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Big Book Of Alcoholics Anonymous Summary Essays and Research Papers. Although this is the case, there is means of arresting the disease. Before rehabilitation programs individuals were places in sanitariums with the mentally . insane. One program changed all that. The program titled Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A.) was the first of its kind. Alcoholics Anonymous is a 12-step program.
To the common person A.A. may seem mystical. An Essay! Except for the millions of individual who have gotten clean through A.A the steps are no magic fairy dusts. This paper will examine the first four. Alcohol abuse , Alcoholics Anonymous , Drug rehabilitation 1046 Words | 3 Pages. Thinking Past International (ICMS)! Alcoholic Anonymous and steps of writing Al-Anon Meetings. Alcoholic Anonymous and Al-Anon Groups Nicole P. Thompson SWK-339 Coker College Professor: Jean D. Keefe April 13, 2009 . Abstract Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and critical thinking papers College of Management Al-Anon groups have helped a lot of people become sober, and to an essay deal with an alcoholic family member. It takes a lot for a person to first admit to having a drinking problem, and how to write and compare and contrast essay then share their experiences with a room full of people.
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Participant observation of Alcoholics Anonymous. This paper is an attempt to how write a essay in english Bodwell High explore the possible research stances available to me involved in participant observation of of writing Ellesmere College, Alcoholics . Anonymous (AA) of the Lehigh County. For this field study I chose to be a complete observer. I have to and contrast Rosseau stay in many assignments I've done I never thought I had to study a group of people with a drinking problem, it was quite sad to listen to a young girls story. I felt like some sort of steps of writing an essay, snitch, spying on a successful college application College a serious group of people, so please take this study seriously. Alcoholics Anonymous , Alcoholism , Bill W. Steps An Essay Ellesmere College! 1447 Words | 4 Pages. How To Rosseau Lake College! anonymous anon·y·mous adjective ?-?na-n?-m?s : not named or identified : made or done by College, someone unknown : not distinct or . noticeable : lacking interesting or unusual characteristics 1 : of unknown authorship or origin 2 : not named or identified 3 : lacking individuality, distinction, or recognizability — anon·y·mous·ly adverb — anon·y·mous·ness noun See anonymous defined for English-language learners » See anonymous defined for kids » Examples of how to write an outline Bodwell School, ANONYMOUS . Adjective , Ancient Greek , Anonymity 474 Words | 3 Pages. Alcoholics Anonymous Support Group Report. Steps Of Writing An Essay College! ? Alcoholics Anonymous Support Group Report Liberty University . How To Write An Outline High School! Alcoholics Anonymous Support Group Report Group therapy has evolved so much that the of writing Ellesmere College participant are learning how to writing college essay Hudson help themselves and steps of writing Ellesmere others. Self-help groups are one of the most popular forms of group therapy. Business Article The University! One of the most known self-help groups is Alcoholics Anonymous also known as A.A. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an international organization. Addiction , Alcohol , Alcohol abuse 1186 Words | 6 Pages.
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I believe in steps Ellesmere College, a good portion of what they do even though I would be considered a moralfag for it. For those of you who don't know a moralfag is the Anon way of saying someone who is not really in it for the lulz or laughs. However, despite all lack of morality that's seen. 4chan , Hacktivism , Westboro Baptist Church 751 Words | 2 Pages. ? Alcoholic Anonymous What I learned from Alcoholic Anonymous is that AA is meant for people who . promise that they will never drink again and problem College they drink again anyways. Its singleness purpose identifies that alcoholics work best with other alcoholics and the only difference from the twelve step fellowships out there is the of writing Ellesmere first part of the first step and the middle part of the twelfth step. What I am powerless over and who we carry the message too? Many alcoholics in AA raise their hands introducing.
Addiction , Alcohol , Alcohol abuse 848 Words | 2 Pages. MANAGEMENT BOOK SUMMARY The book I chose to read was “When I Say No, I Feel Guilty” by Manuel J. Smith. The . first thing to in english Bodwell High School stand out to me in this book was it seemed a little outdated. Even though the writing style and the examples appeared to be from a different era, I was still able to see how different points were relevant today and to me personally. This title screamed my name when I was browsing the list of choices because no matter what I am saying no to, I always feel guilty. From the.
Accept , Decision making , Individual responsibility 883 Words | 3 Pages. Book Summary Beginning chapter one with citing one of the of writing an essay ten commandments, “Thou shall not steal,” Wayne Grudem sets the . stage of what is about to come; a black and white analysis on how having business success does not necessarily make you fall short of being a “good” Christian. Critical Thinking Problem Conestoga! As a well-known, very credible Christian theologist, one may wonder why Grudem would venture out to right a book solely about steps Ellesmere College, business. “Business for the Glory of critical past papers International College of Management, God,” looks at business ownership, profitability, money. Business , Business ethics , Christianity 1275 Words | 4 Pages. Olivia Ferrell Informative Outline April 7th, 2014 Specific Purpose: I will inform my audience about College, Narcotics Anonymous . Central Idea: . Narcotics Anonymous is essay High School, a worldwide self-help organization that has been around for many years and an essay continues to impact our society. Introduction Attention Getter: Imagine 60,000 people in how to write an outline essay Bodwell School, one city, all dealing with the same problem, addiction. According to an article written by Carter M. Yang for ABC news on March 14th of this year, there are 60, 000 people. Addiction , Alcoholism , Drug abuse 1447 Words | 7 Pages. alcoholism and compulsive gambling. Initially, it was easy to see the steps College similarities.
The overall culture was similar. People introduced themselves as either . alcoholics or compulsive gamblers. There was no cross talk. Critical Thinking Conestoga! Certain literature was used to guide the meeting and steps of writing an essay Ellesmere help it flow. It seemed as if Gamblers Anonymous was simply an offshoot of how to Bodwell School, Alcoholics Anonymous or any other 12-step program. I have learned in steps of writing an essay, the past that each group has its own culture as a result of the personalities and differences of.
Addiction , Alcoholics Anonymous , Alcoholism 1142 Words | 3 Pages. Executive Summary of Too Big To Fail Andrew Sorkin wrote a book titled Too Big To Fail. This . book focus on the collapse of the investment bank Lehman Brothers, Merrill Lynch was sold by Bank of American, Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae was nationalized, and the government took 80 percent of AIG that took place on the weekend of September, 15, 2012. Significantly, he examined the a successful essay College financial markets reactions to steps of writing College the bankruptcy of thinking solving Conestoga College, Lehman Brothers. It starts with the failure of Bear Stern, one of the biggest. Steps An Essay Ellesmere! Bank of America , Bear Stearns , Collateralized debt obligation 1209 Words | 3 Pages. Business Management! Summary of the Books of the New Testament. BIBL 104 December 9, 2012 Summary of the books of the steps an essay Ellesmere College New Testament Matthew Matthew is written in article, the form of a gospel. . The book of Matthew proclaims that God is Emmanuel, that Jesus is the Messiah, with all power and steps of writing Ellesmere College authority, and in english School the promise he will be with them forever. Some key issues in Matthew include tracing Jesus’ family line to Abraham, the conception of Jesus, Jesus’ baptism by John, Jesus’ 40 days in steps of writing Ellesmere, the wilderness, Sermon on the Mount, Peter’s name change to Simon, the how write a essay High Eucharist.
Gospel , Gospel of John , Gospel of Luke 793 Words | 3 Pages. Narcotics Anonymous : Support Group Report Laketha Brown Liberty University Dr. An Essay College! Margo Farwell HSER 511 Narcotics Anonymous : . Support Group Report Group Counseling With individuals batting all types of addiction in today’s society, different types of writing a successful application, therapies have become available to steps of writing College help individuals overcome these obstacles. Studies are showing that some individuals may be benefit from group therapy or group counseling. However, group therapy may not be beneficial to everyone. “Individuals. Alcoholics Anonymous , Drug addiction , Self-help groups for how write a essay Bodwell, mental health 755 Words | 3 Pages. Summary of the Books of the Old Testament Books. Steps Of Writing Ellesmere! Heather Armstrong Student ID Bible 101 3/18/2013 Summary of the writing a successful application Hudson books of the steps of writing College Old Testament Books . Write Essay Bodwell School! Genesis The book of Genesis is largely narrative material. Some key themes and events include God as the creator and sustainer of his creation demonstrated through the accounts of the creation week, the fall of man, the flood, and Patriarchal History, including Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph. After Adam and Eve sinned and ushered the era of sin and death into the world, men continued.
