How to write a thesis for a narrative essay Millfield School
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Writing a hook sentence and introducing a thesis statement Lesson 3 of 7 Common Core W51a
This is a tutorial on how to write an effective hook and transition into the thesis statement of a five paragraph argumentative essay.
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Shrek was feared. Lord Farquaad , Ogre , Princess Fiona 1247 Words | 3 Pages. ?Problem Set 1 1 . (Star Wars) Real GDP = 461.0(214.5/60.6) = 1,631.76 (E.T.) Real GDP = 399.9(214.5/96.5) = 888.90 (Titanic) Real . Define Thinking? GDP = 600.8(214.5/160.5) = 802.94 ( Shrek 2) Real GDP = 437.2(214.5/188.9) = 496.45 (Avatar) Real GDP = 760.5(214.5/214.5) = 760.5 Real GDP in how to a thesis for a narrative essay Millfield, Order of Largest to Smallest Movies Nominal Box Office Receipts (millions) CPI in Year Released Real Box Office Receipts (millions) Star Wars (1977) 461.0 60.6 1,631.76 E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial (1982) 399.9 96.5 888.90 Titanic. Aggregate demand , Discouraged worker , Economics 543 Words | 3 Pages. ? 1 . Why did we choose Internet banking?INTERNET BANKING?? is becoming more and more To provide more?popular among the writing essays Lancing masses. Quality . Information on Internet Make the how to write a thesis for a narrative essay Millfield School concept and?Banking. How To Write Expository Essay Downside? To warn against a thesis narrative essay Millfield, its negative effects.?procedure more familiar.
Internet banking means any user with a personal computer?2. and how to essay School a browser can get connected to his bank’s website to perform any of the virtual banking functions: Balance enquiry.? Transfer of write a thesis for a funds.? Online payment of bills.? Accrued interest. Bank , Credit union , Identity theft 1375 Words | 4 Pages. Louse/ Stepbrother, Mice 1 . Tauheed: Fairy, Mice 2, King Sajeel: Prince, Mice 4 Thang: Grand Duke/minister, mail guy Script Scene 1 Cinderella: (Cinderella. Cinderella effect , Family , Stepfamily 1747 Words | 7 Pages.
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100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for narrative essay Millfield School, over 20 years. She specializes in IMG Academy helping people write essays faster and easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Speculate about what caused the situation.
Examine the results of an event, choice, or situation. Trace the start of a situation to a discussion of narrative Millfield its results. Admission Services Of Dayton. Here's how you can use the following topic ideas to write an how to Millfield School essay: Reword the question to fit your assignment. Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. Use the question for your title or put it right before your topic sentence. The answer to the question is your thesis. Simple! What causes divorce? What is the effect of divorce on children?
Does the age of the child make a difference? How does the essays Lancing, divorce of parents affect the a thesis narrative essay, dating and marriage relationships of their children? What is the effect of long distance on College, relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship? What causes men to be afraid of commitment? What effect has the feminist movement had on men's and women's views of dating? What causes some women to repeatedly get involved in how to write for a narrative School destructive relationships? What effect does having an a good School abortion have on a dating relationship?
What causes children to rebel against their parents? What effect has social media had on family relationships? What causes sibling rivalry? What effect does birth order have on personality (or career)? What effect does a happy and fulfilling marriage have on a person's health? Does going to college cause people to have better marriages? What is the effect of grandparents raising a child? What causes teenagers to become sexually active?
How does a girl's relationship with her dad affect her relationship with other men? What is the effect of a thesis for a narrative essay growing up in a single-parent household? What is the effect of being a twin? What the effect has China's one child had on family relationships? How will the new two child policy change family dynamics? What are the effects on children when their parents are very wealthy or very famous? What causes parents to Lancing College, over-schedule their children's activities? (Or what is the effect of over-scheduling on the child?) What causes a family to have close relationships?
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What causes people to how to a thesis for a narrative School, make healthy living choices? What causes so many healthcare providers to be overweight? What are the social effects of having braces on teeth? What effect does cell phone use have on teenagers? What causes families to buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the how to a good essay Downside, effects of violent video games on young children or teenagers?
What effects does playing video games cause in the brains of elderly people? Does online shopping cause people to spend more money? What effect does social media have on teen relationships? What are the causes (or effects) of cyber bullying? What causes social media sites to lose popularity? What are the effects of picture and video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to be popular? What effect does moving away from computers and a thesis for a narrative essay towards tablets and smartphones have on how we browse the Internet? What effect does typing on a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to be the most popular search engine? What are the social effects of everyone on the planet having cell phones?
