How to write biographical essay University of East Anglia (INTO)
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The Bold Attempt to Demystify Hitler's 'Mein Kampf' For the first time since 1945, Adolf Hitler's 'Mein Kampf' is available for sale in Germany. With a new annotated edition, Historians hope to defuse the write biographical essay, Nazi-era bestseller. Essay International. Even after seven decades, it remains a dangerous proposition. ist Autor im Kulturressort des SPIEGEL.
Photo: Monika Zucht. ist Redakteur im Deutschlandressort des SPIEGEL. That damned book! The minister feels a need to drink something spicy. Ludwig Spaenle reaches for a bottle of Tabasco, pours a generous amount into a glass of vegetable juice and how to write biographical of East Anglia (INTO) takes a large gulp. Mein Kampf? Yes, he says, it's certainly a unique story. He initially welcomed the new edition of Adolf Hitler's book, he says, and the Bavarian state parliament even approved a budget of #128;500,000 ($542,000) for the project, led by the Munich Institute of Contemporary History. But then, says Spaenle, he accompanied the Bavarian governor on a trip to Israel in September 2012. And after that, opinions changed, he explains. Period.
Spaenle, the Bavarian Minister of Education and Science, pours another serving of of an writing John F. Kennedy International vegetable juice and Tabasco into his glass and takes another large gulp. What happened in Jerusalem? Well, he says, there were the victims' rights groups, there were Israeli cabinet ministers and there were many meetings. After that, it was clear that it just wouldn't do. A new edition of Mein Kampf with the coat of arms of the State of how to Anglia (INTO) Bavaria on the front cover? No one in Israel would have understood such a thing. Spaenle takes another sip and spends a moment staring into space in his office, enormous even by Bavarian standards. It is an evening in November 2015 and the minister, a Baroque figure, is sitting -- or rather, holding court -- on his sofa, with his sleeves rolled up, surrounded by dark oil paintings on the walls and a large photo of former Bavarian Governor Franz Josef Strauss on write essays Albert College, his desk. This book, the victims, academia -- somehow it all refused to how to write biographical University Anglia, fit together.
And it was up to him, Spaenle, to solve the problem without spoiling his relationship with his boss, current Bavarian Governor Horst Seehofer. On Dec 11, 2013, a day after Seehofer had announced Bavaria's withdrawal from the project, Spaenle wrote a rather sly press release: Out of format of an F. Kennedy respect for the victims of the Holocaust, he wrote, he too was opposed to the publication of an academic edition of this disgraceful book on assignment from the Free State of Bavaria. But then he added, diplomatically: This will not affect the freedom of academia to address the issues it deems necessary. In other words, the how to write essay Anglia, Institute of Contemporary History (IfZ) was free to continue working on the project. The state government was not asking the IfZ to pay back the subsidy, instead the funding was declared to format of an writing John International School, be a non-project-specific grant.
The language allowed Spaenle to successfully evade the problem. Now, more than two years later, the IfZ edition has actually been published. And just days after it appeared in bookstores last week, the first print run of 4,000 copies was sold out. IfZ is now starting a second, much larger run of the two-volume, 1,948-page work. The new edition includes the essay University Anglia (INTO), complete original text of Mein Kampf, together with more than 3,500 astute annotations. Research Article St. George’s School. The only thing missing is the Bavarian coat of arms on its gray cover. To defuse any suspicions of commercial interest, the University of East Anglia (INTO), edition is being published by the IfZ's in-house imprint. Nevertheless, the help a essay Seneca College, project has raised concerns, even in the academic world. Wolfgang Benz, a Berlin expert on how to write biographical essay of East (INTO), anti-Semitism, cannot imagine that the new edition will offer anything new, and sample essay State Jeremy Adler, a professor of German in London, even tried to stop the edition last Thursday. Otherwise, he wrote in an angry op-ed in Suddeutsche Zeitung , a disgraceful work would gain a dignity that we associate with Homer and Plato, the how to University of East Anglia, Bible and the Talmud.
Adler does admit, however, that he rendered his verdict without access to the new text. A Good Admissions Essay The University. Which is biographical essay (INTO) rather bold. For if he had had the topics, opportunity to peruse the IfZ edition, he would most likely have reached a different conclusion. How To University Of East Anglia. In fact, this edition is one of the most important Hitler-research works to sample University, be printed in years. It will satisfy experts in the field and provide historically interested laypersons with a wealth of new insights. It is likely that IfZ historians have never before attracted this much public attention. For months, journalists, diplomats and politicians besieged the academics at their offices in a concrete building on Leonrodstrasse in Munich.
Some of their more prominent visitors included Douglas Davidson, the how to write biographical University Anglia (INTO), US State Department's Special Envoy for Holocaust Issues, Dan Shaham, the Israeli General Consul in Munich, and members of the Green Party's parliamentary group in the Bavarian State Parliament. The new edition project was mentioned on South Korean breakfast radio and on the BBC, CNN and Al Jazeera. The Italian daily La Stampa and the Spanish newspaper El Pais reported on the project, as did the Tokyo daily Asahi Shimbun and the New York Times . Three German public broadcasters produced documentaries and almost all German newspapers and magazines published lengthy articles on the subject. 'The Foundation of the Hitler Myth' Should we have expected anything else? For the last 90 years, Mein Kampf has been treated as a key work of format of an essay writing International Nazism and, in light of its consequences, can be considered the world's most dangerous book. It was only during the writing of the tome that Hitler began to believe that he had been chosen, and biographical of East Anglia the book was intended to help, convey this message to his supporters.
Mein Kampf, says historian Ian Kershaw, laid the foundation for the Hitler myth. In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined the murderous ideology that dominated his thinking until his 1945 death in the Fuhrer bunker in (INTO), Berlin. With the book, writes Hitler biographer Peter Longerich, Hitler began to consistently connect the how to write essay The University of Birmingham, space issue with the race issue, that is, the how to essay of East, destruction of the Soviet Union with anti-Semitism. In the end, these delusional ideas led to the dual catastrophe of how to write academic essays Albert a war of extermination and the Holocaust. From pogroms to hatred of Communists to his greatest obsession, the war, Hitler revealed in his book what he intended to do, with an how to write essay University of East (INTO) openness that was as remarkable as it was naive, write the (Navitas), IfZ historians. In the last relatively free parliamentary election before the war, in March 1933, about 52 percent of Germans voted for Hitler and his coalition. They should have known what the leader of the Nazi Party had in mind. The first volume of Mein Kampf was published in the summer of 1925 and the second in Anglia, December 1926.
Nazi propaganda chief Joseph Goebbels called the book a gospel of a new era, while others saw it as the bible of National Socialism. Today critics are no less dramatic in their assessments, calling it a grail of evil and a Pandora's box that would better be left closed forever. Once it was re-opened, Charlotte Knobloch, president of the Israeli Cultural Society of Munich, warned in the Washington Post , it could no longer be closed. In other words, Knobloch seemed to imply, a republication of Mein Kampf could expose Germany to an uncontrollable threat. It is a concern shared by many. Indeed, justice and Seneca College interior ministers from the German states have prepared for Anglia the book's publication -- because the how to essays Albert College, Munich academics aren't the write, only ones now allowed to publish Mein Kampf. As of Jan. 1, 2016, anyone can publish and sell the book, at least in theory. More than 70 years after the author's death, the essay, copyright, which the Free State of University of East Bavaria held since 1948 and consistently defended, has now expired. Aware of the writing conclusion Curtin (Navitas), Risks.
But exactly how dangerous is Mein Kampf today? Will adherents of the how to biographical University of East Anglia, anti-Islam group Pegida find new material for John International School their agitation? Will a xenophobe like Bjorn Hocke, a politician with the right-wing populist Alternative for how to write essay University of East Germany (AfD) party, use Mein Kampf to justify his biological racism? Will Germany's latent anti-Semites -- about 20 percent of the population, according to polls -- immediately begin to invoke Hitler's book? The publishers of the new edition are certainly aware of the risks. He is help writing a essay Seneca College not willing to rule out, that sections of 'Mein Kampf' can still be exploited for write biographical of East Anglia (INTO) radical right-wing thought today, says IfZ Director Andreas Wirsching. He cites the Statement on the Question of the Affinity of the NPD (National Democratic Party of Germany) with Historic National Socialism, which his institute submitted for the newly launched proceedings to ban the neo-Nazi NPD before the Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe. Apparently, members of the new far right have repeatedly cited Hitler's book -- to how to a good The University, legitimize political violence, for example, or to write University of East Anglia (INTO), justify the research review article St. George’s School, myth of the Jewish desire for global dominance.
If the biographical University (INTO), case against the NPD succeeds, Germany could find itself in a paradoxical situation this spring: with a newly banned neo-Nazi party at the same time that its ideological foundation is more widely available than it has been since 1945. Nonetheless, Wirsching defends his institute's project. The fear of acting incorrectly from writing Louisiana University a moral standpoint or making political mistakes in write essay Anglia, the treatment of Hitler's legacy -- that is, continuing to pretend that the write academic Albert, book doesn't exist -- would only amplify its taboo nature. Mein Kampf is eminently valuable as a source work in studying the history of the calamity, he says, noting that no work reveals more about the delusional world of Adolf Hitler. The fact that the write essay, ideas underpinning this delusional world are neither unique nor original is essays College one of the most important conclusions reached by the Munich historians. After examining hundreds of pamphlets and how to write biographical of East Anglia (INTO) books from the volkisch -conservative world of the early 20th century, they determined that Hitler's apodictic verdicts and his biologistic terminology grew straight out of the reactionary mainstream. The man who would later become Germany's Fuhrer wasn't the essay, only one who despised Slavs, hated Jews and bloviated about natural selection and the law of the jungle.
In fact, the Nazi leader derived his ideas from the essay Anglia (INTO), popular and pseudo-scientific knowledge of his day, especially social Darwinism, says IfZ Director Wirsching. What was unique, however, is the manner in which he assembled the pieces. According to Wirsching, Hitler integrated key elements of German political culture, amplifies them and radicalized them for his purposes. Uncovering the Lies. What the IfZ scholars call this monstrosity has never been annotated -- and refuted -- so comprehensively. The historians compared 38 of the 1,122 editions of Mein Kampf with one another. Each correction is noted. For instance, in the 1937 edition the phrase teure (expensive) German mothers was changed to i need writing a essay College, treue (faithful) German mothers.
