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MNCs: IHRM Policies and their Impact. Need essay sample on MNCs: IHRM Policies and their Impact ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for how to write a contract law essay Marianapolis Preparatory School only $12.90/page. The increasing presence of , multinational companies in countries other than their principal home country is becoming the standard in international business. Multinational companies (MNCs) extend their global reach by setting up foreign based locations or headquarters usually managed by expatriate executive staff from the how to write articles College, home country (HC). The transplanting of expatriate staff to fulfil the MNCs foreign corporate agenda has created many issues for International Human Resource Management (IHRM). Write A Contract Law Essay Preparatory. Numerous questions, difficulties, and the ability to understand how the corporate objective may or may not mesh with the cultural, political, social, privacy norms, laws and fabric of the MacDuffie, host country have become challenges that IHRM must overcome. The increasing presence of a contract law essay Preparatory, multinational companies in countries other than their principal home country is becoming the standard in international business. Multinational companies (MNCs) extend their global reach by setting up foreign based locations or headquarters usually managed by expatriate executive staff from the home country (HC). . The transplanting of expatriate staff to fulfil the MNCs foreign corporate agenda has created many issues for how to write a contract Marianapolis School International Human Resource Management (IHRM). Essay Ellesmere College. Numerous questions, difficulties, and the ability to understand how the corporate objective may or may not mesh with the cultural, political, social, privacy norms, laws and fabric of the how to write a contract law essay Preparatory, host country have become challenges that IHRM must overcome.

The world has become more competitive, dynamic, uncertain, and volatile than ever before (Kanter, 1991). Many firms have to compete internationally because the costs associated with the development and marketing of new products are too great to be amortized only over one market, even a large one such as the USA or Europe (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1991). Writing Essay Ellesmere College. Yet there are some products and services that demand accommodation to location customs, tastes, habits, and regulations. Thus, for many MNCs the likelihood of operating in diverse environments has never been greater. While these scenarios suggest paths that MNCs have taken to being internationally competitive, they are being superseded by the need to manage globally, as if the how to Marianapolis Preparatory School, world were one vast market, and simultaneously manage locally, as if the world were a vast number of separate and loosely connected markets (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1991). The trend is creating a great deal of challenge and opportunity in understanding and conceptualizing exactly how MNCs can compete effectively. Knowledge of conditions in a variety of countries and knowledge of how to manage both within and across them is the essence of international HRM. The complexity of operating in global essay King’s Ely different countries and employing different national categories of workers is a key variable (Dowling, Welch and Schuler, 1999). MNCs are rich in resources.

Aside from the typical monetary leverage, MNCs have large research departments and human capital assets at their disposal. How To Law Essay Marianapolis Preparatory School. This is a great benefit to MNCs because they can utilize the already available asset with no auxiliary cost. However, do MNCs really and fully utilize their own resources to uc a-g courses Blue Hotel, aid them in understanding their interaction when conducting business in a foreign country? MNCs consistently underestimate the issues and whether their company is welcome in the host country. However, this lack of understanding is slowly changing due to the economic impact of not understanding how the MNC conducts its business. Implementing Cross-Cultural Policy. In Japan, for instance, it can be hard to fire someone. As a result it can be hard to hire other Japanese when they see this implied agreement broken.

Many countries have very pro-employee laws. Termination may mean very high monetary compensation, and some of these laws apply to expatriates as well. Another example would be recruiting in India. How To Write Law Essay Preparatory. This may involve caste systems such as the Hindu Caste System, although constitutionally banned, exists as institutional racism (please see Appendix A for further explanation). The process of recruitment would involve a detailed labour market analysis that includes research on workforce demographics, unemployment rates, wage levels and information about other competitors who have encountered the same issues and what their solutions have been. It’s important for HR staff to upgrade any weak areas such as negotiation skills, then quickly acquire specific knowledge about the country or region and about the laws and political system that governs that area. One such important example of understanding the presence of the multinational in MacDuffie School a host country is presented by the case of GE. GE purchased a majority interest in Tungsram, a manufacturer of lighting products in Hungary.

Tungsram was attracted to GE because of its low wage rates and the possibility of using the company to export its. products to write a contract Marianapolis Preparatory School, Western Europe. GE transferred some of its best managerial talent to Tungsram. However, GE ran into many problems. The Hungrarians expected higher Western-style wages, not low wages. Americans wanted strong sales and write yourself College marketing functions that would service customers, while the Hungarians believed these would take care of themselves.

The American managers found the how to write a contract Marianapolis Preparatory School, workers to lack in motivation. The Hungarian employees believed that the American managers were pushy. To turn the plant around, GE had to Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, invest an additional $400 million in new plant and equipment and in retraining employees. GE also had to lay off half of the work force (Noe, Hollebeck, Gerhart and Wright, 2000, (found in Duane, 2001 p. 2)). The GE example illustrates the importance of write a contract Marianapolis Preparatory, understanding its role, presence, expectations and demands that a MNC might encounter. This expatriate approach is instituted because parent company executives believe that they will be unable to find qualified senior management and professional employees in the host country. It is also believed that staffing key jobs with parent nationals will advance corporate culture (Perkins, Shortland, 2006 pp. 145-158).

(Perkins, Shortland pp. 145-158) also states that Japanese prefer to have their MNCs be headed by managers who have had previous exposure to the corporate culture and environment. How To Write Essay Lake College. Further American company Procter and law essay Gamble followed and emulated the same procedure requiring a manager to work in the United States first before being transferred back to their home country in order to preserve corporate culture. Channels of Influence. The primary channel of critical, influence that the how to write a contract law essay Marianapolis, MNC has to negotiate with is the subsidiary’s government. Which government does not wish its citizens to be employed and to politically reap the benefits of having a MNC build and contribute to their economy?

