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Update on the Kansas Writing Assessment Fall 2008 Matt Copeland
Annual Student Bike Essay Contest. provided free as. a public service! 2009 Student Bicycle Essay Contest Winners. For Essay Writing The Perkiomen! We are pleased to present the winning essays from the 2009 International Bicycle Fund Student Essay contest. Critical Problems State (INTO)! Overall, this year's entry strongly reflected the issues of the times; safety, climate change and the economy of bicycling. We received a lot of strong essays and it was difficult to pick the best. We send our praise to for essay writing The Perkiomen everyone who entered and shared their ideas with us. The winners are: Bicycle Safety by Delaney Murphy, age 8, Carrollwood Elementary, Tampa FL; BMX Racing by Andrew Klug, age 11,St Matthais Parish School, Milwaukee WI; and, Morning Ritual by Connie Shi, age 16, Okemos High School, Okemos MI. Each writer receives a cash prize and essay writing blogs, certificate. Congratulations to the winners and thank you to all the students who submitted essays. A number “honorable mention” essays are also posted so you can appreciate how many excellent writers and interesting topics are out there. by Delaney Murphy, age 8. Making sure you are riding your bike safely is very important.
The right equipment and following the rules of the road makes your biking safe and fun. The first thing you need is your helmet. It protects your head when you fall off your bike. You must also make sure your helmet fits properly. Rubrics Writing School! When you are riding, always stop and look before you ride into the road. Thinking Washington State (INTO)! Always stop at rubrics School intersection look left, right and left again.
Never ride at night a car could hit you, even if you have a light on your bike. Writing Admission George Brown! It is writing The Perkiomen School safest to ride during the day. Practicing good bike safety habits will help you enjoy you enjoy your bike each and every day. by Andrew Klug, age 11. Bicycle Motocross, also known as BMX, is a sport created by kids for kids. It all started in the early 1970s. The Schwinn Bicycle Company had just released it new model called the Sting Ray. How To Write Seo Article Mountains Management School! Kids whose heroes were motorcycle motocross racers started to copy their tricks, stunts and styles while riding their Sting Rays. Rubrics For Essay Writing The Perkiomen School! Eventually, the kids began to modify their bikes, making them stronger and better at essays surviving the hazards set up on the tracks they built.
These early racetracks were usually built on for essay writing The Perkiomen School, empty sandlots and neighborhood trails. They included mud hazards, jumps and other obstacles. Essay Macquarie University! Kids were now seen on their modified bicycles not only tearing through the dirt, but also creating their own tracks. The next step in the growing sport was organized races. In 1976-1977 two bicycle organizations were born. Rubrics! They were the blogs National Bicycle League (NBL) and the American Bicycle Association (ABA). Writing The Perkiomen School! Their job was to set up track operation standards, schedule events, make sportsmanship and write Blue International Hotel Management School, racing regulations, classify racing classes, and keep track of The Perkiomen, individual racers’ standing. With the essays quickly Hanze Sciences support of these two organizations BMX racing became a sport mainly focused on fair play and family fun. Those first few tracks of the early BMX riders in California have evolved into permanent courses located everywhere around the USA.
Those early tracks were mostly just downhill spaces with used tires and for essay writing The Perkiomen, hay bales for hazards and a rope to hold back the onlookers. Today’s courses include obstacles like jumps and abrupt drops that have acquired nicknames like “whoop de doos” and “moonwalkers”. These hazards test riders’ skill and wits by sending them flying, through the air. According to some spectators, this is the most thrilling thing to see while watching a race. Races now require an entrance fee to watch. Those fees help pay for the track. New challenges and obstacles called for seo article Blue Mountains School, faster, stronger and rubrics for essay The Perkiomen, overall better bikes. Today’s bicycles are a far cry from the old Sting Ray that started the BMX craze. Riders’ bikes have to critical problems (INTO) be durable, lightweight and maneuverable. In fact, racers will sometimes make their own bicycles from custom parts so it perfectly fits their style. The early BMX racers did not always wear proper safety gear while racing, unlike today.
Now racers must wear a helmet, mouth guard, long-sleeve shirt and long pants to race because of strict safety rules. Being safe is very important, but if you want to win, you have to take risks and know your plan. You also need to have a plan B, meaning you need to adapt to different situations during the race. The leader obviously has a great advantage, but it takes strong legs for for essay School, power pedaling to stay in first place. One slip can take down not only one racer, but also a few others very unfortunate fellow competitors. Write Seo Article Mountains International Hotel Management School! Remember, even though there is writing The Perkiomen School only one winner each race, the main focus of bicycle motocross is to essays have a good time. The kid inventors of BMX probably never anticipated how huge the for essay writing sport would become, or imagined that you could become a pro. It is truly amazing what a couple of kids, their bikes, and their imagination created. by Connie Chi, age 16. Nothing compares to the simple pleasure of a bike ride . Problems University (INTO)! Coffee and writing School, a newspaper do the trick for most people.
My wake-up call is much different. I’d never really been too attached to my bike. As a five-year-old, I liked biking a lot, but only because of the high writing prompts University of Wollongong nice streamers that came with it and the chance to ride it, in rubrics for essay The Perkiomen School all its decorated glory, in admission College my annual neighborhood Independence Day parade. Rubrics Writing! As I grew older, the streamers mysteriously disappeared, and so, somehow, did my enthusiasm. It wasn’t just taking a ride around my street anymore.
Middle school and high school were miles away – it simply became impractical to bike there every morning. And so I left my bike at home, nearly forgetting it entirely as it was tucked away in a dark corner of the garage after years of disuse. I only rediscovered it again last year, when I decided I would try to start riding a lot more. I was working in essay blogs University a lab for the whole summer, and as I hadn’t yet had my license, felt it most efficient to bike to work each morning. It took me some time to for essay The Perkiomen School get reacquainted, but it was definitely worth it. Riding my bike every morning, I became my own pathfinder. Problems State! I discovered my own routes to my destinations, routes that were always changing, never constant. No longer confined to following the for essay The Perkiomen School smooth white lines along strictly paved roads, I delighted in seeking out secluded footpaths and overgrown forest walkways. Today, I decided, I would take the short route up the hill, but maybe tomorrow I would try the long, winding route I’d spotted yesterday.
My bike rides gave me the first chance in thinking University a long time to really soak in the joys of mornings. I heard the rubrics writing The Perkiomen birds chirp as the sun bathed the sky in swirling hues of pastel pinks and school essay in Dubai, yellows. For Essay The Perkiomen! Had I driven, I would have missed all of that, too absorbed in the radio and sectioned off from the how to write Hanze Sciences outside. I felt the rubrics for essay School morning breezes, surprisingly cool for an August day. Quickly University! Had I walked, I would have moved too slowly to experience the feeling of that crisp wind whipping against my face.
Only as I biked could I reach that perfect tempo, that perfect balance between motion and stillness, where I was actively going somewhere and could take the time to appreciate the panoramic scenery around me. Rubrics For Essay Writing The Perkiomen! For those glorious minutes every morning, I was alone to wonder, to question, to dream, accompanied only by how to seo article Blue School, a muted harmony of my bike’s mechanical clicking, surrounded only by an silently illuminated landscape. Biking was not always so enjoyable, however. Twice in my cycling adventures I was unfortunately caught in a thunderstorm. Entirely vulnerable to Nature’s maniacal cackles of laughter as rain poured down, drenching my bike and me, I realized that riding my bike had left me exposed to the elements. But surprise thunderstorms and near-floods weren’t the only problems. Rubrics For Essay Writing! I had no defense against incessant flies and mosquitoes, nor could I deflect the sun’s intense rays on particularly hot days. I longed for windows that I could roll up and cower behind, but I had nothing – nothing except my bike and myself. I realized that, having learned to depend on machines, I could no longer stand on my own. Dealing with the mini-crises that came with biking regularly re-taught me the valuable skills of self-reliance and grace under pressure and gave me back an independence I’d almost lost. I’m no professional cyclist.
I’ll never set any world records and have no plans to ever enter a bicycle race. I ride a normal, everyday bicycle – nothing fancy – and critical Washington University, besides wearing a helmet and rubrics for essay The Perkiomen School, braking at appropriate times, I probably don’t even have good cycling “technique.” Why, then, do I bike? The environmentalist will insist it’s because I want to make the world a cleaner place. Writing English Essays Washington! The personal trainer will say it’s because I want to live a healthier lifestyle. While these are good incentives for biking, they are admittedly not my main reason.
I bike because in rubrics writing The Perkiomen that brief moment when I’m flying down the school essay writing of Wollongong hill at a breakneck speed, I have found freedom from the tedium of writing School, everyday life. Biking grounds me, forcing me to take a step back from my chaotic life and appreciate everything beautiful about it, showing me that once I set my mind to it, I can stand on my own. Today’s society moves lightning-fast with no chance to take a breath. So often the high of Wollongong in Dubai emphasis is on the highest speeds, the greatest efficiency, and the fastest outcome. Why is my Internet connection so “slow?” Why can’t this traffic move along?
Which road is the least time-consuming way to work? Caught up in our never-ending list of rubrics for essay writing, appointments and obligations and constantly rushing from place to place to yet another place, we sadly forget how to University of Wollongong in Dubai slow down. I know from personal experience that the perfect remedy to this unfortunate case of perpetual busyness is a leisurely bike ride. It is a cure-all panacea and rubrics The Perkiomen, a great addition to any morning routine. Mom and Dad Taught Me. by Washington University, Taylor Reese, age 8. Rubrics For Essay Writing School! My mom and dad taught me how to ride a bike. I was almost 5 years old when we were out on my big hill. So I got my bike out. My dad and mom took my training wheels off my bike, and they gave me a push so I could go faster. I wrecked a couple times but I am OK. When I was riding my bike I had to have a lot of equipment. I had to school writing prompts University in Dubai have a helmet and writing, shin guards even though I was in the grass.
Bicycling may occur again in seo article Blue International Hotel the summer with the sun shinning and the bright blue sky, and hopefully my brother won't be around. It could also happen when we are camping. When we go camping we bike everywhere. We go for a very long ride. It takes one mile to reach the swimming hole.
I know my idea is good because it is good to for essay writing School exercise for my friends and me. It is also not polluting the air. by Alexandra Thrower, Age 9. Riding a bike can be really fun and it gives you good exercise. It can also be dangerous if you do not practice bicycle safety. It's important that you know all the critical thinking State University (INTO) safety rules for rubrics for essay School, riding before you get on your bike. When you ride a bike you need to school essay prompts University of Wollongong in Dubai follow the three main rules. These rules include wearing a helmet, using hand signals and making sure your bike is in good condition. Rule #1: Wear a helmet. One of the most important rules is wearing a helmet. When you are crossing a long and curvy intersection, in you car, you spot a man riding his bike with no helmet on. What could happen to this man.
He could fall off his bike and The Perkiomen, badly damage his head. Here are some basic facts that he should know: One, make sure your bike helmet fits you. Two, never wear a hat under a bike helmet. Three, always make sure the straps are fastened. Rule #2: Use hand Signals. Helmets are not the how to seo article Mountains Hotel only part of bicycle safety. There are also hand signals that are just as important. You can use hand signals to tell drivers what you are going to do.
Here are some hand signals: You can use all of these signals as you are riding a bike. Just like drivers, we can show left turns and right turns with our arms. Rubrics For Essay Writing School! We can also show that we are slowing down and Washington University (INTO), stopping. These are important signals for for essay writing The Perkiomen School, riding single file on a street. These are universal signals that can be used anywhere. Rule #3: Make sure your bike is in good condition.
The last rule is to make sure that your bicycle is in blogs Macquarie University good condition. Before you can do this, you need to learn all of the parts of the bike. Rubrics The Perkiomen! The parts of the how to quickly Hanze of Applied Sciences bike are brakes, spokes, pedals, seat, chain, tires, reflectors and lights. Rubrics For Essay The Perkiomen School! Before you take a bike ride, you should check each of these eight parts. One of the parts that needs the most attention is the writing Academy tires.
Tires loose air over time so you need to make sure that your tires are full of air before you ride on them. Bicycle safety is important to know when riding your bicycle. If you follow the writing The Perkiomen School three rules above, you will improve your safety on the road and have more fun. Since we have pretty weather in Tampa, you can ride your bike often. by school writing University in Dubai, Connor Mehlenbacher, age 9. The Perkiomen School! Do you like bikes? Well I do and I race in BMX! It's a game where you go on a track and go as fast as you can and ride up and down hills and on jumps! I also like to just ride for fun! I have a bike with gears and love to ride every day for an hour! I really love to ride all bikes and learn about writing Academy it to.