It was changed back to teure mothers in 1939 and finally, in 1944, to treue mothers. Most of all, however, the editors have uncovered every lie and half-truth. For instance, where Hitler writes that Jewish theater critics went easy on productions by University of East Anglia, Jewish authors, the editors quote from damning reviews by Karl Kraus, an Austrian Jewish critic, about works by Jewish playwrights. Where Hitler claims that nine-tenths of essay writing John International School all literary filth was written by Jews, the IfZ team exposes the nine-tenths statement as a favorite trick of anti-Semites. How To Write Essay (INTO). No matter how many counter-examples are presented, they are merely interpreted by the far-right as exceptions that prove the rule. Hitler, originally from the Austrian town of Braunau, deliberately distorted many things, while other inaccuracies were merely the result of poor research. The number of factual errors alone is in the hundreds. Hitler writes that the heirs to the Habsburg throne spoke Czech with each other.
Wrong. He writes that he himself was Nazi Party member No. 7. Essay Of Birmingham. Wrong again (the number on his membership card was 555). Write Biographical University. According to Hitler, no one was interested in the question of war debt after World War I. Completely wrong. Few issues were as controversial among Germans after 1918 as the war debt. In fact, the how to admissions essay of Birmingham, editors' notes on some passages are what make them broadly comprehensible in the first place. How To Of East Anglia (INTO). The IfZ team, headed by admissions essay, historians Christian Hartmann and Thomas Vordermayer, applied all the how to write biographical essay, rules of historiography in completely disassembling the how to, original, 800-page text. In the new edition, each double page consists of one page from Mein Kampf and one page filled with up to 15 explanatory comments from the publishers. Reading is tedious at essay University of East Anglia times, but it's also rewarding: The new edition goes a long way toward permanently inoculating readers against sample essay writing State the book's ideological poison.
Or, to put it in the words of Christian Hartmann: We are the bomb disposal team. We remove the fuse. Hitler's writing style feels outdated today. How To Write Biographical Essay University Of East Anglia. The text is replete with oddities (the lower strata of the population) and bizarre metaphors (Examples of the Columbus Egg lie around us in of an writing John F. Kennedy International, hundreds of thousands, but observers like Columbus are rare.). Pride in Anti-Semitism. Hitler loved foreign words, repetition and superlatives. For him, parliaments were not only dishonest, but in fact most supremely dishonest, and his party didn't just face a struggle, but an enormous struggle.
And then there is the constant vituperation of his enemies as profiteers, poisoners of the people, deceitful assassins, smug little men and riff-raff. Another noticeable feature is Hitler's inflated use of terms that would ordinarily be negative, such as ruthless and brutal, in a positive context: From being a soft-hearted cosmopolitan I became an out-and-out anti-Semite, Hitler reported in Mein Kampf -- and biographical Anglia he was clearly proud of the transformation. Astonishingly, the format of an John, author, ordinarily not one for how to write University Anglia self-criticism, felt that his book was not particularly successful linguistically. I am not a man of the pen, and I write poorly, he noted in 1924. It was an assessment that even Nazi propaganda minister Josef Goebbels, who was devoted to Hitler, shared.
The book feels honest and courageous, he said. It's just that the style is sometimes unbearable. Apparently, most readers did not find Hitler's strange style off-putting. Reviewers in the right-wing press praised the work. Research Review Article School. A pastor even thanked God for the hours in which I was able to study Adolf Hitler's book 'Mein Kampf.' The diplomat Ernst von Weizsacker, whose son would later serve as president of Germany, was apparently so impressed by the book that he praised Hitler's warm-heartedness toward social suffering in a letter. Literary scholar Helmuth Kiesel, a professor of German literature in Heidelberg, notes that the book is -- linguistically, at least -- better than its reputation. In the summer before last, Kiesel performed an experiment and read Mein Kampf in how to write Anglia, its entirety during a vacation.
He found the content disgusting, but Kiesel reached a surprising conclusion in an article for the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , where he noted that Hitler had a broad range of rhetorical and stylistic tools at topics University his disposal. He was not incompetent, but a writer with an awareness of his impact. Hitler's choice of words, the IfZ team notes, was certainly in keeping with the period. Biographical University. Some terms that are frowned upon today as being of Nazi provenance -- such as Volksgemeinschaft (ethnic community) and Entartung (degeneracy) -- were also used by democrats at writing topics the time. Prepared for write essay a 'Fantastical Adventure' In the early 1920s, Germany was a hotbed of delusional ideas and political desperados. The German Empire had sent more than 13 million soldiers to war, and more than 2 million of them didn't come back.
For many people, the stab-in-the-back legend, that is, the claim that primarily Jews, Social Democrats and Communists were responsible for Germany's defeat in World War I, seemed to be the only explanation for the disaster. German society, traumatized by the defeat, lacked democratic consensus and center-right parties, together with the SPD on the center-left, had discredited themselves among large segments of the population by accepting the Treaty of Versailles. Meanwhile, Leftist revolutionaries and how to write a good essay radical right-wing militia groups took the University Anglia (INTO), country to the brink of civil war, while a judiciary that was hostile to the republic did almost nothing to stop their murderous activities. Conclusion Curtin University (Navitas). Political anti-Semitism, still the domain of smaller parties in the German Empire, expanded into the entire conservative, national spectrum. Finally, the write biographical University Anglia (INTO), country and its inhabitants became impoverished following the hyperinflation of 1923.
The year 1923 wore Germany out, wrote journalist and Nazi Party opponent Sebastian Haffner, and it prepared it not for Nazism in review School, particular, but for any fantastical adventure. The thing that gave Nazism its streak of insanity developed at the time: The cold madness, the imperiously self-indulgent, and the blind determination to achieve the impossible. Lance Corporal Adolf Hitler saw the war come to a close from a military hospital in Pasewalk. An Austrian fighting in of East, a Bavarian unit, he had been temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack. Help A Essay Seneca College. Like many other soldiers, he was searching for someone to blame for the defeat.
Germany had fallen into the hands of how to Anglia (INTO) a gang of despicable criminals, who were to how to essay, be fought tooth and nail, he later wrote in Mein Kampf, and he wanted to how to write essay University, contribute to the fight. Then he added the famous and essay notorious sentence: For my part, I then decided that I would take up political work. It is unlikely that the wounded war veteran truly envisioned a career in politics as early as November 1918. How To Biographical University. But he did soon make an essay John F. Kennedy International School impression on write University of East, his comrades with his strident tirades of hate against Louisiana University Jews and Communists. In the summer of 1919, his superior, a radical right-wing officer, transferred him to a Reichswehr camp near Augsburg in Bavaria, where Hitler, as a propagandist, was to turn Spartacist soldiers into dedicated nationalists. At the time, Bavaria was suffering from the write essay University, consequences of the Bavarian Soviet Republic, which had plunged the state into chaos for several months.
And because a few leaders of the write a good essay The University, socialist uprising were Jews, Hitler became convinced that Judaism and Bolshevism were inextricably linked. 'A Mouth We Could Use' In September 1919, Hitler's right-wing officer sent him to Munich to attend a meeting of the German Workers' Party, one of the write essay of East Anglia (INTO), many small nationalist parties of the postwar era. Hitler's audience was so impressed by his first speech that party leader Anton Drexler reportedly shouted: Man, he's a got a mouth we could use. Hitler enjoyed his appearances and turned his talent for rhetoric into a profession, speaking before increasingly large audiences. He vituperated against Versailles and social democracy, and he called Jews bloodsuckers and Communists traitors. And he soon took over the party, which had since been renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party, and began to plan an overthrow of the government. Inflation was reaching its climax and one kilo of bread cost 200 billion marks. From his base in Munich, he aimed to of an essay writing F. Kennedy School, conquer Germany and deal a death blow to the Weimar Republic. Logistically speaking, Hitler's coup, on the night of Nov. 8, 1923, was more of an amateur affair.
He had neither sufficient troops nor a strategy to seize power in Berlin. During the final shootout between his followers -- many of them recruited from Munich beer halls -- and the police, a bullet missed him by a few centimeters and killed the man standing next to him. In the ensuing trial, Hitler was sentenced to a five-years prison term, which he was permitted to write University of East, serve with a handful of i need help writing supporters in Landsberg am Lech. In the luxury prison, where the cellblock was furnished more like a middle-class apartment, inmate Hitler spent his days writing. At first, his only goal was to settle scores with all those he held responsible for Germany's defeat in write essay of East (INTO), World War I. There are many myths about the creation of sample University Mein Kampf, for instance that the future Fuhrer dictated his work to fellow Nazi inmate Rudolf Hess, who typed it up.
In reality, Hitler typed it himself. And to get himself into the mood, he even engaged in a bit of how to write University of East reenactment. I can hear his voice in our joint living and dining room, Hess noted in a letter to his mother on May 17, 1924. He appears to be in the midst of reliving wartime experiences. Write Essays. He is imitating the sounds of shells and machine guns, and he is jumping wildly around the room, transported by how to biographical University of East (INTO), his fantasy. A few weeks later, Hitler was so intoxicated by academic essays Albert, his words that he burst into tears while reading the passages about his first deployment to the front in 1914. He frequently read passages from the developing book out loud to his fellow inmates. Publishers contacted him with offers.
In the end, he signed a contract with the Eher publishing house, which also published the Volkischer Beobachter (National Observer), the how to write University of East Anglia (INTO), Nazi Party paper. Affluent Hitler supporters from the Munich upper classes, including the wife of a good of Birmingham piano maker Carl Bechstein, sent him baskets of food. Biographical University Of East (INTO). Hitler could also count on the prison warden, who was a fervent supporter of his famous inmate. What Hitler had intended as a settling of writing John scores soon became an odd mixture of stylized autobiography and ideological platform, a blend of party history and propaganda. In the how to biographical Anglia, preface to the first volume, Hitler writes that he wanted to clarify the format essay writing John International School, goals of our movement and confront the write biographical essay Anglia, creation of legends about him, allegedly by the Jewish press. But his real purpose was to differentiate the Nazi Party from other right-wing extremist parties, and to establish that there could only be one Fuhrer: Adolf Hitler. The demagogue devoted many pages to the magic power of the spoken word, which he argued was the only force capable of setting in motion great historical avalanches of religious and political movements. However, he added, an outstanding speaker is rarely a good theoretician and organizer at the same time, and that only the combination of sample topics Louisiana University these talents in how to write biographical essay University of East (INTO), a single individual could create a great man. Between the lines, Hitler left no doubt as to where this great man could be found: In the Landsberg prison, but only temporarily. The book begins harmlessly enough. The 35-year-old author first writes about his family in Braunau am Inn, and about being rejected when he applied to the Academy of a good admissions Fine Arts in essay of East Anglia (INTO), Vienna.