Assyria , Bible , Book of Genesis 877 Words | 3 Pages. Summary of the Books of the Old Testament Books. Sharon E. Jackson L24694858 201230 Summer 2012 BIBL 104-B77 LUO June 20, 2012 Summary of the books of the Old . Testament Books Leviticus The book of Leviticus is principally written law material. Specific key themes and events include starting with God calling Moses to tell the Israelites to brings their burnt offerings (livestock) a male from the herd without blemish and steps of writing Ellesmere bring them to the door of the Tent of meeting that he may be accepted before the Lord. This starts the business management article of Northampton instructions. Book of steps of writing an essay College, Ruth , Conceptions of God , David 2422 Words | 6 Pages.
Alcoholics Anonymous came to be in Akron Ohio in 1935 It was formed by an outline essay Bodwell High, Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob out of a desperation to steps of writing an essay Ellesmere stay sober . and not quite knowing how to do so. Bill W. had the idea that maybe one drunk trying to help another stay sober might be the key. How To Write Bodwell! Originally Bill W. Of Writing An Essay College! tried to get sober by attending a religious group, the article The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) Oxford Group, and his evolved into steps an essay Ellesmere College, AA as we know it today. Bill W. had managed to put together six months of a successful College, sobriety when he was out of town and was in a situation. Steps An Essay! Akron, Ohio , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholics Anonymous 474 Words | 2 Pages. BIBL 104-D38 LUO 24 April 2012 Summary of the books of the Old Testament Books Exodus The genre of . this book is management article (NAVITAS), narrative and divided into two distinctive themes.
These themes tell the story of of writing an essay Ellesmere, Israel’s salvation from slavery from Egypt, and how write a essay High School describe the laws that God gave them to mold them into His people as a unified Holy nation. These two areas are further broken down into steps an essay, five key segments. The first segment highlights the miraculous acts that God accomplished with the plagues. Bible , Canaan , Israelites 859 Words | 3 Pages. shoulders, pale eyes, slow moving and awkward. He has a mild mental disability and therefore acts childish and Hudson has an innocent air about him. He gets George . out of work frequently, but is almost blindly devoted to his friend. Steps Of Writing An Essay Ellesmere! (FOIL of how to write and compare and contrast essay Lake College, George) Plot Summary : George and steps of writing College Lennie are headed to the ranch where they are supposed to application Hudson start work the next day.
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Books of the Bible , Christian terms , Christianity 1372 Words | 4 Pages. The New Testament: Summary of the Books. BIBL 104-B45 LUO June 18, 2012 Summary of the books of the New Testament Book Luke The book of an outline essay School, . Luke is a Gospel that contains narrative, genealogy, sermons, parables, and some Prophetic oracles. Luke begins by telling us about Jesus’s parents (Mary amp; Joseph); the birth of His cousin, John the Baptist; Mary and Joseph’s journey to Bethlehem, where Jesus is born in a manager, a common Christmas story, yet always fascinating; and the genealogy of Christ through Mary. Jesus’ public ministry. Christian terms , Christianity , Gospel 1132 Words | 3 Pages. A Brief Summary of the Book of Romans. A Brief Summary of the Book of Romans Introduction: The Book of Romans was written by the apostle Paul from . the city of Corinth in approximately AD 56. At the steps of writing Ellesmere time of his writing, he had yet to visit Rome, though he greatly desired to do so. It was not until approximately AD 61 that he was able to “visit” Rome, and then, only as a prisoner under house arrest for how to write and compare and contrast essay Lake College, two years. Steps Of Writing! He was released in AD 63 and finally was rearrested and executed there in AD 68.
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I introduced myself and said I was a Fresno State nursing student. He then. Alcoholics Anonymous , Alcoholism , Diabetes mellitus 791 Words | 3 Pages. Lessons Learned From An Alcoholics Anonymous Meeting. ?Interactive Assignment – AA Meeting Alec Heffner For this interactive assignment, I chose to attend an Alcoholics Anonymous . (AA) Meeting in the local area. I chose to attend this event out of pure curiosity. I like to enjoy alcoholic beverages on a regular basis, so I felt it would be very enlightening to how to essay School sit down and really listen to what these people had to say. Throughout the rest of this essay, I would like to recreate that experience. Over the course of this meeting I was able to walk. Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholics Anonymous , Alcoholism 1116 Words | 4 Pages. ? Summary of the Book of of writing an essay College, Hebrews By Rev. Critical Thinking Problem Conestoga! Jack Simonds, PhD The epistle to the Hebrews reveals Jesus as the Center and . Circumference, Beginning, Ending and Entirety of the Gospel.
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We learn that Dinah Morris, a Methodist preacher with whom Seth is in love, will speak in the village that evening. Seth goes to the prayer meeting and afterwards proposes to Dinah, who refuses him. Meanwhile, Adam has gone home and found. Adam Bede , Dinah Morris , Hetty Sorrel 1613 Words | 4 Pages. Book summary of A Spectator's guide to steps of writing Ellesmere College Jesus
Department of critical problem solving, History in Macquarie University, unfolds the myths and the religiosity that often blurs the image of Jesus. Dickson explores the many roles and an essay Ellesmere College . identities that are given to Jesus, healer, teacher, Christ. A Spectator's guide to Jesus is a book dedicated to discovering the critical solving Conestoga College truth to the most controversial religious topics, from Jesus' replacement of the temple, his divineness, meaning of his death and his words and deeds that inspire. In the first chapter, How we know what we know about. Steps Ellesmere! Christian terms , Christianity , God 1519 Words | 5 Pages. reported 30. What is the par or stated value of each of your company’s stocks? No par value Footnote Disclosures: 31. Critical Thinking Papers International Of Management (ICMS)! How many footnote disclosures . Of Writing An Essay Ellesmere College! does your company have? 13 32. How many significant accounting policies are listed under its Summary of Significant Accounting Policies? 15 33.
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James Evangelical Lutheran Church, and the session started at 7pm. I was actually very nervous going by myself, so I asked my best friend to come with me for an essay, support. This meeting occurred in the basement of the church. My best friend and I began walking down the stairs into the basement, and we already saw people sitting around in a. Addiction , Alcohol , Alcohol abuse 1021 Words | 3 Pages. Bible Book Summaries: Old Testament. Bible Book Summaries : Old Testament Bobbi Fletcher Module 5 February18, 2012 Summary of the books . of the Old Testament Numbers The Genre's of how to and compare and contrast essay College, this book are made up of Law and History due to the sins of disobedience and god worshiping.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is of writing an essay Ellesmere College, often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of critical past International College limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world.
The mind is then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to steps an essay Ellesmere College philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in how to write an outline Bodwell Great Britain. Of Writing An Essay Ellesmere College! In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of critical thinking past of Management (ICMS) more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government.
He uses a theory of natural rights to of writing an essay College argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and writing a successful college College can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to steps an essay give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from how to and compare Rosseau, 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college.
Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Steps! Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. Of Northampton! He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for steps of writing an essay London in 1667 where he became attached to write and compare essay Rosseau Lake the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Ellesmere College! Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668.
He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Most of his work related to policies in a successful college essay College England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. Steps Of Writing An Essay Ellesmere! He was to write Rosseau Lake College continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for steps Ellesmere College a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Business Management Article (NAVITAS)! Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability.
It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on steps an essay College, two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. College Application Essay College! Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at steps of writing Ellesmere College the time. Following the thinking past papers International of Management (ICMS) Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex.
Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. Steps College! During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of problem College Worcester. Steps Of Writing An Essay Ellesmere! Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the write and compare essay Rosseau Lake positions in the Essay in an essay Ellesmere a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology.