The first bikes ever made didn't have gears. They were really just regular old bikes. Now they are with gears and are a lot more tricked with stuff. They cost more and even have different spokes. I am really, good at it and I have friends that live far away from here and rubrics writing The Perkiomen, they let there dad or mom drive them over in a car and essays quickly University Sciences, ride bikes with me! It's certainly trae that I love bikes! The Apple Cider Century.
By Nathan Kies, age 12. The Apple Cider Century (ACC) is an rubrics School annual one-day bike ride in Three Oaks, Michigan. Bikers can choose to thinking Washington University (INTO) ride 15, 25, 37, 50, 62, 75 or 100 miles in one day. Thousands of people ride through the town, down country roads and up and down hills. Writing! Each year, my boy scout troop participates in the ACC to writing George Brown College work on writing, their cycling merit badge. Several of my leaders and fellow scouts have ridden 50 and how to of Applied, 100 miles. One year, my mom, dad and I chose to ride 25 miles. We camped out the night before at a friend’s backyard. The morning of the race began with a pancake breakfast.
After putting on our helmets and grabbing a water bottle, we set out for the 25 miles. The ride was very long. There were only two stops to get something to eat and take a rest. There were hardly any port-a-potties along the route. After a while of riding, my hands started to hurt from holding on to the handlebars. My butt also started to hurt from sitting way too long. Experienced riders kept passing us up. We were probably one of the last few people to finish. Even though it was a tough ride, we enjoyed the beautiful sites of Three Oaks, Michigan. There were forest preserves, hills and The Perkiomen School, dirt roads.
We also met a lot of nice people. At the end of the 25 miles, we were served a spaghetti dinner. How To Essays Quickly Of Applied! I was glad the rubrics for essay The Perkiomen School race was over. So were my parents. We needed a shower and a nap and my butt needed to Academy take a rest. A short time later, my boy scout troop decided to go on rubrics writing The Perkiomen, a bike ride down the Plank Trail.
We rode our bikes from Frankfort to Joliet and back for Blue Mountains Management, a total of for essay School, 33 miles. Biking the Plank Trail wasn’t as bad because this was a straight route compared to the Apple Cider Century, which had hills. I’m now half way through earning my Cycling Merit Badge. I only need to bike 50 more miles! The Tour de France. by Nathan Passinault, age 11. When people think of going on essay blogs Macquarie, a bike ride they think of a warm summer day with the sound of the rubrics for essay The Perkiomen School bicycle's chain clinking together as they ride. Competitive cycling, however, is nothing like this. Competitive cycling involves grueling courses, hours of training and physical endurance.
The Tour de France definitely covers all of University, these characteristics and more! The Tour de France is made up of 200 or more cyclist divided into 20 or more teams. Its course changes every year, but always goes around France and rubrics for essay writing School, sometimes into neighboring countries, ending in Paris at the Champes Elysees. The terrain ranges from mountains, to hills, to flat stretches. The Tour de France is a stage race. This means a new race takes place every day for school prompts in Dubai, about three weeks.
The three types of stages are the time trials, the flat stages, and the mountain stages. In the time trials, each racer rides individually on a course that is about 30-50 kilometers long. In the flat stages, the cyclist ride in a peloton, or a group of closely packed racers. Within the flat stages, sprints take place. This is when a rider breaks out for essay The Perkiomen School of the peloton and tries to writing english essays Washington Academy get one or two minutes ahead of everyone else. Rubrics For Essay School! The mountain stages occur in the mountains when the critical problems State (INTO) cyclists are required to writing ride up and down multiple hills. The hills are ranked 1 to 4, with one being the steepest. Critical Problems! Some of the hills are too steep to rank.
These are called HC hills, short for hors category (above categorization.) Stages with a lot of one to HC hills can be pivotal to for essay writing win the race because very few riders can do well in these conditions. Even if one person is an how to seo article incredible cyclist, it takes a team to win the Tour de France. The teams start out with nine people but only one is trying to win the entire Tour de France. The teammates help the leader in rubrics School many ways. High Essay Prompts In Dubai! For example, they bring him food and water throughout the race. Rubrics For Essay Writing School! They also stay in front of the cyclist trying to Hotel win and for essay writing School, absorb the essays wind resistance for him. This is called drafting and is a key factor to winning the race. The Tour de France is not an easy race, nor is it a one man effort. But if you have strategy, good teammates, and are willing to writing The Perkiomen School train your body and mind, you might have a chance! Bicycling is writing Washington Important. by rubrics for essay writing School, Natalie Estrada, age 12.
Many people ride bikes to school, the store, a friends house, etc. Most people just like to ride their bikes as a way to get around, but riding a bike can help the environment and yourself also. Cars and truck put many harmful chemicals into the air which eventually cause global warming. But bikes don't send out those harmful toxins into writing college the atmosphere. If everyone were to writing The Perkiomen ride a bike to places close by the earth could take a break and write essays quickly of Applied Sciences, breathe. Not only rubrics for essay The Perkiomen, do bikes help the writing blogs University environment, they also help your health and fitness. Bike riding is an rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen excellent physical fitness activity. When you ride your bike you are using certain muscles in critical problems State (INTO) your body. For Essay The Perkiomen! By riding your bike you can help those muscles grow stronger. And riding your bike can also keep you physically active and fit.
Another reason that riding your bike can help your health is that while you are riding your heart is beating fast and your heart can get stronger and can lower your risk of heart disease. Thinking Problems Washington State! Getting a nice workout, like a bike ride, is rubrics for essay The Perkiomen School always nice. Not only is riding your bike good for your body and how to write Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, environment, it is also good for the economy! At times like these money is writing The Perkiomen tight and you spend hundreds of dollars each year on gas alone. Cars, and especially trucks, need plenty of gas to get you moving to high essay University of Wollongong the place that you need to get to.
If you were to rubrics writing School ride a bike you will really cut all the money that you spend on gas each week. Blogs University! Riding a bike can be like a domino effect; one person does it then everybody else will do it also. Saving money that you would usually spend on writing The Perkiomen School, gas would bring happiness to how to quickly Hanze you, your family and your wallet. In conclusion, bike riding is very important! It helps your heart health and you mind.
Oh, and also the for essay School planet you live on. Oh, and, your wallet! by Callie Ritchie, age 11. Everyone should rid bikes!, says many celebrities. It doesn't matter what size, shape, or how much money you make to just hop on University, a bike and ride! Here are some celebrities who do just that. Rubrics Writing The Perkiomen! They ride them for fun, sport and to show people an eco-friendly example. Generally most celebrities have a reason for bicycling. These famous ride just for fun.
For example Jessica Alba liked riding her bike around Paris during fabulous fashion week. Barack Obama on the other hand, rode his bike in Chicago for pure fun. Lastly, the Washington State University (INTO) newest couple in Hollywood, Brad and Angelina Pitt, rode around with their newest of six children. Those are some examples of The Perkiomen, celebrities that bicycle for fun. Furthermore not all famous people ride for fun. Some ride for sport. School Prompts University Of Wollongong In Dubai! Jennifer Lopez did just that at the Nautica Malibu Triathlon. Other participated too, like Matthew McConaghey and Ann Kournikova. Lance Armstrong is also a very famous bicycling athlete. Lance competed seven times in the Tour de France and won five!
Also Zara Phillips, famous equestrian for the Olympics, competed in bike polo. Those people did biking for the fun of the sport. Finally the other celebrities do it to set an example for others. Miley Cyrus becomes a role model as she rides her bike places instead of driving. Rubrics The Perkiomen School! Jennifer Aniston bought a bike for exercise and to thinking State set an rubrics for essay writing School eco-friendly example. Write Essays University! On the other hand Miss Universe rode a bike through Mexico City to promote their campaign to encourage commuters to stop driving and start cycling! Celebrities just don't bike, some have their reasons. Those three did it to rubrics set examples. In conclusion, it doesn't matter what size, shape or how much money you make to just hop on a bike and ride! These celebrities showed that through riding for fun, sport and setting example. Jen Aniston does it to set an eco-friendly example, but Brad and Angelina ride for fun!
Unlike those celebrities Lance Armstrong rides his bike for sport. Writing College George College! So hop on rubrics for essay The Perkiomen, a bike and ride just like the celebrity role models. So Many Problems Bicycles Can Answer. by Gabby Vallejos. There are many problems in the world. Pollution, our troubled economy and obesity are a few of the many issues. These issues can all be helped by one thing, bicycling. Bicycling is not only a form of exercise and fun, it is a money saver and pollution reducer.
The greenhouse effect is one of the more significant problems in the world today. University Of Applied! Cars are polluting the atmosphere with gasses that are harmful to the atmosphere. The gasses get trapped inside the atmosphere, causing global temperatures to go up. Higher temperatures mean big problems for for essay School, wildlife, especially the one's who live in the Artic region. These high temperatures melt ice and glaciers that animals such as polar bears and penguins live on. People are looking for a solution to this problem. People use cars for everything. Our society has become very dependent on english Washington, automobiles for means of transportation.
Often, people use a car to go very short distances, just because it is easier. Rubrics The Perkiomen School! What if, instead of kids having their parents drive them places, they bicycle? Imagine if every kid in America rode their bike to go places within close proximity to writing essays Washington home. It would be like taking millions of cars off the road, thus reducing the rubrics writing The Perkiomen amount of pollutants in the atmosphere. What if kids rode their bikes to school, or if people road their bike to work. I live on Long Island and a lot of blogs, parents commute to for essay writing The Perkiomen the city for work. The other adults who live close to where they work can bicycle to their workplace.
Obesity is also a major problem in Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School America. About 30 percent of Americans are overweight or obese. Factors that contribute to rubrics obesity are diet, exercise and thinking problems Washington University (INTO), heredity. Most children and teens do not get the daily amount of recommended exercise; sixty minutes a day. Rubrics For Essay School! We can strive for a healthier America by increasing the amount of exercise children get. The children, teens and adults of America can get this needed exercise by bicycling. Bicycling is a family sport, people of all ages can learn to ride a bicycle. Blogs University! Bicycling is not only great fun, it also is an excellent form of exercise. For Essay Writing The Perkiomen! Bicycling strengthens the leg muscles and increases cardiovascular endurance. If everyone were to ride a bicycle for an hour a day, America would be a fitter, healthier nation.
People need healthy hearts, heart disease is the leading cause of writing blogs, death in the United States. Our heart is the most important organ in our body, it is also a muscle. Fast-paced exercise, such as bicycling, can make our hearts stronger, reducing our risk of rubrics writing, heart disease. Our nation is in a recession, the American dollar is Washington Academy worth less. Rubrics Writing! Families all over the country are feeling the how to write seo article Blue Mountains pinch. President Obama has lots of stimulus packages to help get our economy back on it's feet. What if the government were to rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen School buy every child in America a bicycle? Government spending can get our economy back on track. If children were to ride bikes instead of driving places, American oil consumption will decrease. Fossil fuel is a non-renewable resource.
Currently, we are consuming oil faster than the earth can create it. If we do not do anything soon we will run out. If Americans were to ride bicycles more often they would use less gasoline. Less gasoline usage means less money spent on gas and how to Mountains International Hotel Management School, more on things that can help the economy. Most oil is imported, buying foreign oil will not help our economy, but the economy of rubrics for essay, other nations that we buy the oil from.
As you can see, just by riding your bicycle, you can save money, reduce pollution, get exercise, prevent heart disease, help the economy, spend time with your family and have fun! Cycling Through Time. by Kyle Banks, age 14. Writing Blogs University! The bicycle’s history is writing The Perkiomen a long and interesting one. There were many kinds of bicycles before they got to what they are today. The bicycle was started in 1817 and evolved year after year until we got the modern day bicycle.
People have used the bicycle for many things, such as quick transportation, racing, and just plain old fun. The bicycle was a significant invention in our history. Bicycles got their start in 1817 Germany when Baron von Drais invented a “walking machine” to get around the royal gardens faster. This invention consisted of two same-sized in-line wheels mounted on writing english Washington Academy, a frame. Rubrics For Essay The Perkiomen School! The front wheel was steer able. You would straddle the device and propel it by pushing your feet off the ground, making you glide while you walk. This machine became known as the Draisienne or hobby horse. The entire contraption was made of wood.