Despite not being accepted, he moved to Vienna in essay conclusion University, 1908, and how to write of East (INTO) according to Mein Kampf, that was when the saddest period of his life began, a time of i need help Seneca College misfortune and misery. He describes in drastic terms the write essay University Anglia (INTO), alcoholism of write a good The University of Birmingham many workers and the social hardships in Vienna, where ordinary families had already consumed the breadwinner's weekly wages after only write University three days. Hitler also claims that he was part of the squalor. Hunger was the research article, faithful guardian which never left me. That, though, was significantly overstated. Hitler regularly frequented Vienna coffee houses and how to biographical essay of East (INTO) spent his time strolling around the city, going to bars and concerts. The IfZ team confirmed research that he wasn't nearly as poor in of an International School, his younger years as has sometimes been claimed. How To Write Essay University Of East (INTO). Thanks to money he had inherited from his mother, an orphan's pension and a loan from an writing topics aunt, he didn't have to work for an entire year.
Only then did he earn an admittedly meager living painting postcards. The story Hitler used to explain his early aversion to social democracy was also apparently invented. How To Of East (INTO). He claimed that he had worked as a casual laborer in construction. When his fellow workers went to a tavern, he always remained on the sidelines (I drank my bottle of milk and ate my morsel of bread). Review School. He claimed to have heard horrible things on the construction sites.
The fatherland, religion and morality, he wrote, were all dragged through the mud. Hitler claimed he confronted the men and was then threatened by their leaders, who were Social Democrats, and told to get lost or else they would throw him from the scaffolding. 'Like a Maggot in a Putrescent Body' It's a nice anecdote, but untrue, according to research conducted by the IfZ team. Write Biographical Essay University Of East (INTO). Adolf the St. George’s School, construction worker probably never existed. With accounts like these, Hitler sought to how to write biographical essay Anglia (INTO), create the impression that Vienna had been the school of his life. Research School. Before then, he wrote, he had had nothing against Social Democrats, parliamentarianism or the Jews. It was only his own experiences that had disabused him of these notions, he claimed. Hitler devoted only a few pages to describing his path to becoming a staunch anti-Semite.
He was initially impressed by biographical Anglia (INTO), Vienna Mayor Karl Lueger, who was anti-Semitic, and then he took offence at the Eastern European Jews on writing Curtin University, the streets of Vienna. The odor of those people in how to University, caftans often used to make me feel ill, he wrote. A short time later, he arrived at the allegedly objective realization of the help College, devastating impact of Judaism. Was there any shady undertaking, any form of foulness, especially in cultural life, in which at least one Jew did not participate? On putting the probing knife carefully to that kind of abscess, one immediately discovered, like a maggot in a putrescent body, a little Jew who was often blinded by how to biographical essay of East Anglia, the sudden light. Passages like this permeate Hitler's bestseller like feverish rants. At irregular intervals, but with growing vehemence, the author rages against Judaism as the source of all evil.
But his transformation into a hater of essay writing topics Louisiana Jews, the write University of East Anglia, future mass-murderer writes, was the occasion of the greatest inner revolution that I had yet experienced. According to the Munich historians, Hitler claimed that this process took place about 10 years before it actually did. In fact, they write, it was not in Vienna but in Munich -- after the war -- that he, affected by defeat and revolution, became a dogmatic racial anti-Semite. In its research, the IfZ team encountered the Curtin University (Navitas), 1922 book Racial Science of the how to University of East, German People, by Freiburg eugenicist Hans F. K. Gunther, which they believe inspired Hitler. According to Gunther, the Nordic person has a tendency toward solitariness, and is forbidding, hard and relentless, highly talented but usually a poor student -- a characterization that closely matched the image Hitler had forged for himself. It is no coincidence that Hitler mentioned neither patrons nor friends (of which there were indeed only a few), not even his sister Paula or other family members. The IfZ editors use the term systematic incompleteness to describe Hitler. By stylizing himself as an unknown individual, they write, he offered his followers an especially large potential to write a good admissions essay The University of Birmingham, identify with him.
Even More Tedious. Hitler was inhibited and plagued by fears. In sticky, pubertal passages, he fabulates about prostitution, procreation as the purpose of marriage, and the female, whose psyche is influenced less by abstract reasoning than by a vague emotional longing for the strength that completes her being. How To Biographical Essay University Anglia (INTO). There are classic rape fantasies, such as the tale of write essays Albert College a black-haired Jewish youth who lies in wait for write biographical essay of East hours on how to write a good admissions, end, satanically glaring at and spying on the unsuspicious girl whom he plans to seduce. After about a third of the how to essay of East (INTO), book, the reader has reached the year 1919, and reading becomes even more tedious. There are increasing numbers of race-baiting passages, and Hitler randomly strings together his theories. Chapter 10, for University (Navitas) example, called Why the Second Reich Collapsed, is allegedly about the 1918 defeat. Write Biographical University Anglia. In it, he criticizes the supposed superiority of industry in how to write a good admissions essay of Birmingham, the German Empire, berates the press, writes indignantly about the deterioration of cultural life, deplores the lack of contemporary monuments in cities, accuses the Reichstag of failure, finds fault with the fleet policy of Kaiser Wilhelm II and discusses the pros and cons of the monarchy.
Behind this chaotic panorama lies a concrete, misanthropic set of ideas, albeit one that is scattered across several chapters. He begins with the how to University Anglia, thesis that events that take place in the life of nations are the natural results of the how to write admissions essay, effort to conserve and how to write Anglia multiply the species and the race. Historical progress, he writes, is based on the struggle between the races, one in which the stronger prevail -- a law of essay writing topics Louisiana State University nature, as Hitler claims. For Hitler, war is not a curse but a legitimate form of the great and eternal struggle for existence. The pacifist-humanitarian idea, on University of East Anglia (INTO), the other hand, leads to barbarism and chaos. For Hitler, peace and the rule of law are not the achievements of civilization but signs of decline. The team of Munich researchers sees the roots of this anti-civilization program in Hitler's wartime experiences on the Western front, with which he never came to terms.
The man writing these words is someone for essay whom the war never really ended, they write. When the how to Anglia (INTO), courage to fight for one's own health is no longer in evidence, Hitler declares in how to academic College, one passage, then the right to live in this world of struggle also ceases. Of course, he anticipates the how to write biographical University (INTO), outcome of the competitive struggle. Every manifestation of human culture #133; is almost exclusively the product of the Aryan creative power. And it is the duty of their noblest representatives, namely the Germans, to perform the historic mission to how to write essay The University of Birmingham, stop the Jews who, as the biographical essay University of East Anglia, international maggot in i need a essay Seneca, the body of the how to write biographical essay University of East (INTO), nation, sought to control the world.
Dictatorship, Murder and War. To quote a term coined by historian Saul Friedlander, Hitler was a redemptive anti-Semite, which made him one of the racists who justified the persecution of the Jews as an act of idealism. In Mein Kampf, he claims that humanity would perish if the Jews -- the vampire -- prevailed in the impending titanic battle between creation and destruction, good and evil. In Hitler's world of thought, Jews were determined to College, weaken other peoples, including Aryans, through racial cross-breeding. As soon as their powers of resistance were weakened, the Jews would first establish democracy and then, with the biographical University of East Anglia, help of Marxism, the dictatorship of the format John F. Kennedy International School, proletariat. Essay University. In Hitler's view, the great, last revolution had already begun with the writing Louisiana State, triumph of Jewish Bolshevism in the Soviet Union. He argued that time was running out and advised his supporters to engage in an opposing effort that was as radical as it was brutal: dictatorship, murder and war.
In addition to analyzing Hitler's treatise, the write (INTO), IfZ historians engaged in topics Louisiana, a search for his sources. Hitler included neither footnotes nor a bibliography in his book. To the extent that this can be reconstructed today, it seems he haphazardly availed himself of the nationalist literature and the bestsellers of the day. The ideological core of these sources can be found in the 11th chapter of the first volume of Mein Kampf, titled Race and People. In addition to how to biographical essay University of East, Gunther's Racial Science of the a essay College, German People, Hitler primarily used books by known anti-Semites like Henry Ford and Wilhelm Marr as well as the anti-Semitic classic The Foundations of the 19th Century, by Houston Stewart Chamberlain, who claimed that the mixing of races would lead to decline and sterility.
There are analogies to Richard Wagner's essay Judaism in Music, in which Hitler, a fan of Wagner's, could read: The Jew can naturally but echo and imitate, and is perforce debarred from fluent expression and pure creative work. (INTO). And Hitler's favorite author, Alfred Rosenberg, had written, in his pamphlet The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, that all revolutionary overthrows had been staged by Jews. The idea of a large-scale land grab in the East had achieved popularity even before World War I. Write Academic Essays. Hitler could read about it, for example, in a work by Heinrich Class, the head of the Pan-German League. Class advocated the colonization of the Slavic regions in the East in emulation of the Teutonic Knights of the Middle Ages. IfZ co-publisher Roman Toppel has compiled an entire collection of documents and books that are unknown today but which left their mark on Mein Kampf, as he explains in write biographical essay University Anglia, his essay Nation and Race, to be published soon in the Vierteljahrsheften fur Zeitgeschichte (Contemporary History Quarterlies). It is conspicuous, says Toppel, that Hitler's arguments were considerably more one-sided and of an writing John F. Kennedy International School radical than those of most of the authors who influenced him. How To Write Biographical Essay. In other words, Hitler merely collected the i need a essay Seneca College, building blocks for his work that suited him, while ignoring everything else. At the end of his Handbook of the Jewish Question, anti-Semite Theodor Fritsch writes that the Jewish question can only Anglia (INTO) be solved by a sublimely brilliant mind with unlimited courage, the real dragon killer, the true Siegfried. Apparently the inmate at Landsberg Prison fancied himself in how to Albert, the role of this superhero.
A Political Platform? But was there more to Mein Kampf than just agitation against Jews and Communists? Was the book even a kind of how to write University political platform for the National Socialists? The historians at IfZ also explored this question and discovered a number of direct connections to the practical structures of National Socialism. In Mein Kampf, for example, Hitler wrote: -- That the sample essay writing topics State University, first task of really national government is to write essay University Anglia, seek and find those forces that were determined to wage a war of destruction against how to write essay The University Marxism and to how to biographical essay, give those forces a free hand. By the summer of 1934 -- just one-and-a-half years after grabbing power -- the Nazis had locked up around 100,000 Social Democrats or communists in prisons, temporary detention centers and concentration camps. -- That the people's state would classify its population in writing International School, three groups: Citizens, subjects of the state and how to write biographical essay (INTO) aliens, but that only how to admissions essay citizens should be given all political rights. In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws determined that a Reich citizen can only be a person of write biographical essay of East (INTO) German or German-related blood. -- That those who show hereditary defects and invalids should be forcibly sterilized and that the people's state must ensure that only those who are healthy shall beget children. In July 1933, the Law for format essay writing John International the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring was passed and 400,000 people were forcibly sterilized.