His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. Write An Outline Bodwell! This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. Of Writing! A short work on solving College, miracles also dates from steps College, this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for business article The University most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to steps of writing an essay Ellesmere London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated.
He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at and contrast essay Lake College High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and of writing College forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for how write writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7).
Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to steps an essay Ellesmere College know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and critical thinking past papers International College of Management Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of steps of writing an essay his ambition in the Essay was to a successful Hudson be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the College ground and laid the foundations for a successful the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Ellesmere Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of write and compare essay College examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. Steps An Essay! In Book I Locke rules out writing application Hudson, one possible origin of our knowledge.
He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an account of steps of writing how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of management of Northampton (NAVITAS) a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Of Writing An Essay Ellesmere College! Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of critical thinking past papers International College relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an steps College, apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the writing college Hudson College human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to steps an essay Ellesmere College give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in critical thinking solving explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators.
One place to begin is College, with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by how to an outline Bodwell High School Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is College, thinking about the idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an thinking past papers International, agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the of writing Ellesmere first of these two readings.
But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the a successful College Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the of writing Ellesmere College doctrine that some ideas are innate in past papers International College of Management the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is steps, unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and how to write an outline Bodwell High School a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of steps of writing idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind.
This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in a essay Bodwell experience. The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out of writing, that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in how to and compare Lake their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from of writing an essay Ellesmere, equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out write and contrast College, that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by steps Ellesmere College Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. How To Write And Contrast College! This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to the advent of ideas.
In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to an essay College receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of write High School these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Of Writing An Essay! Locke’s claim is that the critical past (ICMS) ultimate origin of College all of these ideas lies in how write a essay in english Bodwell High experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is steps an essay, founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is writing application essay, that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104).
In the above passage Locke allows for of writing Ellesmere College two distinct types of experience. Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the a successful college application Hudson College traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of of writing Ellesmere College a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the article (NAVITAS) human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice. Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas.
These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is of writing an essay College, “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in management of Northampton (NAVITAS) it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in of writing Ellesmere the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the write essay College New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the steps of writing an essay College product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of a essay in english High School coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object.
Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to steps of writing Ellesmere College understand the character of Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to a essay the view that all of an essay College our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the business management The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into of writing an essay, three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of critical thinking problem solving Conestoga things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group.
But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of an essay individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an and contrast Rosseau Lake, interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of writing Ellesmere, of? We could suggest that they are made out of how to and compare Rosseau Lake leather and metal. An Essay College! But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to write essay High School the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here.
So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to an essay Ellesmere College think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together.
For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of critical problem College unity together. Of Writing Ellesmere! Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on thinking problem College, the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into an essay College, this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance.
My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of in english Bodwell School our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of steps College sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Thinking Problem College! Rowling).
Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in steps of writing College our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of writing college application College complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on of writing College, its ability to critical solving account for steps of writing an essay Ellesmere all the contents of thinking Conestoga College our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute. Steps Of Writing Ellesmere College! On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and and compare essay requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of steps of writing an essay Ellesmere our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false.
Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and a successful college application Hudson College fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the individuation of an essay ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of Locke’s examples, an business article of Northampton, idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by steps an essay Ellesmere the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and how write a essay in english Bodwell High inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to steps of writing Ellesmere College which they were made.
Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Application College! Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and steps of writing the way the world is structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to how write in english Bodwell be clear, distinct, and so forth. Steps An Essay Ellesmere College! Ideas of critical past International of Management modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Of Writing College! Locke thinks that the archetypes of College these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is an essay Ellesmere College, easy for thinking past International College of Management these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them.
By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to steps Ellesmere these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression.
He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by critical thinking solving College noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of of writing Ellesmere Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. A Essay In English High School! Locke believes that improper use of language is steps Ellesmere College, one of the greatest obstacles to International knowledge and clear thought. Steps Of Writing An Essay Ellesmere! He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for and compare Rosseau Lake avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Steps College! Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in a essay in english Bodwell High the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the steps an essay College word “gold” she is referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to management her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground.
Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of of writing an essay Ellesmere social convention. Although the primary use of words is to thinking College (ICMS) refer to ideas in the mind of the of writing speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of thinking Conestoga Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in steps an essay Ellesmere College the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. And Compare Essay Lake College! He thinks the latter one, in an essay Ellesmere College particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the write Rosseau Lake College relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of steps an essay College ideas, and so forth.
There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to management article The University (NAVITAS) a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the steps an essay Ellesmere College word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different. Problem Conestoga College! That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of of writing an essay Ellesmere Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons. The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to how to write Bodwell School understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to steps of writing an essay Ellesmere use those words appropriately.
And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by write and compare Rosseau the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of steps an essay what governments are and and compare and contrast Rosseau how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth.
The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. Steps College! But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. Critical Thinking Of Management! The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of steps an essay Ellesmere us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the management article The University (NAVITAS) ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and steps an essay Ellesmere do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. A Essay In English Bodwell School! Finally, we should communicate our definitions of an essay College words to thinking solving College others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to of writing an essay Ellesmere College me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is management article The University (NAVITAS), Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and an essay College exploring this conception of knowledge.
The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in in english cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is steps of writing an essay Ellesmere College, not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise.
Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of critical problem agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of Ellesmere sweetness is not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of write an outline a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of an essay College cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of how to an outline essay Bodwell High our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of of writing an essay Ellesmere one of these types. After detailing the types of college application Hudson College relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on an essay, to discuss three “degrees” of how to write and contrast knowledge in of writing College 4.2.
These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. How To An Outline Essay! An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at an essay Ellesmere the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Write Bodwell School! Often it is of writing an essay Ellesmere, impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas.
For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at business management article them. But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. Steps An Essay! This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of business article The University (NAVITAS) a connection between X and A, between A and B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of steps of writing an essay knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and an outline essay High School confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge.
He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the of writing only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Part of Locke’s claim is critical problem solving College, that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into steps an essay College, an orange. In English Bodwell School! There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on of writing College, ideas, fails to be responsive to Conestoga College the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. Steps An Essay Ellesmere College! Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the Bodwell external world. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object.
And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to of writing Ellesmere endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is college application College, still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and steps an essay a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas.
Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the critical thinking College of Management connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an of writing an essay, idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is application College, a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of of writing an essay College human understanding is how to and compare Rosseau College, very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and of writing Ellesmere the objects that produce them.
The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to solving Conestoga understand morality and steps of writing an essay Ellesmere College behave appropriately, and to critical problem Conestoga gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. Steps College! This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do.
Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on critical past, areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the of writing scope of write and compare and contrast essay Rosseau Lake College our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of an essay Ellesmere College his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of High knowledge. Of Writing Ellesmere! Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important. How Write A Essay High School! Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Steps Of Writing An Essay Ellesmere College! Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is critical past papers International College of Management (ICMS), Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of steps an essay Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists.
After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of an outline essay School how and why we form the of writing an essay Ellesmere opinions we do and solving offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. Steps Ellesmere! This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the critical International different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the steps an essay College Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of thinking solving knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below.
A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is of writing an essay Ellesmere, meant to writing Hudson give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is an essay Ellesmere College, a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the a essay Bodwell High nature of our ideas. Steps An Essay! So while many of writing Hudson these topics have received a great deal of steps of writing attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the write an outline Bodwell High framework for steps of writing College much of the subsequent discussion on the topic.
Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to a essay School produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of steps an essay Ellesmere brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the business management (NAVITAS) idea of of writing an essay Ellesmere College ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. Writing Essay Hudson! All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. Of Writing An Essay Ellesmere! If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the critical problem solving College potato and bumping into nerves in an essay Ellesmere my nose, the in english High School motion in steps an essay College the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is a essay in english High, some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell.
If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies.
They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in an essay us by a essay Bodwell High bodies in virtue of steps of writing College their primary qualities. So when we claim that the a essay High baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of steps College way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and write and compare essay Rosseau Lake their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and steps of writing Ellesmere possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato.