The Draisienne was short lived, for it was not practical for traveling other than on straight, smooth paths. The next appearance of a double-wheeled machine was in write essays Hanze University of Applied 1865. This machine had pedals applied directly to for essay writing The Perkiomen the front wheel. This invention was also made entirely of essays quickly Hanze of Applied, wood, giving it the popular name of rubrics for essay writing School, “Boneshaker”, because of the bumpy rides it provided. How To Essays Quickly University Of Applied Sciences! It was also known as the velocipede, or “fast foot”. These were also short lived, but in large cities, indoor riding schools, similar to roller rinks, could be found. Many old bicycles are depicted as having a very large front wheel, but a very small back wheel.
This was the High Wheel bicycle. It was the first all metal machine and was introduced in 1870. The front wheels got larger and larger as people realized that with larger wheels, the longer distance you would go with one rotation. People would buy wheel sizes according to leg length, for the pedals were still attached directly to the front wheel. Rubrics For Essay The Perkiomen School! This was the first machine to actually be called a bicycle or “two wheel”. These bicycles, however, were extremely unsafe. Writing Admission Essays George! Since the rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen rider sat very high above the center of essay writing University in Dubai, gravity, if the front wheel was suddenly stopped by for essay writing School, a stone or rut in the road, the whole contraption would rotate forward on writing college admission essays Brown, its front axle. The rider, with his legs stuck under the handlebars, would then fall directly onto his head. This birthed the phrase “taking a header.”. Most bicycles belonged only to men, but while they were busting their heads on High Wheels, ladies rode around parks on an adult tricycle. This High Wheel Tricycle had a smaller front wheel and two larger back wheels.
It was also useful to dignified men such as doctors or priests. Many mechanical innovations, now more known for their use in the automobile, were originally invented for the tricycle. These include rack and School, pinion steering and band brakes. Improvements on the design of the High Wheel bicycle started popping up, mostly with the admission essays smaller wheel in the front to rubrics School stop the “headers” problem. One of these models was promoted by its manufacturer by Macquarie University, riding it down the front steps of the writing The Perkiomen School United States capitol building. This design started being called the High Wheel Safety bicycle. The bicycles began to be known as “ordinary bicycles” and later on as simply “ordinaries.”. Time went on and two similar models, the Hard-Tired Safety and the Pneumatic-Tired safety, were created.
They both had same-sized wheels and were improvements on the wooden designs. With stronger metal, there was also the ability to install a small metal chain and sprocket, light enough for a human being to power. Essay Writing! Also introduced was the gear system, which allowed the same-size bicycles to rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen School go just as fast as a High Wheel. Just after World War I, the college admission essays George “kid’s bike” was introduced. This bike incorporated many motorcycle or automobile parts to appeal to children. For Essay Writing! As time went on, the designs got more and more complex. Essays Quickly Of Applied! Kids were able to rubrics for essay The Perkiomen School do the same tricks kids do today on those sixty-five pound machines. These kids bikes were built until the writing english essays Academy 1950’s, and incorporated parts to rubrics writing The Perkiomen School look like aircrafts and even rockets. By the 1960’s, the designs got thinner and simpler. Today, we still use bicycles as a form of fast transportation, racing, and even just for writing Washington Academy, recreation. Since the rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen time of the Walking Machine, bicycles went through many significant changes.
The designs got safer and eventually more complex. The invention of the bicycle changed our history forever and our world would be a different place without it. The International Bicycle Fund is an independent, non-profit organization. Its primary purpose is to promote bicycle transportation. Most IBF projects and activities fall into one of four categories: planning and engineering, safety education, economic development assistance and promoting international understanding. IBF's objective is to create a sustainable, people-friendly environment by creating opportunities of the highest practicable quality for bicycle transportation. IBF is funded by private donation.
Contributions are always welcome and are U.S. tax-deductible to the extent allowed by thinking problems Washington State (INTO), law. Please write if you have questions, comment, criticism, praise or additional information for us, to report bad links, or if you would like to be added to IBF's mailing list. (Also let us know how you found this site.) Hosted by DreamHost - earth friendly web hosting Created by David Mozer. Copyright ? 1995-2017 International Bicycle Fund. Rubrics! All rights reserved.
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robert moses essay Robert Moses, who played a larger role in shaping the physical environment of New York State than any other figure in the 20th century, died early yesterday at West Islip, L.I. Mr. Moses, whose long list of rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen public offices only begins to hint at his impact on both the writing college Brown College, city and state of New York, was 92 years old. A spokesman for rubrics, Good Samaritan Hospital said he had been taken there Tuesday afternoon from his summer home in Gilgo Beach. The cause of death was given as heart failure. ''Those who can, build,'' Mr. Blogs? Moses once said. ''Those who can't, criticize.'' Robert Moses was, in every sense of the word, New York's master builder. Neither an architect, a planner, a lawyer nor even, in the strictest sense, a politician, he changed the face of the state more than anyone who was. Before him, there was no Triborough Bridge, Jones Beach State Park, Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, West Side Highway or Long Island parkway system or Niagara and St.
Lawrence power projects. He built all of these and more. Before Mr. Moses, New York State had a modest amount of parkland; when he left his position as chief of the state park system, the state had 2,567,256 acres. He built 658 playgrounds in New York City, 416 miles of rubrics writing parkways and 13 bridges. But he was more than just a builder.
Although he disdained theories, he was a major theoretical influence on essays Academy the shape of the American city, because the works he created in New York proved a model for rubrics School, the nation at large. His vision of a city of highways and towers -which in his later years came to be discredited by younger planners - influenced the planning of cities around the nation. His guiding hand made New York, known as a city of mass transit, also the nation's first city for the automobile age. How To Write Mountains International Hotel School? Under Mr. Moses, the metropolitan area came to have more highway miles than Los Angeles does; Moses projects anticipated such later automobile-oriented efforts as the Los Angeles freeway system. But where Los Angeles grew up around its highways, Mr.
Moses thrust many of New York's great ribbons of concrete across an rubrics for essay The Perkiomen older and largely settled urban landscape, altering it drastically. He further changed the landscape with rows of essay writing of Wollongong in Dubai red-brick apartment towers for rubrics, low- and middle-income residents, asphalt playgrounds and huge sports stadiums. The Moses vision of New York was less one of neighborhoods and brownstones than one of soaring towers, open parks, highways and beaches - not the sidewalks of how to write seo article Mountains International School New York but the rubrics writing The Perkiomen School, American dream of the open road. For 44 years, from 1924 until 1968, Mr. Moses constructed public works in essay blogs Macquarie University, the city and state costing - in a recent estimate adjusting currency to 1968 value -$27 billion. Mr. For Essay Writing The Perkiomen School? Moses built parks, highways, bridges, playgrounds, housing, tunnels, beaches, zoos, civic centers, exhibition halls and essay prompts of Wollongong in Dubai, the 1964-65 New York World's Fair.
To do so, he held several appointive offices and once occupied 12 positions simultaneously, including that of writing New York City Parks Commissioner, head of the State Parks Council, head of the State Power Commission and write Mountains Management, chairman of the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority. Throughout his career he pointed with pride to his ability to ''get things done.'' It was an ability no one questioned; nonetheless Mr. Moses was a controversial figure, especially in the later years of his public career. He was far more agile at behind-the-scenes maneuvering than he was at for essay The Perkiomen School public politicking. In his one try for elective office, his race for essays George College, Governor on the Republican ticket in 1934, he was defeated by 800,000 votes, the largest margin in writing The Perkiomen School, New York State history. How To Write Seo Article Hotel School? After the debacle, his administrative power continued unabated, but he never again considered running for office. Associate of writing School High Officials. Mr. Moses was close to writing University in Dubai a number of city, state and Federal Government officials.
But with the exception of Gov. Alfred E. Smith, to whom he owed much of his early power, he seemed, to many observers, to be less in debt to governors, mayors and even Presidents than they appeared to rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen School be to him. His era of power had begun long before the Washington Academy, election of rubrics for essay The Perkiomen many of the chief executives for how to essays University Sciences, whom he worked, and it continued long after many of them had passed from public view. Many officials frequently suggested that they did not know how they could get public projects built without Mr. Moses' help. Rubrics Writing The Perkiomen? He often threatened to writing Academy resign when he did not get his way and, having called most mayors' and rubrics for essay, governors' bluffs, he usually did get his way - until 1962, when Gov. Nelson A. Rockefeller, to writing essays Mr. Moses' shock, accepted his resignation from several of his positions. In 1968 he was relieved of his final position - head of the School, Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority - but until then Mr.
Moses seemed to be a perpetual figure of power in the state's public works system. He was already long past the retirement age for state officials -he had turned 65 back in 1953 - but until Governor Rockefeller balked in 1962, executives had regularly signed special extensions to permit Mr. Moses to stay on. The Grand-Scale Approach. Mr.
Moses was closely associated with a view of city planning as a sweeping, total process to be carried out on a grand scale and, as that view began to be replaced with a more modest, preservationoriented philosophy in the 1960's, his reputation began to suffer. He indicated no wish to change with the times, but held to his views more ardently than ever in his later years, dismissing community opposition to his vast projects by saying, as he did in a 1974 statement, ''I raise my stein to essays Academy the builder who can remove ghettos without removing people as I hail the rubrics writing School, chef who can make omelets without breaking eggs.'' The statement came in a much-publicized 3,500-word rebuttal that Mr. Moses offered to a highly critical biography of him by Robert Caro published in 1974, ''The Power Broker.'' The exhaustive 1,246-page work, which won the Pulitzer Prize, was written from the perspective of the newer approach to planning and redevelopment, and school essay prompts University of Wollongong, it contended that Mr. Moses had callously removed residents of rubrics School neighborhoods undergoing urban renewal, had destroyed the traditional fabric of urban neighborhoods in favor of a landscape of red-brick towers and throughout his career had worked somewhat outside the normal democratic process. Mr. Moses was deeply hurt by the great attention given the blogs Macquarie, book, the rubrics, only full-length investigative biography of him ever written. For while Mr. Caro called Mr. Moses a genius and ''perhaps the writing admission College, single most influential seminal thinker'' in rubrics for essay School, 20th-century urban renewal, the book's overall tone clearly indicated the extent to critical thinking Washington University (INTO) which Mr. Moses' views had become different from those of the mainstream of planners and politicians by 1974.
Mr. Moses was, understandably, much happier with the version of things he presented in an autobiography, published in 1969, which he called ''Public Works: A Dangerous Trade.'' Not a Professional Planner. Mr. Moses was not a professional planner by training, but a political scientist eager to put his education to work for the public welfare.
He was a brilliant drafter of legislation, and as his career went on, he used that talent to set up over rubrics, a dozen of the institutions from which he was to derive his greatest power: public authorities. The public authority, an autonomous organization that creates public works with money raised by issuing bonds, was legally possible before Mr. Moses became active, but it was a device that had rarely been used. He drafted legislation to set up such authorities as the Jones Beach State Park Authority and the most powerful of them all, the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority. It was through the authorities that Mr. Moses was able to conceive of most of University of Applied his projects and for essay The Perkiomen School, create them largely unchallenged by college admission, public or political pressures. For Essay School? The most successful projects, like his toll bridges, brought in writing college George Brown, vast revenues that the authority - which meant Mr. Moses himself - could control, free of any public or governmental interference. Critics were later to question whether Mr. Moses' biases were a cause or an effect of the automobile age, but it is certain that he focused his public-works projects on increasing suburbanization and use of the automobile.
He was largely responsible for the network of parkways on rubrics for essay Long Island, for example, as well as for highways within the city that were conceived more for the convenience of suburban automobile owners than inner-city residents. Like many planners in the 1930's and 1940's, Mr. Moses did not question, as later planners did, the ultimate effect the automobile would have on the city, choking old streets with traffic and leading to the demolition of many neighborhoods to make way for expressways. Mr. Moses believed simply, as he stated in his 1974 rebuttal to the Caro biography, that ''we live in Blue Mountains International Management School, a motorized civilization.'' He saw the automobile as a force that was bound to rubrics writing The Perkiomen revolutionize the landscape, and Washington, he intended to rubrics The Perkiomen help guide that process.
Part of Academy 'Our Crowd' Robert Moses was born in New Haven on Dec. 18, 1888, the son of Emanuel Moses, a department-store owner, and for essay writing School, Bella Silverman Moses. His family was part of the well-to-do circle of New York German Jews known as ''our crowd,'' and although they were not among the wealthiest of the group, Mrs. Moses' ambitions led the family to resettle in New York in 1897. Robert Moses grew up in a town house on East 46th Street, with the luxurious upbringing that was common to high writing in Dubai families in the Moses class.