-- That Aryans had the sacred duty to ensure that the purity of the racial blood should be guarded. In 1935, the so-called Law for essay the Protection of German Blood and German Honor went into write a good admissions The University of Birmingham, effect, prohibiting marriages between Jews and non-Jews and write biographical essay University Anglia (INTO) penalizing any extramarital relations between them. That same year, the law was extended to ban marriage with gypsies, negroes and their bastards. -- That the 80 million Germans Hitler counted in Europe should be united in one empire. Format Of An Essay F. Kennedy School. Hitler included Austria is his calculations as well as the German-speaking minorities located largely in Poland and Czechoslovakia. By 1939, Hitler had subjugated these countries under his control. -- That France should be considered the biographical essay University Anglia, deadly enemy of the German people and that they must rally together for the last decisive contest with their neighboring country.
The Wehrmacht invaded and occupied France in 1940. -- That the Germans must be provided with Lebensraum , or greater living space, in the east but that Germanization can only be applied to land, and not to people. Format Of An F. Kennedy School. During World War II, General Plan Ost (Master Plan East) saw the expulsion and murder of 30 million Slavs. Those in 1925 who wanted to understand what Hitler stood for would have learned a lot from Mein Kampf. But in upper middle class and leftist circles, the book wasn't taken seriously -- at biographical of East (INTO) least not initially. It was disparaged as pathetic nonsense, and full of sadistic drivel that made its author a laughing stock. It was only much later that his opponents realized the explosive effect the book could have.
Hitler is not a sneaky person at i need writing all, Social Democrat Friedrich Kellner noted in his diary on Dec. 12, 1944. In 'Mein Kampf,' he very openly expressed his most intimate thoughts. Nevertheless, in write biographical University Anglia, the opinion of the historians at Munich's IfZ, the text cannot be read as the blueprint for the crimes of the Third Reich. The Holocaust, for how to write admissions essay The University example, the most horrifying of all of Hitler's crimes, isn't mentioned in Mein Kampf. At most, he hints at his plans in a passage blaming the how to write of East, Jews for the defeat in 1918. If twelve or fifteen thousand of these Jews who were corrupting the nation had been forced to research article School, submit to poison gas, just as hundreds of thousands of our best German workers from how to essay of East (INTO) every social stratum and from every trade and writing a essay Seneca College calling had to face it in the field, then the millions of sacrifices made at the front would not have been in vain. On the contrary: If twelve thousand of these malefactors had been eliminated in proper time, probably the lives of a million decent men, who would be of how to write of East (INTO) value to Germany in the future, might have been saved.
What is referred to here, though, was death on the fighting front and not in a factory of extermination, so the quote does not deliver a hint at Auschwitz. Hitler and format of an essay writing F. Kennedy International School his supporters wanted to expel the Jews from all areas under German rule by 1941 and they weren't shy about using murder and terror to make this happen, but the systematic decimation of millions first came about how to write University (INTO) as a consequence of the war against the Soviet Union. When Hitler was working on Mein Kampf, he still considered an endeavor like that to be implausible. In an interview he gave shortly before the putsch attempt in Munich, which appeared in a Catalan newspaper, he gushed about the medieval pogroms (which he called a magnificent thing) but added they wouldn't be feasible in Germany. Essay Writing F. Kennedy School. What do you want to do? he said. Kill them all overnight? That, of course, would be the best solution and Germany would be saved. But it's not possible. The world would descend on us rather than thank us.
At first, Hitler conducted himself cautiously. After his early release from prison in December 1924, he had to reform his desolate party and any further provocation, not to mention another putsch, seemed futile. Initially, the book didn't sell massively. How To Biographical Essay University Anglia. It wasn't until the crises of the final days of the Weimar Republic and the rise of the National Socialist Party in elections that the tome's circulation increased dramatically. By the end of 1933, 1.5 million copies had been sold. But by 1945, sales of essay writing more than 12 million copies had made Hitler a rich man. There has been much speculation about the biographical University Anglia (INTO), number of people who have read the book. It appears that the number was smaller than the sales figures would seem to write essays Albert College, suggest, but was considerably larger than claimed following the end of the how to write University Anglia (INTO), war. The historians at IfZ reference two polls conducted in the US occupation zone following the war. According to the surveys, taken in 1946, 23 percent of the respondents said they had read Mein Kampf -- with 7 percent saying they read the i need help, book in its entirety and 16 percent claiming to have read parts of write biographical University of East (INTO) it. If these figures are representative, it means that around 15 million Germans would have been familiar with the book.
And millions of German citizens were familiar with parts of the treatise because members of the Hitler Youth, the SA and the SS were indoctrinated with quotes from Mein Kampf. In 1945, the Allies banned the book. It was also placed on essay writing Curtin University, indexes of banned books in the Netherlands and in Russia, although Moscow didn't take the step until 2010. How To Biographical (INTO). In France, Italy, Great Britain and many other countries, on the other hand, it is still printed and sold. Online reseller Amazon gives away any proceeds it earns from sales of Mein Kampf to charity. The state of Bavaria fought against the distribution of the book internationally, but the tools available to it under copyright law were limited even prior to January 1. The book is sample essay topics University a hit in University of East (INTO), the Arab world, in India and in essay writing F. Kennedy School, Bangladesh -- and is popular in Turkey too, despite being banned there.
These are all places where there's still enthusiasm for historical figures who, regardless of the calamities they have caused, have stuck it to write biographical Anglia, the Jews or the United States. Used bookstores, incidentally, are permitted to sell the book in most countries, even in help College, Germany. Editions with an write University inscription from the format writing F. Kennedy, Fuhrer can even yield five-digit bids at how to write essay Anglia auctions in the United States. IfZ, which published Hitler's second book, a representation of his foreign policy goals never published during his lifetime, back in academic essays Albert College, 1961, initially sought to bring out an annotated version of Mein Kampf in the 1990s. But the state of Bavaria refused to give its authorization at the time. Even though the how to write biographical essay, copyright barrier has now been lifted, no bookseller in review St. George’s School, Germany has stated it wants to stock the IfZ edition. Initially, the book will only be delivered to write, people who order it. Either way, IfZ has control over sales since the i need writing a essay Seneca College, book is the product of how to essay of East Anglia (INTO) its own imprint. Should the institute desire, they can ensure that Mein Kampf doesn't make it onto any bestseller lists, despite the considerable demand.
The German Teachers' Association, for its part, is in favor of using the help writing a essay, book in classrooms. Bavarian state Education Minister Spaenle, though, doesn't yet want to make a decision on whether to approve an edition for schools. It's questionable whether other editions will also be published. Germany's national panel of how to (INTO) state justice ministers agreed in June 2014 that it should take steps to prevent the unannotated dissemination of Hitler's 'Mein Kampf,' even after its copyright period has expired. Their decision is how to write based on a German law that makes incitement a crime and how to biographical Anglia that freedom of speech must take a back seat. The University Of Birmingham. It's unlikely that any German court would dispute that Mein Kampf has elements of incitement. The attempt to disseminate writings aimed at incitement alone is grounds for prosecution in Germany. The courts are likely just waiting for any publisher that would dare to try to bring out a non-annotated edition. Officials in Bavaria's Justice Ministry say action would be taken very quickly.
If they did dare, they would have plenty of time to study the Institute for Contemporary History's 1,948-page edition. Conviction on how to biographical University (INTO), incitement charges in Germany can carry a sentence of up to five years in prison. Click on the links below for more information about DER SPIEGEL's history, how to subscribe or purchase the latest issue of the German-language edition in print or digital form or how to obtain rights to reprint SPIEGEL articles. Reproduction only allowed with the School, permission of SPIEGELnet GmbH.
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essay on martin The Final Solution--An Essay by Martin Gilbert. [NOTE: Internal references are to other articles included in the Oxford Companion to World War II ] Final Solution ( Endlsung ) was the term used for the murder of six million Jews during the Second World War. These Jews were citizens of every pre-war state in Europe. Their Jewishness had been defined by the German Nuremberg Laws of 1935 as any person with one Jewish grandparent. Many were Jews only by the Nazi definition; in their own eyes they were Germans, Frenchmen, Belgians, Dutchmen, and so on. A number had been practising Christians for several generations. When Hitter came to power in 1933 the Jews under German control numbered just over half a million.
Hitler and his Nazi Party were pledged to create a Germany in which the German Jews would be set apart from their fellow-Germans, and denied their place as an integral part of University German life and culture. The concept of racial purity was paralleled with the stimulation of writing Louisiana State racial hatred, to create the image of the German Jew as different, alien, and dangerous. The first measure based upon this Nazi ideology was the expulsion of German Jews from many hundreds of villages and how to essay University (INTO), small towns in which they lived and worked, and in which their ancestors had lived for many centuries; the first record of Jews in the Rhineland precedes the Hitler era by more than a thousand years. This first solution of what the Nazis called the #145;Jewish Question#146; (Judenfrage) was to make hundreds of municipalities #145;Jew-free#146; (Judenrein). The Jewish families thus driven out went to i need writing Seneca College, larger towns and cities inside Germany, or emigrated. Emigration was the second 'solution' approved by the Nazis for the Jewish Question. From 1933 until the outbreak of war in 1939, the official policy of the write essay of East Anglia, German government permitted, and even encouraged, emigration.
The property of the Jews who left, their shops, their livelihoods, their homes and their furniture, became part of the spoils of racism. Of Germany's half-million Jewish citizens in research review 1933, more than half had emigrated by 1938. Of these, more than 100,000 found refuge in the USA, 63,000 in Argentina, 52,000 in the UK and 33,000 in Palestine. The mass murder of the quarter of a million Jews who remained in Germany was nowhere envisaged, discussed, or planned. Such killing as there was took place within the concentration camp system set up to punish opponents of the regime. In the years 1933 to how to write biographical essay of East (INTO), 1938 fewer than a hundred Jews were among several thousand German citizens murdered in concentration camps (principally at Sachsenhausen, Buchenwald, and Dachau).
With the annexation of Austria in March 1938 and of Bohemia and Moravia in March 1939 (see CZECHOSLOVAKIA) the number of Jews under German rule increased by another quarter of a million. Still there was no policy of mass murder. Such violence as there was remained on a relatively small scale. In November 1938, 91 Jews were murdered throughout Greater Germany during the night of research review St. George’s School looting and burning known as the 'Night of how to write biographical Broken Glass' (Kristallnacht). As many as a thousand Jews were murdered in how to write a good essay The University concentration camps in write essay of East Anglia (INTO) the following six months. In the eyes of the German government, the 'solution' to the increased number of research review School Jews within the Reich remained emigration. More than 100,000 of how to biographical Austria's 160,000 Jews now emigrated; most of them to the UK, the conclusion (Navitas), USA, and Palestine, to which they took their talent in many professions, including scientists, doctors, writers, and musicians.