Another powerful influence besides the government is utilising local prominent and successful businesses to how to a contract Marianapolis Preparatory, leverage the partnership and goodwill of all business entities. The MNC is also able to draw upon existing knowledge of its partners and are able to article Rotterdam, better understand and overcome any differences in culture, policy and how to a contract Marianapolis Preparatory School way of how to articles College School, achieving its business objectives. These partnerships, whether through political or existing business alliances, allow the MNC to rapidly deploy and cut-through otherwise entrenched bureaucracy and foster a successful beneficial partnership (Rosenzweig, Nohria 1994). Within these channels of influence are specific policy and how to write a contract law essay Marianapolis systems safeguarding many employees personal and private data. Critical Mind. In fact, the European Union Commission (EUC) is very stringent in the enforcement of how to write a contract Preparatory, employee privacy. This may prove rather engaging to the MNC and provide the IHRM with additional duties.

Recent guidance from the EUC has summed up the view that simply obtaining the employees’ consent to the transfer of their HR data is unlikely to uc a-g Blue International Hotel School, provide an adequate long-term solution for companies engaged in repeated or structural transfers. How To Write Law Essay Marianapolis School. This is a precarious position because many MNCs wish to export data (in the writing Ely, form of a database) and this issue arises with a centralised HR database scheme. (http://www.workforce.com/archive/feature/24/36/92/index.php). Many international companies wishing to transfer HR data from their European subsidiaries to the United States have found their plans restricted by EUC data protection rules. In broad terms, the how to write Marianapolis School, EUC authorities do not regard the United States as having sufficiently tight data protection rules in write good in english place to make it a safe destination for such data in the absence of write a contract Marianapolis, additional safeguards. This is becoming an increasingly pressing issue, given the wish of many multinationals to writing the persuasive Ellesmere, put in place centralised HR databases, often located in, or accessed from, the a contract law essay Marianapolis School, United States. In order to write essay about yourself Rosseau College, provide their MNCs with guidance, The United States has created the Safe Harbour Programme operated by the US Department of Commerce. A Contract Law Essay Preparatory. However, the Safe Harbour programme is voluntary. MNCs have to voluntarily assign themselves to follow the programme. Critical. Safe Harbour requires the US parent to certify to the US government that it will conform to a contract, certain EU data protection norms reflected in critical mind School Safe Harbour principles.

The process is relatively straightforward, but many companies incorrectly assume that registration is the Marianapolis Preparatory, final step in the process. A Scholarship Rosseau. Companies still need to make sure that their processing within the EU is in compliance with local data protection rules, which vary from country to country (Clinton-Davis, Harrop, Burr, Hurewitz, Medine, 2006). The Safe Harbour registration facilitates the data transfer however additional data regulations may still apply. These may include requirements to how to write a contract Marianapolis School, notify data protection authorities in writing individual EU Member States, or to adopt specific or group-wide data protection policies or confidentiality agreements. Further, employees must be given a data privacy notice that explains the nature of the data being transferred to the United States and the purpose of the transfer. Safe Harbour is applicable only to data transfers from an EU Member State to the United States. Alternative compliance mechanisms must be used for transfers to how to write, corporate data processing centres in other countries (Clinton-Davis et al, 2006). Not having proper procedure can be detrimental to the MNC.

Spain has a reputation as the most aggressive country when it comes to fining companies over data privacy violations (Dowling, 1999). However, European governments also tend to how to a feature article Business, negotiate with firms to facilitate an understanding of the write a contract Marianapolis Preparatory, law, rather than immediately prosecuting or fining the MNC. Expatriates as a Channel of Influence. One of the ways of doing business in the international marketplace is formalize and how to for english Rotterdam develop co-operation among expatriates, third-country nationals (TCNs), and domestic workers. To attain the company’s objectives in a cost-effective manner, management must develop a global mobility strategy through an how to write a contract law essay expatriate policy that searches for and implements best practices (Harris, 2002). Expatriate policy provides the framework for which senior management will deploy their company’s approach to expatriation.

Some factors that attribute to the success or failure of expatriation are: appointment of competent leaders, providing competitive compensation, establishing an appropriate environment that fosters learning, and how to article selecting the how to write a contract law essay Marianapolis Preparatory School, right domestic workers who can learn and more importantly want to learn the policies and procedures of the MNC (Harris, 2002). TCNs and domestic workers look at the treatment of the expatriate. Uc A-g Courses Mountains International Management School. Particularly they look at how much compensation the expatriate receives especially if that expatriate performs the same business function. Also included is the write a contract School, development of the ability to evaluate national compensation and benefit plans, human resource policies from other business cultural/legal systems, the benefits and liabilities of different national labour-management relations decision making systems, management assumptions regarding business motivational systems for employees in uc a-g courses Blue Mountains International Hotel Management other cultures and key factors and Marianapolis Preparatory priorities in planning management training programs for international managers (Harris, 2002). International human resource managers play a key role in a scholarship essay Rosseau Lake College determining appropriate plans and strategies for such pay packages.

When designing these plans to ensure successful international transfers, IHR managers need to keep two ingredients in mind: cost containment and a link between expatriation strategies and how to write a contract Preparatory the company’s global business and financial goals. Write A Scholarship Essay Rosseau Lake. IHR should consider these factors in every aspect of the how to a contract law essay Marianapolis Preparatory, organization’s expatriate policies. Alternatively, many companies send employees overseas for the wrong reasons and at unnecessary cost. For example, some organizations reward mediocre employees with international assignments rather than have another individual fill a business need elsewhere, using his or her particular skills and write a scholarship Rosseau expertise. In these situations, IHR is responsible for challenging operational managers to confirm whether the assignment is geared to achieve the unit’s business and financial objectives.

In some cases where an employee presence is legitimately needed, the company might instead hire a domestic employee rather than pay the high cost of sending an how to expatriate and their family abroad. One of the ways of doing business in the modern international marketplace is to have an optimal synergy among expatriates, third-country nationals (TCNs), and good School local nationals. To attain the company’s objectives in a cost-effective manner, management must develop a global mobility strategy through an expatriate policy that, in how to School turn, searches for how to write articles in english Trinity College and implements best practices and benchmark studies (Harzing, 1996). From the perspective of the international manager who will have responsibility for significant numbers of employees to understand the emerging role and contribution of the IHRM function to the international business organization strategy including: the orientation of the how to a contract law essay School, function to contribute to sustaining and improving the competitive advantage of the business organization, the impact of different business cultures on warming, job performance outside our home culture, the critical success and failure factors in long term overseas job assignments and how to write a contract law essay Marianapolis the fundamental differences in comparative human resource systems (Harzing, 1996). The objective of an expatriate policy is to create a comprehensive benefit and pay package that will attract employees to a foreign-country assignment.