He entered Yale in 1905 at the age of 17, two years younger than most of his class. There he wrote poetry and earned the reputation of being idealistic and somewhat solitary. Tall and imposing, he was also a fine athlete and became an for essay active member of the Yale swimming team. After his graduation in 1909, he went to Oxford, where he became interested in the British civil service system and began a thesis urging that government jobs be awarded on a merit system, based largely on education and class distinctions. It would earn him a Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1914. Mr.
Moses' idealism found an outlet in 1913 in his first career, with the Municipal Research Bureau in New York, a six-year-old organization that was a research and advisory arm for the nationwide municipal government reform movement. Mr. Moses was accepted into the bureau's training school, but he soon grew impatient and offered to critical problems Washington State University (INTO) become a regular staff member at School no salary, since his family gave him sufficient income. The offer was accepted, but Mr. Moses was no more comfortable with his higher status. First Outlet for Drive. The first real outlet for the determined energy and drive with which Mr.
Moses would later approach the building of public works projects came in 1914, when John Purroy Mitchel, a leading reformer, was elected Mayor of New York. Mitchel looked to the Municipal Research Bureau for help in restructuring the city's Civil Service system, and the bureau put forth the name of its only essays Washington, staff member who was an rubrics expert in that area: Robert Moses. Mr. Moses dived with zeal into the chaos that was the Tammany Hall job system. He proposed a rigid plan for reform, not unlike what he had suggested in his Ph.D. thesis. It was idealistic but almost Calvinistic in its unswerving rules, requiring that all jobs be analyzed on a complex scale and school writing prompts University of Wollongong, that all workers' performance be quantitatively measured. The system also required that many workers who had received their jobs through patronage be downgraded, a provision that earned Mr. Moses the The Perkiomen, understandable enmity of Tammany Hall. The system was only partly put into effect, and Mayor Mitchel's defeat in 1917 meant that Mr.
Moses had to look elsewhere to advance his career. He did not have to look long. After the 1918 election, he received a telephone call from writing admission, Belle Moskowitz, a 40-year-old reformer who was particularly close to the incoming Governor, Alfred E. Smith. Mrs. School? Moskowitz offered Mr.
Moses the job of chief of high writing University in Dubai staff of a new commission that was to recommend total reorganization of the state government. Into the Orbit of Power. It was a job that was to bring Mr. Moses far more into the orbit of politicians and power than he had ever been, and rubrics for essay writing School, it would begin his association with Governor Smith, with whom he was to remain close for the rest of Mr. Smith's life. The commission's 419-page report urged consolidation of seo article Blue International Hotel Management School 187 state agencies into 16 departments, the for essay The Perkiomen School, extension of the Governor's term from two to four years and how to Mountains Hotel Management, the vesting in the Governor of the power to appoint and remove all key officials. It was a model for such reform reports around the nation, but like Mr. Moses' recommendations to the city, it was not adopted.
Mr. Rubrics? Moses worked with other reform groups after 1921, when Mr. High School Essay Prompts Of Wollongong In Dubai? Smith was out of rubrics writing School power and the two men were together in New York. But when Mr. Smith was elected again in 1922, he took Mr. Moses back to Albany, this time as part of his inner circle. How To Hanze Sciences? It was then that Mr.
Moses first became involved with subjects that would occupy him throughout his career: parks, construction and highways. Influenced by for essay writing School, Governor Smith, he was rapidly moving away from Macquarie, his theoretical interest in rubrics The Perkiomen School, government and toward a concern, which was later to become a virtual obsession, with getting things done, whatever the methods, whatever the costs. Several visits to essay blogs Macquarie Long Island had awakened Mr. Moses to the enormous amount of unused land not far from New York City's borders, and for essay writing The Perkiomen School, his growing realization that the automobile would be crucial to the New York region's development led him to his interest in setting aside the land - or condemning it, if need be - for how to seo article Blue Mountains International, public use. In typical Moses fashion, he proposed to Governor Smith a sweeping plan that called for a $15 million bond issue to acquire and rubrics for essay writing, improve parkland and for the establishment of a set of writing Macquarie University regional park commissions. Fur Coat or Underwear? Governor Smith at first thought the plan excessive - ''You want to give the people a fur coat when what they need is rubrics writing School red flannel underwear,'' he told Mr. Moses. But he soon realized the political sense that parks made and not only critical State (INTO), supported the rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen School, scheme, but also made Mr. Moses president of its first major unit, the Long Island State Park Commission. Mr.
Moses himself drafted the enabling legislation for the commission, and it was an intricate law that gave the commission - and its leader, Robert Moses - almost unchallenged power. The legislation was passed in 1924, and Mr. English Washington? Moses was then also named chairman of the State Council of Parks. His first great achievement was the rubrics School, erection of Jones Beach, for english Washington Academy, which he took an almost unused sandbar and at vast expense transformed it into an elaborate seaside Xanadu for the masses, complete with bathhouses, restaurants and a tower inspired by a Venetian bell tower. There was vast opposition to the project in the surrounding area, but Mr. Moses was not deterred. The Jones Beach that Mr.
Moses built was extravagant in for essay, its appointments, vast in its scale and conservative in its design. Before Jones Beach, bathhouses were generally shacks beside the how to write seo article Blue Management School, sea; Mr. Moses decided that he wanted enormous sandstone and brick palaces. And beach resorts for the public were usually honky-tonk boardwalks; Mr. Writing The Perkiomen? Moses decided that Jones Beach would change that pattern and contain an open beach, a theater and ''wholesome'' games like shuffleboard. An Overwhelming Success. Each of the two Jones Beach bathhouses, faced with an especially expensive brick that Mr.
Moses had admired on an East Side hotel, cost a million dollars. State University (INTO)? Designed in rubrics The Perkiomen School, a mix of Moorish, Gothic and writing admission College, 1930's-modern styles, the sprawling and gracious buildings were surrounded by elaborate, fanciful systems of for essay writing signs, fountains, railings and high writing University in Dubai, trash cans designed to imitate ship details. Rich mosaics were set into entry walls. The architecture was the loose sort of eclecticism typical of the 1920's, but its basically romantic thrust pulled the pieces of the The Perkiomen, complex together. Jones Beach, which opened in english Washington, 1930, was an overwhelming popular success, and the opponents of the project, most of writing The Perkiomen whom were Long Island residents who resented the influx of college George traffic that the beach would bring, could do little. Mr. Moses had run into much tougher opposition with his plans for for essay writing The Perkiomen, the Northern State Parkway and the Southern State Parkway. These called for Brown, richly landscaped, curving roads whose designs would ultimately influence generations of parkway planners.
But it was not the designs that caused controversy - it was the very fact of the roads in the first place. School? Both parkways cut through the huge country estates of wealthy New Yorkers who spent weekends and critical thinking, summers on the Island. They were upset not only at Mr. Moses' presumption that he could appropriate their land, but also at rubrics writing The Perkiomen School the possibility that the essays, ''rabble'' from the city would overrun the elegant North and South Shores. Mr. Moses himself was no populist, and critics later suggested that he was as interested in furthering his own power as in helping the working classes toward some light and air. But Governor Smith's instincts were more down-to-earth, and in one famous exchange the rubrics writing The Perkiomen School, Governor replied to a landowner's fear of an invasion of the how to write quickly Hanze of Applied Sciences, rabble with the words ''Rabble? That's me you're talking about.''
Long Court Fights. There were, however, long court fights on both the North and South Shores. Rubrics For Essay Writing School? And Mr. Moses, who said,''As long as you're on the side of the parks, you're on the side of the angels; you can't lose,'' did not lose, in spite of the fact that courts ruled that some of write seo article Blue Hotel Management his appropriations had in fact been illegal. His park projects went ahead - partly because Mr. Rubrics For Essay Writing? Moses had always realized that if he could somehow start a project, money and legal authority would always be found to finish it rather than leave it half-done, a monument to bureacratic incompetence. ''Once you sink that first stake,'' he was fond of saying, ''they'll never make you pull it up.'' Mr. Moses' work crews kept sinking stakes - and pulling up none - through Smith's governorship, and by the end of 1928, there were 9,700 acres of how to essays Sciences state parkland on Long Island. The richly landscaped Southern State Parkway was well under way, with the Northern State soon to follow - both, like Jones Beach, an example of carefully detailed design that would make a real mark on the planning profession. The Moses recommendations for reorganization of the state government had formed the for essay writing, keystone of legislation passed in 1926 to change the essays quickly, state's bureaucracy finally.
And with his appointment as the New York Secretary of State in 1927, Robert Moses was rapidly becoming one of the state's most powerful figures. His power diminished when Franklin D. Roosevelt, with whom he had never been on good terms and with whom he was later to feud bitterly, was elected Governor in 1928. Mr. Roosevelt forced Mr. Moses to for essay relinquish his Secretary of State title. But the immense popularity of blogs Macquarie University Mr. Moses' facilities, many of which, like Jones Beach, were finally open to rubrics for essay The Perkiomen School the public by Brown, the end of the decade, gave him a degree of political resilience he would have otherwise lacked - and permitted him to rubrics for essay writing hold onto essays George, his parks jobs. Drafted Park Legislation. In 1933, still active on the state level, Mr. Moses was invited to join the new administration of Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia in New York City, as head of a new, unified City Parks Department and head of the Triborough Bridge Authority, a new organization charged with building the Triborough Bridge. Mr.
Moses himself drafted the legislation unifying the five borough parks departments to create his new job. He began a massive building program, taking advantage of rubrics Federal and high school writing prompts of Wollongong in Dubai, state unemployment funds that became available in the Depression. Early in 1934 Mr. Moses advertised for architects to assist in public-works projects; by dawn the next morning, a line of unemployed architects in front of Parks Department headquarters on Fifth Avenue stretched for rubrics for essay The Perkiomen, two blocks. Within a few months, 1,700 projects, ranging from park bench repairs to new golf courses to a rebuilt Central Park Zoo, had been finished. The New York Times commented editorially that Mr. Moses' achievements ''seem little short of writing College miraculous.'' Soon Mr. Moses' works began to spew out rubrics writing School, even faster, as he drove himself and write Hanze of Applied, the staffs of his disparate organizations harder. A man of extraordinary physical energy, Mr. Moses worked 15 hours a day or more, yet rarely a day passed in which he did not set aside time for his favorite activity, swimming.
He habitually left an writing School envelope full of work he had done late at night for an assistant to pick up first thing in the morning, and it usually contained more work than most men finish in an entire day. He maintained several offices, one of which was in his limousine; so eager was he to use every minute that he often held meetings in his car, taking his guest along in whatever direction Mr. Macquarie? Moses happened to be going. When Mr. Moses had finished talking with his guest, a second limousine, which had been following, would pick up the guest and take him back to his office as Mr. Moses continued on rubrics The Perkiomen School to his destination in the first car. Although he accepted a salary from only a few of his positions, Mr. Moses used expense accounts lavishly. Critical Problems Washington University? He was the nation's first great builder of highways, but ironically he never learned to drive a car himself, and he maintained a staff of chauffeurs on rubrics The Perkiomen 24-hour call. He had offices throughout the how to write seo article Blue Mountains Management School, city and state, with personal staffs in each, and in many there were private dining rooms with chefs at the ready. By the mid-30's, his output in the city alone had reached an extraordinary level.
The Triborough Bridge, by far his biggest project up to that point, was completed in 1936, a crucial link in for essay The Perkiomen School, the Moses network of highways and regional parks. Write Seo Article Blue Mountains International Management School? In the 1930's he built hundreds of playgrounds, 10 swimming-pool complexes, the Grand Central Parkway and the Interborough, Laurelton, Gowanus and Henry Hudson Parkways, among others. He built the Bronx-Whitestone Bridge and the West Side Highway and the 79th Street Boat Basin. Badly Beaten in Election. The only rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen School, break Mr. Moses took from his hectic building activity was in 1934, when he accepted the Republican nomination for Governor.
He was not a meek candidate - his speeches often included hostile attacks on his opponent, Gov. Herbert H. Lehman. Thinking Problems State (INTO)? But he antagonized the voters, and lost by an enormous margin. By the time of the election, Mr. Moses had moved sharply to rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen the right, a political stance he was to retain for the rest of his life. Indeed, he often used his politics as a means of attacking the essay writing blogs, architecture and the planning professionals with whom he disagreed; he called Frank Lloyd Wright a man who ''was regarded in Russia as our greatest builder,'' said that planners, in general, were ''socialists'' and rubrics writing School, called Lewis Mumford ''an outspoken revolutionary.'' But Mr. Mumford, who was never a fan of Mr. Moses, nonetheless admitted that ''in the 20th century the influence of Robert Moses on the cities of America was greater than that of any other person.'' Built to His Own Tastes.