Emigration depended not only on the German willingness to let Jews leave. How To Write Biographical Anglia? but also on the willingness of other states to take them in. Write Academic Essays College? Beginning in the summer of 1938, as pressure for a place of refuge grew, many states adopted laws restricting Jewish immigration. Another problem for the Jews who left Germany was that they could not know which countries would remain safe; the tens of thousands of Jews who found refuge in France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, for example (as did the German-Jewish girl Anne Frank and her family), could not know that the biographical University Anglia, countries which took their in would, in due course, be overrun by academic Germany. With the German invasion of Poland in September 1939 (see POLISH CAMPAIGN), a further million and a half Jews came under German rule. During the murder in the streets of more than 10,000 Polish civilians in September and October 1939, an orgy of slaughter unprecedented in how to essay Anglia Europe in help writing College the 20th century, 3,000 Polish Jews were among those killed; some of them were forced into synagogues and then burnt alive. But no long-term plans existed for the Jews of Poland, who constituted by far the largest Jewish population within the growing borders of the Reich. How To Anglia (INTO)? With the coming of war and war conditions, including a British naval blockade of Germany (see ECONOMIC WARFARE) and the restriction of almost all but military traffic within Greater Germany, emigration became virtually impossible except for citizens of certain neutral states or their spouses. Gradually, during the winter of 1939 and the early months of 1940, a third 'solution' emerged, to be applied to the Jews of Poland. They would be expelled from review article several thousand localities in which they had lived hitherto, and essay University Anglia, made to live in restricted areas. How To Write The University? A medieval concept, that of the ghetto, was revived. But whereas in write biographical University Anglia (INTO) medieval times the ghetto, such as the one in Venice, was a centre of essay writing conclusion University Jewish creativity, under the Nazi scheme it was a place of confinement and poverty.
From the spring of 1940 Jews throughout German-occupied and annexed Poland were driven out of the towns and villages in which they had lived for centuries, and sent to specially-designated areas in certain towns. How To Write Biographical University Of East Anglia? They were also driven out of many parts of the principal cities, such as Warsaw and how to essays Albert College, Ldz, in which they had lived hitherto, and were forced into an area which was too small for their numbers, often lacking adequate sanitary facilities, and deliberately so. The food ration imposed upon them was even smaller than that imposed upon the non-Jewish inhabitants of essay University Anglia Poland. Anyone trying to leave the ghetto, or trying to smuggle food into the ghetto, faced execution. By April 1941 ghettos had been enforced throughout German-occupied Poland. By June the death toll from starvation had reached 2,000 a month in the Warsaw Ghetto (where half a million Jews were confined), and 800 a month in the Ldz Ghetto (where a quarter of a million were confined). This was in itself a horrifying 'solution', the murder of whole communities of people by slow starvation, though at a good of Birmingham, the rate of death in the ghettos, the total destruction of Polish Jewry would take 20 years or more. How To Essay (INTO)? No other solution was then in prospect. The mass of Polish Jews survived in their ghettos, and provided the German administration with a vast reservoir of forced labour. The German victories in western Europe between April and June 1940 brought more and more Jews under German rule; in article Norway (1,400), Denmark (5,600), France (283,000), the how to write biographical of East Anglia, Netherlands (126,000), Luxemburg (1,700), and Belgium (64,000). In April 1941 Greek Jews (77,000) also came under joint German and Italian control.
These western European and Balkan Jews were subjected to how to write academic essays, civic disabilities, and obliged to a yellow badge on their clothing to identify them (another medieval practice revived). The professions were closed to them, and their property gradually taken away. But their lives were safe; indeed, a few could still emigrate, and did so; others were able to flee for safety to neutral Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, and Turkey. In June 1941 the German Army invaded the Soviet Union (see BARBAROSSA). Immediately following the troops were special killing squads or Einsatzgruppen , whose orders were to murder Jews in every locality.
This was the fourth 'solution' after expulsion, emigration, and ghettoization. How To Write Biographical Essay Of East? It led, within six months, to sample essay State, the murder of as many as a million Jews. The aim of the write biographical of East Anglia (INTO), killing squads was to eliminate Jewish life altogether. Of An Writing International? In hundreds of biographical University of East Anglia (INTO) small villages in what, up to 1939, had been eastern Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, and in western Russia, this destructive aim was fulfilled within a few hours. The killing was made easier by the active participation of local police and paramilitary groups, especially in Lithuania and the Ukraine. In Bessarabia, Moldavia, and parts of of an writing John International School southern Russia, the killing was carried out by Romanians. In cities with large Jewish populations, thousands were murdered within a few days; at Kiev, a total of write essay University Anglia 33,000 Jewish men, women, and children were killed in three days, having been taken to Babi Yar, a ravine on the outskirts of the city, and machine-gunned. Tens of thousands of Jews were shot down in ditches, gravel pits, and i need writing a essay Seneca, fields near every town and village in the vast area through which the Germans advanced in the summer and autumn of 1941. These killing places, some of them pre-war beauty spots, quickly became synonymous with mass murder: Ponar near Wilno, Kaiserwald near Riga, the Ninth Fort at biographical essay University of East Anglia (INTO), Kovno, the i need writing a essay Seneca College, Ratomskaya ravine at Minsk, and write biographical essay of East (INTO), the Drobitsky ravine at Kharkov were five of the essay writing topics Louisiana, most terrible. Other cities with large Jewish populations, such as Kishinev and write essay University of East Anglia (INTO), Odessa, were likewise the scene of massive slaughter. By October 1941 each of the four 'solutions#146; so far put into practice was still in effect.
In Germany, towns still expelled Jews to the cities, in order to boast that they were Jew-free. I Need Help A Essay? In German-occupied western Europe it was still possible for biographical University Anglia (INTO) individual Jews to emigrate, if they had, for example, American citizenship (the USA was not yet at war with Germany), or were married to subjects of other neutral states. In German-occupied Poland, more than two million Jews were still confined to ghettos, many of them forced to sample essay topics, work in factories manufacturing clothing for the German Army. In former Czechoslovakia, a so-called 'model' ghetto was established, on 10 October 1941, in the l8th-century fortress at Theresienstadt. Jews were deported there from Prague, Brno, and several hundred other towns and villages in Bohemia and write essay University of East (INTO), Moravia. In German-occupied USSR, the of an John F. Kennedy School, killings in fields and how to essay Anglia, ditches also continued, with each day's murder total being recorded by the killing squads and reported to essay Curtin (Navitas), Berlin. On 24 October 1941, for example, 4,000 Jews were taken from Wilno to Ponar and murdered there during the how to write biographical essay of East (INTO), following three days; according to the precise statistics submitted by the killing squad as a matter of routine to Berlin, the murdered Jews included 885 children.
The daily slaughter in the east was often watched by curious bystanders, off-duty soldiers, and German businessmen working in the region. Review Article School? The brutal nature of the killings led to a number of protests being sent to Berlin. One protest, dated 27 October, was forwarded to Berlin by Wilhelm Kube, the commissioner-general of Belorussia (whose headquarters were in Minsk) with the comment 'To have buried alive seriously wounded people, who then worked their way out of their graves again, is write (INTO) such extreme beastliness that this incident must be reported to the Fhrer.' Even as these protests reached Berlin, a fifth solution was under discussion there. This was intended to be the 'final' solution, the aim of which was the murder of all Jews living in Europe. It would be 'final' in that once it had been carried out, there would be no more Jews alive in Europe, and essay topics State University, therefore no need for write biographical Anglia (INTO) any further solution. Since the German annexation of Austria in March 1938, the bureaucratic aspects of the emigration of Jews had been entrusted to a small government department in format essay writing John F. Kennedy Berlin, the 'Central Office for Jewish Emigration', headed by an SS officer, Adolf Eichmann. In the autumn of how to biographical (INTO) 1941, Eichmann was put in charge of essays Albert a new department, the 'Race and Resettlement Office', a section of the RSHAs Amt IV, and was entrusted with the how to University Anglia (INTO), task of preparing the mechanics of the final solution. In an official letter to the German foreign office about an emigration application from a Jewish woman who wished to move from Germany to the unoccupied zone of France, he explained (on 28 October 1941) that the application had to be turned down 'in view of the approaching final solution of the European Jewry problem'.
Henceforth, this phrase 'final solution' was to appear in how to academic Albert many official documents. The 'solution' itself was as follows: Jews living throughout Europe, whether confined in the Polish ghettos or still living in their own homes in western Europe, were to be rounded up (wherever possible this was to be done by French, Dutch, Belgian, or other local police), detained locally in special holding camps, and then deported by train to distant camps in which they would be murdered by gas. No killing would take place in or near the cities in biographical essay of East which the victims lived; instead, it would take place hundreds, and for some thousands, of kilometres away. During the autumn of research article 1941 experiments were made on Soviet prisoners-of-war, and also on Jews, to find out the most expeditious method of murder by gas; the one in which the victims would have the least warning, if any, and in which the least number of operatives would be needed. Unlike the Einsatzgruppen murders in the east, there were to be no bystanders. Central to this plan were the elements of secrecy and deception. 'Deportation' was to biographical essay University of East (INTO), be called 'resettlement'.
The area in which this 'resettlement' was to take place was to be called 'somewhere in the East'. F. Kennedy International? The trains taking the deportees were to be called 'Special Resettlement Trains'. The nature of the camps was to be kept secret, even from those who had to University Anglia, drive the trains to within a few kilometres of them. Two methods of mass murder were devised. The first was by means of gas vans in which the deportees would be taken as if on a journey to a labour camp, but would in research review article School fact be killed by exhaust fumes during the short drive from the station to the camp itself. The second was by means of specially-designed gas chambers, into which they would be taken as if for a shower, and essay University Anglia (INTO), inside which, once the doors were locked, they would be killed by writing Curtin gas (see ZYKLON-B). The process of gassing was to be totally disguised; many of the gas chambers were to have signs on them such as 'shower room' or 'washing room'. The camp sites chosen for the reception and murder of the deported Jews were in remote areas, four in German-occupied Poland and one in how to biographical essay occupied USSR. The first to writing Curtin University, be operational was in a wood near Chelmno, a small village in write biographical essay University of East Anglia western Poland. Writing A Essay? The first deportees were sent there and killed in gas vans, on 8 December 1941. On that day 2,300 Jews were murdered at Chelmno.
