to use a font of at write for a Limkokwing, least 10-12 and make each section of writing prompts for essays American your document stand out from the next by staggering blocks of information that take up different levels of horizontal space. For example, you may place your name, physical address, phone number, and email address at the top in the center. For contrast, you would place a sentence outlining your objective; perhaps something like: To obtain consistent and long term employment with a company in which my skills and write essay talents will be utilized and appreciated. Because that sentence will take the writing, entire width of the how to a good, page, your next sections should be small and centered. This would be a great place to list your skills. American. If you place your employment in the next section, that would be a great contrast to your skills. Make a table with 2 columns and a few rows (just enough for your most relevant jobs).
Add your title, previous employers, and their contact information in the left column and your job duties on the right. Finally, underneath your employment history, enter your education information centered on the page. Employers may or may not be interested in speaking with your personal references. If there is any reason why your prospective employers shouldn’t speak with your previous supervisors, try to avoid putting their contact information on your Curriculum Vitae. Otherwise, there should be plenty of professional references in Holland Study, your format for them to writing prompts for essays Heritage, review. You can post a sentence on the bottom of your Curriculum Vitae either inviting your potential employer to how to a good for a Limkokwing, call contacts from your employment history and/or letting him/her know that you have a list of personal references available if requested.
If you have room on the page after leaving plenty of writing prompts for essays American School space in Institut, between each section, increase the font size of your name. If you have adequate or advanced linguistic skills, consider writing a short cover letter (3-5 small to moderate paragraphs) introducing yourself and outlining your skills, dedication, ambition, work ethic, and writing American Heritage any other relevant piece of information that increases your appeal to an employer but may not have a proper place on your Curriculum Vitae. Cover letters are easy to disregard if an employer isn’t interested, and they can help to set you aside from other applicants if there is an interest in learning more about you by reading your cover letter. You can either use the outline provided in this article or you can create your own curriculum vitae outline containing your name, contact information, and the basic sections you will need to fill out per application. Save the outline and consistent information in a master file, and once you’ve finished preparing a Curriculum Vitae for a job, choose ‘Save as’ and create a specific name for it. To find your Curriculum Vitae more quickly and international writing competition Queen Margaret's School conveniently, consider using the prompts for essays, same name and changing only the last word.
For example, you may save your resume as ‘MyResumeCompany.doc’. Replace the word ‘Company’ with each different place to which you submit your curriculum. How to Write a Great Cover Letter. Landing a job is undoubtedly difficult in today’s economy. Writing a great cover letter is probably the most important step you can towards landing the job of their dreams. Why is International Center writing a cover letter so important? It is the first thing a potential employer sees, and it will dictate whether or not the employer even looks at your resume. Even the most polished, professional resume doesn’t stand a chance against a poorly written cover letter. How do you write a cover letter that not only writing prompts American a potential employer to read your resume, but also gets you invited for international Margaret's School, an interview?
Writing a winning cover letter is prompts Heritage not difficult if you follow a few simple steps: Just like an employer won’t look at a resume that’s attached to a poorly written cover letter, the employer won’t even bother to read the cover letter if it’s a messy jumble of text. To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to use plenty of writing competition Queen Margaret's white space. You should have, at for essays American Heritage, a minimum, one inch margins and double spaces between paragraphs. How To Write For A Scholarship University. Follow the guidelines for for essays American School, writing a basic business letter and be sure to include a simple, text-only letterhead. Your letterhead should be the same letterhead that appears on your resume. This is your one and only chance to name drop, so take advantage of it. Potential employers want to know how you heard about the position. You should also identify the specific position that you are seeking, and state that you are applying for this position.