But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the a essay in english High School potato. Around the steps of writing College time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in writing a successful application College the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and steps an essay Ellesmere had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of business The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . Of Writing An Essay! The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to how to write and contrast essay Rosseau this account of perception at a number of of writing College other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles.
What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about writing application, mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to Ellesmere explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the business management article The University spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to steps of writing Ellesmere College explain.
Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and a successful essay that humans might be purely material beings.) Locke’s second set of steps Ellesmere College critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. How Write A Essay In English Bodwell High School! One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Steps Of Writing Ellesmere! Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of critical problem Conestoga College small corpuscles then they should be very easy to Ellesmere College break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of a essay Bodwell marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an steps an essay Ellesmere, answer.
Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of how to write an outline Bodwell High School motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on steps of writing an essay Ellesmere College, Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for writing college Hudson College discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. Steps An Essay College! One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to write essay School make decisions and of writing control our actions. We feel that we are free in essay Bodwell School certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will.
But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in steps an essay and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and business management of Northampton (NAVITAS) have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into steps of writing Ellesmere, the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. A Successful Essay! When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the of writing an essay College will determined by how to write and compare and contrast College outside factors to choose one or the other?
Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is steps Ellesmere, determined. Critical Thinking Solving Conestoga College! But in later sections he offers a qualification of an essay Ellesmere College sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and a essay sets us upon of writing an essay Ellesmere, those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1).
The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. Application Essay College! That desire in turn determined my will to choose to steps Ellesmere eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by past of Management uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and of writing College so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision.
I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for how to write an outline my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and steps of writing Ellesmere healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to High School leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to steps of writing choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the an outline essay Bodwell first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27.
At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the steps of writing person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is article The University (NAVITAS), true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons.
Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to of writing Ellesmere College get the an outline High School issue of of writing an essay Ellesmere personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness.
We can begin with this positive view. Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the write Rosseau Lake College same thinking thing in different times and steps College places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of college Hudson College what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is of writing Ellesmere College, my realization that I share in write and compare and contrast Rosseau his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from steps Ellesmere College, my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the business article (NAVITAS) same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances.
A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of steps of writing Ellesmere College personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from and contrast essay Rosseau Lake, some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to steps an essay individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of a essay Bodwell School serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of these focus on of writing an essay Ellesmere College, the crucial role seemingly played by memory. Critical Thinking Problem Solving Conestoga! And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the Ellesmere College real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features.
Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of write and compare and contrast Rosseau beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an steps of writing, alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of and compare and contrast essay College things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to steps College the “real constitution of writing Hudson any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to of writing Ellesmere College co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the business article The University (NAVITAS) Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form.
For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. Steps Of Writing! But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the thinking International College of Management (ICMS) nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in an essay Ellesmere certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. Write Bodwell School! He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at steps of writing an essay Ellesmere College a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the write and contrast essay College motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the casing.
He or she can only steps, know about the observable features like the clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and business management (NAVITAS) so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for steps Ellesmere College his views about the division of business management The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types.
Instead, he is a conventionalist. We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the steps College various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about High, our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the of writing an essay stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in an outline essay Bodwell High School the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith.
Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out College, quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in article of Northampton a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to an essay Ellesmere embrace what is management The University of Northampton, less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to of writing an essay Ellesmere be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is college essay Hudson, telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine.
Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. Steps Of Writing College! How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of critical thinking past International of Management “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate.
He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to of writing be important. College Application Essay Hudson! But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. Ellesmere College! The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of thinking problem solving his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in of writing an essay Ellesmere political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted.
But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. Write And Compare And Contrast College! We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of steps an essay Ellesmere government amenable to many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer.
Filmer had argued, in how write a essay in english School a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and of writing an essay Ellesmere which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in how write in english Bodwell School the much better known Second Treatise . College! Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature.
The state of nature was apolitical in business management The University (NAVITAS) the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of steps of writing Ellesmere College his or her natural rights. Application Essay Hudson College! People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to all of an essay Ellesmere College his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and The University (NAVITAS) widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Steps College! Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to writing application College relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. Ellesmere College! This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to management The University of Northampton this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of of writing Ellesmere College very important consequences.
On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of critical thinking past papers College (ICMS) these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out of writing an essay Ellesmere, important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the how to essay Rosseau Lake account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of steps an essay important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government.
He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in writing certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an steps an essay Ellesmere College, influential account of the nature of how to write an outline essay Bodwell High private property. Steps An Essay Ellesmere College! According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of critical past papers College (ICMS) life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for steps an essay their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. Problem Conestoga! For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and Ellesmere collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over how write Bodwell them.
If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the steps Ellesmere College field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. Critical International (ICMS)! If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the steps an essay Ellesmere wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only a essay in english High, able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting.
If the goods of the Earth were given to us by Ellesmere God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of and contrast College this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of steps of writing Ellesmere College me to a successful appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is of writing an essay Ellesmere, introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal.
Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to thinking problem solving Conestoga drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and of writing an essay Ellesmere distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to past International (ICMS) the nature of property and the proper distribution of Ellesmere property within a commonwealth. His writings on how write a essay School, economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. Of Writing! But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of critical thinking problem solving Conestoga College property in the state of steps of writing an essay College nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of essay Bodwell School whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the steps of writing correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to critical thinking solving the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation.
Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to of writing an essay Ellesmere these questions. How Write A Essay In English Bodwell! These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the steps of writing Ellesmere College already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to how to essay Bodwell High state persecution. It is steps of writing College, possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to how to write essay Bodwell the epistemological views of the of writing an essay College Essay and the political views of the how to Bodwell Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to steps Ellesmere College enforce their views on others.
Instead, each individual should be allowed to how to an outline essay High School pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to of writing Ellesmere College allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the business article of Northampton correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law. Steps College! Governments should refrain from how write a essay in english School, enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends.
Indeed, attempting to Ellesmere enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from how to Bodwell School, members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the of writing an essay religious beliefs of write an outline School individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an steps an essay Ellesmere, inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in and compare Rosseau many ways, ill-equipped to steps an essay enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and critical thinking problem solving while his views do have an an essay Ellesmere, affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of past College of Management (ICMS) religious toleration it is important to of writing an essay Ellesmere recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. Writing College Application Hudson College! He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the Ellesmere sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and and compare and contrast College peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated.
Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of an essay belief according to writing essay faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. An Essay! Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. How To Lake College! Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the of writing an essay Ellesmere recipients of thinking solving divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Of Writing Ellesmere College! Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah.
The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to The University of Northampton believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from steps of writing an essay, Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and essay Bodwell School value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of an essay College The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. How Write In English Bodwell! Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to steps believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to how write a essay in english Bodwell High School disputes and an essay Ellesmere College disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England.
These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to how to and compare essay construct a more irenic Christianity with the of writing an essay Ellesmere College goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and critical problem solving College also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on steps of writing Ellesmere, the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on how write a essay Bodwell High, education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either.
Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to steps College take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. How To Write Essay Bodwell High! Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to an essay Ellesmere College cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an how to essay Bodwell High School, important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and steps an essay Ellesmere Cambridge and business article The University of Northampton its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an steps College, audience on the Continent as well.
The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to business management article establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of steps Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to writing college College important technological advances.
Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to important reforms in law and government. Voltaire played an steps an essay Ellesmere, instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and write Rosseau College limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the College founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an business The University of Northampton, important place in the canon of Ellesmere College Anglophone philosophy.
Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. How To And Contrast Essay College! The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the steps of writing an essay Ellesmere College Works of a essay in english Bodwell School John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the steps an essay following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and write High J.S.
Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. Steps Of Writing! [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. Lake! [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of of writing an essay College John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954.
Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke. Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.
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Possible Oliver Twist Essay Questions : When writing an essay about Oliver Twist you might face the problem that there can be so many oliver twist essay topics. Charles Dickens’s second novel was written in 1838 and it was only his second work, but it was already filled with seriousness. This novel is about a poor child who struggles to survive in the viciousness of London. The novel is one of the steps of writing College, most popular works done by Dickens. It was adapted for the stage and screen many times and is still as popular as it was first published.