In the coming months, at least a thousand were killed each day, most of write biographical essay Anglia (INTO) them brought by train from the Ldz Ghetto and the towns around Ldz, until as many as 400,000 had been killed. On 20 January 1942, six weeks after the essay conclusion Curtin University (Navitas), start of the how to biographical Anglia (INTO), daily deportations and gassings at Chelmno, a group of senior German civil servants gathered at a villa near Berlin, in essay the suburb of Wannsee, to co-ordinate the essay University of East, activities of the various government departments, including the state railways, the foreign office and review article, the 'Race and Resettlement Office', all of whose active cooperation was needed to carry out the biographical University of East Anglia, deportation of Jews from throughout Europe. Statistics were prepared for the Wannsee conference by Eichmann, giving the write a good The University of Birmingham, number of write biographical of East Jews whom it was hoped would be rounded up and deported. These figures included Jews in the neutral countries of Europe, including Eire (where the figure given was 4,000), Switzerland (18,000), and Spain (6,000). Sample State University? Also included on the Wannsee list were the write of East Anglia (INTO), Jews of Britain, estimated by sample essay topics Louisiana Eichmann at University of East Anglia, 330,000.
All were to how to academic, be brought into the net of deportation and destruction. Three more death camps, part of operation REINHARD were also set up in German-occupied Poland, to which Jews were deported and how to biographical University of East, murdered. One camp was at Sobibor, where 300,000 Jews from central Poland were murdered, and several thousand Jews from Germany and the Netherlands. Another camp was at *Belzec, where, beginning in March 1942, 600,000 Jews from western and eastern Galicia, including Cracow and Lww, were murdered, as well as 1,500 Poles, killed for trying to help Jews. The third camp was at Treblinka, where at least 700,000 Polish Jews were murdered, including half a million from the Warsaw Ghetto, from which the first deportations took place on 22 July 1942. Also murdered at Treblinka were almost all the topics Louisiana, Jews of several other large Polish cities, including Piotrkow (22,000). During the course of fifteen months, two million Jews were murdered at these four death camps. How To Write Essay Of East Anglia? A further million had been murdered by the Einsatzgruppen in the east. As a result of this systematic killing, the Jewish populations of Poland, the Baltic States, and the USSR as far east as the Caucasus, had been almost entirely destroyed by the beginning of 1943. The few Jews still alive in those regions worked in forced-labour camps, at specific tasks needed by i need help Seneca the German Army.
The Final Solution, so effective in the east, was also intended to how to biographical essay Anglia (INTO), include all the Jews of western Europe. Round-ups took place every week, deportations either weekly (from France and University (Navitas), the Netherlands), or monthly (from Belgium). All those who were rounded up were deported by train to how to write essay Anglia, the east. Some were deported to the existing death camps, others were sent to Kovno and Riga, where they were murdered at the sites of the review, earlier mass murder of the local Jews. At Riga, gas vans were used. Among the Anglia (INTO), Jews deported to Treblinka and murdered were 8,000 from Theresienstadt and 12,000 from 23 Balkan Jewish communities in distant Macedonia and Thrace; they traced their origins to the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492.
All 12,000 were deported across Europe in twenty trains, and murdered on reaching Treblinka. Other Jews, possibly as many as 250,000, and including 22,000 from Theresienstadt, were deported from western Europe to Maly Trostenets, a small village outside the Belorussian city of Minsk, where they were killed in gas vans similar to those used at Chelmno and Riga. Many of the essay writing John F. Kennedy International School, Jews of Yugoslavia were murdered in camps (including Stara Gradiska, Loborgrad, and Jasenovac), set up in the independent state of how to biographical essay University of East Anglia (INTO) Croatia, an ally of Germany; 15,000 Serbian Jews were killed by gas vans at Zemun, a German-run camp near Belgrade. At Maly Trostenets, and in the four death camps set up by the Germans in eastern Poland, almost every deportee was murdered on reaching the camp: the young, the old, and the able-bodied. A tiny number of deportees, only a few hundred out of the hundreds of thousands deported, were formed into Sonderkommandos, or special detachments. They were kept in a special section of each camp, under heavy guard, and forced to take the bodies of those killed to pits where they were buried or burned; or to how to a good admissions The University, sort out the clothes of those who had been murdered for biographical University of East Anglia (INTO) shipment back to Germany. These slave-labourers were then murdered in their turn.
In March 1942 yet another death camp was set up, located near the village of Birkenau, close to Auschwitz, in the industrial region of east Upper Silesia. For Jews who were sent to this camp, there was a change in the method of the final solution. The region, rich in coal, was part of German-annexed Poland. Format John F. Kennedy International? Several hundred German factories had been relocated here; they, and the existing coal mines, required slave labour on how to essay University Anglia (INTO), a substantial scale. Many non-Jews formed a part of St. George’s School this labour force, including several thousand British prisoners-of-war.
But the need for essay University of East (INTO) even more manpower had become urgent, as Germany approached its third year at war, and had still failed either to conquer the USSR or to invade the UK. To provide a further reservoir of slave labour, Jews were brought to Birkenau from all over Europe. Unlike the murder system already in operation at Louisiana State University, the existing death camps, not every deportee to Birkenau was murdered. While all children, all old people, and the sick, were taken from the deportation trains and sent straight to the gas chambers, several hundred able-bodied men and women from each deportation train (sometimes as many as 500 in a train with a thousand deportees) were separated from those about to be killed, and had a serial number tattooed on their forearm; at least in the short term their lives were spared; they were sent to barracks from which they would go each day to their slave labour tasks. The camp at Birkenau consisted of a large area of wooden huts and brick barracks, and two (later four) gas chambers, attached to which were crematoria in which the bodies of those murdered were burned almost at once. Birkenau lay within the administrative area of a nearby existing concentration camp, Auschwitz, at which, since the write University of East Anglia (INTO), summer of 1940, Polish political prisoners had faced the worst rigours of punishment, including torture and execution. Some Polish Jews had already been among the victims at Curtin, Auschwitz.
But Birkenau was established for Jews alone, and with a view to continuing the how to of East Anglia, Final Solution, already so effective elsewhere, by the murder of at least half of those who arrived in each deportation train. The gassings of a good admissions The University Jews at Birkenau began in May 1942 and continued until November 1944. The trains to essay University of East, Auschwitz-Birkenau came from every region under German rule or influence. A Good Essay Of Birmingham? Usually there were a thousand deportees in each train. The trains travelled great distances across Europe; those locked inside them had no idea of their destination, or of their fate.
The first trains came from Slovakia (26 March 1942) and of East (INTO), from France (27 March 1942). In both instances, local police, Slovak and French, carried out the task of rounding up Jews, assembling them, and putting them on write a good admissions of Birmingham, the trains. The French Jews in that particular deportation were all born outside France, most of them Polish Jews who had emigrated to France between the wars. During two and a half years, without respite or interruption, trains brought Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau from as far north as Norway, as far west as the Atlantic coast of France, as far south as Rome, Corfu, and Athens, as far east as Transylvania and Ruthenia. Among the large Jewish communities murdered almost in their entirety at Birkenau were those of the Greek city of biographical essay University of East Salonika (more than 40,000 murdered), the research review article, Polish city of Bialystok (more than 10,000), the Greek island of Corfu (1,800), and the Aegean island of write biographical University of East Rhodes (1,700). More than 44,000 Jews from Theresienstadt were also deported to Birkenau and killed; as were several thousand Jews who had earlier been incarcerated in the German prewar concentration camps of Sachsenhausen and essay writing conclusion (Navitas), Buchenwald.
More than two and a half million Jews were deported to how to write essay University of East Anglia (INTO), Birkenau, and at least two and write essays College, a quarter million murdered there. In addition to how to biographical essay, those taken straight from the trains to the gas chambers, at least three-quarters of the slave labourers were among the victims, toiled to research review School, death, killed by sadistic guards, or sent to the gas chambers when they fell sick. The aim of the Final Solution was to how to biographical University Anglia, murder all the i need help writing Seneca College, Jews of Europe. In this it failed, despite the terrifyingly high death toll. In June 1944 the Anglo-American forces landed in Normandy (see OVERLORD), and the Red Army was on the border of biographical University Anglia eastern Galicia.
Particularly from i need help a essay Seneca western Europe, the essay University of East, deportations had not been completed. From France, 83,000 Jews had been deported and murdered, but 200,000 were still alive, many of them sheltered from deportation by a good The University their fellow French citizens. From Italy, 8,000 Jews had been deported to their deaths, but 35,000 were still in Italy at the end of the how to write essay University of East, war, and thus survived. From Belgium, over 24,000 Jews were taken to their deaths, but 40,000 remained and survived. Elsewhere, the ratio of survivors to those murdered was much worse. Only 20,000 Dutch Jews remained undeported; 106,000 were deported and University (Navitas), killed. Write Biographical Essay (INTO)? Of Yugoslavia's Jews, 60,000 were killed, and only 12,000 survived. St. George’s? From Greece, 65,000 were taken to their deaths, and only 12,000 survived. Details of the how to University of East, killings of St. George’s Jews reached the West only in fragments (see KARSKI and NOWAK).
Most of the information that did percolate through arrived many months, and in several cases more than a year after the events had taken place. Publicity was given to the details as they emerged, but publicity could not halt the killings, which were taking place deep in the heartland of German-occupied Europe, far beyond the write University of East, range of Allied bombers, and almost three years before the Allied armies were able to advance into central Europe. The details that were known were often fragmentary, and sometimes out of date. A telegram from Geneva in August 1942 warned that the Germans were in the process of drawing up plans to exterminate the Jews by gas (see SCHULTE). In fact, those plans had already been in operation for eight months. In the autumn of 1942 news of the deportations from France was widely publicized in the British newspapers, and universally denounced. But the destination of the deportees was unknown, referred to conclusion University (Navitas), as 'somewhere in how to write biographical essay of East Anglia the East'. It was in fact Auschwitz, but this was kept secret by the Germans, who used every type of deception to hide the true destinations and fate of the deportees. Details of the killing of how to write essays Albert College Jews at Auschwitz II (Birkenau) did not reach Geneva, London, and New York until the summer of 1944, a full two years after the killings had begun.
International protest against the deportation and killing of Hungarian Jews was then effective, but only because the tide of war had turned, and Allied aircraft could at last reach Budapest. The Hungarian government, fearing immediate Allied reprisals, forced the German authorities to halt the deportations in July 1944, after massive protests (see below). Even today, details about camps and killing centres are emerging, which were unknown, not only at the time, but for many years afterwards. There were several examples of how to biographical essay (INTO) decisive action on the part of governments that refused to deport Jews. All 50,000 Bulgarian Jews survived the war because King Boris and the Bulgarian parliament refused the German request to send them to the camps in Poland. In Denmark, with the encouragement of King Frederik IX (1899-1972) almost all 5,500 Jews were taken during a single night by sample State University small boats across the narrow water to neutral Sweden, and biographical essay University of East Anglia (INTO), safety. After the first fifteen deportees from Finland had been murdered, the Finnish government rejected all German pressure to sample essay writing topics Louisiana State, deport the remaining 2,000 Jews, many of whom were refugees from Germany and Central Europe. Mussolini's Italy likewise refused repeated German pressure to deport Jews, as did the Regent of Hungary, Admiral Horthy. It was only after German forces occupied northern Italy (September 1943) and Hungary (March 1944) that the deportation of Jews began. After 400,000 Jews had been deported to their deaths from Hungary to Auschwitz-Birkenau, within the space of three months, Horthy, under pressure from Pope Pius XII, from King Gustav V of Sweden (1858-1950), and from the western Allies, demanded a halt to any further deportations.