If Mr. Moses' politics were conservative, so were his tastes. He was a cultivated man - he could quote liberally from Shakespeare by writing english Washington, memory - and School, he often filled his speeches with quotations from the English poets. Once Mr. Moses subtly insulted President Roosevelt with a reference to an obscure remark of Dr.
Johnson's about how patrons frequently tried to steal credit from the real creators of works. But so far as the shaping of his own creations was concerned, Mr.Moses had a deep distrust of the avant-garde, and he sought traditional design in the architecture he built and in the sculpture he installed in his parks. And what was built was always decided on the basis of his personal taste; architects would often report that Mr. Writing University? Moses rejected nearly finished schemes merely because their stylistic quirks did not please him. Most of for essay The Perkiomen School Mr. Moses' public housing was designed in the bland style of essay writing prompts in Dubai such architecture in the 40's and 50's, when monotonous, sterile towers in open space were the rule for low-income residences.
The care Mr. Rubrics For Essay Writing The Perkiomen School? Moses lavished on writing college George Brown the design of for essay The Perkiomen Jones Beach and writing admission essays George College, his early parkways tended not to show itself in the architectural plans for his public housing; as with many builders of public housing, he was concerned more with order and with numbers of apartment units than with making buildings that would relate to their occupants' ways of living. The general model for such housing was the rubrics for essay writing, 1920's plan for seo article Mountains Hotel Management, the rebuilding of Paris by Le Corbusier, which called for a city of towers surrounded by parks and divided by highways instead of traditional streets. Mr. Moses, like so many American planners, came to the Le Corbusier approach not for reasons of esthetics but for reasons of efficiency. An Architectural Plateau. But Mr. Moses' architectural taste did not change substantially with other kinds of projects in his later years. The New York Coliseum at Columbus Circle is rubrics The Perkiomen a gray brick box of the sort of undistinguished design that suggests government buildings of the essays George Brown College, 50's, and rubrics for essay School, neither Lincoln Center, Shea Stadium nor the New York World's Fair have ever been considered to high school essay writing prompts of Wollongong in Dubai have made major marks architecturally.
In the rubrics writing The Perkiomen School, 40's and 50's, Mr. Writing College Essays George Brown? Moses' activities intensified. His Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority suffered one major defeat - his plan for a Battery bridge crossing was built as a tunnel because of public opposition to a bridge blocking the harbor view. But he expanded his activities into other areas. He played a crucial role in rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen, the negotiations to bring the United Nations to New York City and to convince John D. Rockefeller to obtain the organization's East River site; he was active on, and often controlled, the City Planning Commission; he came to dominate the how to write International Hotel School, city's Housing Authority, and he obtained for himself another new ''umbrella'' title: City Construction Coordinator, giving him authority over virtually every public construction project in the city of New York. But by the 50's, while Mr. Rubrics Writing? Moses' remarkable energy was far from exhausted, many of his ideas - which had not changed substantially in all the years he had been active - were no longer convincing.
He lost a bitter battle in 1959 with Joseph Papp, head of the New York Shakespeare Festival, over permitting free Shakespeare performances in city parks. And community protests occurred over the route for his Cross Bronx Expressway, which required the writing Washington, demolition of at least 1,500 apartments in a one-mile stretch alone. Mr. Moses did not bow to the Bronx protests; he refused to switch to an alternative route that would have taken away only a few dozen buildings. For Essay Writing The Perkiomen? But the fight was seen by many observers as an early chink in writing University, Mr. Rubrics The Perkiomen? Moses' armor. A smaller, but more successful, protest had been mounted by critical problems University (INTO), wellto-do residents of West 67th Street in 1956 against for essay a Moses scheme to replace a tree-filled play area in Central Park with a parking lot. The event was a severe blow to write Hanze of Applied Mr.
Moses' image: the man who began his career as a champion of parks was being attacked as a destroyer of them. Projects Run Into Snags. At the same time two more Moses-conceived projects - a mid-Manhattan Expressway and the Lower Manhatan Expressway - began to run into snags. Rubrics For Essay Writing School? Ultimately they would never be built at all. Neither would another favorite Moses scheme that came up against the objections of a later generation of environmentalists, his plan for a bridge to cross the Long Island Sound between Rye, N.Y., and Oyster Bay, L.I. Mr.
Moses' reputation was also damaged by write Blue International School, the Manhattantown urban renewal scandals of the rubrics writing School, 50's, in which private developers, to write School whom the city had sold tenements at a reduced rate with the understanding that their sites would be cleared and new housing erected, simply continued to operate the tenements, milking them for high rents. While Mr. Moses was never himself charged with profiteering, associates of his were implicated in the scandals. Rubrics For Essay Writing The Perkiomen? And connected to the scandal was a growing public resentment of relocation of tenants from slum clearance sites - a process that Mr. Moses was also in charge of. The Manhattantown scandals also gave Mr. Moses his first major taste of press disapproval. Admission Essays? Most of the city's newspapers had been staunch Moses supporters over the years, and editorial support for Moses park and highway projects had played a significant role in keeping the public, and hence the state's politicians, on Mr. Rubrics The Perkiomen? Moses' side in many a controversy. But editorial writers were taken aback by the urban-renewal scandals, and the nearly universal support that Mr.
Moses had been receiving was sharply curtailed. He did nonetheless get an enormous amount of housing actually built in blogs Macquarie University, those years - as well as start other slum-clearance projects that would have almost total public support, such as the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts on the Upper West Side. But the urban renewal scandals were perhaps his most serious setbacks, and in 1959 an rubrics for essay writing opportunity arose for a graceful exit: the presidency of the 1964-65 New York World's Fair was offered to him. The fair was Mr. Moses' last major accomplishment, and prompts of Wollongong in Dubai, it was done in typical Moses style, with lavish public relations and elaborate new buildings. The fair was not, however, a total success either esthetically or financially, and rubrics School, Mr. Moses' dream of converting its Flushing Meadows site into an elaborate permanent park had to be scaled down considerably. Mr. Write Essays Quickly Hanze University Sciences? Moses had been required to give up all of for essay The Perkiomen School his official positions with the City of New York in 1959, when he assumed the presidency of the critical Washington (INTO), fair. He lost most of his state jobs in 1962, when Governor Rockefeller, to Mr.
Moses' surprise, accepted his resignation, which had been offered merely in writing, protest over a disagreement. His last significant hold on power was lost in 1968, when the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority was merged into Governor Rockefeller's new Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Mr. Moses was offered the role of critical thinking State University ''consultant'' to for essay writing The Perkiomen School the new agency, which permitted him to college admission essays George maintain his offices, secretaries and chauffeurs, but gave him no real power. The Curtain Comes Down.
And thus, quietly, the active career of one of the nation's most powerful public officials came to writing School an end. Mr. Moses' name was virtually a household word, not only in Blue Mountains Hotel, New York but also around the nation, first as a fighter for parks and open space and later as a name that had come to symbolize the sweeping, total approach to for essay writing School urban renewal that he favored.
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academic writing Centre for for essay Academic Success. There's no great mystique about an academic writing style. The most important thing is to keep your writing clear and concise and make sure that you get your ideas over in a comprehensible form. It's clear expression of these ideas that will impress your tutor, not a string of long, inappropriate words found in your dictionary. A wide range of writing University vocabulary is of course important, but you must use the right word, and shorter ones are often better than longer ones.
The most important thing to remember is generally to try to avoid everyday, informal language, especially colloquial expressions and slang. For Essay Writing The Perkiomen School! Also, spoken language is naturally full of hesitations, repetitions, grammatical errors and unfinished ideas. In your writing, however, structure is much more important: sentences should be complete and ideas arranged into paragraphs or sections, and critical thinking problems State University (INTO), you should aim for perfection in rubrics for essay The Perkiomen your grammar and spelling. However, especially if English is not your first language, don't become too obsessed with this, to the point perhaps of writing Macquarie copying word for word from your sources. What#8217;s important is that you clearly show your understanding of the subject and your ability to manipulate information to answer a specific question or complete a specific task, and as long as any grammar errors you make don#8217;t impede this, then it shouldn#8217;t be a problem. AVOID SOME ASPECTS OF INFORMAL ENGLISH. don't use colloquial language or slang (eg kid, a lot of/lots of, cool) always write as concisely as you can, with no irrelevant material or #8220;waffle#8221;. generally avoid phrasal verbs (e.g. get off, get away with, put in etc): instead, use one word equivalents. avoid common but vague words and phrases such as get, nice, thing. Your writing needs to be more precise. avoid overuse of brackets; don#8217;t use exclamation marks or dashes; avoid direct questions; don#8217;t use #8220;etc#8221;. Rubrics For Essay Writing The Perkiomen! always use capital letters appropriately and essay prompts in Dubai, never use the type of language used in texting! See the practice exercises at the end of the guide. divide your writing up into paragraphs (see Guide 1.35). Writing The Perkiomen School! use connecting words and phrases to make your writing explicit and easy to follow (see Guide 1.39).
check your grammar and spelling carefully (see Guide 1.42). MAKE YOUR WRITING FORMAL AND IMPERSONAL. avoid being too dogmatic and school University, making sweeping generalisations. It is usually best to use. For Essay Writing School! some sort of how to write quickly University Sciences #8220;hedging#8221; language (see below) and to qualify statements that you make. For Essay Writing! you should consistently use evidence from your source reading to back up what you are saying and reference this correctly. avoid sexist language, such as chairman, mankind. Don#8217;t refer to #8220;the doctor#8221; as he; instead, make the subject plural and refer to them as they . Avoid he/she, herself/himself etc. use nominalisation; that is, try to write noun-based phrases rather that verb-based ones. For example, instead of. Crime was increasing rapidly and the police were becoming concerned.
The rapid increase in crime was causing concern among the police. wide use of writing essays George subordinate clauses. Remember, however, that your main aim is clarity, so. don#8217;t be too ambitious, particularly when you#8217;re starting to write. use impersonal subjects instead (It is believed that . it can be argued that . ) use passive verbs to avoid stating the #8216;doer#8217; (Tests have been conducted) use verbs (often with it as subject) such as imagine, suggest, claim, suppose. use #8216;attitudinal signals#8217; such as apparently, arguably, ideally, strangely, unexpectedly. These words allow you to rubrics writing hint at your attitude to something without using personal language. Writing! use verbs such as would, could, may, might which #8216;soften#8217; what you#8217;re saying. use qualifying adverbs such as some, several, a minority of, a few, many to avoid making overgeneralisations. For Essay School! Replace the phrasal verbs in the sentences with a more appropriate verb from the list below.
Don't forget to keep the writing essays Washington same tense. Rubrics For Essay Writing The Perkiomen! fluctuate investigate eliminate raise reduce. propose intervene establish. Writing! 1 Researchers have been looking into the problem for 15 years. ______________________. Writing School! 2 This issue was brought up during the seminar. __________________________. 3 It is assumed that the management knows what is happening and will therefore step in if. there is a problem. University Of Wollongong In Dubai! _________________________. 4 Schools cannot altogether get rid of the problem of truancy. _________________________. 5 The number of staff has been cut down recently. _____________________. 6 It was very difficult to find out exactly what happened. _______________________. 7 House prices have a tendency to The Perkiomen go up and quickly, down. ¬¬_______________________. 8 A potential solution was put forward two years ago. For Essay Writing School! ¬¬¬______________________. Replace the thinking problems Washington State following phrasal verbs with a more formal single word. 1 The locals could not put up with the rubrics for essay writing School visitors from the city. __________________________.
2 The decline was brought about by essays Washington Academy, cheap imports. __________________________________. 3 The university is thinking about installing CCTV. ___________________________________. 4 Sales are likely to drop off in the third quarter. ____________________________________. 5 He went on speaking for over an hour. ____________________________________________. 6 The meeting was put off until December. __________________________________________. 7 The cinema was pulled down ten years ago. ________________________________________.
8 People have cut down on writing The Perkiomen their consumption of writing college George College beef. ________________________________. For Essay Writing The Perkiomen School! Which of the two alternatives in bold do you think is more appropriate in academic writing? 1 The government has made considerable/great progress in solving the problem. 2 We got/obtained excellent results in the experiment. 3 The results of lots of/numerous tests have been pretty good/encouraging. 4 A loss of jobs is one of the consequences/things that will happen if the process is.
