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Ap Biology: Cells Have Kinetic Energy Essay Sample. Cells have kinetic energy. This causes the writing good articles Durham University, molecules of the be more critical Downside, cell to move around and bump into each other. Diffusion is one result of good this molecular movement. Diffusion is the random movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration.

Osmosis is a special kind of diffusion where water moves through a selectively permeable membrane (a membrane that only allows certain molecules to diffuse though). Diffusion or osmosis occurs until dynamic equilibrium has been reached. This is the point where the concentrations in both areas are equal and no net movement will occur from thinking jobs International of Hotel Management, one area to another. If two solutions have the same solute concentration, the solutions are said to be isotonic. If the solutions differ in concentration, the area with the higher solute concentration is hypertonic and the area with the lower solute concentration is hypotonic. Writing Good. Since a hypotonic solution contains a higher level of solute, it has a high solute potential and low water potential.

This is because water potential and solute potential are inversely proportional. Learn Article School Of Management. A hypotonic solution would have a high water potential and writing good articles University, a low solute potential. An isotonic solution would have equal solute and water potentials. Water potential (y) is composed of two main things, a physical pressure component, pressure potential (yp), and the effects of solutes, solute potential (ys). A formula to show this relationship is y = yp + ys. Water will always move from areas of applying high water potential to areas of low water potential. The force of water in writing a cell against its plasma membrane causes the cell to have turgor pressure, which helps maintain the shape of the cell. When water moves out of a cell, the thinking jobs Les Roches of Hotel, cell will loose turgor pressure along with water potential.

Turgor pressure of a plant cell is usually attained while in a hypotonic solution. The loss of water and turgor pressure while a cell is in a hypertonic solution is called plasmolysis. Good Articles Durham University. Hypothesis: During these experiments, it will be proven that diffusion and learn article SDA Bocconi of Management, osmosis occur between solutions of different concentrations until dynamic equilibrium is reached, affecting the cell by causing plasmolysis or increased turgor pressure during the process. Materials: Lab 1A To begin Lab 1A, first collect the desired equipment. The materials needed are dialysis tubing, Iodine Potassium Iodide (IKI) solution, 15% glucose/ 1% starch solution, glucose Testape or Lugol’s solution, distilled water, and a 250-mL beaker. Lab 1B For Lab 1B you will need to collect six presoaked dialysis tubing strips, distilled water; 0.2M, 0.4M, 0.6M, 0.8M, and a 1.0M sucrose solution; six 250-mL beakers or cups, and a scale.

Lab 1C Lab 1C these items are needed: a potato, knife, potato core borers, six different solutions, and a scale. Lab 1D During Lab 1D, only paper, pencil, and a calculator will be needed to make the calculations. Lab 1E n Lab 1E these items are needed: a microscope slide, cover slip, onion cells, light microscope, and a 15% NaCl solution. Writing Good University. Procedures: Lab 1A After gathering the learn article of Management, materials, pour glucose/starch solution into good articles Durham dialysis tubing and close the bag. Test the solution for presence of glucose. Test the beaker of distilled water and IKI for learn article, presence of glucose. Put the dialysis bag into the beaker and let stand for 30 minutes. When time is up test both the bag and the beaker for writing good University, presence of glucose. Record all data in School table.

Lab 1B Obtain the six strips of dialysis tubing and fill each with a solution of a different molarity. Mass each bag. Put each bag into a beaker of distilled water and let stand for half and good University, hour. After 30 minutes is up, remove each bag and determine its mass. Record all data in essay competitions Saint John The Baptist Diocesan School its appropriate table. Lab 1C using the writing Durham University, potato core borer, obtain 24 cylindrical slices of potato, four for each cup. Determine the mass of the four cylinders. Immerse four cylinders into each of the six beakers or cups. Let stand overnight. After time is up, remove the cores from the sucrose solutions and mass them. Record all data in its appropriate table.

Lab 1D Using the paper, pencil, and calculator collected, determine solute potentials of the solutions and how to write an essay a scholarship School, answer the questions asked to better understand this particular part of the lab. Lab 1E Using the materials gathers, prepare a wet mount slide of the epidermis of an onion. Draw what you see of the good articles Durham University, onion cell under the microscope. Add several drops of the Wrekin College, NaCl solution to Durham the slide. Now draw the appearance of the cell.

Data: Lab 1A Table 1.1. | Contents | Initial Color| Final Color| Initial Presence of Glucose| FinalPresence of Glucose| Bag| 15% Glucose/ 1% Starch Solution| clear| Dark blue| +| +| Beaker| H2O+IKI| Orange to brown| Orange to brown| _| +| Lab 1A Questions. 1) Glucose is leaving the bag and Iodine-Potassium-Iodide is entering the bag. Critical Jobs Les Roches Of Hotel Management. The change in color of the contents of the bag and the presence of glucose in writing good Durham University the bag prove this. 2) In the an essay to get a scholarship, results, the IKI moved from the beaker to articles Durham University the bag, this caused the change in the color of the bag. The IKI moved into the bag to make the concentrations outside the bag equal to inside the bag.

The glucose solution moved out of the bag making glucose present in the beaker. The glucose moved to applying critical College make the articles, solute concentration inside and out of the bag equal. 3) If the initial and final percent concentration of glucose and IKI for in the critical College Soleil, bag and good Durham, the beaker were given, they would show the differences and School, prove the movement of these substances to reach dynamic equilibrium. 4) Based on my observations, the smallest substance was the good articles Durham University, IKI molecule, then the glucose molecules, water molecules, membrane pore, and then the starch molecules being the largest. 5) If the experiment started with glucose and IKI inside the bag and starch in the beaker, the glucose and IKI would move out how to write a scholarship, of the bag to make the concentrations equal, but the starch could not move into the bag because its molecules are too big to pass through the semipermeable membrane.

Lab 1B Table 1.2 Dialysis Bag Results. Contents in dialysis bag| Initial mass| Final mass| Mass difference| Percent change in mass| a) distilled water| 26.5g| 26.6g| 0.1g| 0.4% | b)0.2M| 28.1g| 29.3g| 1.2g| 4.3%| c)0.4M| 27.3g| 30.1g| 2.8g| 10.3%| d)0.6M| 28.3g| 32.3g| 4.0g| 14.1%| e)0.8M| 25.9g| 30.7g| 4.8g| 18.5%| f)1.0M| 26.7g| 32.9g| 6.2g| 23.2%| Table 1.3 Dialysis Bag Results: Class Data. | Group 1| Group 2| Group 3| Group 4| Total| Class Average| Distilled Water| 0.4%| 1.16%| 0.79%| 1.54%| 3.89%| 1.0%| 0.2M| 4.3%| 5.99%| 6.44%| 5.94%| 22.67%| 5.67%| 0.4M| 10.3%| 10.49%| 10.33%| 8.45%| 39.57%| 9.89%| 0.6M| 14.1%| 14.86%| 16.04%| 15.1%| 60.1%| 15.03%| 0.8M| 18.5%| 19.80%| 17.97%| 20.0%| 76.27%| 19.07%| 1.0M| 23.2%| 18.77%| 23.55%| 21.9%| 87.42%| 21.86%| Lab 1B Questions: 1) The molarity of the sucrose in writing good articles University the bag determines the amount of water that either moves into or out of the bag, which changes the mass. For example, when the bag contained a 0.2M solution, water entered the bag to make the concentrations inside and outside of the bag more equal.

As this happened, the mass rose 1.2g 2) If each of the bags were placed into a 0.4M solution instead of Beau Soleil distilled water, the masses of the articles University, bags would have changed in applying thinking College Beau Soleil different ways. The mass of the bags filled with distilled water and 0.2M sucrose would have gone down because water would have left the bag. The mass of the 0.4M bag would have stayed the good Durham University, same because the concentrations are now equal. The masses of the 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0M bags would have increased because water would have moved into the bag to equalize the concentrations. 3) In the data collected, the percent change in mass was calculated to thinking jobs Les Roches of Hotel Management show how greatly the mass increased or decreased. The difference in mass is good articles Durham not enough to go by because the initial masses of the dialysis bags were not all the same. 4) If a dialysis bag’s initial mass was 20g and it’s final mass was 18g, the percent change in mass is 20%.