The policy should maintain a balance between the package offered to transferees coming from various business units of the same or different countries and that offered to local employees in the country of assignment. Once senior management has established the policy’s objectives, it then becomes easier to restructure and satisfy business needs necessary for working in the global marketplace (Shuler, 2000). Multinationals are quickly moving to uc a-g courses Blue Mountains School, global compensation systems for their top employees. Fifty-six percent of multinational corporations plan to shift to a more centralized compensation structure during the next two years, up from 42 percent in 2004, according to a 2006 survey of 275 companies by Watson Wyatt Worldwide (Hansen, 2006). http://www.workforce.com/archive/feature/24/57/31/245736.php?ht=multinational%20hr%20policy%20multinational%20hr%20policy. Among U.S.-based multinationals, 63 percent use the same long-term incentive vehicles and 59 percent use the same grant values across all global locations. Multinationals based in Canada and law essay Marianapolis Preparatory School Europe are even more likely to apply the same vehicles and values across all geographies (Hansen, 2006). http://www.workforce.com/archive/feature/24/57/31/245736.php?ht=multinational%20hr%20policy%20multinational%20hr%20policy. Using intraregional transfers and how to write a feature for english Rotterdam TCNs to a much greater extent might reduce the cost and how to a contract Marianapolis necessity of training an expatriate in cultural differences.

Before transferring a person from the UK to. Singapore for example, the employer might consider whether a regional new hire or regional transfer of an existing employee (e.g. from Malaysia or Indonesia), or a TCN, might be more cost-effective. Transfer Mechanisms Available. MNCs utilise a variety of ways to transfer their dominant company policy to their foreign subsidiary. These include: exporting corporate culture by having expatriate workers emigrate to the HC, training HC workers and immersing them in the policies and core principles of the MNC, having a centralised base for IHRM operations (usually based in the HC) and having those policies exported to the various foreign subsidiaries. These methods require a constant vigilance and research on the part of the MNC to ensure that the message they wish to convey is both understood and translates into a positive income stream. Law Essay Marianapolis School. This has given rise to MacDuffie, numerous issues. Cultural misunderstanding is chief among them.

What does a MNC do when they have a foreign subsidiary located in a pre-dominant Muslim country? Do they close when specific Muslim celebrations occur? Do they have minimal staff performing basic operations that is comprised of non-Muslims? Does the MNC that is non-Muslim based adhere to how to a contract law essay Marianapolis Preparatory, religious based norms? The easy answer is, ‘yes they should.’ However, this isn’t necessarily the case. An expatriate from the HC who may or may not have formal training in the culture of the foreign subsidiary is typically employed as the high ranking executive. Even if they have been trained, they may not know the apparent implications that what are socially and culturally accepted norms in their HC, meanwhile are offensive in their foreign subsidiary.

This for how to write a contract law essay Marianapolis Preparatory the large part has been overcome by allowing for religious differences and having minimal staff that are not religiously affiliated perform basic operations. For example, productivity may lag during Ramadan, which takes place over the course of a month and as a result employees are who are fasting. This has become an accepted norm when operating a MNC in a Muslim dominant country. In the increasingly competitive, uncertain, complex world marketplace, multinational companies, unions, and governments must rethink and how to write law essay adjust their human resource strategies and legislative policies again and again. MNCs usually underestimate the influence that differences in industrial relations systems, workplace cultures, and local resistance to certain HR policies can all have on their operations. Unions too often fail to develop effective transnational and inter-union strategies to better serve their memberships in other countries and cultures.

Public policy makers are torn between policies meant to respond to a need for workplace efficiency, against critical mind MacDuffie other policies meant to write Marianapolis School, promote worker equity (Morgan, Kelly, Sharpe and Whitley, 2003). How do MNCs choose to diffuse the policies of the domestic parent company into their foreign subsidiaries, or how do they decide to adopt policies and practices that originate in the host countries? They do this by tackling issues of organized labour’s generally diminishing relative power in a rapidly changing global workplace, then focus on transnational collective bargaining strategies and socio-political action. Finally, by recognizing recent multilateral agreements governing workplaces across borders, the contributors are able to assess the European Union Directive on transnational works councils and labour aspects and agreements (Morgan, Kelly, Sharpe and Whitley, 2003). International HR policy must first contribute to the ‘global comprehension’ of functionaries active in an international setting. ‘Global comprehension’ can be seen as knowing what is going on in the global economy and being able to translate the consequences for the organization they are working for, the [local] business sector, as well as understanding the impact on the company’s global and MacDuffie local competitors and clients. MNCs are multi-level entities that have socialization mechanisms linking the subsidiary to the rest of how to law essay Marianapolis, MNC (Gupta and Govindarajan, 2000). Crossing traditional organizational boundaries is.

important for the effective use of global warming essay writing, human assets through common projects, decentralized and autonomous groups, flexible working arrangements and law essay School the ability to integrate with the host country. The underlying principle of , flexibility was found to be associated with opportunities, organizational climate for innovation and development and the ability to focus and how to a contract create policies that can effectively utilize the assets available to the MNC. Lyles and mind School Salk (1996, pp. 881-2) postulate that flexibility promotes the learning curve associated with the a contract law essay, expatriate process: “by encouraging greater receptivity of how to articles in english College, organizational members to new stimuli from the outside, by promoting collaboration and exchanges of information within the organization and by granting members greater latitude in altering activity patterns and ways of doing things to adopt to write a contract law essay Preparatory School, perceived changing needs an conditions”. Staffing, promotion, training, compensation and appraisal, when applied help MNCs to achieve higher outcomes with their subsidiary. Staffing (job analysis, recruitment and courses International Hotel Management School selection procedures) serves as the backbone for IRHM activities of the organization. In MNCs, staffing and how to law essay Preparatory promotion practices are closely connected since the how to essay, MNC extensively uses internal recruitment for all positions, including managerial, and prefer promotion from within to recruitment from outside. Placement decisions involving internal transfers, promotions, and how to a contract law essay Preparatory School demotions are also informed by warming essay the various selection approaches and by how to write a contract Marianapolis Preparatory performance appraisals. Performance management is a process of identifying how closely the actual behavior matches the expectations derived from the previous job analysis.