5 The relationship between the essays University management and for essay writing, workers is extremely/really important. 6 Some suggestions springing up from/arising from the study will be presented. Use a more formal word or phrase to replace those in bold. 1 The reaction of the essay Macquarie officials was sort of rubrics for essay negative. High Essay Of Wollongong! _______________________. 2 The economic outlook is nice.__________________________. 3 Car manufacturers are planning a get together to discuss their strategy. 4 The resulting competition between countries is good._________________. 5 The economy is The Perkiomen School, affected by things that happen outside the country. 6 She was given the sack because of her poor record. Essay! __________________. 7 The examination results were super. Rubrics Writing School! ________________________.
Replace the contractions in the following sentences with full forms where necessary. 1 The results weren't very encouraging. _________________________. 2 We'll have to conduct another experiment. _____________________. 3 She's been all around the world. _________________________. School Essay Writing Prompts Of Wollongong! 4 It's the best solution to the problem. ______________________.
5 Our questionnaire shows that teachers aren't paid what they're worth. 6 His response was, A job's a job; if it doesn't pay enough, it's a lousy job'. _______________. 7 He'd rather announce the rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen School findings at critical problems (INTO) the conference. _________________. 8 The department's approach didn't succeed. _________________________. Suggest improvements to the following sentences to avoid use of #8220;you#8221; and #8220;we#8221;. 1. Rubrics Writing The Perkiomen! You can apply the same theory of learning to small children. 2. Essay Writing Blogs Macquarie University! You can only do this after the initial preparation has been conducted. 3. The figures are accurate to within 1%, but you should note that local. variations may apply. 4. In the second section of the report, we will consider the environmental.
Suggest alternatives to the following to avoid use of rubrics writing The Perkiomen School personal language. 1 In this essay I will discuss the main differences between the English and. Scottish legal systems. 2 I have divided my report into five sections. 3 I will conclude by proposing that all drugs should be legalized. 4 The opinion of the present author in this essay is that the importance of. the monarchy should be reduced. 5 In the third part of the essay, we will look at high writing of Wollongong the reasons for for essay writing public. hysteria over the SARS virus.
6 Although I am not an expert in the field, I have tried very hard to. Writing English Essays Washington! understand the main ideas. Make these statements more cautious. 1 Today everyone uses credit cards for all their shopping. 2 Drinking wine is bad for for essay writing School you. 3 Global warming will have disastrous consequences for the whole. Thinking Problems Washington State! 4 Teleworking leads to isolation. 5 Women are worse drivers than men. Rewrite the following in a more formal style. 1. The positive feedback made up for the problems we came across during.
2. Rubrics For Essay The Perkiomen School! You can clearly see the differences between these two learning. 3. Write Essays Quickly Hanze Sciences! The subjects didn't have much difficulty with the task. 4. We found example after example of autonomous systems in lots of. Links to further resources on academic writing style. Last updated: 4 January 2011.
Centre for Academic Success. City North : 0121 331 7685 Email. Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email. To book a tutorial at Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.
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You did a very good job providing education about a very misunderstood topic. Russian culture has a long history and tradition and Russians are very proud of it. Russians consider themselves as a well educated nation. Washington? They read a lot, books are cheap, and one can afford to buy 5-10 books a month without serious damage to rubrics for essay writing School a family budget. Russians are also big fond of live performances at theatres and writing english Washington since tickets are affordable (prices in cinemas and theatres are comparable), they enjoy attending theatres: opera, musical, ballet, drama etc. Usually every city has a few theatres. The theatre culture was developed during the for essay writing Soviet times when tickets were sold through schools and Washington Academy enterprises: cities were divided into areas and there was a theatre agent responsible for each particular area. For Essay The Perkiomen? The agent would bring tickets for distribution to essays every enterprise and for essay writing school in his area and how to Management School the person responsible for culture sector would organize collective visit to the theatre.
I think it was an excellent system since people had the opportunity to attend theatres from the early age, starting from attending performances in a Muppet theatre, then moving to the Youth Drama Theatre, then to Drama, Musical and Opera, according to their age. Also attending performances in a company is always much more fun, which contributed to the popularity of theatres. This is how most Russian people have developed their taste for live performances. Movie theatres are also becoming popular in Russia and writing they are equipped with the latest sound systems. When Russian people talk about writing blogs movie theatres, they will usually say cinema; if they talk about theatres, they mean live performances. During Soviet times there was a well developed system of community work and in rubrics for essay The Perkiomen, every group (class at school, department at work etc) would be also a person responsible for sport, education, political information of the group etc. People that were doing community work were given benefits (free or discounted travel, ability to essays Washington Academy buy deficit goods, ability to receive a better apartment from the government for rubrics for essay, free etc) - remember, there was no private property until Perestroika, everything used to belong to the state, which was controlling distribution and would award the most active citizens. Unfortunately the system of essay Macquarie volunteering was broken with Perestroika but Russians still have that great community spirit (which sometimes goes to for essay writing School the lengths a westerner would consider as infringement). Russian culture is non-individualistic. The power of an individual in school essay University of Wollongong, Russia is much less than in the west and most deals are pushed through family, friends and acquaintances.
Russian saying is, One is for essay writing School not a soldier in the battlefield. In Russia, one still needs to essays George College know people in power to make things work. Rubrics Writing School? This is why they maintain more friendships than an average westerner. They often have to Brown rely on their friends to help them out. You know someone who knows someone who is in power; this is the way they have the things done.
If you know the rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen School right people, you can have the most difficult things done with little effort. In my life, a few times I ran into write essays Hanze University of Applied Sciences dead ends where there was nothing I could do in for essay The Perkiomen, the straightforward way; the writing essays Washington people were right to refuse me, according to the official rules. For Essay Writing School? But once I could find people who knew someone inside the system, a month wait would turn into just a few hours wait or they would find a place for me where they said the how to seo article Mountains International Hotel Management School rules would not allow them to give me one. Foreigners would just give up; Russians believe there is always a roundabout. The majority of Russians consider themselves as Christians, and belong to Russian Orthodox Church. It's a great achievement for rubrics for essay writing School, the country where atheism was the official state religion for more than 70 years. Frankly, most of thinking University them are not true believers.
They appreciate Christian moral values but do not follow them. For Essay? Religion is not a real part of their life. Russians are more aware of horoscopes than the Bible. Church service in Russia can be attended any day of the week and performed every day 2 or 3 times (early morning at 3 a.m., then at 8 a.m. and then in the evening at 7 p.m.). How To Blue International Hotel? People usually attend the church just to light a candle and quickly pray.
They do it to ask for something to happen (a business deal, an exam) or to remember a close person who is for essay writing The Perkiomen dead. People do not have to be a member of the church to do it and they do not have monthly contributions to the church. Thinking Problems State (INTO)? Church survives selling candles and reminder notes and charging for services such as baptizing, weddings and funerals. Rubrics Writing The Perkiomen School? Church marriage is not official in Russia. A couple has to register their marriage with government authorities first to seo article Hotel Management be allowed to have church ceremony performed. Medical aid and education in for essay The Perkiomen School, Russia are free, though Russians joke that education becomes less and less free with every year. One can still get a university education for free by passing the entrance tests (exams), but the universities have to decrease the number of students studying on a free basis because of poor state financing. Since both education and culture facilities used to be widely available, Russians can be considered a highly cultured nation. Their general knowledge is seo article Blue Mountains Hotel Management School very good: they know a little bit about virtually everything.
At secondary schools, they study not only the history of Russia but also the world history, including American and European history. In the same secondary school course (11 years school qualification is rubrics for essay writing School mandatory in Russia) they study world literature, world music, and world geography. Many books of western authors are mandatory reading in how to write quickly of Applied Sciences, the course of literature (in Russian translation of course). The standard secondary school program includes studying of a foreign language for rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen School, 6 years (grades 5-11), usually it is English but also can be French, German or Spanish. Most subjects in the course of a secondary school are mandatory for how to essays quickly Hanze University of Applied Sciences, all schools throughout the whole Russia, and only since recently there are some subjects that students can choose in addition to rubrics for essay The Perkiomen School the general course. On the entrance exams at universities and colleges only questions from the general course of the secondary school can be asked.
Universities and write essays quickly colleges accept students according to the results of rubrics for essay writing School entrance tests, and not according to their marks at school, though having excellent marks can help (for example, you would only have to how to Mountains Hotel School pass 1-2 exams instead of regular 4). Intellectually, Russians are interesting people to talk to and enjoy deep subjects. Philosophy is for essay writing still a mandatory subject when you study for a degree and one of the 3 compulsory subjects for PhD qualifying exam (the other 2 are foreign language and the specialty itself). At the same time the majority of problems Washington State University (INTO) Russians don't have what you call in the west good manners. Their manners are not bad, they are just Russian. Russia is rubrics The Perkiomen quite a tough country and critical thinking Washington University Russians usually do not hesitate to say what they think in a way that doesn't leave room for any misunderstandings. During the rubrics for essay School Soviet period having good manners was considered as a bourgeois survival. Russians are very straightforward.
When they meet or phone each other, they seldom spend time on questions like How are you? and go straight to the point. They are not rude, it's just a way of doing things. Having a university or college degree is common. Russia has the highest educational level in the world (more than 40% of the total population have college or university degree). How To Write Blue Mountains International Hotel? Since Perestroika, the system of higher (university) education is rubrics for essay The Perkiomen School slowly deteriorating as well as the medical aid system, which used to be among the world's best. The problem with Russian education is college admission George Brown that it was always rather theoretical and unrelated to practice.
Therefore, it's common for a person having an for essay writing School engineering degree to work in sales, or one with a chemical background to find himself in marketing. In the old days having a degree was an end in itself. English Academy? They are trying to change the educational programs now, but it will take years to build the system. It's not of writing The Perkiomen any wonder if a woman with university degree works as a secretary. Having a Ph.D. is also not a big deal, and doesn't give you a big advantage; good knowledge of seo article Mountains International Hotel Management English will provide you with a better competitive edge.
The position that one has in a company is not as important as the company in which he or she works. Foreign companies and even foreign public/charity organizations are considered to be the best employment. Having your own business in Russia is a big challenge. The tax system works in the way that if one has a small business (individual private enterprise), he must pre-pay taxes before he receives permission to act. It's unbelievable, but it's true: one is supposed to writing estimate his future income, and pre-pay taxes proceeding from the assumption. Then he gets a permission to start his business activity; but he must run to the tax department the second he earns 1 Ruble more profit than it was estimated and paid in Blue Mountains International Hotel School, advance. Otherwise it will be considered a hidden profit, and one can easily get a fine of the size equal to 200% of the for essay writing School amount of the hidden profit. I understand that it sounds funny, but it just works like this.
The authorities are suspicious towards owners of small businesses. The bigger enterprises have a more convenient tax system. In 2000 the essays George Brown College government announced united tax of 12% on profits, and even said the hidden (*black*) capitals may be legalized if the owner pays this 12% tax. At the same time there were comments from top government officials that this is only a temporary retreat, and the progressive tax system will be brought back as soon as people get used to paying their taxes. Actually, the government hoped that people would start paying tax and show their real profits - but Russians know their government. They don't want to be easily trapped by showing off their true income, and rubrics for essay The Perkiomen School then be obliged to high school essay University pay again enormous taxes of the past (up to 90% in rubrics School, different taxes on profit - state, region, city and high essay prompts University in Dubai others). Collecting taxes is for essay still the biggest concern for the Russian government. Most serious investors of so called New Russians transfer their capitals abroad (of course, it's illegal, but there are so many ways to take a roundabout). This 12% united tax attracted many foreigners to become Russian residents.
In Moscow and St. Petersburg, there are sizable communities of expatriates that live there mostly because of the low taxes - investors etc. Other westerners live there because of the low cost of living; on a western disability pension one can live in Russia as a king. They even have their own expatriate newspapers in English! Before the essay writing blogs Macquarie year 2000, the Russian tax system was very complicated. Counting all the taxes supposed to be paid, the total amount could reach 90%, including taxes on the salaries for employees. To pay 100 rubles to an employee, an employer had to pay about 80 rubles of tax to rubrics The Perkiomen the state: pension funds, social insurance, medical insurance and prompts of Wollongong in Dubai so on. There were many federal, regional and city's taxes, which were different from one region to another. The system made companies have double accounting, and sometimes double salaries - an official one and so called black cash salary. Another reality businesses face in Russia is organized crime, which often has close connections with authorities.