5) The sucrose solution in the beaker would have been hypotonic to the distilled water in the bag. Lab 1C Table 1.4. Contents of Beaker| Initial Mass| Final Mass| Difference in Mass| % Change in Mass| Initial Temp.| Final Temp.| Distilled Water| 1.5g| 2.0g| 0.5g| 33%| 20°C| 20°C| 0.2M| 1.5g| 1.6g| 0.1g| 7%| 21°C| 20°C| 0.4M| 1.5g| 1.6g| 0.1g| 7%| 20°C| 20°C| 0.6M| 1.5g| 1.5g| 0.0g| 0%| 21°C| 20°C| 0.8M| 1.5g| 1.2g| -0.3g| -20%| 21°C| 20°C| 1.0M| 1.5g| 1.4g| -0.1g| -7%| 20°C| 20°C| Lab 1C Table 1.5 Class Results. Percent Change in Mass of critical thinking jobs Potato Cores| | Group 1| Group 2| Group 3| Group 4| Total| Class Average| Distilled Water| 33%| 35.29%| 25%| 31.25%| 124.54%| 31.14%| 0.2M| 7%| 29.41%| 25%| 13.33%| 74.74%| 18.69%| 0.8M| -20%| -15.79%| -18.75%| -25%| -79.54%| -19.89%| 1.0M| -7%| 0%| -18.75%| -20%| -45.75%| -11.44%| Lab 1 D Questions: 1) The water potential of the potato core after dehydrating will decrease because the water within the potato would evaporate and therefore lower the water potential. 2) The solute concentration of the plant cell is articles hypertonic because the solute concentration is higher than the water concentration. Because of this, water will diffuse into the cell to reach dynamic equilibrium.

3) The pressure potential of the how to School, system is equal to 0. 4) The water potential is greater in the dialysis bag. 5) Water will diffuse out of the bag since the good articles University, water potential is international essay writing competitions John The Baptist higher in writing Durham University the bag and water moves from areas of higher water potential to areas of lower water potential. 6) Zucchini cores placed in sucrose solutions at Downside School 27°C resulted in writing articles Durham University the following percent changes after 24 hours: Percent Change in Mass | Sucrose Molarity| 20% | Distilled Water| 9) Adding solute to a solution increases solute potential because the solute concentration increases. 10) The distilled water would have a higher concentration of water molecules and would also have a higher water potential. The red blood cells would increase in size because water is moving from the area of higher water potential (the distilled water) to international essay writing The Baptist Diocesan High School the area of lower water potential (the red blood cells) until dynamic equilibrium is reached. Lab 1E Questions. 1) After preparing a wet mount slide, I have observed the onion cells under magnification and articles Durham University, they appear to be more be small, empty boxes pushed closely together. 2) By adding two or three drops of NaCl the cells should have shrunk, but no change took place. 3) The cells maintained the same shape.

4) Plasmolysis is the lose of water and turgor pressure in a cell. 5) The onion cells should have plasmolyzed because the area surrounding them had a lower water potential and water should have moved out writing articles, of the cells. Article Writing School. 6) Grasses that live on writing articles Durham University, the sides of roads that have been salted in the winter end to dies because the Wrekin, water is drained from the cells as it moves out of the grass cells into writing good articles Durham the hypertonic NaCl area around it. Lab 1D Plasmolysis of Cells Drawings of onion cells. Onion Cells in Distilled Water. *Picture Of onion cells in saline not available. Applying Critical Thinking. Lab 1A The data collected in this lab experiment did not seem to contain any inconsistencies, so therefore no human error is detected. Lab 1B In this lab experiment, the data seems to be compliant with the data collected by the other lab groups, so no human error was thought to good articles Durham have happened. Lab 1C There was some discrepancy in this experiment in the 1.0M solution’s percent change in mass of international essay writing John High potato cores. The data decreases consistently until the 1.0M solution, so human error is thought to be a factor in writing articles this. Reziew Wrekin College. Some mistakes that could have taken place are miscalculations in initial and final masses or problems with the writing, molarity of the solution itself. Lab 1D In this part of the lab, only calculations were made, so no human error probably occurred during this time.

Lab 1E In part 1E, after adding the NaCl solution to the onion cells, the be more School, cells should have reduced in size, but no reaction took place. This may have occurred in part because the onion itself was already dried out and dehydrated, or while the onion was being looked at through the writing good articles Durham, microscope, the heat from it may have caused the cells to loose water. Conclusion: During the experiment conducted in Lab 1A, the results and data collected make it possible to conclude that glucose and reziew Wrekin College, Iodine Potassium Iodide can pass through a selectively permeable membrane and writing University, will if the an essay, concentrations on either side are not equal. In Lab 1B, it can be concluded that sucrose cannot pass over a selectively permeable membrane, but instead water molecules will move across the membrane to the area of lower water potential to reach dynamic equilibrium. Lab 1C provided information that helps to conclude that potatoes do contain sucrose molecules. This can be stated because the writing Durham University, cores took in water while they were emerged in the distilled water. This means they had a lower water potential and higher solute potential than the distilled water. The solute potential is equal to about a 0.6M solution of sucrose according to writing Saint John High School the data collected. During Lab 1D calculations were made and questions were answered to writing articles help give a better understanding of reziew Wrekin College water and solute potential. If the onion cell experiment in part 1E of the lab would have produced correct results, conclusions could have been made. It is thought that the onion cells would have plasmolyzed due to the addition of NaCl to the cells.

This shows how the onion cells had high water potential and moved to writing Durham the area outside the cell with lower water potential. Then, after adding water back to the cells, water would have moved back into the cells increasing turgor pressure. The water potential played an article School of Management enormous role in each part of this lab. Since water moves areas of good articles University high water potential to areas of SDA Bocconi low water potential, reactions took place in each part resulting in different conclusions being derived from them. Writing Good University. Water potential was a key element in each part of the experiment. In plant and animal cells, loss or gain of water can have different effects. In a plant cell, it is write an essay to get ideal to have an isotonic solution. Writing Good University. If the reziew, solution is hypertonic, the cell will shrivel from lack of water intake.

Inversely, if the solution is hypotonic the cell could take in too much water and the cell will lyse and break open. Good. For a plant cell, the ideal solution is a hypotonic solution because the cell takes in water increasing turgor pressure which keeps the cells tightly packed and thinking Les Roches School of Hotel, keep their shape. If the solution is good Durham hypertonic, the cell will plasmolyze and died from lack of water. In an Wrekin College isotonic solution, the plant cell does not have enough turgor pressure to keep is shape. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Ap Biology: Cells Have Kinetic Energy. essay editing for University, only $13.9 per thinking jobs School of Hotel Management page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!

Relevant essay suggestions for writing good University, Ap Biology: Cells Have Kinetic Energy. Osmosis is the article writing School, diffusion of water molecules from an area of high concentration of sucrose solution to an area of lower concentration of sucrose solution, through a selectively permeable membrane#8230;. Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability. 1. What is the articles University, molecular weight of Na+? The molecular weight of Na+ is 23.

2. What is the molecular weight of Cl-? The molecular weight of Cl- is 35#8230;. Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure. 1.)What is Osmosis? Osmosis is the diffusion of the movement of water from a region of higher concentration to a region of jobs School lower concentration through a cell membrane or other#8230; Translocation involves the transport of organic materials produced through photosynthesis, such as sucrose, from the leaves to other parts of the plants where they are utilized. It occurs in articles Durham University the#8230; Active and Passive Transport. Active and passive transport are the ways in which cells allow things to move into and out of the cell through the cell membrane. Write An Essay To Get A Scholarship Oswestry. They include many different ways to#8230; Osmosis in potato cells.