If the behaviour of an individual departs significantly from expectations, further actions should be taken to improve the actual behaviour through training and transfer and motivate for even better performance through compensation and benefits. How To Article Rotterdam Business School. MNCs utilize the performance appraisal results to customize compensation programs for “must-keep” employees (such as domestic and how to a contract law essay TCNs) and expatriates. MNCs are also influenced by political (both in how to article for english School their home country and host country) decisions, rules and how to write Marianapolis Preparatory School practices. With the advent of such privacy laws as the essay about yourself Rosseau, Safe Harbour programme and the EU Commission policy on data and also various EU members’ individual privacy policy. pose a significant way in which MNCs perform and how to write law essay Marianapolis conduct their business objectives. Without the adherence to in english Trinity School, various programmes MNCs are hindered and if they are conducting business in Spain or France face stiff penalties for non-compliance. The greatest challenge that MNCs need to consider when transferring their policies and business practices is the ability to how to a contract Marianapolis Preparatory School, have cultural sensitivity. As, GE has demonstrated it is not only the fact and want of operating a profitable enterprise that is important.

It is also important to understand the expectations of the domestic workforce. Mind MacDuffie. Striving to a contract law essay, do less cost them $400 million and half of the skilled workforce. Another important lesson that MNCs need to learn is that the culture, norms and customs of the host country can normally override the prevailing corporate policy. Muslims require a whole month that is necessary for Ramadan and provision for fasting, for example. Mind MacDuffie School. Other cultures require time off for family emergencies; the write a contract law essay Marianapolis Preparatory School, Japanese require an implied guarantee of lifetime employment. Implicit to this is once the MNC has the culture of their host country understood and comply with the regulations of the host country government’s legislation and policy, business operation runs as smoothly as it does in the parent country. IHRM provides the fundamental resources that human resource professionals require and mind School need in order for their MNC of choice to succeed. Bartlett, C.A., Ghoshal, S. 1991. Managing across borders: the transnational solution. London Business School, London.

Brewster, C., Communal, C., Farndale, E., Hegewisch, A., Johnson, G. and a contract Marianapolis Preparatory Van Ommeren, J. 2001, The HR Healthcheck. Uc A-g Courses Blue School. Benchmarking HRM Practices across the UK and Europe, Cranfield University School of Management and Financial Times, Prentice-Hall, Clinton-Davis, H., Harrop, Sarah J., Burr, Beckwith J., Hurewitz, BarryJ, Medine, D. 2006, Transferring HR Data from the European Union to the United States: Binding Corporate Rules Offer Another Compliance Option, viewed January 8, 2006 http://www.wilmerhale.com/publications/whPubsDetail.aspx?publication=4107062e-c1fe-484c-8b36-5abec6f4745dRSS=true. Dowling, P.J. A Contract Law Essay School. Welch, D., Schuler, R.S. . 1999.

International dimensions of law essay, human resource management. Southwestern. Cincinnati, OH. Duane, M. J. The Persuasive Essay Ellesmere College. 2001. Policies and Practices in Global Human Resource Systems, Westport, CT., p. 2. Gupta, A. and Govindarajan, V. 2000, “Knowledge flows within MNCs”, Strategic Management. Journal, Vol. 21, pp.

473-96. Hansen F. 2006, Many Countries, One Compensation System, Workforce Management, October 23, 2006, p. 28, viewed January 9, 2006 http://www.workforce.com/archive/feature/24/57/31/245736.php. Harris, H. 2002, “Strategic Management of law essay Marianapolis School, International Workers” Cranfield School of Management”, Innovations in International HR, vol. Good Articles Trinity School. 28, iss. 1 Winter, pp. How To School. 1-5. viewed January 8, 2006 www.orcinc.com. Harzing, A.W. 1996, MNC Staffing policies for the managing director position in foreign subsidiaries: The results of an innovative research method, viewed January 8, 2006 http://www.unimaas.nl/

Kanter, R.M. 1991. Transcending business boundaries: 12,000 world managers view change. Harvard Business Review (May-June) vol. How To Write A Feature For English Rotterdam. 61, pp.159-164.

Lyles, M. and Salk, J. 1996, “Knowledge acquisition from write Preparatory, foreign parents in international joint. ventures: an empirical examination in a scholarship essay yourself Lake College the Hungarian context”, Journal of International. Business Studies, January, special issue, pp. 877-903. Morgan, G., Kelly, B., Sharpe, D. and Whitley, R. Write Law Essay Preparatory School. 2003. “Global Managers and. Japanese Multinationals: Internationalization and Management in Japanese. Financial Institutions”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 14, Noe, Raymond A., Hollebeck, John R., Gerhart, B., and uc a-g Blue Management School Wright, Patrick M. 2000.

Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage 2nd ed. New York, pp. 3-5. Perkins, Stephen J., Shortland, Susan M. Rosenzweig, P. and Nohria, N. 1994. “Influences on human resource management practices in multinational corporations”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 25, iss. 2, pp. 229–51. Hindu Caste System.

This system dates almost 3000 years back and was formed based on the need to form social order in ancient India. It is still very prevalent in India’s society. It occurs more in rural villages than in large urban cities, however the how to a contract Marianapolis, caste system is very prevalent in social matters such as kinship or marriage. These four groups or varnas are considered “clean castes.” Typical roles of these four varnas: Brahmans – priests, holy men, arbiters. Kshatriyas – kings, warriors, soldiers that protect and guard the country. Vaishyas – businessmen, traders, commercial class. Shudras – farmers, peasants. Below the four varna castes exists a fifth group – The Untouchables. This group is not mentioned in the Vedas Holy Records until the Bhagavad-Gita and they are considered outside of human society and of no caste. Write A Scholarship Essay About Yourself Rosseau College. Unlike the upper four, The Untouchables are not considered “twice-born,” and as not having gone through the how to write a contract law essay School, Hindu sacred thread ritual initiation.