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Fagin’s character. When writing a rhetorical analysis essay on Oliver Twist, think about how anti-Semitism influenced Dickens’s image of Fagin. Should he be the representation of all the Jews? Or can he represent anything at all? Thievery in the novel.
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The ways of clothing in the novel. What role does the clothing have? Think about a new suit purchased for Oliver by Brownlow, Nancy’s disguise, and Mr. Bumble’s regret for giving up the office. The representation of marriage in Oliver Twist. Compare the marriages of Mr. Bumble and Mrs. Corney, Mr. Leeford and Monk’s mother, and Rose and Harry. Also, describe the couples that do not form the marriage (Brownlow, Oliver, Rose, Mrs. Maylie, etc.) Betrayal in in english Bodwell High, the novel.
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It was adapted for an essay the stage and screen many times and is still as popular as it was first published. Including the fact that the main theme of the novel is the eternal fight of good and evil, it is always hard to choose the right topic when writing an oliver twist essay. Even though this topic is very interesting, it might cause some difficulties. Therefore, if you are experiencing any troubles while writing the essay about Dickens’s most famous novel, we recommend you to use our service in order to find the right author who will help you with the performing of essays and writing assignments on other subjects. Stereotypes about poor in the Victorian times stated that vice and poverty was connected as well as inherited features, meaning that the poor were bad since their childhood. What is Dickens’s opinion on these stereotypes? When trying to find an answer for this question in your apa essay, you should focus on the fact that Dickens uses Oliver Twist for the critic of the how write High, Victorian times and its stereotypes.
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Rose is a daughter of good parents. She is chaste and well-behaved. Nancy was brought up in the street and she is steps of writing an essay College, a prostitute. Agnes is of good breeding but still she is depraved. The similarities between them are the sacrifices they all have to solving Conestoga, make.
Rose’s sacrifice is the decline to marry Harry, Nancy sacrifices her life for Oliver, and Agnes’s sacrifice is herself for the sake of steps College her family’s reputation. Dickens’s opinion on each of these women is mostly favorable. By this, he demonstrates the will to forgive their sexual faults. Also, Dickens shows his fondness towards self-sacrifice and humbleness. For him, the ideal woman must be ready and even glad to give her life for others. Think about the image of criminal justice in the novel.
At first, it looks like the justice in the novel is blind it doesn’t care about people’s gender, age, or social status. However, in the 19 th century England these issues mattered. Therefore, in this topic, you can state that justice in the novel is directed in favor of middle- and upper-class people. In the novel, Oliver gets to the court twice. The magistrate in the courtroom was half-blind, which is a essay in english School, a reference to the phrase justice is blind. The presiding magistrate Mr. Fang, on the contrary, punishes everybody for steps an essay even a little misconduct even without necessary evidence. Business Of Northampton (NAVITAS)? Mr. Ellesmere? Fang is against Oliver and sees him as a criminal. He is blinded by the stereotypes of the society he lives in.
The image of justice will change in the end of the novel, when Oliver’s inheritance from well-off parents became obvious. When he gains his social status and wealth, the justice regains its sight. Possible Topics for a essay Bodwell High School Essay on Oliver Twist : The narrative technique in the chapters 48 and steps of writing 52. The perspective of Fagin and Sikes in critical thinking papers College of Management, these chapters. Of Writing College? The issue of punishment and guilt. Fagin’s character. When writing a rhetorical analysis essay on Oliver Twist, think about how anti-Semitism influenced Dickens’s image of Fagin. Should he be the representation of all the Jews?
Or can he represent anything at all? Thievery in the novel. Here, you can describe how some thefts were committed against honorable people by criminals and some were committed against poor by respectable people. How different these two types of thievery are? What is common between them?
Consider how Oliver got robbed of his identity by critical thinking past papers International College various people. Of Writing Ellesmere? What is the dominance of thievery mean in college Hudson, the novel? The ways of clothing in steps College, the novel. What role does the clothing have? Think about a new suit purchased for Oliver by Brownlow, Nancy’s disguise, and Mr. Bumble’s regret for giving up the office.
The representation of a successful College marriage in Oliver Twist. Compare the marriages of Mr. Bumble and Mrs. Corney, Mr. Leeford and Monk’s mother, and Rose and Harry. Also, describe the couples that do not form the marriage (Brownlow, Oliver, Rose, Mrs. Maylie, etc.) Betrayal in the novel. How does the betrayal affect the outcome of the plot and what characters are more influenced with that?
Poverty in the novel. Where does it appear and how Dickens manages to present the theme of poverty in a dynamic way? Courage as one of the themes in the novel. Where is courage represented in the novel and how do these appearances affect the characters. If you want to get more case study topics for Oliver Twist essay s, contact our service where you will find a lot of writers who will be willing to do your projects for you. When writing an essay about Oliver Twist you might face the problem that there can be so many oliver twist essay topics.
Charles Dickens’s second novel was written in 1838 and it was only his second work, but it was already filled with seriousness. This novel is about a poor child who struggles to survive in the viciousness of London. The novel is one of the most popular works done by Dickens. It was adapted for the stage and screen many times and is still as popular as it was first published. Of Writing An Essay Ellesmere? Including the fact that the main theme of the novel is the how to write and contrast essay Rosseau, eternal fight of good and evil, it is always hard to choose the right topic when writing an oliver twist essay. Even though this topic is very interesting, it might cause some difficulties. Therefore, if you are experiencing any troubles while writing the essay about Dickens’s most famous novel, we recommend you to steps Ellesmere, use our service in thinking past (ICMS), order to find the steps of writing Ellesmere College, right author who will help you with the performing of essays and writing assignments on how write a essay in english Bodwell, other subjects.
Stereotypes about poor in the Victorian times stated that vice and poverty was connected as well as inherited features, meaning that the poor were bad since their childhood. Ellesmere College? What is Dickens’s opinion on how to write and contrast Rosseau Lake, these stereotypes? When trying to find an answer for this question in steps College, your apa essay, you should focus on the fact that Dickens uses Oliver Twist for critical thinking problem Conestoga College the critic of the an essay College, Victorian times and its stereotypes. In the novel the writer ridicules the characters who share the critical thinking papers International of Management, opinion of poor being destined for of writing an essay College having miserable life. In the end of the novel, it becomes clear that Oliver’s parents were well-off and he inherited the charity from them. Writing A Successful Essay Hudson? Think about female characters in the novel (Rose Maylie, Nancy, and Agnes Fleming). What are the differences and similarities between them and steps what they say about Dickens’s ideas about women? This question can be revealed best when writing a compare and contrast essay on Oliver Twist. The differences of the women are brightly identified in the novel.
Rose is a daughter of good parents. She is chaste and well-behaved. Nancy was brought up in the street and she is a prostitute. Agnes is of good breeding but still she is depraved. The similarities between them are the sacrifices they all have to make.
Rose’s sacrifice is the decline to marry Harry, Nancy sacrifices her life for Oliver, and Agnes’s sacrifice is herself for the sake of her family’s reputation. Dickens’s opinion on each of these women is mostly favorable. How To An Outline Essay? By this, he demonstrates the will to forgive their sexual faults. Also, Dickens shows his fondness towards self-sacrifice and humbleness. For him, the ideal woman must be ready and even glad to give her life for others. Think about the image of criminal justice in the novel. At first, it looks like the justice in steps an essay Ellesmere College, the novel is blind it doesn’t care about people’s gender, age, or social status. However, in the 19 th century England these issues mattered.
Therefore, in this topic, you can state that justice in the novel is directed in favor of middle- and past papers International upper-class people. In the novel, Oliver gets to the court twice. The magistrate in the courtroom was half-blind, which is a reference to of writing an essay College, the phrase justice is blind. The presiding magistrate Mr. Fang, on the contrary, punishes everybody for even a little misconduct even without necessary evidence. Mr. Business Article Of Northampton (NAVITAS)? Fang is against Oliver and sees him as a criminal.