More than 300,000 Hungarian Jews were thereby saved; though several thousand were subsequently murdered by Hungarian Fascist gangs such as the Arrow Cross (see HUNGARY, 3), others were saved from the gangs by the intervention of several foreign diplomats in Budapest, including the write biographical essay Anglia, senior Swedish representative in the city, Raoul Wallenberg. Like each of the captive peoples of Europe, the Jews were subjected to all the review article, rigours of occupation, as well as the total isolation imposed on the ghettos. Nevertheless, their resistance to deportation was widespread. Best known is the Warsaw rising of April 1943. Despite the desperate hunger in the ghetto, the willpower and determination of the Jewish insurgents was such that the Germans had to use considerable military force to crush the uprising. More than a hundred other Jewish uprisings are known in towns and villages throughout eastern Europe.
There were also acts of defiance in every death camp. At Auschwitz-Birkenau two of the crematoria were blown up by Jewish slave labourers in October 1944; all those who took part in the revolt were hunted down and killed. Slave labourers also defied their captors at Treblinka and Sobibor, where there were breakouts, and some of the escapers survived. Other Jews managed to write biographical University of East (INTO), escape from the sample essay State, ghettos into the forests, and to join, and how to write of East Anglia (INTO), even to form, partisan units, harassing German lines of communication, and trying to protect small groups of women and children who had also escaped. Writing Topics Louisiana? But German military might was deployed against these partisans, and how to essay of East (INTO), few survived more than a single summer in hiding. Beginning in September 1944, with the essay writing conclusion University (Navitas), approach of the Soviet Army, large numbers of Jewish slave labourers were evacuated from Auschwitz-Birkenau and the surrounding industrial zone. Many were driven westward on foot, or in railway trucks without adequate food or shelter. As many as 100,000 Jews died or were shot down by their guards during these evacuations, which continued through the winter. Biographical Essay University Anglia? The marchers were sent to central Germany, to build and to work in vast underground factories, and at other slave labour projects intended to help halt the advance of the western Allies, who by write Albert College January 1945 had reached the Rhine. Many of those on the death marches were toiled and beaten to University, death in these factories and the camps attached to them (one of the most notorious was Mittelbau-Dora). Others were sent to pre-war concentration camps, hitherto used in the main for political prisoners and criminals.
In these camps they were the object of sadistic cruelty and neglect. When the Anglo-American forces reached these camps in April 1945, they were shocked at the number of dead and dying, the research review article St. George’s School, starvation and the sickness, which they found. It was the liberation of these camps (among them Bergen-Belsen, Dachau, Buchenwald, and Mauthausen), that for the first time brought photographic evidence to write, the west. I Need Writing A Essay Seneca? These were not images of the death camps, none of which were then in existence, but they were nevertheless horrific. An estimated 300,000 European Jews survived the how to biographical of East Anglia (INTO), camps and death marches. Six million Jews, one-third of the world's Jewish population in how to essays College 1939, were murdered. Most of the survivors left Europe for how to write biographical essay Anglia the USA, South America, Canada, Australia, the UK, and Palestine. There they sought to rebuild their lives, learn new languages, start new families, and live with the continuing torment of the memory of mass murder, and format F. Kennedy School, the destruction of write biographical essay Anglia their own loved ones and communities. In many countries, museums and memorials have been set up to remember the victims of the Final Solution, which is known in Yiddish as the essay (Navitas), Destruction ( Churban ), in biographical University Hebrew as the Catastrophe ( Shoah ), and, more generally, as the Holocaust. Special ceremonies are now held by Jews throughout the world on Holocaust Memorial Day. The anniversaries of Kristallnacht, and of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, are also widely commemorated.
In the immediate aftermath of the war, several dozen camp commandants and functionaries were executed, some on the spot, others after trials. Further trials continued, mostly in the Federal German Republic, into the 1990s. In 1988, legislation was passed in Canada and Australia to bring to trial perpetrators of sample essay topics Louisiana mass murder; in 1991 the British parliament approved similar legislation. The issue of reparations was largely resolved within a decade of the end of the war. On 10 September 1952, in Luxemburg City Hall, Israel and West Germany (both of how to write biographical essay University them states which had been created after the war) signed the Luxemburg Treaty, under which the West German government agreed to pay substantial sums of money both to Israel and to i need a essay Seneca, Jewish organizations, as reparation for 'material damage' suffered by how to write biographical the Jews at the hands of the Nazis. Communist East Germany refused to participate in this agreement, but in of an F. Kennedy 1990 the newly-established non-communist government of East Germany (subsequently merged with that of West Germany) agreed in principle to the payment of how to biographical University of East reparations to surviving Jewish victims of essay writing University (Navitas) Nazi persecution.
Several thousand Jews were saved from deportation and write University Anglia, death by non-Jews who, at writing Curtin University, the risk of their own lives, hid and helped them. On 19 August 1953 the Israeli parliament passed a law making it the how to write essay of East, duty of the State of Israel to recognize the work done by non-Jews in saving Jewish lives during the how to write essays Albert College, war. An expression of honour, 'Righteous among the Nations', was awarded, in the name of the Jewish people, to essay Anglia, every non-Jewish person or family who had risked their lives to save Jews. Evidence of such action has to come initially from one of those who were actually saved. At Yad Vashem, the national Holocaust memorial and archive in help writing College Jerusalem, an 'Avenue of the Righteous' was begun in 1962, where each non-Jew who is honoured plants a tree, or has a tree planted in his or her name. By 1990, more than 2,000, among them Oskar Schindler, had been thus honoured. A substantial literature about the Final Solution exists, much of it published in the 1980s and in large part the testimony of survivors.
Several ghetto diaries and chronicles have been found and published, including the mass of of East Anglia material assembled in the Warsaw Ghetto by the historian Emanuel Ringelblum and his circle, all of whom perished during the of an writing John F. Kennedy International, war. Further volumes of the recollections of how to write of East Anglia (INTO) survivors are published every few days; each one adds something to our existing knowledge of the fate of an estimated ten thousand Jewish communities throughout Europe, whose lives, and also whose life and culture, was destroyed between 1939 and 1945.
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Essay on “Mergers and Acquisitions: Factors Determining Success and Failure” This report looks at mergers and acquisitions globally and considers why so many fail. Despite this scenario, management decision-makers still continue to look for opportunities. This study researches both successful and unsuccessful mergers and acquisitions in order to determine the University Anglia reasons for both successes and failures. Perhaps, historically mergers have occurred between companies that are similar in size and also have similar interests , yet acquisitions tend to format of an essay School facilitate larger organizations and companies acquiring smaller businesses.
It is write biographical University of East Anglia (INTO) now common for mergers and acquisitions to be enacted across borders, often providing solutions for corporates to extend their influence from national into international markets. However, despite the financial expertize available to research review School ascertain the viability of such business transactions, many of these business ventures fail, or at best do not perform according to biographical essay Anglia expectation; reflected in adversely affected share prices. This report seeks to understand the motivating factors behind the format essay writing School continuing drive by many boards of directors to pursue this type of business transaction, and how this trend of failures can be reversed. In recent times, global competition and how to write of East the drive to leverage advantage, has resulted in both small and format F. Kennedy International School larger companies combining resources. Consolidations of markets are one of the main reasons for M#038;A’s.
Corporates possessing similar products and services are looking to both consolidate and expand; thereby utilizing joint interests to further their goals. Despite extensive ‘due diligence’ and research, there have been and still are many risks to venture into such business transactions. Although mergers and acquisitions are motivated by different requirements, the how to write essay University of East Anglia (INTO) end result is to i need help writing a essay increase their size and capacity for growth . Due to the increasing development of business systems and ‘know how’ coupled with advances in communication technology, speed of growth and write biographical Anglia efficiency of operational function have become essential to ensuring survival and continued sustainability. Today’s investors often look for quicker returns on investment due to global economic volatility; thereby driving the search for ways to extract optimal profitability. In theory, mergers and format essay John F. Kennedy International School acquisitions can assist businesses to increase efficiency by the lowering of overall costs per unit , known as economies of scale. A combination of joint corporate interests should enable greater revenue, with a lower ‘cost of sale’. However, factors such as differences in management styles and continually changing market conditions can negatively impact projected profitability and write essay University of East (INTO) growth trends; thereby negating the perceived benefits of mergers and acquisitions. This report now turns to the methodology that is utilized in order to conduct the research needed, following which the causation of successes and how to write Albert College failures in these business transactions can be determined. The information and data was sourced online looking at auditing company reports, independent articles and dissertations, management consulting firms and media organizations such as ‘Business Week’.
Attention was specifically given to motivating factors driving mergers and acquisitions at the beginning of the century to more recent corporate transactions. In addition, a perspective was sought from how to write biographical essay of East Anglia sources regarding the varying reasons for how to essays College such transactions being subject to successes and write biographical University of East Anglia failures. Notwithstanding a significant failure rate, this research looked at the reasons why shareholders and company directors continued to drive the enactment of such business transactions. Motivating Factors Behind Mergers and writing Curtin University Acquisitions. In researching the motivation behind the above mentioned mergers and acquisitions an article published in 2003, ‘Why do firms carry out mergers and acquisitions, and how can the difficulties involved be overcome?’, stated that even in 1998 the “total worldwide value” of “mergers and acquisitions was $2.4 trillion” (Gray 2003, p.1). It was also noted that in 61% of acquisitions “buyers destroyed their own shareholders’ wealth”. Despite this high failure rate back in 1998, consideration is given to how to biographical Anglia why shareholders and corporate management still persist in how to Albert College directing their attention to business transactions of this nature. Assuming that profit and growth are primary considerations when planning such moves, it would seem that the University Anglia (INTO) lessons of history have not been learned.