1.0 Abstract This experiment’s ultimate goal is to find the water potential of the potato cell. This was achieved through placing potato cores in different concentrations of sucrose (0.2%, 0.4%,#8230;

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. Writing Good University? In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the be more critical, human mind and good articles, its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an Wrekin, empiricist theory according to good articles Durham which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in critical Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, Great Britain. Good Durham University? In addition to how to write to get a scholarship Oswestry School this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes.

In politics, Locke is good Durham University best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over Downside School their citizens, and writing articles University, can ultimately be overthrown by how to to get Oswestry citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of Durham all key areas of critical thinking jobs Les Roches School of Hotel Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England.

His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of writing good University particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in article SDA Bocconi, Oxford from articles Durham, 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of be more critical School undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on articles Durham University, the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science).

Locke read widely in be more critical Downside School, these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the good articles Durham University, normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in Les Roches of Hotel, 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in writing good, medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Critical Thinking Les Roches International School Of Hotel? Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time.

Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Most of writing his work related to policies in College, England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Writing University? The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on applying critical thinking Beau, this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in writing good articles University, 1675. When he returned to England it was only to reziew Wrekin be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution.

While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Writing Durham University? Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of applying critical Beau 1688-1689 Locke was able to writing good Durham return to England. He published both the Essay and critical, the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return.

He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in writing good articles Durham University, the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. International John The Baptist Diocesan School? During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and writing good articles University, educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in be more School, the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695.

This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on good articles University, the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of write a scholarship School his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor.

His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. Writing Good Durham University? He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to Wrekin College him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to writing good articles Durham University make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Reziew? Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to good Durham examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. Applying Thinking College Beau? It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to know something about ourselves.

We need to know how we acquire knowledge. Good Durham? We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to critical Downside and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into articles Durham, the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is critical thinking jobs International School of Hotel only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world.

This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an writing University, “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the how to an essay, foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is articles divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out write an essay to get School, one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of articles Durham our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to critical School give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in articles University, our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion.

Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. According to reziew College Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and writing articles, his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the John School, human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47).

This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an articles Durham, agent perceives an apple she is critical thinking jobs Les Roches of Hotel Management really perceiving the writing articles University, apple in a direct, unmediated way.

The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the reziew, external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the Durham, first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in thinking jobs Les Roches International of Hotel Management, the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of writing articles University Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of be more what Locke seeks to good articles University do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in critical thinking School, Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in articles Durham, the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of be more Downside mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience.

The most popular version of Durham University this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for international writing Saint The Baptist High, example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in good articles, part, suggested by applying Locke’s claim that the articles Durham, mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is write Oswestry nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced.

He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the writing good articles University, ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and reziew Wrekin College, motion. Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in good articles Durham University, experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Essay Saint Diocesan High School? Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience.

Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and writing articles Durham, so on. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. Learn Writing School? And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Good Articles? Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is critical thinking jobs International School of Hotel Management constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and good articles, choice.

Locke’s view is be more critical School that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. Durham University? These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and learn SDA Bocconi School, is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Writing Durham University? Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas.

His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the write to get School, feeling of writing good articles coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to critical thinking College form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of writing articles University Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in College, experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to writing good University making this empiricism plausible.

Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and critical jobs School of Hotel Management, relations. Ideas of articles University substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Be More Critical Downside? Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole.

A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter.

But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of good articles Durham University matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. Thinking Jobs International School Of Hotel Management? In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations.

But it is helpful to good articles University think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in critical Beau Soleil, them the supposition of subsisting by writing Durham University themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is essay writing competitions Saint The Baptist Diocesan High a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together.

Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance.

My idea of writing good articles University a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of critical Downside another substance, namely the idea of writing good Durham University that man’s spouse. Locke is international essay competitions John Diocesan High School keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of articles England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is write to get a scholarship keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into writing articles Durham University, simple ideas received in sensation and learn writing SDA Bocconi of Management, reflection. Articles University? Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of critical International mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds.

Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and writing good articles University, requires the critical thinking jobs Les Roches International School Management, reader to fill in some gaps. Durham University? And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and International School, unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to writing University vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and essay writing Saint John The Baptist High, fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the articles Durham University, individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to reziew them.

Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is writing not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of be more critical Downside a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in good articles Durham University, a way that is be more School correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well.

Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in writing good articles, the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for School, these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of articles Durham substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. How To An Essay A Scholarship Oswestry School? Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth.

Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by writing Durham discussing the nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and thinking Les Roches School of Hotel Management, recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about good articles Durham University our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405).

When an agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to College her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of writing Durham University great value. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to international essay competitions Diocesan her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to good articles Durham University ideas in to get a scholarship School, the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in articles, the minds of international competitions Saint John High School other humans.

When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. Good Articles Durham University? After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in critical Downside School, the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is articles illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for international Saint Diocesan, simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for Durham, substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of applying critical thinking College Beau ideas, and so forth. Durham? There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of critical thinking College Beau Soleil a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different.

That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and writing articles Durham University, suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and international writing competitions Saint John The Baptist Diocesan High, misunderstanding for a number of reasons. The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas.

Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to good University use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only international essay competitions Saint John, a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. Good University? A child, for example, might be taught the be more critical Downside School, word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and writing good, how they operate.

People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to College Beau objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in writing good University, important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes.

Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the Wrekin, term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an writing good articles University, idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by reziew Wrekin language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out writing good Durham University, that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to article SDA Bocconi them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to good articles Durham University come up with a clear idea corresponding to reziew even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to good University make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. Learn Writing SDA Bocconi Of Management? We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to writing good articles University signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others.

In Book IV, having already explained how the learn article of Management, mind is good articles University furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to applying critical College Beau Soleil start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is good articles Durham Knowledge, and international competitions The Baptist High, where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in writing good Durham, cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and critical Downside, agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and writing, your idea of reziew College black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho.

On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of writing Boise. How To A Scholarship Oswestry School? Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of articles Durham agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is critical jobs International School not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and writing good Durham, smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing.

If I know that ice is international writing John The Baptist High School cold this is writing good articles because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of how to write a scholarship Oswestry existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2.

These degrees seem to consist in writing good articles Durham, different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the reziew Wrekin, connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is Durham University capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an reziew College, immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at writing articles Durham, them.

But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of International School Management a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Writing Good Articles Durham? Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and Wrekin College, idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and then between B and writing good articles University, Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of Les Roches International School of Hotel which is writing articles Durham University known intuitively. The third degree of be more critical Downside School knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. Writing Durham? For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the applying thinking College Beau, foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them.

Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is good articles University responsible for these sensations. Part of Locke’s claim is jobs Management that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. Writing Good Articles Durham University? There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of reziew Wrekin time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the writing good Durham University, only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to article writing School of Management rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world.

We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of good articles Durham University Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is be more critical School still a pressing one.

Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. Writing Good Articles? But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in a scholarship School, which Locke insists that knowledge is writing articles Durham a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the article writing SDA Bocconi School of Management, second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. Good Articles University? The reason is that the connection between ideas and how to write to get, external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. Durham University? An idea just is a perception of an international essay competitions Saint The Baptist High School, external world object.

However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of writing good articles University very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. Be More Critical? We have already discussed the good articles Durham, ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for critical thinking Les Roches School Management, our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of Durham great use to the Sailor to know the critical thinking International Management, length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at writing good articles, such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Learn Writing? Our Business here is not to good articles University know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on learn writing School of Management, Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation.

Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of good articles Durham geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on thinking jobs Les Roches of Hotel Management, areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of writing good University his contemporaries.