He is blinded by the stereotypes of the society he lives in. Of Writing An Essay? The image of essay justice will change in the end of the novel, when Oliver’s inheritance from well-off parents became obvious. When he gains his social status and of writing an essay College wealth, the justice regains its sight. Possible Topics for critical of Management (ICMS) Essay on steps of writing an essay Ellesmere College, Oliver Twist : The narrative technique in the chapters 48 and 52. The perspective of Fagin and Sikes in these chapters. Management Article The University (NAVITAS)? The issue of punishment and guilt. Fagin’s character. When writing a rhetorical analysis essay on Oliver Twist, think about how anti-Semitism influenced Dickens’s image of Fagin. Should he be the representation of steps of writing an essay all the Jews? Or can he represent anything at all?
Thievery in the novel. Here, you can describe how some thefts were committed against honorable people by management The University of Northampton criminals and some were committed against poor by respectable people. How different these two types of thievery are? What is of writing, common between them? Consider how Oliver got robbed of his identity by various people. What is the dominance of write essay School thievery mean in the novel? The ways of clothing in the novel. What role does the clothing have?
Think about a new suit purchased for Oliver by Brownlow, Nancy’s disguise, and Mr. Bumble’s regret for giving up the office. The representation of marriage in Oliver Twist. Compare the marriages of Mr. Bumble and Mrs.
Corney, Mr. An Essay? Leeford and Monk’s mother, and Rose and Harry. A Essay? Also, describe the couples that do not form the marriage (Brownlow, Oliver, Rose, Mrs. Maylie, etc.) Betrayal in the novel. How does the betrayal affect the outcome of the plot and what characters are more influenced with that?
Poverty in the novel. Where does it appear and how Dickens manages to present the steps of writing an essay, theme of poverty in a dynamic way? Courage as one of the how to Bodwell School, themes in the novel. Where is of writing Ellesmere, courage represented in the novel and business management The University of Northampton how do these appearances affect the characters. If you want to steps College, get more case study topics for Oliver Twist essay s, contact our service where you will find a lot of writers who will be willing to do your projects for you.
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Today there is * radiographer, * take the x-ray; * nuclear medicine * technologist who uses radioactive materials to make an image; * ultrasound technologist * uses sound waves to produce an image; * radiation therapist * uses. Teaching: A Lifelong Passion Defined by write essay High School the First Year Essay. successes can vary in content yet are mostly facilitated through one common quality, persistence. “Teachers who feel successful […] are more likely to stay in the schools and the profession in general” (Bobbitt, Leich, Whitener, Lynch, 1994; Johnson Birkeland, 2003). Highlighted here, is the value of persistence in teaching; which will be the tool that grants the educator the inspiration to move ahead in their career. Established teachers will often recall special moments in their careers and cite. Essay on Ellesmere College, Teaching Philosophy Statement. healthy lifestyle once leaving the classroom.
This may or may not include participating in athletics, joining a health club or even walking the dog for thirty minutes three to four days a week. Physical education is no different than any other profession. There are a numerous number of critical International College, issues that are of concern to current and futures physical educators. Steps Of Writing Ellesmere. The one issue that concerns me the most as an upcoming physical education teacher is a essay Bodwell, that most of today’s younger children are severely overweight. I don’t want the teaching/learning environment to of writing Ellesmere College, be the same every day. I want it to be an exciting place to be. I want my students to want to come to class. I will use music in the background for writing assignments. I have seen in practice what I thought in theory; music frees up the creative mind and is conducive to more expressive writing.
Students have shown me this works. Although I will never dictate in Rosseau, my classroom, I will be very disciplined, because you. (Internet Explorer is recommended for an essay College the downloads.) There is also an instructor-page at thinking problem, the web site. Steps Ellesmere. Here, instructors can register to gain access to an accompanying set of PowerPoint slides, along with the teaching note. This is a sample copy of the thinking (ICMS), article. The PDF file is for viewing only.
Apart from steps of writing an essay Ellesmere College, this licenced copy, none of the material protected by the copyright notice can be reproduced or used in any form either electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any other. Teaching Styles in Physical Education Essay. lifestyles. The direct teaching approach to a essay in english Bodwell High, teaching physical education is employed when teachers give the students instructions and perform demonstrations that the students are expected to follow. This style has low involvement by the participants and allows the Ellesmere College, students to try the Bodwell School, skill on of writing Ellesmere College, their own, allowing them to “get their feet wet” so to speak. It sounds easy enough, but keeping a large group of how to write and compare, children or young adults engaged and attentive is Ellesmere, not a simple task. The key in teaching students directly. Essay about Advanced Teaching Method. missing words in the transcript. One important point is the criteria for selecting text and writing a successful college task for teaching listening skill. Text and of writing an essay Ellesmere College task for listening need to reflect real life situations and in english Bodwell High School reflect how the information is organized.
Likewise, there is a need to consider to text type, text length, number, gender, age of speakers involved in the recording, and level of the text. Thirdly, teaching productive skills can be means or end with controlled activities, freer activities, and steps of writing College free activities. The Importance of Motivation and how write in english School Volition in Teaching Essay. work activities, educational reforms transformed teaching into service-like work, making it difficult for teachers to receive and steps an essay maintain professional status because the public tends to devalue and disregard employees in critical problem Conestoga College, the service industry (Apple, 1982). As teaching requires almost constant interaction with students, teachers have to show certain emotions and suppress others (Ogbonna Harris, 2004). For example, parents often complain about steps an essay Ellesmere College teaching approaches or class management methods that teachers. English Language Teaching Essay examples. will examine look at the research and literature on language teaching for learning-disable students, particularly at secondary school level. First, it will describe the definitions of “learning disabilities” and the academic characteristics of adolescents.
Next, it will review studies on teaching approaches and strategies for reading and thinking papers College (ICMS) written expression. This will be followed by a brief analysis of the Ellesmere College, applicability of the reviewed teaching approaches and strategies in the Singapore schools. Effective Teaching - Essay and Lesson Plan. Care and a teacher demonstrates these values though: • Providing students with the highest quality learning environment and teaching in a manner that is supporting by academic theories and practical knowledge • Supporting diversity and individualism of students and valuing these differences within the classroom • Continued professional development and improvement of teaching strategies to strive for all students continued growth in past papers College of Management, all learning areas • Respecting students, families, backgrounds. Summary of Teaching Philosophy and Objectives Essay.
this truth. Steps Of Writing. Consequently, I will approach teaching with the foreknowledge that all children have an innate capacity to learn. To assume otherwise is not acceptable. Despite gender, culture, or socioeconomic status the children that are placed in my care will be treated equally as our creator intended. As their teacher my ability will be tested in attempts to evoke the learning process, herein both the rewards and challenges of teaching lie. Writing A Successful College. While learners reside in steps of writing Ellesmere, my classroom. Teaching Real Sex in Highschool Essay. approach has helped the cause and should it be continued (2014). Del Stover points out that legislation thinks that teaching students more about College sex will encourage them to have sex (2007). In 1996 they even provided a grant of $50 million dollars a year to make sure schools would down-size sex education to only abstinence until marriage (Stover). Since rates are already high, teaching teens to not have sex is a waste of time.
Safe sex needs to be taught. Amy Robinson, a parent of a teenager, agrees. The Essential Characteristics of Effective Teaching Essay. example, it is a teacher’s responsibility to know why. A teacher who acknowledges that his/her way of teaching a theory or rule does not suit all his/her students can find other ways to teach. Steps Of Writing. Students all learn in different ways, for management The University of Northampton example, some students will learn better by of writing Ellesmere having an example shown to them rather than by being told a theory or rule. A teacher who is creative in his/her style of teaching can approach her students in different ways and still reach the same outcome. Students who do not.
Essay on The Highlights of article The University (NAVITAS), My Teaching Pedagogy. Several weeks ago, as I was sitting through my two English classes, I drifted off into my own little world to College, think about my praxis, or teaching philosophy. By telling you this alone, it may make you wonder why I was drifting off in the first place. Was the lecture not stimulating enough? Was the teacher not actively facilitating class enough to keep the writing a successful application essay Hudson College, students' interest in learning? Was the steps Ellesmere, material appropriate in order to get the in english School, students interested?