The fifth varna is deemed “unclean” and writing the persuasive Ellesmere “polluting”. Write Law Essay School. Their role in life and society is to global Ely, perform menial, degrading jobs. The Untouchables are known by a variety of names. How To Law Essay Preparatory School. They call themselves “Dalits”, priding themselves for the struggles they have fought against injustice. Mahatma Gandhi called them “Harijans” – Children of God – when he adopted, against the caste rules, an Untouchable child. Finally, the Untouchables are also known as the “Scheduled Castes” after an critical School amendment to the 1935 constitution was set to how to write a contract law essay Marianapolis Preparatory School, protect them in society both economically and socially. http://www.friesian.com/caste.htm viewed January 9, 2006.

Smith, Brian K. (1994). The Ancient Indian Varna System and the Origins of Caste. Oxford University Press, pp. 1-55.

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5 Tips to a contract Marianapolis Preparatory School, Writing Better Attorney Website Copy: Why No One Wants to Read Your Resume. If a colleague referred me to your law firm, the first thing I#8217;d likely do is look you up online. I#8217;m going to look to uc a-g Mountains Management School, see if there are any glaring negative reviews or red flags raised. I want to see that you have a website. A decent-looking one.

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But, what about the attorney I#8217;ll be working with? Let#8217;s check out your bio. You might as well just have copied your resume and pasted it on global essay writing Ely, here. That#8217;s what you did, isn#8217;t it? Seeing your resume with your extensive list of write a contract law essay Preparatory School, esoteric publications, yet not mentioning anything you#8217;ve done that seems relevant to my needs, I just don#8217;t know whether you#8217;re the right attorney for how to write a contract Preparatory, me. And now you may have lost me as a client.

You may be thinking that this is a bit overdramatized, and that most of Blue Hotel School, your referral clients aren#8217;t going to be scrutinizing your website or bio this heavily. But then again, they might. You don#8217;t get to survey every client that doesn#8217;t call your firm to find out why they didn#8217;t reach out to you. A Contract Law Essay Marianapolis Preparatory? Your prospective clients are looking you up online. It#8217;s the reason attorney websites are seeing huge increases in traffic from a scholarship about mobile devices. When someone brings up your name as a potential attorney, the prospective client may look you up online immediately, on their closest Internet-enabled device – their phone. If there#8217;s a chance that you may even lose a single prospective client because you don#8217;t have compelling copy on your website that addresses the client#8217;s concerns, it#8217;s worth spending the write a contract Marianapolis School time you need to Business, write better copy. So, let#8217;s fix your website bio right now. Are your clients primarily lawyers? If so, good job. You#8217;re perfect.

Don#8217;t change anything. If you represent lawyers in malpractice defense or are using your website exclusively to get of counsel gigs with other firms, then keep your website copy how it is. For every other lawyer out there – stop writing in legalese. Your clients aren#8217;t lawyers. They aren#8217;t experts on motion practice and how to write a contract law essay Preparatory School, don#8217;t know International Shoe from Tinker . Write A Scholarship About Yourself Lake? That#8217;s why they#8217;re hiring a lawyer. The more esoteric case law you describe to your clients, the write law essay Marianapolis School quicker you#8217;ll lose them.

Remember how you used to write before law school turned you into a legal writing machine? When you used to how to write a feature article for english Business School, write for the school paper, and write stories and essays for how to write Preparatory, school? That stuff was great, and courses International School, people could understand it without Black#8217;s Law Dictionary. Do more of that. I am an attorney experienced in corporate law. I went to how to a contract law essay School, Princeton Law School. I made the Dean’s List. After graduation, I clerked for Ellesmere, Judge So-and-so. How To Write Marianapolis Preparatory? While clerking for Judge So-and-so, I worked on an important case.

Afterwards, I worked at Loblaw Associates in their mopery defense practice. See how the flow breaks up after each sentence? It#8217;s a strain to read. I#8217;m leaving this page. Rehashing your resume is global essay writing a surefire way to how to a contract Preparatory, lose someone#8217;s interest. While clients do ultimately want to know what#8217;s on your resume, they don#8217;t want to read your resume as you wrote it for your last job interview. 3. Warming King’s Ely? Tell a Compelling Narrative to write Marianapolis Preparatory School, Connect with your Client.

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Below is an excerpt of one of my favorite attorney bios: This attorney has a story to tell. All of the content on essay about Rosseau College, this bio is resume content, but told in a narrative fashion. I#8217;m going to keep reading it because it tells a story, and it#8217;s much easier to digest than a paragraph of written-out resume content that would be better suited to how to Preparatory School, being listed in bullet-points. Your clients are not hiring a law firm, they are hiring lawyers. It doesn#8217;t matter if your firm is warming essay writing named Cravath or Katz. People hire firms because of the attorneys they#8217;ll be working with. This is especially true for solos and small firms. At JurisPage, we work with a lot of solo practitioners and how to a contract law essay Marianapolis Preparatory, small firms, and if you#8217;re reading this, there#8217;s a strong probability that you are also a solo practitioner or small firm. So, instead of having a resume-driven bio that attempts to mimic what you see on boring Biglaw websites, add some personal flair to how to write essay Rosseau Lake College, yours. Even if it#8217;s just one line. How To Write Law Essay Preparatory? “In George#8217;s free time, he teaches cats to read Mandarin.#8221; Something like this. Something that people can relate to, or at the very least use to how to Rotterdam Business School, understand that you#8217;re a person.

I#8217;d rather hire the lawyer teaching cats to read than the lawyer who tells me that he practices law and how to write a contract law essay Marianapolis Preparatory School, nothing else. This one is essay Ellesmere College my favorite. As persuasive as you can be about yourself, nothing is more persuasive than what other people say about you . Testimonials are effective because you get an unbiased seal of write a contract law essay Preparatory, approval from another individual. If I speak to an attorney and ask them if they#8217;re capable of handling my matter and will return my calls, of course they will say yes. They#8217;re trying to sell me on global warming essay King’s, their services and have money to make from me. But, a former client has nothing to personally gain from Marianapolis providing a testimonial (they shouldn#8217;t gain anything either). Their unbiased opinions help prospective clients feel more confident in your services. Are you unsure if testimonials have power? Have you ever bought anything on uc a-g Management School, Amazon, feeling more confident because of its user reviews and star ratings? Ever visited a restaurant because of its favorable Yelp reviews?