Yes, it’s obvious, but cover letters follow a long-established pattern, and this isn’t the time to be a rebel. Finally, set the tone for to be, the rest of the letter, and briefly state what you will be discussing.. If you have more than a few years of experience in writing American Heritage, the field to which you are applying, your professional experience should be presented before your educational experience. First, write a topic sentence that presents one unified idea. How To A Good Conclusion Ross. If you’ve held several jobs in this career, find the one aspect that these jobs have in common that will most impress your potential employer. You also need to link this paragraph to your educational experience. Similar to your employment paragraph, you need to develop one unified idea rather than simply presenting a list of all the schools you’ve attended and writing prompts for essays American Heritage School courses you’ve taken. Determine which aspect of your education is most important to the position you’re applying for and present it here. A fourth and even fifth paragraph may be added if you need to how to a good essay for a, present additional relevant information. Just remember to develop one idea per paragraph, and to prompts for essays Heritage, keep the entire letter under one page.
This is thinking auf dem Rosenberg your opportunity to tie everything together, leading the reader to invite you to an interview. Writing Prompts American Heritage. You need to reference your resume and a travel article Superieur des Arts any other included attachments. In addition, you need to politely, yet confidently state that you wish to be invited to an interview. Writing Prompts For Essays American School. Finally, state the easiest way for the employer to reach you, referring to the phone number and e-mail address in your letterhead. For important documents like cover letters, you need to go beyond your computer’s spell check and grammar check.
Place the cover letter aside for a few hours, or overnight if possible, and look at it with fresh eyes. You might find errors that you didn’t see previously. How To A Good Conclusion Ross School. As a final step, ask someone, who you trust will do a decent job, to proofread your cover letter. Now, you have a well-written cover letter that will hopefully lead a potential employer to read your resume and for essays American School ultimately invite you to how to School, an interview. The rest is up to you!
How to prepare for a winning job interview. In a competitive market for available jobs, potential candidates should put in School, the necessary time and writing a travel article L’Institut Superieur Appliques effort to make a solid impact. Prompts Heritage School. You must simply accept that it’s a buyer’s market, the buyer, in to be critical Holland, this case is the organization. Your first job as the seller is to sell yourself. You need to stand out from the other candidates like a house with a shiny red door in prompts American Heritage, a cookie-cutter neighborhood. Assume your resume and writing a travel Appliques cover letter is in for essays Heritage, a pile on a desk with plenty of others, therefore you must find a way to rise to the top. You need to put yourself in a stronger position, instead of you trying to chasing the job, make them convince you to take it. Your mindset dictates the demeanor you portray.
If you seem too desperate, you don’t make it to the next step, however, too arrogant and doors will close. You have to put yourself in the shoes of the interviewer and determine your moves every step of the way. Spend about five hours preparing for each hour of interview, you want to investigate how you can deliver value to how to write a good essay Ross School, the organization. By researching and probing how you can make an impact in the position, you are going beyond the School, canned responses of most candidates. Your resume should announce that you are qualified for the position. After the for a scholarship, interview, you want to leave the impression that you can start the prompts for essays School, job tomorrow. You want to write a good essay for a Limkokwing, contact somebody who does the same job at the organization or similar enterprise and ask several questions.
It’s a must that you discover the current challenges for writing American Heritage, the position within the organization and the industry as a whole. The next step is succeed where so many candidates fall short, you want to show initiative by suggesting ideas for the position. Hiring managers have so many job functions to perform, by proving that you not only did research concerning the position, but proposed suggestions, you show tremendous potential. You would be surprised how those that have been performing the critical Study Center, job for years have not expressed such aptitude. Be prepared to go beyond lip service, you want to demonstrate the writing American, homework you have done. Reaching out to a current employee performing the same job function puts you over Institut auf dem the top.
Don’t be shy or feel like you are intruding. Many employees have innovative ideas about how to perform their jobs better, tap into that information for free and prompts for essays then add your own spin. Use the power of imagination to write Monash, stand out from the crowd, everybody else is going to be following the same job interview tips that get recycled over the web. If you want to make a lasting impression, you must put in for essays American School, the sweat and effort. Find someone who you can practice with until it comes out Holland International Study Center, natural. Writing American School. Landing an offer in a tough economy requires considerable effort. If you can demonstrate you can make an impact in your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster curriculum-vitae.in.
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