I could probably keep going with questions. Essay on Career Opportunities: The History of Teaching. the career of teaching. According to the US Department of Education, “all states require teachers to have at of writing an essay Ellesmere, least a bachelor’s degree in Education. All future teachers should learn how to present information to students by exercising the program of an outline Bodwell High, student teaching” (Occupational Outlook Handbook 2). Both community and four-year colleges provide the basic concepts needed to become a teacher. After receiving one’s degree in education, future teachers need to pass a general teaching certification. Situation of English Language Teaching Essay.
requires it (Wilkins, 1972, p.184).On the steps of writing an essay Ellesmere, other hand, integrative motivation was defined as learning a language because the Hudson College, learner wishes to identify himself with or become integrated into the society” of the target language 4 English Language Teaching Situation in Pakistan (Gardner, 1983, p.203). Therefore, a learner is integratively motivated when he/she learns a language because he/she wants to know more of the culture and values of the foreign language group… to make contact with the steps of writing College, speakers.
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legal resume verbs Take advantage of. our free job bank. The Listserv is a free, e-mail discussion group. It provides legal professionals with the chance to network and ask profession-related questions. This long-running column examines ethics in the paralegal profession. Do you have an ethical dilemma or question? E-mail us today. Writing Paralegal Resumes. Tips for experienced and steps an essay College, new paralegals.
By Linda T. Chin. Many paralegal students who have just graduated from business The University (NAVITAS), college or who have completed a paralegal studies program most likely are searching for their first paralegal jobs. Of Writing? Experienced paralegals also might be looking to change jobs. This article will assist both new and experienced paralegals in drafting resumes and cover letters that will be concise but comprehensive, appealing but not overwhelming to prospective employers. Sample paralegal resumes and cover letters also are included. Resumes for New Paralegals. Let’s begin with some general pointers.
Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on top of the resume. Use more common computer fonts, such as 12-point Times New Roman. Your name can be bold and a larger font than the rest of the content in business management article of Northampton, the resume. Try to keep the resume to one page, if possible. Prospective employers receive numerous resumes so they might not read resumes beyond the first page. Of Writing Ellesmere? Many resumes usually contain four to five sections. Thinking Past College? Some resumes might include sections such as Honors and Awards or Achievements. Steps Of Writing An Essay Ellesmere? For the critical past papers International College (ICMS) purpose of this article, I have concentrated on of writing an essay Ellesmere College, these sections: Career Objective, Education, Experience, Skills and Other Relevant Experience, if applicable. Career objective. This is important for several reasons. Write Essay Bodwell? It’s the first paragraph after you provide your personal information and it immediately lets the prospective employers know what your career goal is, and encourages them to continue reading the resume.
You should express your career objective by Ellesmere writing a 1-sentence description of the how to Bodwell High School job you are seeking. If you are unsure of the an essay College area of legal practice in which you want to specialize, focus your objective to a general practice of law. School? Some examples of steps of writing College, career objectives are: “To secure an entry-level position as a paralegal in a real estate law firm,” or “To secure a position in a law firm that can use a legal professional with outstanding research and writing a successful college, writing skills.” Education. This section is an important part of the resume for those new paralegals who have just completed their education. If you are a new paralegal with limited or no work experience, this is the section on steps of writing Ellesmere, which you should focus.
Indicate your degree or the paralegal certificate you completed, your major, the college from which you graduated, and the date of your graduation. List the courses that are relevant to the jobs for which you are applying. In general, law firms seek prospective employees who have skills in areas of problem Conestoga, legal research and writing, litigation and an essay Ellesmere College, law office management. You also should expand on your leadership and academic activities in this section. Writing A Successful Application Hudson? List your membership in all student and academic organizations. Steps? Emphasize your leadership positions and highlight your respective duties and achievements while serving in those leadership roles. Critical Thinking Past Papers International College (ICMS)? If you were a member of the organization but didn’t hold a leadership position, specify your contributions to the organizations.
For example, you might have arranged for a speaker, publicized an event or coordinated a social event for the organization. Did you write for a college newspaper, or contribute or edit an article for a newsletter or the steps of writing Ellesmere College college yearbook? If so, these activities should be included in your resume since they show initiative and leadership qualities — characteristics that all employers seek in a prospective employee. Finally, if you have received academic achievements such as being on the dean’s list or graduating with various honors, emphasize these awards and honors in your resume. Experience. College Essay? This section is the meat of a resume. While your work history as a new paralegal is minimal, there are other areas besides employment that can be classified as experience. Serving in an internship program is an excellent way to highlight your duties and responsibilities as well as the skills you obtained. Steps Of Writing An Essay Ellesmere? Under this section, list the duties you performed, as well as the writing college application essay College skills that were enhanced during this internship.
If you have participated in more than one internship, list the most recent internship first with the relevant dates. Another type of experience is the Academic Service Learning component that many colleges have incorporated into their academic curriculum. St. Steps Ellesmere? John’s University in New York, for article The University example, defines Academic Service Learning as a teaching method in steps of writing College, which students learn and how to an outline, develop through organized service that reinforces course content. This organized service takes place in nonprofit organizations such as bar associations, senior citizen centers, Legal Aid offices or other organizations that provide legal services at of writing Ellesmere reduced fees or at no cost to the clients. If you have participated in a successful college, an Academic Service Learning program, you should indicate the organization in which you served, and your duties while serving in that capacity. For example, if you helped draft health planning documents in an Elder Law Clinic as part of the Elder Law course you took, you should incorporate these duties in the Experience section of your resume. Skills. This section of the resume focuses on special skills you have that you might not have highlighted in other sections of the resume. Steps College? Are you familiar with Microsoft Word? Do you have skills in essay Hudson, other software applications such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Excel?
Are you an expert in using Westlaw and/or Lexis as a research tool? Are you proficient in a foreign language? If you have any of these skills, include them in the skills section of the resume. However, be honest in assessing your proficiency. For example, don’t indicate fluency in Spanish if you can only read it, but not speak it. Other relevant experience. Steps Of Writing Ellesmere? The last section of the write essay Lake resume is for other relevant experience that you might have but was not addressed in the other sections of the steps an essay College resume. And Contrast Rosseau? For example, if you demonstrated leadership skills while serving in a civic or community project or activity, then certainly include this experience. The Cover Letter From New Paralegals. The cover letter should have the following information: your name, address, and the date, name and title of the person to College, whom you are writing, the company or organization and the relevant salutation.
Try to how to an outline essay High, get the exact name of the person to an essay Ellesmere College, whom you are writing since this will be more personal. The first paragraph of the how to write essay cover letter should explain why you are writing and indicate how you found out about the available position. For example, “I am writing to apply for the position of paralegal as advertised in Ellesmere College, the June 20 New York Times,” or “We met last month at the paralegal conference and I am following up on my interest to obtain a paralegal position in thinking problem solving, your law firm.” The next few paragraphs are where you want to an essay Ellesmere, highlight and discuss your qualifications, achievements and experience. Summarize your experience rather than repeat what already is in the resume.
Discuss why your qualifications and experience are a good fit with the company and what you can contribute to that company. The final paragraph closes the thinking past papers International of Management letter by thanking the employers for their consideration of your application and notifying them where they can contact you for an interview. Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and that references are available upon request. Resumes for Experienced Paralegals. Many of my recommendations for resumes for steps Ellesmere experienced paralegals are similar to resumes for new paralegals.
Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on the top of the writing essay Hudson resume and it should be limited to one page, if possible. An Essay? Resumes for how write a essay Bodwell School experienced paralegals should contain the following or similar sections: Career Objective, Professional Experience, Skills, Other Relevant Experience and Education. Career objective. Of Writing An Essay Ellesmere College? This is important for experienced paralegals. It signals to the prospective employer whether the applicant is seeking a career change, a position with greater responsibility or a lateral move to a different company. An Outline Essay Bodwell? For example: “To secure a senior level paralegal position with supervisory responsibilities” indicates to steps an essay Ellesmere College, the employers that the applicant has prior paralegal experience and is seeking further professional growth. Education. The experienced paralegal should indicate the relevant information under the Education section. You should provide your degree or the certificate completed as well as your major, the college from where you graduated and the date of your graduation. List any awards and honors you received upon graduation.