So, what#8217;s a good type of testimonial to add? Some of the biggest fears that people have with attorneys are: -Will the attorney answer my calls and emails? -Will the attorney take advantage of me? and. -Is this attorney competent? So, address these concerns with client testimonials if you can. Something like: Sarah is an Preparatory, incredibly effective attorney. I was pleased with how responsive she was to my needs, even responding to my emails on global Ely, the weekend.

Our family had a complex real estate purchase and how to a contract Preparatory School, she made sure our needs were met. When asking for a review for write Rosseau College, your website, make sure you don’t run afoul of any ethical issues though. Disclaimer (because don’t sue me) – Though I am attorney, I am not your attorney and this isn’t legal advice. Read your state’s ethics rules and make your own decisions. This one should really be a given, but I need to mention it because it happens – don#8217;t write any “client#8221; reviews yourself. Write Law Essay Preparatory? Even if they “sign off#8221; on it. Fun fact – writing reviews for clients (whether real or fake) that are actually written by you is how to a feature article Business called “astroturfing#8221; and, aside from being illegal, it#8217;s unethical. Instead of writing reviews for yourself, you can request a testimonial from law essay School a satisfied client that touches upon things like your ability, responsiveness, etc. Maybe say “Hey, I hope you were satisfied with the services you received. Would you be willing to courses Blue Mountains International, provide a testimonial about your experience?#8221; At the end of the day, you need to write your attorney bio and law firm website content geared towards your prospective clients.

Write with them in mind. How To A Contract School? Speak in language they understand. Don#8217;t use lingo. And, make a compelling case for yourself. You#8217;re an experienced lawyer dedicated to effectively serving your clients.

Show it. (Featured image: Ginny / Flickr) Andrew Cabasso is uc a-g courses Mountains International Hotel Management a practicing attorney and VP of Web Services at Uptime Legal where he runs JurisPage, an Internet Marketing firm specializing in Preparatory online presence solutions for law firms including website design, SEO, and search marketing. He has given many lectures and CLEs on warming writing, website design and how to write Marianapolis Preparatory School, Internet marketing to legal professionals. He is the author of Search Engine Optimization for Lawyers and critical mind School, The Complete Guide to Attorney PPC . Follow Andrew on LinkedIn, Google+, or Twitter. How To Law Essay Marianapolis? Want More Legal Technology and how to write good articles in english Trinity School, Law Practice Management Tips? Join Our Mailing List. Write A Contract Law Essay? One comment on “5 Tips to Writing Better Attorney Website Copy: Why No One Wants to Read Your Resume” Useful guides. Thank you. Redesigning A Website?

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Salvete, Issue #1-1 - College of the Holy Cross

examples book report Click on the highlighted text to see the comments. Computer systems computer systems. This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and examines the predicted future advancements of scanners. A brief history of the scanner and how to write a contract law essay Marianapolis its operation is initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of the five main types of scanners in common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand held scanners. The performance of these scanners is examined in critical MacDuffie School, relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. It is how to a contract Marianapolis Preparatory, concluded that further technological advances in these four areas as well as the deployment of uc a-g courses Mountains International new sensor technology will continue to improve the quality of scanned images. It is write a contract Marianapolis Preparatory School, also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into King’s Ely, other types of technology such as digital cameras.

The purpose of how to write School this report is to survey the how to write College, current state of scanner technology and to briefly discuss predicted advancements in the field. By examining a range of recently published journal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of scanners this report describes the main types of scanners in common use today and examines their performance in relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. The report then considers the a contract School, effect of further technological advances in warming essay writing, these four areas, as well as the deployment of how to a contract new sensor technology on the future development of scanners. The first scanner, initially referred to as a #039;reading machine#039;, was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. The device could scan printed material and then compare each character to a set of standards in a matrix using, for the first time, the best match principle to determine the original message (Blatner, Fleishman and Roth 1998, p.3). This reading machine was to form the basis for the development of current scanning, sorting and processing machines.

An early improvement on the reading machine was the drum scanner. . These scanners used a type of scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes (PMT) . How To Marianapolis Preparatory. Drum scanners are still used in courses Blue Mountains Management, industry today because of the high quality images they produce. The development of write a contract School smaller, more economical scanners such as desktop scanners and critical mind School scanners for domestic use followed the drum scanner as the number of computer users increased and computer technology advanced. Scanners can now capture images from a wide variety of two and three dimensional sources. How To Preparatory School. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on uc a-g courses Blue Hotel, a hard-drive or floppy disk.

With the aid of specific software, these images can then be manipulated and how to write law essay Preparatory enhanced by the user. It is now possible to deploy electronic acquisition to create an entire layout (including all graphic elements) from the same computer. King’s Ely. This means manual stripping is how to write a contract Marianapolis School, no longer required (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). Scanners are considered an invaluable tool for adding graphics and writing the persuasive essay Ellesmere text to documents and have been readily adopted by both business and domestic users. A scanner is a device that uses a light source to electronically convert an image into binary data (0s and 1s). This binary data can then be used to store the scanned image on how to write a contract, a computer.

A scanner recreates an image by using small electronic components referred to as the scanner#039;s #039;eyes#039; (Scanner tips 2000). The type of #039;eyes#039; used in today#039;s scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and photomultiplier tubes (PMT). School. These electronic eyes measure the amount of light reflected from individual points on the page and translate it to digital signals that correspond to the brightness of each point (Englander 2000). To create a file on the computer that represents a colour image, the scanner divides the image into a grid with many individual points called pixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000). A scanning head, termed a row of a contract law essay #039;eyes#039;, reads over the grid and assigns a number to each pixel based on the main colour in that pixel, using green, blue and red. For example an aqua pixel would be saved as a number to represent the proportion of blue, green and red which represents the colour aqua (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). There are five main types of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand held scanners. Drum scanners were widely used in the past, however they are much less commonly used today due to advances in scanner technology.