Small and medium businesses have to rubrics The Perkiomen School pay about 10% of the write seo article Mountains Hotel School profits to rubrics for essay writing raket. Nowadays many businesses prefer to employ commercial departments of police organizations or private security companies, which are in essay writing blogs University, reality just a camouflaged raket. They will help you in a case of bad debts, problems with business partners or criminal situations like robbery etc, providing you a roof. All criminal cooperations have official businesses registered, and you pay them an official fee additionally to unofficial. It was a very funny case in Ekaterinburg at spring 1999, when one of the cooperations registered their association as OPS. Rubrics? In Russian it is a common abbreviation for organized crime syndicate (Organizovannoye Prestupnoe Soobshcestvo). The guys from OPS explained their name differently as Public Political Union (Obschestvenno Politicheskiy Soyuz). It was one of the most famous and big groups in the city, and the choice of such a name demonstrated that the guys were feeling absolutely comfortable with their status. Well, you consider us as OPS? You've got it. If you have some problems with your business partner, your roof (krysha) will meet with the other guy's roof, and they will try to settle your business problems trough mutual discussion.
If they can't get right, they may apply to how to write seo article Blue Management School an unbiased source - a person in rubrics for essay writing School, law (v zakone), who will take a decision, usually quite just. This decision is writing college essays George final, and you can't apply against of it, or get rid of it. There is an official way of settling the problems through a state court, but it's almost out of use: it's long, unpredictable and rather pathetic. But businessmen are in a better situation than the people that work as employees. With all the headaches and writing stress, they still have some money and considerably good living standards. Government employees, particularly medical doctors and teachers, do not receive their salaries for months, sometimes up to 6-8 months. It does not mean that they don't receive salaries at writing english essays Academy, all. It started in early 90th, first as delays with payments. So the first time one received his salary a week later, then next month - 2 weeks later, and The Perkiomen so on. Eventually it happens that in June you receive your salary for last December.
One receives some money regularly, and he can survive, though the government owes him thousands. This way was quickly picked up by the other organizations, and now even if one works for a private company, he might not receive his salary on Macquarie University, time. Rubrics For Essay Writing The Perkiomen School? The government constantly promises to english Washington fix outdated payments, and pay pensions and salaries to people working in a budget system on time, but for many years it's only promises. Russians are smart. They have so many difficulties and problems in life, that they can easily find a roundabout way for rubrics writing School, anything. They don't have a deep respect towards any law, including traffic rules. Russians are of some the most reckless, but at the same time skillful, drivers, and the most careless pedestrians in the world. A famous Russian comic, Mikhail Zadornov (it's also quite a coincidence that he is a name-sake of a former Russian minister of economy; once in a foreign encyclopedia they mixed up their photos - at the article about a minister was published a picture of the famous comic; well, nothing to worry about - Russian economy is also a very funny thing), so, this famous comic said: The state steals everything it can from how to write Mountains International, people. The people steal everything they can from the rubrics writing state.
Stealing is write essays of Applied not considered to be a big deal as long as you have not been caught, and don't steal from your friends or the people you know. Stealing from rubrics The Perkiomen School, one's work place was considered for years as an essential skill of how to Mountains Hotel Management well being. During the Soviet time there was such a phrase: Everything around belongs to the public (nation), so everything around belongs to me. There was no such term as private property, that's why Russians don't care about intellectual property either. No other country in the world has such abuse of pirate software, video and audio records, CDs etc exposed for sale on every corner. They used to publish books of Western authors, and the authors found it out only when started to writing The Perkiomen School receive letters of thanks from Russia. The pirate production is how to write University of Applied very cheap, for example a CD with the newest version of Microsoft Office or Windows will cost you $4 or less, the same is applicable for rubrics writing School, any other software product. The information from my sites was stolen many times. If foreign based services remove offensive sites (or take care that stolen information is removed) within 24 hours, Russian ISP's advised me to contact the thieves and critical problems State University (INTO) try to regulate the matter myself. I would understand if it was paid subscribers whose money they did not want to lose, but one of the sites was hosted by a free service provider www.narod.ru , and the result was the same: Yes, we also think it's bad, but we are not authorized to rubrics writing The Perkiomen solve such problems.
Apply to the site owner. Articles from my Russian site are stolen regularly, I stopped counting. One of my agents also reported a book published in Belarus that was an exact copy of the information from the website. Writing Macquarie University? There is no way you can get the The Perkiomen School thief back. (I recently started placing them on the Black List though :-) Russians are used to a situation where everything is unpredictable and writing blogs unstable. They live in a society where anything can happen, and don't wonder when the writing School national currency loses 25% of write seo article School it's value 3 days after the for essay president's public promise that there won't not be any inflation in the nearest future because the how to University of Applied situation has never been more stable. They have to adapt to new rules and laws quickly, and rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen they manage successfully with this task. After The Black Monday (17 August, 1998) when the essays Hanze Sciences government announced default, and rubrics The Perkiomen School the ruble fell dramatically, people from any Western country would run to school essay prompts in Dubai change the government. Rubrics The Perkiomen? Russians ran to exchange rubles for dollars.
Actually, the crisis of 1998 made good for the country: when imported products became unaffordable, the Russian industry had favorable conditions for how to quickly University Sciences, development and rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen could occupy the large part of the market. Currently economical situation of Russia is stably improving. Russians had to make the long journey from the total control of the Soviet times to the total uncertainty of the current situation. Their life has changed extremely, and if taking peoples' happiness means of measurement, it definitely changed for the worse. Blogs University? The older people are very sorry for the Soviet times, when everything was understandable, predictable and stable.
One could not get a much better life than the others with all his talents and hard work, but he was confident he would have the necessary minimum: a place to stay, a job, free good quality medical aid and affordable prices for goods, his children would have free education and free access to any sport and cultural facilities. Well, guys, it was not such a bad time! Nowadays people have lost those advantages of the socialist state, and they have yet to have the full advantages of for essay School Western capitalism. The majority of Russian people do not really understand the huge difference in the life in Russia and on college admission Brown College, the West. Russians do NOT consider their life as miserable. They feel that things are changing for the better and everything's starting to work out in their country. President Putin with is desire to clean up and stop corruption is very popular in masses. The frantic desperation of early 90th, when there was no food in shops, and late 90th with their economical roller coaster, is no longer there. The child birth rate is on the raise, which is a sure indicator people feel more confident about their future.
Russians like to emphasize their different attitude towards material values and consider themselves as sincere, cordial, understanding and unselfish. Rubrics Writing School? They like to talk about specifics of Russian soul or mysterious Russian soul, and repeat the famous phrase of a Russian poet You can't understand Russia by your mind. Generally, Russians love their country. They can criticize it severely, but if you try to do the same they will defend it furiously. They feel like citizens of the largest county in write seo article Blue Hotel Management School, the world, which has rich history and deep cultural roots, and they are proud of rubrics writing it. Daily life for the majority of Russian women is very much the writing essays Washington Academy same.
One gets up at for essay School, 7-8 a.m. depending on working hours of her company. Factories and plants usually work from 6-8 a.m., and offices and shops from 9-10 p.m. After a simple breakfast (normally just a sandwich with tea or coffee), she goes to catch a bus/tram/trolleybus/underground train. Most Russians live in flats in outskirts (sleeping zones), work in the center of the writing blogs Macquarie University city, and have to spend from The Perkiomen, 30 to 90 minutes to reach their working place. Public transport is always overcrowded during the peak time, and she does not have any chance to have a seat. People in the transport are like fishes in a can, some of english essays Washington Academy them are touching her, but it's quite normal - there is rubrics The Perkiomen nothing one can do. People in transport are always unfriendly and irritated, though if you are pregnant, with a small baby in hands or very old, they will offer you a seat. Normally the working day is 8 hours with one 30-60 minutes lunch break. If one works for high essay University of Wollongong in Dubai, a state enterprise, she may have a few tea pauses - there is a poor discipline on those plants, one can easily leave her job to settle some personal problems.
Working for a private company means a better salary than working for the state, but also staying after hours often or from time to time. Leaving her work at 5-7 p.m., she has to make her way all the way back home using the same overcrowded public transport. Having a car is still considered to be a kind of luxury, and writing The Perkiomen School even if the family has a car, it's always the husband who drives it. The price of the cheapest new brand car is about USD 5,100, with the average women's monthly salary 3000 rubles (about USD 100). One can afford to buy a second hand car but it's very expensive to keep it on the road. You will also have to use a paid secure night parking or have a garage, both options will make an average woman run out of money. Using public transport makes one twice as tired. During the cold season (November-March) it will also make you cold because you can't move there, and Mountains International Management it's the same temperature inside as outside.
So if it's -20°C outside, it's probably -18 in the bus. I used to have my own car, and used to go to work by bus, and I can say for sure - public transport exhausts you. After arriving at her stop on her way back home, the for essay woman usually goes to the nearest shop to buy some food - bread, milk and meat. Russians don't go shopping once a week, they buy products when they are finished. One must buy or provide his own plastic bags in a shop, they seldom give the bags away for free. How To Write Seo Article Blue Mountains Management School? Carrying bags home also doesn't make the woman relaxed - even if it's only a few kilos and few hundreds meters (usually homes are within 0-2 miles from shopping areas), you still feel it. The woman arrives home completely exhausted. If she has a child, she must fetch him from the kindergarten on writing The Perkiomen School, her way back.
If she has a family, she must make food for it. School Writing Prompts Of Wollongong? Cooking in Russia is more complicated and takes much longer, not only because of different recipes, but also because of the lack of half-ready products. There are half-ready products on the market but they are mostly imported and therefore expensive. After the rubrics The Perkiomen School supper, the family can watch TV for a couple of hours, then they go to essays Brown bed. Some people regularly visit gyms, probably about the same proportion of population as in the west (which means most people don't). Weekly movies or dining out are rare, discos or night clubs are more popular but still unaffordable for many people. Entertainment is expensive, and usually they it is limited by visiting friends or relatives on the weekends.
Generally, the daily life of a Russian woman can be described as *home - work - home* or *home - work - shops - home*. You can say that it's normal for the life in for essay writing The Perkiomen School, any western country as well, but there is one big difference: even small things in Russia require much more efforts. Small things that will take you a couple of high essay writing prompts minutes, in writing The Perkiomen, Russia can take you half an hour or even the high essay writing prompts University of Wollongong whole day. For example, I know about a case where a foreign company refused to pay 1-day salary to a Russian employee that she spent in some government committee in rubrics The Perkiomen, order to obtain the necessary information requested by the foreign boss. You could just make a phone call; there was no need to essays go there in person to rubrics for essay writing get the information, said the foreign boss. For a Russian, it is crystal clear that a phone call will not get you the complete information on the government procedure, nor the government officials would supply such information via fax or mail it to you for free.
Such practice is normal for western world but is a complete alien for Russian officials. A stop on writing Brown College, you way home to The Perkiomen School buy milk would take you two minutes; in writing essays Washington, Russia it can take a woman 10 times longer, since she has to specially walk to the shop and for essay School there stand in a queue (most shops in critical thinking problems Washington University (INTO), Russia, especially in regional cities, still sell over the counter and bill items manually). This *time rule* is applicable to everything: getting things done in writing The Perkiomen, Russia takes longer and requires more effort. Hanze Of Applied? The word convenience was not in favor when the current system of Russian life was designed. The problem is not the rubrics availability of goods (food and goods are in abundance) but poor logistics. Another thing about Russian daily life - they do not really enjoy it. They get awakened not to enjoy a new day but to cope with today's problems. There is essay blogs Macquarie little comfort and contentment. Russians are used to minor everyday difficulties, and they don't even bother them anymore.
Russian daily life is rubrics writing tough, and it's probably the write seo article Mountains Hotel School reason why they smile so seldom. Rarely you will see a smiling face in for essay writing School, a bus or on the streets - the fact that usually makes foreigners wonder. A Russian, living in Russia, might argue some of the points I discussed here, but a Russian, living abroad, will agree with me. There are differences that a person living in Russia cannot realize, and they involve not only better cars and homes (New Russians have it all!) but the essay University very basic values of existence. I believe the main difference in Russian and western way of rubrics writing life comes from those base beliefs: western life is built on how to Blue International Hotel Management, the cult of enjoy , Russian life is The Perkiomen built on the base of God endured, so we have to writing english endure too . Westerners live to enjoy; Russians live to endure . This cultural paradigm can be demonstrated by rubrics The Perkiomen, the difference in religious rituals in school essay University in Dubai, western and Russian Christian churches: there are no benches and amphitheatres in Russian Orthodox churches. The whole 1-2 hour service people are supposed to spend standing shoulder-to-shoulder in a badly lit, stuffy, one-level room, where one struggles to rubrics writing see the priest.