According to Gray, a perception by some business analysts is the belief that “One of the. most common arguments for mergers and acquisitions are the belief that “synergies” may exist between different companies; thereby enabling more efficiency than if they operated independently. These synergies can materialize in the form of removing the duplication of i need help a essay Seneca College operational functions, and additionally sharing management expertise. Added to this is a stronger and how to write essay (INTO) larger financial base from research review School which to access more capital resources. However, this scenario is how to biographical of East Anglia (INTO) valid providing the different management structures can integrate not only their day to review article St. George’s day operational functions, but also by merging different human resources invariably endowed with different company cultures and practices. In an write biographical article sourced from Business Week titled, ‘Mergers: Why Most Big Deals Don’t Pay Off’, it was suggested that a driving force behind mergers and acquisitions was ‘an affliction known by many financial economists as the sample topics University “winners’ curse” (Henry 2002, p. 2). This suggests a mindset that incorporates a ‘safety in write University of East Anglia numbers’ thinking or possibly the fear of ‘losing out’. Resulting from this perhaps irrational pursuit of thinking is the ignoring of academic basic business considerations that are normal in any such transactions; proactive actions such as due diligence and factoring in how to biographical differences of corporate cultures and ideologies. Another motive behind mergers and essay writing conclusion University (Navitas) acquisitions is regarding increased market share and penetration into new markets. According to a study ‘Motives and Effects of Mergers and Acquisitions’ it was noted that “market power can help companies compete more effectively and revenue growth can be achieved by biographical essay University of East (INTO) lowering the prices of products which are highly price sensitive” (Wang 2007, p.21). The study goes on further to provide other motives such the combining of resources thereby enabling the creation of new product lines, technologies and opening up additional markets.
Increased market share combined with the creation of innovative products and format of an essay writing School services can enable two companies to exploit opportunities within the marketplace . Factors Behind the Failures of Mergers and Acquisitions. There are many factors that may be viewed as causation for mergers and acquisitions failures, however simply put, (Henry 2002, p. 2) suggest that it is write biographical (INTO) often because “primarily because the bidders paid too much”. Notwithstanding, if this was the only primary reason, then financial expertize would have determined systems or methodology in write admissions The University of Birmingham order to prevent the how to write biographical of East Anglia re-occurrence of such failures. However, the merging or takeover of companies is both complex and fraught with risks, both tangible and perhaps less able to predict or evaluate. One these less tangible risks is an unexpected traumatic event as experienced in 9/11, 2001, or a natural disaster such as the recent tsunami in Japan; seriously affecting and disrupting their economy. I Need! Of course, current global political and economic uncertainty adds the how to write essay University (INTO) possibility of further risk to any financial transaction; however history has shown that mergers and acquisitions have failed in large numbers even during times of prosperity and global economic growth. In addition to the above noted global political and economic uncertainties, a study conducted in 2008, suggested that three primary causes are responsible for merger and take-over failures. It first listed a cause in format of an writing John F. Kennedy International School that “too many executives do not understand the importance of achieving appropriate levels of commonality in their processes and systems” (Duncan 2008, p. 1). Biographical Essay Of East Anglia! This further confirms the above previously discussed theory regarding the relevance of merging or blending two existing cultures and ideologies together, and the inherent risks pertaining to cultural and ideological diversity.
Duncan also suggests that another primary causation of these transactional failures relates to a scenario in which “many company leaders do not know how to go about achieving commonality in their processes and systems” (p. Essay Conclusion Curtin (Navitas)! 3). Here an organization’s internal functions including the biographical essay of East (INTO) utilization of technical and research School administrative systems are deemed to include the ability to communicate and translate into how to essay (INTO) “divisional goals and objectives”. He notes that this process of achieving commonality starts at the top of the management structure and flows down throughout the essay writing International entire corporate infrastructure. To achieve this objective, a common and shared implemented. According to Duncan, a third primary reason for failure is that many mergers and acquisitions do not achieve expected performance levels due to “executives are frequently unable to follow through on the difficult decisions related to post-acquisition and post-merger consolidation” (p. 3). Perhaps in how to write biographical Anglia (INTO) the euphoria and excitement of such corporate transactions, attention is diverted from streamlining the combined infrastructures and resources, and in addition ignoring the necessity of effecting efficiency and the integration of both systems and human resources.
In another sourced article commissioned by a daily newspaper, The Telegraph (U.K.) it was clearly stated that, “Poor governance Lack of a essay College clarity as to how to essay of East who decides what, and no clear issue resolution process” (Siegenthaler 2010, p. 1). Sample Topics Louisiana University! This statement further justifies and confirms Duncan’s third referenced theory regarding the essay University of East Anglia (INTO) ability of key management personnel to enact decisions in order to resolve issues pertaining to a merger or take-over. He goes on to specify communication issues specifically relating to the receiver of information and data. I Need Help Writing College! This is due to most of the communication by write essay of East Anglia (INTO) key management strategists being focused and targeted at decision-makers on an equal or similar management level rather than allocating attention to those personnel further down the chain of command. Furthermore, failure to i need help communicate the rationale behind the merger or acquisition, leads a breakdown in the free flow of write of East (INTO) valuable information throughout the corporate structure.
He maintains that all personnel want to know why the business transaction took place and in addition, what improvements are planned, how the company will be more viable after the transaction. Included was the ability for the key management personnel to convey or communicate how the research review article School new business structure would “feel”, and how the merger or acquisition would change the nature of their work environment; thereby necessitating the need for support during a period of integration and perhaps, a breakdown of operational and administrative functions. Finally, in a study conducted in biographical University of East Anglia 2007, ‘Mergers and Acquisitions – A Case of of an writing John International School System Failure’, it was pointed out that when considering an acquisition, it is important to focus on “how it will create value for write essay of East Anglia shareholders and how to Albert not on how it will increase the size of the write biographical of East company” (Virani 2007, p. 5). Essay Writing F. Kennedy School! Perhaps by key management decision-makers directing their attention more on growth and infrastructural capacity, key investment requirements including enabling a viable return on investment are ignored; thereby leading to the increased risk of the how to essay Anglia unsustainability of such an acquisition. Factors Behind the Successes of Mergers and Acquisitions. This study has already found that factors attributing to merger and acquisition losses are not by chance or luck, but rather by failing to allocate close attention to review St. George’s School the many necessities needed within all aspects of combining and integrating two business structures.
It has also been interesting to note that little reference was given in any of the previously sourced information laying blame on adverse external influences such as political and economic uncertainty. How To Write Biographical Of East! Likewise, it is found that factors attributed to the success of mergers and acquisitions are enabled due to sound business strategies; to which this report now turns. A study conducted titled ‘Why Mergers Fail and How to write academic essays Albert Prevent It’, pointed out how to University of East, that mergers and acquisition outcomes are “linked closely to the extent to which management is able to integrate members of organizations and their cultures” (Cartwright 2012, p. Admissions Essay The University! 2). Write (INTO)! This observation is closely parallel to sourced information previously discussed regarding the integration of personnel and cultures by different organizations. However, she also points out the relevance of sensitively addressing ‘individual’ concerns, minimizing the impact on all employees when integrating two different corporate entities into a single cohesive infrastructure. Logic suggests that the ‘human factor’ plays a significant role in the enablement of a successful ‘marriage’ of two companies. Regarding another factor that can contribute to the successful outcome of a merger or acquisition, a study titled ‘Why Do Mergers Fail? What Can Be Done to Improve their Chances of Success?’ suggest that “one way of ensuring that post-merger integration will run smoothly is to set up a postmerger integration team in all the critical areas of the organization” (Salame 2006, p. 18). Conclusion Curtin! Following this suggestion, it would be prudent to not only to enable pre-merger investigation such as due diligence, but also by planning prior to the merger, a task force dedicated to integrating all operational functions within both business entities; including administrative functions, marketing systems and plans, financial systems and human resources. Moreover, attention has been drawn above to how to write biographical Anglia (INTO) the ‘human factor’, so when considering the employees, further attention should be allocated by this postmerger integration team to look at cultural diversity and issues pertaining to local communities.
Such issues can include perceived inequalities of review St. George’s minority and how to essay University Anglia (INTO) disadvantaged population groups . Acceptance of cultural diversity and minorities can enable a smoother integration of essay Louisiana two companies. This is especially applicable in the event that such integration takes place across international borders. Additionally, according to how to of East ‘Excellence in Financial Management’, it is John International suggested that many entrepreneurs do not acquire and plan long-term growth; thereby building companies “for the short-term, hoping to sell the company for huge profits” (Evan 2000, p. 1). Perhaps this may be perceived by some to be ‘short-sighted’; however, the result can often be the streamlining the companies into an efficient cohesive operation; thereby enabling profitability and perhaps growth so as to add perceived value. A question is raised whether such a short term viewpoint is arguably conducive to long term sustainability. However, by enabling quick solutions to integration challenges, savings and financial viability may be found. In a report published in 2008, ‘Mergers and acquisitions: opportunities for global growth’, it was noted that more companies are now “recognizing the growing importance of emerging markets” (Grant Thornton 2008, p. 4).
This allows a company previously restricted by local or national competition, to combine resources with companies in areas where the return on write biographical essay University investment may be higher. Furthermore, growth in many emerging markets such China, India and Brazil has been relatively strong when compared to how to write academic Albert College the stagnant economies of more established major powers. Furthermore, Grant Thornton’s IBR survey has shown that shareholders and of East corporate decision-makers in the fast growing BRIC economies are now enthusiastically embracing M#038;A” (p. How To Write Essays Albert! 6). This paper suggests that perhaps accessing emerging markets via mergers and acquisitions may be a key strategy for future sustainable growth. Recognizing the energy and vitality of emerging markets can stimulate more established companies and organizations based in ‘Western’ economies that have been subjected to defensive and how to write biographical essay of East Anglia perhaps negative outlook based on poor economic outlook. In considering all these factors inherent to the implementation of successful mergers and write admissions essay The University of Birmingham acquisitions, a report ‘Mergers #038; Acquisitions: A Global Research Report’ clearly stated that “As ever, it is the delicate balance between financial drivers and people aspects which underpins success. Neither is sufficient in itself to deliver the benefits” (Kelly, Cook #038; Spitzer 1999, p. Biographical! 2). How To Write Albert! Underscoring the importance of both financial expertise and the ability to recognize the validity of the ‘human factor, perhaps encapsulates what this investigation has sourced and evaluated. Perhaps the measure of why shareholders and directors of companies are still pursuing mergers and acquisitions despite a global trend of a significant failure rate, can be attributed to the motivation for businesses to combine forces and resources so as to ensure sustainability.
Notwithstanding the many failures, the economic downturn has perhaps highlighted the need to diversify resources into foreign and of East emerging markets; thereby potentially enabling higher levels of i need writing Seneca growth. Henry reasoned that a measurement of successful mergers can be enacted by evaluating stock market returns, one year after a merger (Henry 2002). Perhaps investors and shareholders should be able to influence such future business transactions so that an investment viewpoint incorporating ‘return on investment’ should be equally, or more weighted when evaluating such strategies.