As a result of their expense, these machines are primarily used by professionals in how to write law essay Marianapolis Preparatory, industry, where they are considered important due to the high-end quality image they produce and because they use PMT technology which is more sophisticated than charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and contact image sensor#039;s (CISs). Drum scanners are difficult to operate and technicians operate these scanners by placing the item to be scanned on a glass cylinder rotating at high speeds around the sensor (Sullivan 1996). The most popular scanners for general use are flatbed scanners. This type of scanner is highly versatile because it is able to scan flat objects as well as small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scanners operate by placing the item to be scanned on a glass window while scanning heads move underneath it. A transparency adapter is used to scan transparent originals such as slides or x-rays, and warming an automatic document feeder is available for scanning large numbers of documents (Scanner tips 2000) . Sheet-fed scanners have grown in popularity in recent years, particularly for small office or domestic use as they are reasonably priced, can scan full-sized documents and are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000). Most models of sheet-fed scanners have an how to write law essay inbuilt document feeder to overcome the problem of manually feeding one sheet of paper at a time. However the critical, actual process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner may result in distortion as the image to a contract law essay Marianapolis Preparatory School be scanned moves over the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). A further limitation of sheet-fed scanners is that they are unable to global writing scan three dimensional objects.

This type of scanner is used to write scan items such as slides that need careful handling during scanning. Unlike other scanners, the scanning heads in slide scanners do not reflect light from the image, but rather pass light through it. This enables these scanners to produce superior results without distortions caused by reflective light. To be able to scan small and detailed items, these scanners have a large number of eyes on the scanning head which produces a high quality result. Slide scanners tend to be more expensive and less versatile than flatbed and sheet-fed scanners as they are limited to only scanning slides and film. These scanners, however, are well suited to users requiring high quality scans of large numbers of write good articles Trinity College slides (Scanner tips 2000). Hand held scanners are compact, portable scanners which are simply dragged across a page manually to capture an how to a contract law essay image. These scanners are easy to use and economical to purchase; however, their use is limited to text of up to four inches in diameter that does not require a high resolution. For this reason, hand held scanners are unsuitable for colour images. A further disadvantage of hand held scanners is that the user must have a steady hand when scanning or the resulting image will be distorted (Scanner tips 2000). The performance of a scanner can be examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software.

Resolution is about Lake, a measure of how many pixels a scanner can sample in a given image. It is used to describe the amount of detail in an image (Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas 1996). Higher resolution scanners are generally more expensive and produce superior results as they have a greater capacity to how to a contract law essay Marianapolis School capture detail. Scanners have two types of resolutions: optical resolution and interpolated resolution. Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of how to good articles Trinity School how many pixels a scanner can actually read. A current model desktop scanner typically has a resolution of write law essay Marianapolis 300 x 300 dots per inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999) . Writing Essay Ellesmere. This means that this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per inch, so it can sample 300 dpi in one direction and 300 dpi in the other direction by stopping the scanning head 300 times per inch in both directions.

Some scanners stop the scanning head more frequently as it moves down the page, giving an optical resolution of how to write a contract Marianapolis Preparatory School 300 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more frequently in one direction does not improve the result of the scan. The basic requirement for scanning detailed images and line art from essay King’s Ely, photos or other printed originals is an optical resolution of 600 dpi. When scanning slides and negatives the minimum optical resolution is 1200 dpi. Interpolated resolution measures the number of how to a contract School pixels a scanner is able to predict. A scanner can turn a 300 x 300 dpi scan into a 600 x 600 dpi scan by looking in-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have looked like if it had been scanned. This prediction is courses International Hotel Management, then used to insert new pixels in between the actual ones scanned. This technique is less precise than optical resolution; however it assists in improving the enlargement of scanned images. Bit depth refers to the amount of information that a scanner records for each pixel when converting an image to digital form.

Scanners differ in a contract law essay Marianapolis Preparatory School, the amount of write good articles Trinity data they record for each pixel within an image. The simplest kinds of scanners only how to write School, record data related to black and white details and have a bit depth of 1 (Anderson 1999). The minimum bit depth required for scanning photographs and documents is 24-bits, while slides, negatives or transparencies need a scanner with at least 30-bits. Thus for a scanner to produce a high quality scan with colour, a higher bit depth is required. In general, current scanners have a bit depth of 24, which means that 8 bits of information can be collected for the three primary colours used in , scanning; blue, red and write a contract law essay green (Anderson 1999). This high resolution allows scanners to how to write a feature article produce images close to a contract Marianapolis Preparatory School photographic quality.

Dynamic range refers to the measurement of the range of tones a scanner can record on a scale of 0.0 to 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and 4.0 being perfect black. Colour flat-bed scanners usually have a dynamic range of 2.4. A range of this measurement is uc a-g courses Mountains International Hotel, unable to provide high quality colour scans. A dynamic range of 2.8 and 3.2 is suited to professional purposes and can be found in high-end scanners. An even higher dynamic range of a contract Preparatory 3.0 to 3.8 can be provided by drum scanners. A scanner, like any type of hardware, requires software. Typically the two most common pieces of global Ely software provided with scanners include optical character recognition (OCR) and image editing software. Optical character recognition software translates the information recorded in a scan, tiny dots, into a text file which can be edited. Image editing software allows the law essay Preparatory School, tones and a scholarship yourself Rosseau Lake colours of an how to a contract Marianapolis Preparatory School image to be manipulated for better printing and display. Image editing also gives filters to apply special effects to scanned images.

The quality of scanned images is constantly improving as characteristics such as resolution, bit-depth and dynamic range are enhanced and further developed. More sophisticated image editing and optical character recognition software development is also resulting in superior quality scans. Future advances are expected to result in the incorporation of specialized scanners into how to write a contract Preparatory School, other types of writing Ely technology such as the recently developed digital camera. This device allows the how to Marianapolis, user to take pictures of three-dimensional objects much like a regular camera, except that instead of using film, the objects are scanned by the camera in a similar process to the functioning of a flatbed scanner. The relatively new area of sensor technology in the form of a contact image sensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is expected to improve the functionality of scanners and the quality of images as it replaces the cumbersome optical reduction technique with a single row of for english Rotterdam sensors (Grotta and Wiener 1998, p. 1). Developers have already been able to produce a CIS scanner which is thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and how to write a contract law essay Preparatory School cheaper to manufacture than a traditional CCD base device. However, the quality of the scan is not as good as its counterparts.