Many people stand on their knees during the service. Russian Christian church service promotes humility through enduring; while a western Christian church service promotes integrity and enhancement. The very word enjoy has some indecent flavor in Russian: it is something that is not very appropriate, but done nevertheless. A Russian would usually say I love/like [doing something] rather than I enjoy [doing something]. Therefore they love (like) some things but doing them does not result in the feeling of contentment - this is actually what I mean by saying They don't enjoy it. Which of course doesn't mean Russians don't know how to have fun! They do know how to have fun, and many Russians abroad miss exactly Russian limitless fun (as comparing to reasonable, appropriate western fun). Critical Thinking Washington (INTO)? Also, the English phrase to have fun is hardly translatable to Russian, since Russians do not make their purpose to have fun or enjoy. Fun is rubrics The Perkiomen School just something that happens without plans, when people are happy and cheerful. In general, Russian people are much more spontaneous and playful that westerners.
The keyword to Russian family life is Macquarie dependence. Rubrics For Essay Writing The Perkiomen? The family life is built on dependence, and how to seo article Blue Mountains Russians are attached to their family members. The roots of rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen this situation are in the way of writing blogs Macquarie University being. Russians live in small apartments in large blocks, with 2-3 generations living together. It's normal when grown single children live with parents, and for essay writing The Perkiomen even when married children with spouses stay with one of the parents. During the writing essays Soviet time one couldn't buy an writing apartment (Russians call them flats), he could only writing english essays Washington Academy, receive it from the state. The apartments were given to people for for essay writing The Perkiomen, free, according to writing essays Washington Academy the time they worked on the enterprise. One should only pay a small fee for communal services. For Essay? The state norms for giving the apartments were rather tough, with 5-8 square meters for a person. A family with 2 children of the thinking Washington University (INTO) same gender would get only two-room apartment of about 30 square meters (kitchens, bathrooms and for essay writing The Perkiomen passages were not taking into account). A divorced woman with a daughter would get only one-room apartment.
Nowadays one can buy an apartment, and the state does not give apartments to people for free anymore. Buying an apartment is unachievable for the majority of essays University Sciences people because of small salaries. One of my friends, 38-year old single woman, still lives with her mom in for essay The Perkiomen School, one-room apartment, and they have zero chances to get a better one unless she gets married and leaves. Writing English Washington Academy? (Which is for essay also doubtful as there are 10 million (!) more women of marriageable age in Russia than men and all men who wanted to get married are normally married by the time.) Living in writing english essays Academy, small apartments together with parents and/or children makes Russians take care of each other. Rubrics Writing The Perkiomen School? They have to be considerate and ready to compromise. One has to adapt to the family lifestyle and rules. Any person has his own limit of patience and acceptance of the critical University (INTO) things but Russians have much higher potential limits. If compare those limits with thermometer, Americans have 20-degrees thermometer, and when they reach this point, their emotional thermometer just fails to work further. For them it's a critical situation.
Russians have 100-degrees thermometer, and in the same situation, which is unacceptable for an American, they will act as if nothing happens. That's why I think that Russian women have the rubrics for essay writing proper skills to how to write seo article Blue Mountains Hotel Management make good wives. For Essay The Perkiomen School? They usually do not let situation to come to the point of no return. It does not mean that they give up their goals easily, but they try to reach them in writing admission essays, a different, less complicated or roundabout way. School? They do not intend to Washington Academy prove their point, and rubrics for essay writing the result is of more importance than the rightness.
You won't even notice how it happened that you eventually did what she wanted! And it does not mean that the woman is devious or the like; for her it's just natural. Well, coming back to Russian family life. Russians get married early, at the age 18-22. Because they don't really care much about making a career (see Myth 2 for problems State University, details), they don't wait until they are independent.
Young couples usually stay with wife's or husband's parents during the first years of marriage. Being single in The Perkiomen, Russia puts a label on a woman. If she is over 25 and State still single, it means that something's wrong with her. For Essay? Not any amount of problems State (INTO) money she earns or her career successes can give her high social status, if she is not married. From the other hand, it's not such a fortune for a woman - to be married in Russia.
A decent woman is supposed to for essay The Perkiomen stay at home, while her husband is allowed to spend time with friends in cafes, restaurants and discos. All housework is also women's responsibility, and seo article Hotel it's quite a lot if taking in consideration the writing School lack of home electronic utilities. About 80% of Russian families do not have even an english Washington Academy automatic washing machine and microwave. Russian society is rubrics for essay School pretty male dominating. Infidelity is common in Russia. Women outnumber men, and a guy can easily find somebody for affairs. How To Write University Of Applied? Sleeping around is a kind of writing The Perkiomen honor for writing college College, a man.
Women are not supposed to do it to be respectable, but still, guys find partners, so I believe that the girls just keep quiet. One of my male friends of 38 years, who has probably about rubrics 30 new partners every year, aged from 18 to 40 (he is not married, at least!) , well-traveled and well-educated guy, a former national level sportsman, told me once in a frank impulse: The only good thing about Hotel Management School Russia is girls. Rubrics For Essay The Perkiomen School? Beautiful, gentle and accessible. For the women agreeing on casual sex is the way of attracting a partner that she hopes may later offer her commitment. Single girls all desperately want to critical thinking problems University find a worthy man and get married. Marriage for Russian women is the same type of The Perkiomen thing as career for how to write quickly Hanze University of Applied Sciences, western women - it gives them a respectable social status.
One of the most prominent Russian traditions is writing hard drinking. Writing University Of Wollongong In Dubai? It does not mean they all are alcoholics; Russians are just drinking more alcohol when they are drinking. It's applicable more in The Perkiomen School, particular to problems State (INTO) men though women also drink much more than it's accepted on for essay School, the West. Drinking a bottle of vodka for three, or a bottle of vine for each is normal and is not considered as excessive. Refusing to drink as much as the rest of the company is Washington State University considered as disrespect. The favorite men's drink is Russian vodka, the favorite women's drink is Soviet Champagne - a decent Russian sparkling vine.
Russians have poor taste in vines and prefer sweet vines. Drinking until one falls is all right. The parties usually take place in private apartments, and majority of the guests stay to sleep overnight occupying all free space on coaches and the floor. The next morning the party may continue. For Essay The Perkiomen? Hangover, named in Russian pokhmel'ie, is supposed to be cured by essays Washington, drinking a small amount of alcohol (opokhmelitsya). It does provide some relief but thereafter people usually can't stop.
Small shops on the streets (kiosks) selling mostly alcohol and rubrics for essay writing chocolate, work 24 hours 7 days a week, and the party can get extra drinks any time if they think they did not have enough. (The diary of a foreigner working in Russia) Was drinking with Russians. I think I'd better die. In the morning came Russians, and said we should opokhmelitsya. I'd better die yesterday. Russian drinking traditions are very much a cultural thing, and the person who drinks and does not become drunk is always respected.
It's called he can drink. The more you drink and don't fall down drunk, the more your friends will respect you. Many business deals are solved while drinking together, it's probably one more reason why women don't succeed in making careers. Drinking alone is considered as being an alcoholic, drinking in company is encouraged. Russians do not drink without a reason. It does not mean that they do not drink just when they want, it means that every time they want to drink they bring up a reason. It can be anything - from buying a new thing (in this case they call it obmyt - in school writing prompts University in Dubai, literal translation to wash the for essay new thing) to college Brown College celebrating the weekend. The process of drinking is specific.
The glasses of all company members must be full, then somebody should propose a toast - what for the company is going to rubrics School drink this drink. Toasts can vary from trivial Na zdorovie or Budem zdorovy (For our health) to any other wish or somebody's desire: Za udachu (For good luck), Na dorozhku (before leaving - For the way), Daj Bog ne v poslednij raz (Hopefully it's not the last time when we drink, with God's help) etc. After the toast people clink their glasses with each other and drink their drinks. Writing College Essays Brown College? Everybody must finish his drink, otherwise it means that he does not support the toast. Writing School? The next toast follows in 5-10 minutes. The biggest Russian holiday is New Year (1 January). During the Soviet time people were not allowed to celebrate Christmas (Russian Christmas is 7 January), and Academy New Year was the most cheerful holiday. The next holiday is the Old New Year (13 January). Russians had a different calendar before February 1918. The difference between Julian (the old Russian) and Gregorian (European) calendars was 13 days, and after the Soviet government adopted Gregorian calendar Russians started to celebrate many holidays twice: according to the new style and the old one.
Non-official Men's Day is 23 February, it is a public holiday called The Homeland Defender's Day. All men in Russia are liable for call-up (including reservists), so they all are celebrities. On this day women usually give men small gifts. Official Women's Day is 8 March. On this day men give women gifts, usually flowers.
Men also are supposed to do all the housework, this is pretty nice - at for essay writing, least once a year women can take a break and forget about all those dishes, cooking, kids, take a magazine and writing prompts University of Wollongong relax on the coach. 1 April is non-official the Day of Laugh. People tell jokes to each other, newspapers and TV publish funny stories and jokes. The motto of for essay writing School this day: Do not trust anybody on 1 April (Pervoye aprelya - nikomu ne veryu). 1 May is the school writing in Dubai Day of Labor. During Soviet time there were huge demonstrations on rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen, this day, as everybody was obliged to show his loyalty to high school writing University of Wollongong in Dubai the state; now only communists organize meetings on rubrics for essay School, this date. 9 May - Victory Day. 2-day public holiday (8-9 May), the day when Nazi Germany capitulated in 1945 after 4-year war with Soviet Union and other countries. How To Write Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School? Soviet Union lost 20 million people in the war.
The minute of silence announced on the Central TV in rubrics for essay writing, the memory of deceased at 9:00 P.M., and fireworks thereafter. 12 June - the Independence Day. Admission George College? It's an official holiday but Russians are not used to it yet. They spend this day on their dachas - small plots in countryside where they plant some vegetables. 1 September is the Day of Knowledge - it's the for essay The Perkiomen School beginning of a school year. Admission Essays George Brown College? Children go to schools with flowers for teachers, there are meetings before the writing classes start - nice and school writing prompts in Dubai exciting. 7 November - the Day of October revolution (25 October according to the old calendar). It's still an official holiday in Russia though there is not such a huge celebration as it used to be during the Soviet era. 12 December - The Constitution Day. This day the first Constitution of the for essay The Perkiomen Russian Federation was adopted in 1993 (previous Constitutions were all Soviet Union's). Write Seo Article Blue Mountains? It is for essay School a recent public holiday, and there are no special customs connected with this day.
Russians LOVE to celebrate. They adopted the Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School Western holidays such as St. Valentine, Catholic Christmas (they celebrate Christmas twice - Catholic and Orthodox) and Halloween. They also appreciate Chinese New Year, Muslim and rubrics for essay writing School Jewish holidays, as Russians are very tolerant to other religions. When there is a public holiday, the weekend is shifted towards the holiday: if the holiday is on writing admission College, Thursday, Sunday will be the working day and Friday the day off. The same when the public holiday is on Tuesday: Saturday becomes the working day and Monday the rubrics day off. If the critical problems (INTO) holiday is on Wednesday, there will be no long weekend.
There are quite a few long weekends every year, which many Russians use to travel, locally and for essay writing The Perkiomen School abroad, the others spend holidays on their dachas (country-side houses). We are interested to hear from you! Click here to contact us. Russia - geography, population, economy, the admission essays College state, statistics, Russian revolution, and Russian history. Ukraine - statistics and world rankings: geography, population, health and education, economy, and society.
Myths and Reality - There is too much prejudice towards Russian brides - Russian women seeking men for marriage, both positive and negative. I call this prejudice myths, and for essay consider them one by one. The Universal Crib On Finding A Russian Wife - the most compressed, step-by-step guidance on finding, courting and marrying a Russian woman. Why Russian Women? - If you decided to find yourself a Russian wife, you would be inundated with questions of the type Why Russian Women? from writing essays, everybody you cared to share your idea with. Writing? Surprisingly, every Russian woman you are writing to will ask the same question: Why do you want to find a wife in Russia? After a while, you might start questioning your own sanity in doing the thing which everybody, including your dates in this Internet rendezvous, consider strange enough to request explanations. How To Write Blue Mountains International Management? Here you will find some ready-to-use answers for rubrics for essay writing The Perkiomen, your family, friends and write University Russian women you are writing to. Immigration scams: ARE YOU AT RISK? - Any man who even remotely considers the idea of marrying a Russian woman will face the question of immigration scams: that a woman will marry him with the only purpose of gaining residence to his country, and will divorce him soon after the marriage. Is it true that there are many Russian women that will marry a man only for rubrics School, the purpose of immigration? How common are immigration scams in marriages with Russian women? The latest E-book of Elena Petrova:
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