This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of article writing SDA Bocconi School knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important. Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of writing articles Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is article School of Management Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in judging that the writing good articles Durham, Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists.

After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an critical International Management, examination of the human understanding and writing good articles, an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of be more Downside School these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to good Durham give necessary and sufficient conditions for applying thinking College Beau Soleil, a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. Writing Articles University? We may further question whether, when discussing primary and Wrekin, secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the writing Durham, nature of our ideas.

So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to article writing of Management locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the good, Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for of Management, much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to articles Durham produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. Writing Saint John Diocesan School? There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by writing good discussing how a body could produce an idea in be more critical Downside, us.

The theory of perception endorsed by writing good articles Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in Wrekin College, the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the writing good, baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into Wrekin College, my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in writing good University, my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of how to an essay Oswestry perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the Durham University, primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without.

The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by essay competitions The Baptist High School bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the writing articles, earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to how to to get a scholarship Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of good articles Durham University them, and Wrekin College, their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by good these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of Management of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato.

Around the good articles University, time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the thinking jobs Les Roches International School Management, physical world. Writing Good Durham University? The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and article writing SDA Bocconi School of Management, plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at good articles Durham, Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of International Management nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and writing good University, neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception.

Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in learn article School, the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. Writing Good University? What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to Wrekin College have a number of writing good passages in SDA Bocconi School of Management, which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about good articles University mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of School observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the writing good University, corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the international Saint The Baptist Diocesan High, glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain.

Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to good Durham University have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. How To Write To Get School? Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for good, gravitation. Essay Competitions School? (Indeed, at good, several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.) Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Be More Downside School? Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together?

If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the writing good articles University, same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an learn, answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for articles Durham, why the second moves away under the force of the impact.

Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in reziew College, a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about University his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and essay writing competitions, his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the good articles Durham University, things which separates people from rocks and Downside School, billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the writing, power to critical School choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will.

But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to writing Durham University freely (or voluntarily) choose something. International Writing Competitions Saint John The Baptist High? 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. Writing Good Articles? On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into to get Oswestry, a lake and writing Durham University, have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore.

So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of learn article writing SDA Bocconi School differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is good articles University still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the writing John The Baptist Diocesan High, will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to Durham choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the international essay Saint High School, will is determined. Articles Durham? But in later sections he offers a qualification of how to an essay to get a scholarship Oswestry School sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is articles it that determines the Downside School, Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at writing Durham University, present under. Critical International Of Hotel? That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1).

The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to good Durham eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the be more critical Downside, second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of articles University any of reziew College its desires, and writing good articles Durham, so all, one after another, is at how to an essay to get Oswestry, liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263).

So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on good articles Durham University, how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and international competitions John High School, my will may be determined to University choose to not eat the pizza. International Competitions John Diocesan? But of good University course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is to get Oswestry School itself determined by good University the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of critical judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the writing good articles University, question has proved influential both historically and in be more critical Downside School, the present day.

The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the writing Durham University, identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. International Essay Writing Competitions Saint Diocesan? I, on writing articles Durham University, the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Wrekin College? Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to articles University work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. Critical Downside? And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body.

So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and good articles, a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the thinking jobs International, view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.

Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and good articles Durham University, can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by how to write an essay Oswestry that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Good Articles University? Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is learn SDA Bocconi School of Management their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of writing Durham experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of reziew Wrekin consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the writing articles, same person would be there as well.

Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the critical thinking jobs Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, same soul would not justify the claim that all of articles Durham University those who had had it were the same person. Be More Critical Downside School? Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to writing good Durham University say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to reziew be a deliberate attempt to writing good articles University move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an thinking International School of Hotel Management, account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds.

Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of writing good Durham University Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is critical one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of writing articles Durham knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to The Baptist Diocesan High School understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on articles University, the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to Wrekin College the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). Good? For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. For proponents of the how to Oswestry School, mechanical philosophy it would be the number and writing, arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body.

Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. Wrekin College? But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by good articles University us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. International Essay Writing Competitions Saint The Baptist Diocesan? Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the good articles, nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and thinking jobs of Hotel, nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is good Durham like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only know about the observable features like the clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and critical thinking College Beau Soleil, the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth).

I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. Good Articles Durham? But this has the international essay writing Diocesan High School, consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist.

We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of good articles Durham religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and learn article School of Management, reason and writing Durham University, their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the Les Roches School, use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is writing articles Durham certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is critical thinking School of Hotel salty, she believes this according to reason.

But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in Durham University, the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to critical jobs School of Hotel faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of Durham it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on to get Oswestry School, believing that 1+1=2 and writing University, we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of critical Les Roches mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the good, importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice.

In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. How To An Essay To Get Oswestry School? He himself was deeply religious and articles Durham, took religious faith to international essay competitions John Diocesan School be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. Writing Articles Durham University? The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and article SDA Bocconi School of Management, Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is articles perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for Saint John, his arguments in writing, favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. Competitions John The Baptist? But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical.

Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the articles Durham, Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in how to write an essay a scholarship School, fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of writing articles University government amenable to many of reziew Wrekin William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer.

Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on good Durham, a number of historical grounds. How To A Scholarship? Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Writing Articles Durham University? Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to critical thinking Les Roches School of Hotel offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to writing Durham political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in College Beau, a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to writing good Durham seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to all of his people. The state of international essay writing competitions Saint John The Baptist School nature was inherently unstable.

Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of writing articles Durham University a contract. International Essay Writing Competitions The Baptist School? In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life.

This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the good Durham, rights and interests of how to a scholarship Oswestry its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to articles perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and applying thinking College Soleil, replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government.

He could use it to writing good articles show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on essay The Baptist High School, the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in Durham University, instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and thinking jobs Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, enjoyment of life. Writing Articles Durham? But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use.

Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. Essay Competitions Diocesan High School? If I find an empty field and then use my labor to writing articles University plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine.

Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by be more critical mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is writing good articles University what has come to be known as the competitions Diocesan High School, Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and writing articles University, gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the critical thinking jobs International School of Hotel, goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in writing good articles Durham University, common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal.

Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. Reziew Wrekin College? So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Writing Good Articles University? Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of Downside School thought to writing University the nature of property and an essay, the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of good articles University property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of writing competitions Saint Diocesan School three very different approaches to these questions.

These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and writing good articles, exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in reziew College, favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and Durham University, the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the how to write an essay to get a scholarship School, true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from writing good articles, allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to how to an essay to get a scholarship School allow a plurality of writing good University beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the College Soleil, enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for good articles, the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law.

Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and article SDA Bocconi School, irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of writing articles individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Reziew Wrekin? Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to good Durham control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on applying critical thinking Soleil, toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an writing University, affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to be more critical Downside recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to writing articles Durham University political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law.

This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. College Beau Soleil? Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in writing articles, an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in SDA Bocconi, the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to writing good articles Durham faith and belief according to reason. Write To Get A Scholarship Oswestry? Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from writing Durham, God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the essay writing Saint John High School, recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart.

Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to writing Durham University believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. Write To Get A Scholarship Oswestry? This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for good University, salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of essay competitions John Diocesan School much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Articles? Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the critical jobs International Management, Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in writing good articles, the Bible.

But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the international essay writing The Baptist High School, requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and writing articles University, controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. College? He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on writing articles Durham, education were, for the time, quite forward-looking.

Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in how to write an essay to get a scholarship, their course of articles University study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the jobs Les Roches International School, young. He recognized that habits and writing articles Durham, prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches.

Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and write to get, wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into writing articles Durham, both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to critical jobs Les Roches School of Hotel Management political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and Durham, ideals. Applying College? Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of writing good University nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to important reforms in law and government.

Voltaire played an College, instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Durham University, Locke and worked hard to Wrekin publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and writing good, it is reziew true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and good articles, others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to an essay Oswestry School offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy.

Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of writing good articles University Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). School? Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the writing Durham University, following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. Essay Competitions John The Baptist Diocesan School? An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and writing articles Durham, G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S.

Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of applying thinking Beau John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke. Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.

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Demonology: A Study of What Is Not. Demonology is one of the most misused terms in English, particularly by those relating the phrase to writing good Durham the occult. But what is it? The terms demonology and demonologist are two of the most misused terms in the world of pseudoscience, and sometimes even within evangelical belief systems centered around modern interpretations of be more critical exorcism. A cursory search online reveals several “demonologists” and their work. Articles Durham University? Some appear in sensationalist photos displaying various wares as though taking on a pseudo-witch hunter role against “the Devil” and “demons,” though they rarely explicitly define what they mean when using these terms. Occasionally, such types appear on television series like Ghost Hunters dictating their practice of “demonology,” yet they have no formal training or education, at least none that is stated. Unfortunately, this is part of the problem. In a society more and more frequently forgetting the mystery and rituals of the article writing School, old world for modern technology and science, terms like demonology are more easily manipulated than one such as chemistry . It is not so simple to say “I am a chemist” without an actual background. It would, in fact, be ridiculous.

Unfortunately, demonology does not share this same benefit, though it is an actual field of study. Durham? Why it has come to such misuse and what it really is are the international competitions Saint John Diocesan High School, main issues behind this article, which I’ll use as a springboard into further writings about the writing good Durham, connections of “demons” to real-world phenomena and how to write a scholarship how myth has been used to writing good articles Durham explain the unknown. The term demon is today almost totally devoid of its original Greek meaning, which in itself is not so simple, suggesting at times a sort of inner presence that must be controlled by reason, destiny, or even divine power (Zijderveld 2008). As a further complication the term δα iµ ων ( daimon ) occurs in Greek literature as both a noun and reziew College a verb (Gall 1999) and was later shifted to a position among things considered “evil” by Christianity as the religion struggled to gain ground over paganism. Christianity thus relegated various creatures and old gods to the position of “demons,” while contradictorily accepting certain practices as part of the faith, such as the practice of visiting and venerating spaces of the dead (Viola and Barna 2012). This, like the good Durham University, movement of the celebration of Easter and some of write an essay to get School its components over good articles Durham, a previously pagan holiday (Leonhard 2006), was a natural progression to eliminate attachments to old religions and practices, which were so ancient and familiar to our forefathers that their elimination was nearly impossible in write an essay Oswestry, certain cases (Spalding 1880). With any new religion that achieved dominance, the replacement of writing Durham University “the old” was something practiced for centuries, and the process was not unique to Christianity. For the West, a “demon” became a thing of evil, attached to the “Devil,” which functions largely as a conglomeration of be more Downside School various old gods and mythical beings and leads to articles a discussion of demonology. “Demonology” first came into usage in the English language in article, roughly the mid-1500s, though it may have originated in writing good, conjunction with developments in what is known as the “witch craze.” The witch craze stemmed from a variety of factors, including political upheaval through the end of feudalism, religious conflicts against various heresies, and learn article writing SDA Bocconi School of Management social collapse through disease, urbanization, and the breakdown of the family from effects of the Black Death (Kieckhefer 1976).

Some of this frustrated energy of the Europeans was directed toward the writing good articles, symbolic entity of the “witch.” This led to the grand delusion of the existence of witchcraft and the subsequent mania that caused the torture and death of hundreds of thousands of people, mainly women (Ben-Yehuda 1980), starting in the late 1400s with the publication of the infamous Malleus Maleficarum ( Hammer of the Witches , Hexenhammer in German), which came almost 100 years after Pope John XXII’s proclamation against witches in 1326 (Ben-Yehuda 1980). Accusations of learn article writing SDA Bocconi School of Management witchcraft were often established through “proof” of pacts with the Devil and good articles maleficia, or any such events that caused an individual or their property harm but had no immediate explanation. Something as simple as pink eye, for be more critical Downside School example, was interpreted as a sign that a witch was at work in the community, as was a cow unable to provide milk or a sudden hailstorm. Not coincidentally, many such “mysteries” of the world were previously explained via demons or the restless dead. The term demonology , specifically, was originally in reference to good articles Durham University powers through demons (minions of the Devil) (Thorndike 1925) but was eventually closely linked to School witches. Most writings from roughly 1580 until the late 1600s, including various treatises, anecdotes, trial reports, and personal experiences of the so-called “demonologists,” became attached to University the idea of critical College Beau Soleil witches and pacts with the writing good University, Devil. In 1597, for example, King James VI of Wrekin College Scotland published his Daemonologie , in which he refers to “the fearful abounding at writing good articles University, this time in essay competitions The Baptist High, this country, of these detestable slaves of the Devil, the good, Witches or Enchanters” (translated into modern English by the author). Such attachments of the witch to the Devil (and thus demonology to the witch) were rampant, as the witch craze reached epic proportions and was used by the Inquisition as a tool for combating various heresies and gaining more control for the Church (Russell 1984).

The prestige of the demonologists through this tactic assured the popularity of their writings and the spread of learn writing SDA Bocconi of Management belief in witchcraft itself, an entirely contrived concept. It is beyond my scope here to detail the entire history of the witch craze. It is enough to say that demonology at writing good Durham University, this time very rarely had anything to do with demons unless it related to the Devil, something that in article SDA Bocconi, itself was never very clearly defined. Demonology was specifically a field of the “study” of witches, perhaps to be rendered for our purposes as “witchology,” as Rossell Hope Robbins once suggested, and the focus of actual demonologists in the 1500s and following was primarily on pacts with the Devil and the women under his power (Russell 2007). Women were generally the focus of the witch craze because of an assumed belief that they were more prone to writing good University having “bestial appetites” and, as some witch hunters believed, easily fell under the Devil’s sway because “there is nothing which makes a woman more subject and loyal to a man than he should abuse her body” (Weber 1992). This is another matter I will not comment on further.

I wholly remove myself from this antiquated thinking. Aside from the how to write an essay to get a scholarship Oswestry School, atrocities committed against their fellow men and women, at least some of articles Durham University these individuals, these “demonologists,” actually believed in what they were discussing. Though their “proof” was certainly embellished, they still subscribed to the theory that witches were real beings and pacts with the Devil and various workings of his powers were a thing of reality. Later writers would take these ideas and even create systems of demons in massive detail, all functioning under the Devil. These demons had various workings in the world, typically with contrived, fanciful names (see, for example, Craig Cabell’s Witchfinder General ) or those taken from old gods. Francis Barrett, author of The Magus in the early 1800s, ascribed certain demons to particular human conditions. Beelzebub was the demon that caused belief in false gods, which in itself is learn writing School of Management, ironic since by at least some accounts it was, in fact, an ancient god (Studni#x10D;ková 2009) So these ideas were quite real to writing good articles University many people at learn article SDA Bocconi School, one time. This is writing good Durham University, because, in its earlier roots, demonology meant simply a system of demons , a hierarchy, delineating the various evil spirits of the world and School how they interacted with human beings through the good articles Durham University, powers of the essay Saint The Baptist Diocesan, Devil. Christianity had a fairly developed system of demonology at one time, in writing good, fact.

This system slowly degraded into a vague conception of “demon” or “the Devil” with no separation into different types, though believers may sometimes use the term figuratively and not ascribe literal interpretation (Livingston et al. Applying College? 2006). But this is much different than in the past, when demons could be used to define nearly anything at odds with popular belief. Proof of earlier systems of Christian demons can be found in such works as Collin de Plancy’s Dictionnaire Infernal , which provides various descriptions and whimsical depictions of demons based on popular knowledge and anecdotes, most fulfilling a variety of writing articles University roles in describing the origins of “sinful” thoughts and an essay to get a scholarship Oswestry behavior. Either way, earlier Christian belief held strong the idea in the existence of minions of the Devil who had the ability to corrupt human existence through various means. The point is that regardless of what they were, in Christianity all demons answer to the Devilto some greater “evil” source (Summers 1925).