Further development of CIS technology is needed to improve image quality and how to write a scholarship about Rosseau Lake College colour, and to address the problem of a limited 300 or 600 dpi. This report has identified five types of scanners currently available. Some are primarily used for professional purposes such as the drum scanner; others are used more broadly in the workplace and home such as flatbed scanners and to write a contract Marianapolis Preparatory a lesser extent sheetfed scanners. Scanners for specialized purposes have also been identified such as slide and handheld scanners. How To Article Business School. The performance of these scanners is how to a contract law essay, dependent upon their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Scanners have improved significantly in recent years in Ellesmere College, terms of weight, size, price and speed, and the replacement of CCD technology with CIS technology is anticipated to produce further benefits to these areas as well as to scan quality. The impact of these improvements is expected to increase the accessibility of how to write a contract law essay Preparatory scanner technology to a wider range of users and its suitability for a wider range of purposes. Courses Mountains International Management. In relation to this, the future of scanner technology seems to point to the convergence of how to law essay different technologies. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other types of technologies such as digital cameras, printers, and photocopiers. This can be expected to continue with other forms of technology in conjunction with further improvements to image quality, speed, price, size and weight. Anderson, D. The PC Guide. [http:www.pctechguide.com/18scanners.htm].

Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. (1998) Real world scanning and write for english School halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA. Englander, I (2000). The Architecture of computer hardware and systems software. John Wiley, USA, p272. Figeiredo, J. McIllree, J. Thomas, N. Write Law Essay Preparatory School. (1996) Introducing information technology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145. Grotta, D. and Weiner, S. What#039;s now . What#039;s next. [http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/features/scanners98/intro.html] PC Magazines 20 October 1998. 8/4/00. Prepress, scanners, digital cameras and photoCDs. [http://www.prepress.pps.com/mem/lib/ptr/scanners.html] 1998.

6/4/00. Scansoft scanner tips [http://www.scannercentral.com/scanners/tips/tips1.asp] 2000.6/4/00. Sullivan. M. Types of scanners. [http://hsdesign.com/scanning/types/types.html] 1996. 8/4/00.

Clear statement of the four criteria used in the report to courses International Hotel School assess the technology. Appropriately mentions an important aspect of future enhancements - sensor technology, as well as other aspects of future scanning technology. The comment on how to write a contract law essay, the quality of scanned images could be extended to include other desirable improvement outcomes; for example, faster scanning or 3D scanning. States the critical mind, purpose and outlines the content of the report succinctly at write a contract Preparatory School, the start. Historical background is uc a-g Blue Mountains Hotel Management, then provided. This level of how to a contract Marianapolis Preparatory School detail should be placed in Section 2 #039;How Scanners Work#039;. Try to avoid repeating ideas in the body of the report by grouping ideas on write a feature for english Rotterdam Business, the same topic or subtopic together.

Good comment - provides an how to write a contract Preparatory School overall picture. It would be more appropriate to discuss such detailed aspects of scanning in critical mind MacDuffie School, the body of the report rather than the introduction. When a technical term such as this is used it should be explained and related to the previous sentence(s). This paragraph presents a clear definition of how a scanner works. The student#039;s understanding of the concept is how to School, evident because the definition has been clearly expressed in the student#039;s own words and the sources of the definition have been acknowledged.

The student has used information from only one source for Sections 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5. How To Write Essay About Yourself Rosseau. This has severely limited the content of these sections of the report. This paragraph provides a good description of Marianapolis Preparatory School this criteria in simple clear language. It would be better to use a more recent reference here. A 1999 reference which states this is current typical resolution in an essay written in 2002 is inappropriate - computer technology develops very quickly. This concept is , poorly explained. How To Law Essay Marianapolis Preparatory. The student needs to express the main point in more detail. The ideas in this paragraph are well expressed; however the source of these ideas has not been provided. The student needs to provide references.

The concept of #039;dynamic range#039; has not been sufficiently explained here. The student needs to provide further detail and to provide references to the sources of courses Mountains International information used. As in the previous paragraph, the concept has not been sufficiently explained. Further detail is required, especially in relation to law essay Preparatory School the current capabilities and limitations of the software. References to the sources used are also required here. This sentence is too general. It would be better to include more specific information about the kind of enhancements being referred to. This paragraph provides an appropriate amount of detail.

Significant improvements to the field are identified in a brief discussion of new technology. However the student has again omitted references to the sources used in the discussion. This conclusion presents a brief summary of the main ideas that have been established in the report. Unfortunately, it typifies the limitations of the report; that is, the content is too general - more specific detail is required. A further improvement would be to provide more detail on how the current state and how to a contract law essay Preparatory future position of write good articles in english School scanner technology is related to the broader field of computer technology. WARNING - do not use this reference list as a model! The number of sources used in an assignment depends on the quality of the sources - their currency, reliability, and a contract law essay School the amount of relevant information. This reference list consists of 8 sources: 3 books, 1 magazine, and 4 commercial web sites.

It does not meet the requirements of the how to for english School, assignment description. One source is used for a number of sections in the report. The reference list needs to include several academic journal articles and Preparatory more magazine articles. This would enable a wider range of opinions and ideas to courses Mountains Management be included. For this report, it is best to only use commercial web sites published by major manufacturing companies which provide technical and educational information rather than online shopping or reseller sites, or sites developed by how to write Marianapolis School individuals. Content and layout: The citations need to include appropriate details, and to be punctuated according to the Harvard Referencing System. For example, the country (USA) has been provided as the place of publication in a number of citations instead of the name of a city or town, the copyright dates of how to write a scholarship about Rosseau College many of the web sites has not been included, and the inclusion of how to a contract Marianapolis School a page number for a book (p.145) is not necessary in the reference list (it is required in the text if the student is write a contract Marianapolis Preparatory, making a direct quote). The use of punctuation in how to Rotterdam Business, this reference list is inconsistent and how to law essay Preparatory not always appropriate. Problems?

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