How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates? What effect does being labeled gifted and talented have on students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on teaching School,, a child? What causes students to think school is boring? Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in for a School classrooms cause students to learn better?
What is the effect on learning when students do most of their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and books? What are the effects of homeschooling on children? (Or what are the social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on define thinking, the educational system in your town or state? How do school programs against bullying affect the actual bullying and fears of students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to learn better? What are the positive and negative effects of having school uniforms? What is the how to for a essay Millfield School, effect of having an open high school campus? What is the effect on the education of students when a district has year-round schooling? What causes teachers to how to Ross, burn out? What causes some schools to fail to educate students? What causes American students to how to a thesis narrative, lag behind students from other countries on international tests?
What effect do fine arts have on students? What effect does a good physical education program have on elementary school students? What effect do longer school days have on a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in writing narrative College schools have on education? What caused the Civil War? What are the continuing effects of slavery on American society? What was the cause of the increasing interest in feminism in the 1960s and 1970s?
How were WWII veterans affected by their wartime experiences? What effect did WWII have on the Jewish people? What effect did Christianity have on the Roman empire? What caused the how to write for a, Arab Spring? What are the effects of the Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on narrative, universities in the U.S.? What was the effect of colonialism on Britain's view of itself? What were the causes and effects of colonialism? In the viewpoint of the British, what were the causes and how to essay Millfield School effects of the narrative, American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in Colombia? What causes illegal immigration?
What are the effects of immigration on a country (pick any country)? What is the effect of online sales on businesses (in any country)? What was the effect of the a thesis for a narrative Millfield School, printing press (or other invention) on world history? What are the effects of globalization on teaching how to write an essay International Bangkok, the position of women? What are the effects of how to a thesis narrative essay School American drone attacks on terrorists and civilians? What was the cause of the destruction of the World Trade Center on 9/11? What is the cause of increased militancy on the part of North Korea? by narrative Lancing College, Josh Wilmoth 0. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 10. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. Write A Thesis Essay School. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40.
This was great for me because I had to write an essay about some kind of topic with a cause and an effect and define thinking this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students. I have traveled in how to write a thesis narrative School China four different times and love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and I think your sharing did help me a lot. Thank you ! this is a great sight for my informational reading and writing class its good.
Hi thanks for writing essays Lancing College, helping me. these topics are really good.. i used some of these topics for my projects and got great marks.. i got A+ in all my projects , i am in 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. A Thesis For A. I think you have presented some great Ideas for www.how an essay Besant, hub about relationships. Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. How To Write A Thesis Narrative Essay School. These topics had a BIG impact on my life. Thanks for your LARGE ammount of tips. These topics really helped me for school. Ruby 18 months ago from United States.
Creative idea for a hub, what was your case and effect for writing services of Dayton, making it lol. WOW this is how to write, super great to look up stuff for an assignment. Awesome topics thanks a million. Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from East Saint Louis. Www.how Hill School. Wow. There are a lot things that cause and effect.
Very informative write. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Thanks Zakeycia and write narrative School YoLex. My students have come up with most of these topics through the years and now this is my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over 2000 views one day last week!
This is awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol! Great work! Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. I have a cause and effect essay to type for my English class. I was having a hard time coming up with a topic.
Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Thank you. Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. Writing Essays Lancing. Thanks. Great topics. James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri. What a great hub! Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. They are good to write about to for a narrative School, do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and also spark very needed discussion.
Thanks for sharing. Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from thinking, New York, NY. I love this one, VirginiaLynne. Your hubs are so valuable to students and professional writers. Cause and effect papers are among the most interesting to read. I voted this hub up, useful, and write essay interesting. I am bookmarking this hub for future reference. I know I'll be using it! Keep up the to write Besant Hill School, excellent work here. Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from Georgia.
Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for write a thesis for a narrative essay, all categories. Well done. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Affect also means to produce an effect upon Besant Hill as well as to influence. How To Millfield. I will double check my usage in this Hub just to essays Lancing, make sure I haven't made an error.
Thanks! Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics. I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb. effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb.
Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. This will come in handy for my English class. Thanks. I Love it very much. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago. Social causes are growing up in lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for a thesis narrative Millfield, people to understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub!
I like your ideas, it is something different innovative. Vote up! Thanks! This is helpful. Vote up. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.
Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is used by most American colleges in their English departments. However, you are very right to point out that APA and Chicago and other formats are used in different types of courses. I think considering cause and effect is sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the start of the situation. Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation. Sometimes it is hard to Ross School, pull them apart. That is how to a thesis, why I usually like to call this a speculating about causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for the most important causes, or the most important effects that we see in www.how School a situation. Sumner Swett 3 years ago from a thesis for a essay Millfield, Owls Head Maine. A Good Expository Downside. Okay so cause and effect essays are written in different formats, but let me say in how to write a thesis Millfield School my college profession for the essays to be written were to be in APA format, and a good essay School it is interesting when researching and writing whether it is from how to write for a narrative essay School, information you have researched or if it free lance. I like to research topics before writing and also note taking is effective.
The cause is what causes the situation and the effect is what you have to take into consideration to the cause as we all know it. Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from writing narrative essays Lancing College, California. Great topics! Voted up and shared. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Write. Leidy--That is a great essay topic. Hill. I think that some of that labeling can be positive and other aspects are negative. How To For A Millfield School. It can encourage students to write School, believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by making them think that they don't need to work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed. Seth Tomko 3 years ago from essay School, Macon, GA. A good and diverse collection of topics. Narrative Essays College. I'll be sure to have my students check out some of these for their own essays.
Annie Miller 4 years ago from Wichita Falls, Texas. Very interesting and in depth Hub. I am passing this along and saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago. Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of essays before, and I have found the information that you have presented here to be excellent. Thank you for sharing. Voted up and useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States. Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona.
This is something to save when trying to essay School, come up with new writing ideas. Great hub. Writing Narrative Essays Lancing College. Going to pass this along and of course vote up. Write A Thesis Narrative Essay. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and to write Besant School company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
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Factors influencing the catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol using supported phosphine-capped gold nanoparticles† Rohul H. Adnan ab , Gunther G. Andersson c , Matthew I. J. Polson a , Gregory F. Metha d and Vladimir B. Golovko * ae. a Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, 8041, New Zealand. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. b Chemistry Department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia. c Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. d Department of how to a thesis narrative School, Chemistry, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. e The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and write a mla Ross School, Nanotechnology, PO Box 600, Wellington, 6140, New Zealand. First published on 20th November 2014. Two phosphine-stabilised gold clusters, Au 101 (PPh 3 ) 21 Cl 5 and Au 9 (PPh 3 ) 8 (NO 3 ) 3 , were deposited and activated on anatase TiO 2 and fumed SiO 2 . These catalysts showed an almost complete oxidation of benzyl alcohol (90%) within 3 hours at write narrative essay Millfield School, 80 °C and 3 bar O 2 in methanol with a high substrate-to-metal molar ratio of 5800 and turn-over frequency of how to write an essay School,, 0.65 s ?1 . Factors influencing catalytic activity were investigated, including metal–support interaction, effects of heat treatments, chemical composition of gold clusters, the size of gold nanoparticles and catalytic conditions.
It was found that the anions present in for a essay School gold clusters play a role in determining the catalytic activity in this reaction, with NO 3 ? diminishing the catalytic activity. High catalytic activity was attributed to the formation of essays College, large gold nanoparticles (2 nm) that coincides with partial removal of ligands which occurs during heat treatment and write for a, catalysis. How To Expository? Selectivity towards the formation of methyl benzoate can be tuned by selection of the how to write a thesis narrative essay Millfield School, reaction temperature. The catalysts were characterised using transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Oxidation reactions, particularly alcohol oxidation, are among the www.how to write an essay Hill, most important and useful reactions used by the chemical industry and academia. 9,10 The most common commercial methods of write for a Millfield School, alcohol oxidation use stoichiometric oxidants, such as chromates, permanganates or peroxides, that often yield a large amount of environmentally dangerous waste. 11 The use of harmful organic solvents ( e.g. chlorinated solvents) may also have a negative environmental impact. 12,13 There is an admission essay of Dayton, urgent need to move towards environmentally benign and cost-effective processes involving renewable, environmentally friendly and a thesis for a essay, cheap oxidants, such as molecular oxygen or atmospheric air as opposed to define thinking IMG Academy peroxides ( e.g. H 2 O 2 and tert -butyl hydroperoxide) 14 with the help of suitable catalysts. In recent years, liquid phase oxidation of alcohols has become popular as a model catalytic test, due to simple setup and handling procedures and relatively mild reaction conditions.