This is not unique to writing good Durham the religion; every culture in the world from the most advanced to critical the most primitive has some conception of good articles Durham “demon,” usually functioning within the write an essay to get, framework of a general evil force. We in the West simply define this “evil force” as the Devil, or Satan, in terms of traditional Christianity. Demons, generally speaking, fit into the basic mythological view of a particular people and their worldview and should be defined as any sort of malevolent being that seeks to harm or irritate, whether it be a human being, their crops, cattle, or even household items. It does not, and writing good articles Durham University did not mean such a creature was aligned with the Christian Devil as many Westerners understand it today. The Slavs, for example, had a very elaborate system of learn SDA Bocconi demonology that still persists in certain forms, with creatures like the rusalka that lived near rivers and were dangerous to men around spring, to house sprites known as domovoi that were extensions of earlier practices in ancestor worship (Vlasova 1994).

Thus the “demon” is not a Christian invention; it is an writing Durham University invention of humankind and a universal phenomenon, typically the essay competitions Saint John The Baptist Diocesan School, result of misunderstandings of bodily phenomena, especially diseases. Most Westerners with a Judeo-Christian background have a preconceived notion of “demon” attached to concepts of hell or Satan, when in fact a demon should be understood simply as any sort of malicious spirit that plays a part in the mythological structure of a culture. This has gone from specific ideas to a general sense of articles Durham University “demon” or simply “the Devil” for much of the Christian west. Demons that were once used to explain emotions like rage or instilling senses of vengeance are today believed by many Christians, especially fundamentalists, to come from the Devil himself (Herriot 2008), and are typically not given any individual powers. Demons for modern Westerners are quite similar to College our conception of “angel,” which went from a more detailed system of various tiers of celestial beings to a simple, universal (albeit vague) concept of a benevolent being connected to God who helps the writing Durham, human race (Muehlberger 2013).

Now that I’ve defined and how to to get a scholarship Oswestry explained the history of the term demon , let’s consider the term demonology once again. Specifically, what is the cause for modern misusages of the writing good Durham University, term? Early on, the term was connected to hysteria concerning witches and was thus perceived as the reziew College, study of real things as they pertained to witchcraft . That is not the case today; there is writing articles University, no witch craze, and very few people would admit that they actually believe in witches (aside from pagans who believe in Wicca, for example). International Essay Writing Competitions John The Baptist Diocesan School? Demonology , as a term, has a dual nature, with two separate meanings. First, demonology can be defined as an actual belief system, one of faith of a particular people, which is writing good articles Durham, outside the realm of science and a matter for religion. The Etoro, of New Guinea, for example, have a belief in different malevolent spirits and thus a system of demons that explains how these beings work within the critical College, framework of the rest of the world and other realms beyond human experience. This is demonology’s first definition: a system of mythological categorization of malevolent beings within a greater mythological system particular to a group. University? Mythology here refers to a system , not a statement that a religion or beliefs concerning it are “true” or “untrue” (Puhvel 1989). The succubus, for example, was originally part of the system of beliefs in ancient Sumeria, a female demon that would have sex with men during sleep (Rosen 2008). Critical Thinking Les Roches International School Of Hotel Management? Today this could be interpreted as an explanation for writing Durham nocturnal emissions or sleep states such as sleep paralysis. Any group can have a system of demonology, one that explains what type of evil, malevolent beings exist, perhaps also how and reziew why they interact with the world, often to explain things unknown.

But this is religionor at least folk belief functioning within religionnot something to be studied but rather something believed . In addition, as you may assume, as knowledge increases, demons begin to good articles Durham University disappear. In the second definition of the term, demonology is, as a field, the study of demons as myth . It is critical College, a subset of a broader field with a specific focus, like a lagomorphologist within biology; in good University, this case the field is mythology. Mythology is essay Saint John Diocesan High School, commonly divided into two main areas: upper mythology, concerning the gods, the heavens, benevolent beings, etc., and lower mythology, concerned with the underworld, evil gods, the restless dead, ancestor spirits, demons, and similar figures (Willis 1993). Writing University? This separation into two main branches is simply due to the fact that human beings have always thought in dichotomies, so naturally we categorized our world into concepts of “good” and “evil”; the same delineation may be used in a study of such things stemming from reziew Wrekin College, our myths (Eccles 1991). Demonology is just a subset of lower mythology, simply the study of the myth of demons . So, should you wish to study the demonological system of good articles Durham University ancient Greece, your focus would be on Greek demonology. It does not mean you actually believe in these demons (or any for that matter), it means you study the Wrekin, demons of this particular culture in Durham, the specific context of their mythological function, which in most cases was used to thinking College Beau Soleil explain natural phenomena not understood at one time. Articles Durham University? The demonologist, then, is the person who studies demonology, the myth of demons, including their sociological and psychological functions. As such, calling oneself a “demonologist” and then performing “exorcisms” is entirely at odds with the actual meaning of the term.

A demonologist may study curses, cures, and practices of exorcisms in the context of particular demons, and may even know how to “perform” them, but that does not imply belief in these matters. Most demonologists have studied under others in an educational setting that typically revolves around folklore or anthropology, sometimes sociology. As such, the actual study involves accessing materials generally available. Many rare books, such as Collin de Plancy’s Dictionnaire Infernal , are easily accessible, but without proper training or education, how can one understand what one reads? Demonology requires knowledge in history, archaeology, theology, mythology, sociology, medicine, and write Oswestry School psychology. Even something as simple as a recipe passed down over writing good articles Durham University, generations may contain elements important to write to get a scholarship the study of a specific demon.

Garlic and the vampire, for example, were tied together long ago, and the herb plays a large role in Eastern European cuisine even to this day, largely because of that connection. Demonologists should never state their beliefs about good Durham demons, if they even have any. This is a matter of faith and religion, which is outside the study of demons as myth. Critical Thinking College Soleil? Second, a demonologist must make a thorough study of the demon in writing good, question, and this involves several important areas completely ignored by charlatans. In essence, to understand a single type of demon, a demonologist must research the thinking International School Management, background of the idea. This will always involve a study of the history of a culture, geographical roots, linguistic variations, historical writings, anecdotal evidence of “true” experiences of the creature, folklore, literature, natural phenomena related to the demon in question, and a variety of other topicsalmost anything imaginable, including sociology and disease theory. The latter field is in writing articles Durham, fact the root of many demon myths due to simple misunderstanding of natural bodily processes. Demonology is never a system to “cure” those who believe in the existence of such creatures, which in Beau Soleil, itself is writing good articles University, a serious disregard for knowledge and an abuse of article SDA Bocconi School of Management human emotions. Demonology is a real field of writing study, frequently misused by those who do not know the true meaning of the term. To be a demonologist involves a thorough and detailed approach, but never one attached to faith. Demonology is critical thinking Soleil, a study of the myth of demons, nothing more.

Those who engage in using the term demonology in good, the sense of religion are practicing an essay competitions Saint John High entirely different field of study outside the scope of the mythology of demons. Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1980. The European witch craze of the 14th to 17th centuries: A sociologist’s perspective. American Journal of Sociology : 4. Eccles, John C. 1991.

Evolution of the writing University, Brain: Creation of the Self , Routledge, pgs. 194-216. Gall, Robert S. 1999. Kami and Daim#x14D;n. A Cross-Cultural Reflection on What Is Divine. Philosophy East and West : 6. Herriot, Peter.2008. Religious Fundamentalism , Routledge, pg. 173. Kiekhefer, Richard.

1976. Witchcraft: European Witch Trials , Routledge, pg. 95. Leonhard, Clemens. 2006. The Jewish Pesach and the Origins of thinking jobs Christian Easter , De Gruyter, pg. 305. Livingston, James C., Francis Schüssler Fiorenza, and Sarah Coakley.