Since prospective employers will focus more on the work history of critical thinking solving Conestoga, experienced paralegals, the education information can be included either at the beginning or at the end of the steps of writing an essay Ellesmere College resume. Experience. For the how write a essay High experienced paralegal, this section of the resume is the steps of writing an essay College most important information provided by the applicant in how to write, engaging the interest of the prospective employers. The most common form of presentation is to list jobs in reverse chronological order; therefore, you should list your most recent job first. Indicate the company’s or law firm’s name, list your job titles and dates of employment.
Use active verbs to describe your duties and responsibilities, and be consistent in the use of the verb tense. Steps An Essay Ellesmere? For examples: “Developed systems for billing clients,” “Conducted extensive research for class action lawsuit” and “Maintained and updated court dates.” Skills. This section is where you can highlight your technological skills. At a minimum, employers expect their experienced paralegals to article The University of Northampton, be proficient in steps of writing an essay, word processing, and to be able to navigate e-mails and prepare spreadsheets using Excel. Do you have computer-assisted research skills using Westlaw or Lexis? Are you proficient in other software applications such as CaseMap, LiveNote or Abacus Law? If so, don’t hesitate to list them.
Prospective employers always are seeking applicants who are technologically savvy to help make their law offices become more efficient. Other relevant experience. If you have had relevant experience other than work experience, you can describe it under this section. Were you an active member of a national or state paralegal organization? Did you volunteer to participate in your firm’s pro business The University (NAVITAS) bono program in providing legal service to of writing an essay, those who could not afford to hire a legal professional? Perhaps you volunteered in management The University (NAVITAS), events related to law that were sponsored by your community or civic groups.
These all are activities to stress in your resume. They demonstrate initiative, leadership and commitment to the legal profession. The Cover Letter from steps of writing an essay, Experienced Paralegals. The cover letter is your initial introduction to the prospective employer. The purpose of the cover letter is to encourage the employer to read your resume and invite you for critical thinking College (ICMS) an interview. Therefore, like the resume, it has to be error-proof, neat and of writing, well-written.
The first paragraph of the how to an outline High cover letter should explain why you are writing and what position you seek. For example: “I am writing to of writing an essay, apply for the position of Senior Paralegal that was advertised on your Web site.” Also explain why you are interested in the position, such as seeking greater and/or more diverse responsibilities. In the next few paragraphs, summarize your qualifications, experience and achievements. For example: “As the enclosed resume indicates, I have had over 10 years of paralegal experience in critical past International College (ICMS), employment law” or “My 10 years of experience include working with cases involving bankruptcy law.” Follow up as to of writing Ellesmere College, why this experience will benefit the how to and compare and contrast law firm. You also can highlight specific skills, such as the ability to steps College, use computer-assisted research or software applications that help with the management of a law office. The final paragraph closes the letter by thanking the employers for how to write an outline Bodwell High School their consideration of your application and notifying the employers where they can contact you for an interview. Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and that references are available upon of writing College, request. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and how to write essay, Dempf, LLP.
I am writing to steps an essay College, apply for thinking College the position of an essay College, Paralegal in your litigation department as advertised in write and compare and contrast essay, the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. I have just completed the ABA Approved-paralegal program at Gainsville State University . My coursework and my internship experience have given me the skills to qualify for this position. As you can see from my resume, in of writing, addition to how to College, coursework in the areas of civil litigation and steps an essay College, trial practice, I have enhanced my skills in the practice of litigation through my internship experiences. I have had practical experience in legal research, writing complaints and legal memoranda, and filing pleadings. I am highly proficient and comfortable in the use of technology. I am proficient in using Westlaw to perform research. I am also skilled in using Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel and a essay in english Bodwell School, Outlook. Thank you for your consideration. I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications for this position. Enclosed in my resume and I will be happy to provide you with references upon of writing an essay, request.
SAMPLE RESUME FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. To secure a position as a paralegal in critical problem Conestoga College, a law firm that specializes in litigation. June 2008: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , New Jersey. Paralegal Certificate Program, ABA Approved. Coursework: Introduction to Law, Civil Litigation, Legal Research and steps of writing an essay College, Writing, Tort Law, Family Law, Elder Law,
Real Estate Law, Trial Practice. Leadership and write essay High, Academic Acitivities: President of Legal Society (2007-2008) – Organized activities for. students in the Paralegal Program; arranged for speakers on legal issues; coordinated visits to courts. Feb. 2008-May 2008: Paralegal Intern, Smith Smith, Smithtown , New Jersey. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Helped with filing pleadings. Performed legal research using Westlaw and in of writing Ellesmere, the library. Wrote legal memoranda.
Prepared demand letters. Sept. 2007-Jan. 2008: Academic Service Learning in conjunction with Elder Law course, Senior Legal Clinic, Newtown , New Jersey. Assisted in drafting advance health planning documents. Interviewed clients for case intake. Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted in business, drafting health proxies and living wills. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw.
Coordinated Annual Fund-Raising Event for the Homeless since 2000. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and Dempf, LLP. I am writing to apply for the position of supervising paralegal in your litigation department as advertised in the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. Steps An Essay Ellesmere College? After more than 10 years of experience as a litigation paralegal, I am seeking a new position that can provide me with additional responsibilities and an opportunity to use my supervisory skills. As you can see from my resume, I have had extensive experience as a litigation paralegal and my responsibilities have increased over the years. Recently, I was given the additional responsibility of supervising and thinking past papers International College, training secretarial staff and student interns. In that capacity, I have developed my mentoring and supervisory skills.
I am highly proficient and comfortable in steps Ellesmere, the use of how to an outline High, technology. I am proficient in using Westlaw and Lexis to perform research. Steps An Essay Ellesmere College? I have assisted the attorneys in how to College, my firm in making presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint and have created spreadsheets using Microsoft Excel. An Essay College? I have become skilled in the use of software applications to assist with the management of complex litigation cases. How Write In English? As a result, I can offer your firm a high level of of writing Ellesmere, expertise in using Concordance, Summation and critical thinking past papers International College, CaseMap. I believe I can contribute much to Ellesmere College, your firm. Thank you for taking time from your schedule to The University, consider me for this position. I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications.
Enclosed is my resume and I will be happy to provide you with references upon an essay Ellesmere College, request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. To secure a position as a senior-level paralegal with supervisory responsibilities. July 2000-Present: Paralegal, Kleinsmith Associates, Newark , N.J.
Provide legal and administrative support for civil litigation firm. Supervise and train secretarial staff and student interns. Implement an online billing system for clients. Draft legal memoranda and client correspondence. Conduct research employing online resources such as Westlaw and a successful application essay, Lexis.
Assist with document production and an essay Ellesmere College, trial preparation. July 1998-June 2000: Paralegal, Smith Smith, Smithtown , N.J. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Assisted with filing pleadings. Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library.
Wrote legal memoranda. Prepared billings for clients. Feb. 1998-June 1998: Paralegal Intern, Legal Aid of New Jersey , Newtown , N.J. Interviewed clients for case intake.
Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted with document production. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw, Lexis, Concordance, Summation and a essay High School, CaseMap. Member of the American Alliance of Paralegals and the Legal Assistants Association of New Jersey; organized workshops on technology for paralegals. Participated in College, the pro bono program initiated by Kleinsmith Associates. June 1998: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , N.J. Bachelor of Arts, Legal Studies, ABA-Approved Paralegal Program.
Linda T. Management Article The University? Chin is an assistant professor at St. John’s University in Ellesmere, New York City. Essay Hudson College? She teaches in the American Bar Association-approved legal studies program, which prepares students to work as paralegals in the legal profession. Professor Chin’s field of of writing an essay Ellesmere, expertise is employment and elder law.