15,16 Supported platinum group catalysts are widely used in the oxidation of alcohols, yet they often require a secondary metal as a promoter to increase the write a thesis narrative essay, selectivity and stability of define thinking IMG Academy, such catalysts. 17–21 Hence, gold-based catalysts could be advantageous if such systems would not suffer from the stability and selectivity issues. 22. A systematic study of the nature of the active sites is crucial in improving the activity and how to write narrative essay School, selectivity of writing narrative College, catalysts towards the formation of the desired partial oxidation products. In the case of heterogeneous Au-based catalysts, the following factors are often considered to define catalytic activity and how to a thesis for a Millfield School, selectivity: gold particle size and morphology, oxidation state of gold species, metal–support interaction and specific parameters of catalytic testing conditions. The nature of the active site in the liquid phase oxidation of alcohols is define thinking IMG Academy, currently still unclear, with both ultra-small particles (2 nm) 23,24 and larger particles (2 nm) 25 reported as active catalysts. Tsukuda et al. reported that as the size of Millfield School, gold nanoparticles reduced below 2 nm, the turnover frequency (TOF) for the aerobic oxidation of p -hydroxybenzylalcohol increased significantly. 26 The authors proposed that the catalytic activity of these small gold nanoparticles was due to the increased electron density on an essay The Regent’s School, the gold core and also charge transfer from the for a Millfield, poly( N -vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) ligands.
However, Haider et al. observed that smaller size was not necessarily responsible for higher activity – the authors reported that the optimum size of the gold nanoparticles for of Dayton, ethanol oxidation is ca. 7 nm, irrespective of the supports. 25 Zheng et al. also observed a similar trend in ethanol oxidation in which the most active catalyst contained gold nanoparticles of around 6 nm. A Thesis For A Essay School? 27 There are currently very few studies on the effects of the gold nanoparticle precursor (size, composition etc. ) on the performance of to write an essay Hill, resulting catalysts since the majority of reports in the literature are focused predominantly on the morphology and size of gold nanoparticles. 23,28–30 Only recently, several studies on the effects of ligands, such as citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl alcohol, on the performance of gold-based catalysts have been reported in a wide range of how to write a thesis School, catalytic reactions – glycerol oxidation, 31 hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde 32 and reduction of p -nitrophenol. 33 These findings clearly suggest that the nature of ligands plays a critical role in determining the performance of the catalytically active gold particles in a particular reaction, perhaps, similarly to IMG Academy the role of support. 34 Hence, it is important to study the how to for a essay School, effect of the composition (size of the essay services University, gold core, neutral organic ligands and anionic ligands or counter-ions) of precursors used in fabrication of gold-based catalysts in order to how to a thesis for a essay Millfield design catalysts with high activity and essays Lancing, improved selectivity. Supported thiol-capped gold clusters have been widely used in catalytic studies. 35–37 For example, Jin et al. supported Au 25 (SR) 18 , Au 38 (SR) 24 and write a thesis, Au 99 (SPh) 42 clusters on various metal oxides and tested them in selective oxidation and how to a mla Ross School, hydrogenation reactions. 38–41 Tsukuda et al. used Au 10 (SG) 10 , Au 18 (SG) 14 , Au 25 (SG) 18 and Au 39 (SG) 24 deposited on hydroxyapatite in styrene oxidation.
42 In contrast, very few studies have focussed on using phosphine-capped gold nanoparticles in catalysis. How To Write School? 23,43–45 Phosphine ligands have weaker bonding interaction between gold and phosphorous atoms compared to the gold–sulphur interactions in thiol-capped gold nanoparticles. 46. Building on our recent X-ray spectroscopy studies of supported triphenylphosphine-stabilised gold nanoparticles, 47,48 we hereby aim to study the catalytic performance of materials derived from selected phosphine-capped gold clusters, supported and teaching how to write an essay International Bangkok, activated on titania and silica using liquid phase benzyl alcohol oxidation as a model catalytic test. How To For A Essay Millfield School? Herein, we prepared two phosphine-capped gold clusters: Au 101 (PPh 3 ) 21 Cl 5 (denoted as Au 101 with mean size of 1.6 ± 0.3 nm) and Au 9 (PPh 3 ) 8 (NO 3 ) 3 (denoted as Au 9 with mean size of 0.8 nm). These clusters were then deposited and write a good, activated on TiO 2 (anatase) and how to write a thesis, SiO 2 (fumed) using sol-immobilisation method; a well-established method used by Rossi, 10 Jin 39 and thinking, Hutchings 49 for immobilising pre-synthesized gold nanoparticles or clusters onto how to a thesis essay School supports. The sol-immobilisation method was shown to give minimal aggregation and high dispersion of gold nanoparticles on the supports. 50 The catalysts were then calcined under different atmospheres: oxygen (O 2 ) and International School,, oxygen and subsequently hydrogen (O 2 –H 2 ) at 200 °C to dislodge the a thesis narrative Millfield School, phosphine ligands and University of Dayton, expose the metal core adsorbed on the support to how to a thesis for a narrative Millfield School facilitate access by the substrate. 47.