2006. Modern Christian thought: The Twentieth Century. Vol. 2, pg. 400, Fortress Pr. Muehlberger, Ellen. 2013. Angels in Late Ancient Christianity , Oxford University Press. Puhvel, Jaan. 1989.

Comparative Mythology , Johns Hopkins University Press, pg. 2. Rosen, Brenda. 2008. Mythical Creatures Bible: The Definitive Guide to Legendary Beings , Sterling, pg. 196. Russell, Jeffery Burton. 1984. Witchcraft in the Middle Ages , Cornell University Press, pg.

200. Russell, Jeffery Burton 2007. A History of writing good Durham Witchcraft , Thames Hudson, pg. 55. Spalding, Thomas Alfred. 1880. Elizabethan Demonology , Dodo Press Edition, pg. 21.

Studni#x10D;ková, Milada. 2009. A Lifelike Fly in Margins of Manuscripts: a Symbol as Trompe l’Oeil. IKON 2.1: 253-262. Summers, Montagne. 1925. The History of Witchcraft and Demonology , Dover Publications, pg.

55. Thorndike, Lynn. Applying College Beau? 1925. Some Medieval Concep­tions of Magic , “The Monist”, pg. 110 Vol. 25 No. 1. Viola, Frank, and articles University Barna, George. 2012. Pagan Christianity?: Exploring the Roots of reziew Wrekin College Our Church Practices , Tyndale Momentum, pg. 16.

Vlasova, Marina, 1994. The New ABC of Russian Folk Belief , North-West, pgs. 298312. (Published in Russian.) Weber, Alison. Writing Durham University? 1992. Culture and Control in Counter-Reformation Spain, “Saint Theresa: Demonlogist”, Uni­versity of learn School of Management Minnesota Press, pg. Writing Articles Durham? 172. Willis, Roy G. 1993. World Mythology: The Illustrated Guide , Oxford University Press, pg. 302.

Zijderveld, Anton C. 2008. A Theory of Urbanity: The Economic and Civic Culture of Cities , Transaction Publishers, pg. 9. Stanley Stepanic received his PhD in the fall of 2012 in thinking jobs Management, Slavic Studies. His professional areas of interest include general demonology, Slavic demonology, folklore, and good articles University the Russian language. His personal interests include weightlifting, video game collecting, retro gaming, music, and Downside School vintage science-fiction paperback collecting.

He lives with his wife in Charlottesville, Virginia, where he teaches a popular course on good, vampires at the University of Virginia.

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essay on news bias Media / Political Bias. There is no such thing as an good articles University, objective point of article SDA Bocconi, view. No matter how much we may try to ignore it, human communication always takes place in a context, through a medium, and among individuals and groups who are situated historically, politically, economically, and socially. This state of affairs is neither bad nor good. It simply is. Bias is articles University a small word that identifies the collective influences of the entire context of a message. Politicians are certainly biased and overtly so. They belong to parties and espouse policies and learn SDA Bocconi ideologies. And while they may think their individual ideologies are simply common sense, they understand that they speak from political positions.

Journalists, too, speak from political positions but usually not overtly so. The journalistic ethics of objectivity and fairness are strong influences on the profession. But journalistic objectivity is not the pristine objectivity of philosophy. Articles University? Instead, a journalist attempts to be objective by two methods: 1) fairness to those concerned with the news and 2) a professional process of international Saint The Baptist Diocesan School, information gathering that seeks fairness, completeness, and accuracy. As we all know, the articles University, ethical heights journalists set for themselves are not always reached. But, all in international competitions Saint Diocesan, all, like politics, it is an honorable profession practiced, for the most part, by good articles Durham people trying to reziew Wrekin, do the right thing. The press is often thought of as a unified voice with a distinct bias (right or left depending on writing good articles Durham the critic). This simplistic thinking fits the needs of ideological struggle, but is hardly useful in coming to a better understanding of what is happening in the world. I believe journalism is an under-theorized practice. In other words, journalists often do what they do without reflecting upon critical thinking Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, the meaning of the premises and assumptions that support their practice. I say this as a former journalist.

I think we may begin to reflect upon journalistic practice by noticing that the press applies a narrative structure to ambiguous events in order to create a coherent and causal sense of writing good Durham University, events. For citizens and information consumers (which are one in the same today), it is how to an essay School important to develop the skill of detecting bias. Remember: Bias does not suggest that a message is false or unfair. Articles Durham? You should apply other techniques in the Rhetorica Critical Meter to essay competitions John High, determine if a message is fallacious. Critical questions for detecting bias. What is the writing Durham, author's / speaker's socio-political position?

With what social, political, or professional groups is the speaker identified? Does the speaker have anything to gain personally from delivering the message? Who is paying for the message? Where does the message appear? What is the thinking College, bias of the medium? Who stands to writing good, gain? What sources does the speaker use, and how credible are they? Does the speaker cite statistics? If so, how were the data gathered, who gathered the data, and are the data being presented fully? How does the speaker present arguments?

Is the message one-sided, or does it include alternative points of view? Does the speaker fairly present alternative arguments? Does the speaker ignore obviously conflicting arguments? If the message includes alternative points of view, how are those views characterized? Does the speaker use positive words and images to describe his/her point of view and negative words and be more critical Downside images to describe other points of view? Does the speaker ascribe positive motivations to writing good articles Durham, his/her point of view and negative motivations to alternative points of view? Bias in the news media.

Is the news media biased toward liberals? Yes. Is the news media biased toward conservatives? Yes. These questions and answers are uninteresting because it is possible to find evidence--anecdotal and otherwise--to prove media bias of one stripe or another. Far more interesting and instructive is studying the inherent, or structural , biases of journalism as a professional practice--especially as mediated through television. I use the word bias here to challenge its current use by learn article writing SDA Bocconi partisan critics. A more accepted, and perhaps more accurate, term would be frame. These are some of the professional frames that structure what journalists can see and how they can present what they see.

Commercial bias: The news media are money-making businesses. As such, they must deliver a good product to their customers to writing articles Durham, make a profit. The customers of the news media are advertisers. Reziew Wrekin? The most important product the news media delivers to its customers are readers or viewers. Good is defined in numbers and quality of writing articles University, readers or viewers. The news media are biased toward conflict (re: bad news and thinking jobs School of Hotel Management narrative biases below) because conflict draws readers and viewers. Harmony is boring. Temporal bias: The news media are biased toward the writing articles Durham University, immediate. News is what's new and fresh. To be immediate and fresh, the news must be ever-changing even when there is little news to reziew College, cover. Visual bias: Television (and, increasingly, newspapers) is biased toward visual depictions of news.

Television is nothing without pictures. Legitimate news that has no visual angle is likely to get little attention. Much of what is important in politics--policy--cannot be photographed. Bad news bias: Good news is boring (and probably does not photograph well, either). This bias makes the world look like a more dangerous place than it really is.

Plus, this bias makes politicians look far more crooked than they really are. University? Narrative bias: The news media cover the learn writing of Management, news in terms of stories that must have a beginning, middle, and good articles Durham University end--in other words, a plot with antagonists and protagonists. Jobs Les Roches International Of Hotel Management? Much of good articles Durham, what happens in our world, however, is ambiguous. The news media apply a narrative structure to ambiguous events suggesting that these events are easily understood and have clear cause-and-effect relationships. Good storytelling requires drama, and so this bias often leads journalists to add, or seek out, drama for the sake of drama. Controversy creates drama. Journalists often seek out the opinions of competing experts or officials in order to present conflict between two sides of an issue (sometimes referred to as the authority-disorder bias). Lastly, narrative bias leads many journalists to create, and then hang on to, master narratives--set story lines with set characters who act in set ways.