First, the calculated amount of support (silica or titania) was dried in admission essay services University of Dayton the Schlenk tube under vacuum at 200 °C with stirring overnight (12 h). How To Write For A Essay Millfield? Upon cooling to room temperature, 5.00 g the support was suspended in University dichloromethane (30 mL) using vigorous stirring (750 rpm, magnetic stirrer bar). A solution of calculated amount of gold cluster ( e.g. How To Essay Millfield? 11.2 mg of Au 101 ) in dichloromethane (10 mL) was added to the suspension of support under vigorous stirring at room temperature and the mixture was left stirring overnight (12 h). The mixture was then dried in vacuum at room temperature and stored at 4 °C (untreated catalysts, labelled as Au x /support-untreated). Two heat treatments were employed in thinking this work: a) calcination under pure O 2 atmosphere at 200 °C for 2 h and write essay Millfield School, b) calcination under pure O 2 at 200 °C for 2 h followed by calcination in H 2 at 200 °C for 2 h. The Regent’s International? 47 All cluster deposition and activation experiments were performed using glassware wrapped in Al foil to avoid exposure of how to a thesis Millfield, materials to define IMG Academy light. All prepared catalysts were stored in vials wrapped in how to write for a essay Millfield Al foil in a fridge (4 °C). Services University Of Dayton? For the how to write a thesis for a, purpose of following discussion catalysts are labelled in the following manner: “ x wt% Au y /support-treatment”, where x corresponds to the weight % of pure Au and y = 9 or 101.
Product mixtures were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Dionex Ultimate 300 system equipped with UV detector and fitted with a Luna 5? C18(2) (250 ? 4.60 mm) reversed phase column. The products were eluted using a mixture of 0.05 v/v% trifluoroacetic acid in water (70%) and acetonitrile (30%). Gold content was measured via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) using a Varian SpectraAA 220 FS with ASL hollow cathode lamp for the Au element. A careful heat-treatment was employed in order to teaching how to write an essay School, Bangkok remove the capping ligands and how to write a thesis narrative Millfield School, expose the gold core to the substrate, yet to minimise aggregation. Here, calcination of the catalysts was done at 200 °C under different environments: under pure oxygen (O 2 ) and oxygen followed by essays College, hydrogen (O 2 –H 2 ). 28,42 After calcination, the gold clusters aggregated to how to for a narrative essay form larger nanoparticles (Fig. 1 and 2). 47 TiO 2 -based catalysts showed minimal aggregation and narrower particle size distributions as compared to SiO 2 -based catalysts, suggesting that gold formed stronger metal–support interaction with TiO 2 cf. SiO 2 (Fig.
1 and 3). UV-vis DR spectra (Fig. 4 and 5) showed the absence of LSPR bands in Bangkok the cases of write a thesis for a narrative essay Millfield School, untreated catalysts allows us to how to an essay Bangkok infer that the gold nanoparticles were predominantly with sizes below 2 nm and how to a thesis for a School, retained their non-metallic state. The appearance of an LSPR band in the UV-vis DR spectra of the TiO 2 -supported samples after calcination (Fig. 4 and admission, 5) indicated formation of plasmonic gold nanoparticles which is how to write a thesis narrative School, indicative of the increase in particle size to greater than 2 nm. 55–57 It was previously reported that the position of the maximum of the LSPR band moves to define thinking longer wavelength as the size of how to write a thesis Millfield, gold particles increases, although in some cases this general trend broke down due to the effect of the dielectric constant of the how to write International, surrounding environment. Write A Thesis For A Millfield? 58–61 Interestingly, the 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts showed aggregation after catalytic reaction (from ca. 2.0 to ca. 3.6 nm; Table 1). Particle size analysis based on the statistical evaluation of write a mla essay School, numerous TEM images (Table 1) confirms that the write for a narrative Millfield School, increase in particle size after heat-treatments and after catalytic reactions for Au x /TiO 2 catalysts ( x = 9, 101) was consistent with the red shift in admission writing services University of Dayton the peak maxima position of the LSPR bands observed in how to a thesis for a essay Millfield School UV-vis DR spectra. For 0.5 wt% Au 101 /SiO 2 catalyst, a significant agglomeration of gold clusters occurred upon deposition: the define thinking, gold clusters in the 0.5 wt% Au 101 /SiO 2 -untreated catalyst aggregated to write a thesis narrative School form gold nanoparticles of mean size 3.6 ± 1.2 nm.
The observed particle size is almost twice the teaching The Regent’s International, size of pristine Au 101 cluster and substantially larger than the for a, size of the gold particles (2.0 ± 0.4 nm) in the case of expository Downside School, Au 101 immobilized on write narrative Millfield School TiO 2 at the same surface coverage. The gold cluster also grew non-uniformly to yield a wide particle size distribution with the largest particle found with TEM being ca. 8 nm and the smallest being ca. Www.how To Write An Essay? 2 nm (Fig. 5a and S9a ESI†). For A Narrative Millfield School? After calcination under O 2 and O 2 followed by define thinking, H 2 at 200 °C, the agglomeration progressed further resulting in the formation of how to write a thesis for a narrative Millfield School, larger gold nanoparticles with wider particle size distributions (Fig. 5(b and c) and S9(b and c) ESI†). A summary of supported gold particle mean sizes and positions of the LSPR peak maxima are given in Table 1. Our recent XPS study of phosphine-capped Au clusters on TiO 2 showed that for untreated Au 9 /TiO 2 and Au 101 /TiO 2 a significant fraction of phosphine ligands were dislodged from the gold cores and formed phosphine oxide-like species by define, interaction with oxygen on the TiO 2 surface, leaving a tiny amount of how to a thesis essay, phosphine ligands bound to the gold core. 47 Calcination under O 2 atmosphere detached the majority of phosphine ligands from the gold core by forming phosphine-oxide species. How To Write Essay Ross School? It is worth mentioning that while TGA results show the complete removal of phosphine ligands has occurred at 250 °C for the Au 101 clusters (Fig.
S3, ESI†) and at 240 °C for the Au 9 cluster (Fig. S6, ESI†), the phosphine ligands attached to supported Au clusters were not removed as phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ), but as phosphine-oxide species probably due to the interaction with the oxygen from TiO 2 surfaces ( e.g. such oxidized phosphine species remained at the surface of the support). 47 After a combined O 2 –H 2 calcination, phosphine ligands were completely dislodged from the gold core for both Au 9 /TiO 2 and Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts. Our first XPS study of a wider range of ultra-small gold phosphine clusters suggests that the how to write a thesis for a narrative essay Millfield School, nature of the anionic species (Cl ? and NO 3 ? ) did not significantly influence the how to write a good expository, position of the Au 4f 7/2 peak (84.7 ± 0.1 eV for Au 11 cluster containing Cl ? vs. 85.1 ± 0.1 eV for a thesis narrative essay, both Au 8 and Au 9 clusters containing NO 3 ? ) whereas the size of the cluster has a more pronounced effect (83.9 ± 0.1 eV for Au 11 cluster containing Cl ? ). 48. The leaching of metal particles into solution is a common problem for metal supported heterogeneous catalysts. Write A Mla Ross School? However, our phosphine-stabilised Au clusters did not show signs of leaching during our catalytic studies according to Au loading analysis by write essay School, AAS (Table S1, ESI†). Secondly, the nature of the write School, support and how to write a thesis narrative essay Millfield School, metal–support interaction dictated the performance of the catalysts.
For example, catalysts with similar gold loading on write essay Ross different supports (Table S1, ESI†), Au 101 on anatase (0.13 wt% Au by AAS) showed superior performance (Table 2) when compared with analogous catalyst systems made using fumed-SiO 2 as a support (with 0.18 wt% Au by how to for a narrative essay, AAS). Typically, SiO 2 is considered an to write Besant School, inert, non-reducible support whereas TiO 2 is an activating, reducible support. 67 The higher catalytic activity of Au/TiO 2 catalysts over for a narrative Millfield Au/SiO 2 was also observed in CO oxidation in many studies. 68–71 Hence, the size effect of gold nanoparticles alone is not sufficient to explain the writing services University, activity of supported gold catalysts. Metal–support interactions (MSI) play crucial role in defining reactivity and selectivity of supported gold catalysts. Haruta et al. and Baiker et al. hypothesized that the oxygen activation occurs at the perimeter ( i.e. interface) of the how to a thesis for a narrative essay Millfield, gold nanoparticles and metal oxide supports.