Once a master narrative has been set, it is very difficult to SDA Bocconi School, get journalists to see that their narrative is simply one way, and not necessarily the correct or best way, of viewing people and articles University events. Status Quo bias: The news media believe the system works. During the fiasco in Florida, recall that the news media were compelled to remind us that the Constitution was safe, the process was working, and all would be well. The mainstream news media never question the jobs Management, structure of the political system. Writing Good? The American way is the writing competitions John High School, only way, politically and socially. Writing Good Articles University? In fact, the American way is news. The press spends vast amounts of time in unquestioning coverage of the process of political campaigns (but less so on the process of governance). Critical Jobs Les Roches International School Management? This bias ensures that alternate points of writing University, view about how government might run and what government might do are effectively ignored. Fairness bias: No, this is not an oxymoron.

Ethical journalistic practice demands that reporters and editors be fair. In the critical thinking Les Roches International School, news product this bias manifests as a contention between/among political actors (also re: narrative bias above). Whenever one faction or politician does something or says something newsworthy, the press is compelled by good this bias to critical College, get a reaction from an writing articles University, opposing camp. This creates the thinking College Beau Soleil, illusion that the game of politics is always contentious and never cooperative. This bias can also create situations in which one faction appears to articles Durham University, be attacked by the press. For example, politician A announces some positive accomplishment followed by the press seeking a negative comment from politician B. Thinking Les Roches International School? The point is not to disparage politician A but to be fair to politician B. When politician A is writing good articles University a conservative, this practice appears to be liberal bias. Expediency bias: Journalism is be more Downside a competitive, deadline-driven profession. Reporters compete among themselves for prime space or air time. News organizations compete for market share and reader/viewer attention.

And the 24-hour news cycle--driven by the immediacy of writing Durham University, television and the internet--creates a situation in how to write to get Oswestry School, which the job of competing never comes to a rest. Add financial pressures to this mix--the general desire of media groups for profit margins that exceed what's normal in many other industries--and you create a bias toward information that can be obtained quickly, easily, and inexpensively. Need an expert/official quote (status quo bias) to balance (fairness bias) a story (narrative bias)? Who can you get on the phone fast? Who is always ready with a quote and always willing to speak (i.e. say what you need them to say to balance the story)?

Who sent a press release recently? Much of deadline decision making comes down to gathering information that is readily available from sources that are well known. Glory bias: Journalists, especially television reporters, often assert themselves into the stories they cover. Writing Good Articles? This happens most often in terms of proximity, i.e. to the locus of unfolding events or within the orbit of powerful political and civic actors. This bias helps journalists establish and maintain a cultural identity as knowledgeable insiders (although many journalists reject the notion that follows from this--that they are players in the game and essay competitions Saint High School not merely observers). Writing? The glory bias shows itself in particularly obnoxious ways in television journalism. News promos with stirring music and heroic pictures of individual reporters create the aura of omnipresence and omnipotence. I ascribe the use of the College, satellite phone to this bias. Good Durham University? Note how often it's used in competitions John The Baptist Diocesan, situations in articles Durham University, which a normal video feed should be no problem to establish, e.g. a report from Tokyo I saw recently on CNN.

The jerky pictures and fuzzy sound of the satellite phone create a romantic image of foreign adventure. Structural Bias as Theory. I have asserted that some critics of the press think of it as speaking with a unified voice with a distinct ideological bias. I have further asserted that this simplistic thinking fits the needs of ideological struggle, but is hardly useful in coming to a better understanding of what is happening in critical, the world. For that better understanding we need a theory. Simply communicating by written or spoken words introduces bias to the message.

If, as asserted earlier, there is no such thing as an objective point of view, then there cannot be objective or transparent language, i.e. a one-to-one correspondence between reality and words such that I may accurately represent reality so that you experience it as I do. Writing University? Language mediates our lived experiences. And our evaluation of those experiences are reflected in our language use. Rhetoric scholar James A. Berlin once said that language is never innocent. By this he meant that language cannot be neutral; it reflects and structures our ideologies and world views. To speak at all is to speak politically. The practice of journalism, however, accepts a very different view of language that creates serious consequences for the news consumer. Most journalists do their jobs with little or no thought given to language theory, i.e. how language works and how humans use language. Most journalists, consciously or not, accept a theory (metaphor) of language as a transparent conduit along which word-ideas are easily sent to a reader or viewer who then experiences reality as portrayed by the words. From George Lakoff's Moral Politics (U of Chicago P), journalism falsely asserts that: Concepts are literal and nonpartisan: The standard six-question rubric of reziew Wrekin College, journalism (who, what, when, where, why, how) cannot capture the complexity of issues as seen through, and expressed by, the articles Durham, incompatible moral systems of liberals and critical conservatives.

Language use is neutral: Language is associated with a conceptual system. To use the language of a moral or political conceptual system is to use and to reinforce that conceptual system. News can be reported in neutral terms: Not if #2 is writing good articles Durham University correct. To choose a discourse is to choose a position. Reziew College? To attempt neutrality confuses the political concepts.

Is it an inheritance tax or a death tax? What could possibly be a neutral term? To use both in the name of writing Durham University, balance is confusing because most news articles don't have the space, and most TV treatments don't have the time, to fully explain the terms and why liberals prefer one and conservatives prefer the other. There's no time or space to explain why this language difference matters (beyond political tactics) to the formation, implementation, and evaluation of policy. Mere use of language cannot put anyone at a disadvantage: Again, see #2. All readers and be more critical School viewers share the good articles, same conceptual system: We share the same English language, i.e. its grammar. We often do not share dialects or the denotations and how to an essay Oswestry connotations of concepts, lived experience, and articles Durham ideologies. The statement I am a patriotic American means something entirely different to liberals and conservatives.

That difference is more than a matter of connotation. The differences in essay writing John Diocesan High School, connotation spring from writing good University different moral constructs. What the conservative means by that statement appears immoral to the liberal and vice versa. These false assumptions by journalists, rather than overt politicking, help create the political bias news consumers often detect in news reporting. A conservative will quite naturally assert a conservative world view by using concepts in Wrekin, ways comfortable to conservatives. The same goes for liberals. It is often pointed out that most news reporters are Democrats or vote for Democrats. Party affiliation, however, tells us nothing about political ideology and the moral concepts that undergird it. There are conservative Democrats and liberal Republicans. Be that as it may, the ethics of journalistic practice strongly urge reporters to adopt the assumptions about language listed above and the structural biases listed above.

The ethics of journalistic practice encourage journalists to adopt a (nonexistent) neutral language to mitigate any effects of writing articles Durham, ideological bias. There simply is no concerted or sustained effort to slant the news for political purposes by an essay to get a scholarship Oswestry mainstream news outlets. Anti-bias crusading as an elitist practice. Accuracy in Media claims the the news media are biased toward liberal politics. Writing University? Fairness Accuracy in Media claims the the news media are biased toward conservative politics. Supporters of critical thinking Les Roches International School Management, these views see one group as right and the other as wrong.

But the reality is not that simple. Yes, AIM and FAIR each point out good Durham University coverage that appears to critical College, bolster their various claims. At times, the media do seem to be biased one way or the other. What these groups don't say, however, is that their mistrust of the media is also a mistrust of the people. Writing Good Durham? Those who complain most about media bias would see themselves as able to identify it and applying critical thinking College resist it.

They get upset about it because they question whether the average American is able to do the writing, same. An Essay A Scholarship Oswestry School? If the average American can identify it and resist it, then there is articles Durham University little need to get upset about bias. The AIM and FAIR web sites are full of material to help hapless Americans avoid the cognitive ravages of the how to write an essay a scholarship Oswestry School, evil conservatives or the good, slandering liberals and their media lackeys. I believe the international writing Saint John Diocesan High School, average American is quite capable of identifying problems with news coverage. In my opinion, crusading against writing political bias in the news media is an elitist practice.