72–74 This hypothesis could explain the teaching write an essay International, lower activity of Au 101 /SiO 2 catalysts as compared to Au 101 /anatase in benzyl alcohol oxidation observed in this study, since silica based catalysts with much larger particles will have much smaller surface area corresponding to the gold–support interface. The high activity of heat treated catalysts can be attributed to how to write a thesis for a Millfield stronger metal–support interaction established during calcination. Define Thinking? Haruta et al. proposed that during calcination gold nanoparticles melted, rearranged and reconstructed themselves to how to write School achieve stronger interaction with the TiO 2 support. 75 This hypothesis is in line with the report by Buffat and Borel that 2 nm gold nanoparticles melt around 600 K, 76 which is significantly lower than the melting point of the www.how to write an essay Besant Hill, bulk gold (1337 K). Wu et al. reported that small gold nanoparticles (2–4 nm) sinter at temperature as low as 413 K. 77 The sintering of write for a narrative essay, gold nanoparticles around 423 K was also reported by Coutts et al. How To A Mla Ross School? 78 Hence it is experimentally observed that small gold nanoparticles aggregate below the melting point. Analysis of how to a thesis for a essay Millfield, supported-gold particle sizes as measured by an essay Besant, TEM (Table 1) showed that the particle size distribution of how to write essay Millfield School, gold nanoparticles was wider (indicated by larger standard deviation) on SiO 2 support as compared to thinking TiO 2 for the same Au loading (target 0.17 wt%), suggesting that weaker metal–support interaction in Au 101 /SiO 2 catalysts facilitates aggregation resulting in wider particle size distributions despite the write for a narrative essay Millfield, significantly higher surface area of writing narrative essays Lancing College, SiO 2 support. For the same Au loading (0.17 wt%) and support (TiO 2 ), Au 101 cluster-based catalysts showed much higher catalytic activity compared to how to a thesis School Au 9 -based catalysts even though the gold particles size were smaller in the case of Au 9 /TiO 2 ( cf. Essays? Au 101 /TiO 2 analogues, Table 2, entries 19–21 cf. entries 4–6). We hypothesize that the presence of anionic species within the gold cluster (Cl ? in Au 101 vs.
NO 3 ? in Au 9 ) strongly affect the catalytic activity. From our XPS investigations we have no evidence that the amount and chemical nature of the nitrogen species are changing due to the treatment after the deposition of the Au clusters. Write Essay Millfield School? To identify the role of the component of the thinking IMG Academy, cluster precursor responsible for quenching of the catalytic activity, we investigated the role of such an anionic component in benzyl alcohol oxidation. Firstly, we added KCl, with the amount according to the weight percentage of Cl ? in Au 101 (PPh 3 ) 21 Cl 5 (0.08 wt%) to mimic the presence of Cl ? anion, to the catalyst and write a thesis School, calcined it under O 2 to a mla essay School resemble Au 101 /TiO 2 –O 2 ; we found no increase in the catalytic activity (Table 2, entry 29 cf. entry 20). When KNO 3 (amount estimated to mimic the amount of NO 3 ? from for a narrative essay School Au 9 , 4.6 wt%) was added to the Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts, we found noticeable reduction in the catalytic activity (Table 2, entry 28 vs. 8). The nitrate is an integral part of the Au 9 cluster precursor used in catalyst fabrication and would be perfectly positioned to affect gold particles, causing deactivation of the catalyst (Table 2, entries 19–21). For the Au 101 based catalyst (Table 2, entry 28), the nitrate was introduced after the catalyst had been formed, which could limit the efficiency of the interaction of the nitrate with the gold particles and result in the moderate drop in activity. Hence, it appears that the presence of NO 3 lowers the catalytic activity of Au 101 -based catalysts and could be the Hill, reason for how to, the significantly lower activity of Au 9 -based analogues.
To the best of writing narrative Lancing College, our knowledge this is the first report of the effect of NO 3 ? on activity of gold-based heterogeneous catalysts. While numerous studies report that ultra-small gold nanoparticles (2 nm) are the write a thesis for a narrative Millfield School, key active site, 23,26,79 our results demonstrate that the size of www.how to write an essay School, gold nanoparticles alone is not sufficient to explain the catalytic activity of catalysts made using phosphine-capped Au nanoparticles as it is considerably affected by the type of anions present in the supported gold cluster catalysts, type of support and activation treatment protocols. Quintanilla et al. investigated the effect of N-based compounds (dodecylamine vs. polyvinylpyrrolidone) as stabilizing agents for a thesis essay School, gold nanoparticles deposited onto ?-Al 2 O 3 in write a good School benzyl alcohol oxidation. 80 The authors found that the polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped gold nanoparticles had higher catalytic activity than the dodecylamine-capped gold nanoparticles due to the reduced steric hindrance of the gold surface by the polymer, allowing access of the substrate to the surface of gold nanoparticles. However, in our case, the N-based compound is present as a counter anion (NO 3 ? ), not as a stabilizing agent. In summary, we found that catalysts fabricated using a nitrate-containing cluster (Au 9 ) are either inactive or show noticeably lower conversion compared to analogues made using chloride-containing Au 101 , while the write a thesis for a essay Millfield, addition of extraneous nitrate to the Au 101 -based catalysts diminished their activity. The effect of different calcination conditions is negligible for Au 101 -based catalysts but has significant impact on writing narrative Au 9 /TiO 2 catalysts (see Table 2). Au 101 /TiO 2 –O 2 and Au 101 /TiO 2 –O 2 –H 2 showed similar catalytic activity and selectivity. However, Au 9 /TiO 2 –O 2 –H 2 showed significantly higher activity as compared to Au 9 /TiO 2 –O 2 and how to, Au 9 /TiO 2 -untreated which were inactive.
This result indicated that heat treatment plays a role in the catalytic activity and selectivity in benzyl alcohol oxidation. Yuan et al. Write A Mla Essay? prepared Au 9 /TiO 2 for CO oxidation. 81 The authors observed that untreated Au 9 /TiO 2 catalyst was inactive for CO oxidation while heat treated Au 9 /TiO 2 catalyst under 5% H 2 /Ar was active. However, they did not comment on the difference in the catalytic activity of those catalysts. In the case of Au nanoparticles containing residual Cl ? species, calcination under H 2 atmosphere could remove Cl ? in the form of HCl, as proposed by Haruta et al. 82 However, at this stage we could not conclude the fate of NO 3 ? species after combined O 2 –H 2 calcination because the available XPS data provide no evidence about how the and nature of the nitrogen species changes after such calcination. The proposed reaction pathway of how to write a thesis narrative School, benzyl alcohol oxidation in methanol in the presence of base is shown in Fig. 6. Benzyl alcohol is first oxidized to how to write a good expository essay Downside benzaldehyde, which serves as an intermediate in this catalytic system. In the presence of base, benzaldehyde is for a narrative School, preferentially oxidised further to benzoic acid.
83,84 The formation of methyl ester resulted from the reaction between benzaldehyde and to write an essay Hill, methanol (the solvent). We carried out a control reaction using benzaldehyde and benzoic acid as substrates (instead of benzyl alcohol). When similar conditions (5 bar O 2 , 80 °C, 4 hours) were used for the catalytic oxidation of benzaldehyde (2.5 mmol) in methanol (25 mL) using Au 101 /anatase catalysts, a complete transformation of how to a thesis essay Millfield School, benzaldehyde to benzoic acid and methyl benzoate with the same distribution of products ( i.e. benzoic acid : methyl benzoate of 70 : 30) was observed. However, we did not observe any reaction when benzoic acid was used as a substrate. Thus, our observations excluded the formation of the methyl ester via the benzoic acid route. For the Au 101 -based catalysts, the catalytic activity arises from formation of the large gold nanoparticles coinciding with removal of essays Lancing College, PPh 3 ligands.
All untreated Au 101 /TiO 2 (0.01 and 0.17 wt%) and Au 101 /SiO 2 (0.17 wt%) that were unable to catalyse benzyl alcohol oxidation, contained sub-2 nm gold nanoparticles. In trying to explain this observation one has to consider effects of metal core properties and the possibility that a significant proportion of an how to write a thesis for a narrative essay School, otherwise reactive gold surface could be blocked by admission writing services University, protective phosphine ligands. Our earlier XPS studies provide evidence of significant loss of protecting PPh 3 ligands during deposition (only ca. 10% of write narrative School, P XPS signal intensity remained, due to residual PPh 3 ligands) in the case of 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 . 47 Although it is impossible to outright dismiss the argument that the residual 10% of ligands could completely deactivate the admission writing services of Dayton, catalysts, one should attempt to find an alternative explanation. An earlier report by Valden et al. How To A Thesis Narrative School? demonstrated an www.how to write an essay, important transition from non-metallic to metallic properties occurring for ca. How To Write A Thesis For A School? Au 300 clusters on TiO 2 . 85 Hence, one could hypothesise that sub-2 nm particles (2 nm spherical particles would contain ca. 250 atoms) 86 could be inactive, as observed in our reactions, due to their non-metallic state. The presence of define thinking, non-metallic particles in these catalysts is further confirmed by our UV-vis DRS results (Table 1, entries 1 and 14). However, untreated 1.3 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 (mean gold particle size of 2.7 ± 1.6 nm) and untreated 0.5% Au 101 /SiO 2 (mean gold particle size of how to a thesis for a narrative School, 3.6 ± 1.2 nm) gave significant conversions 99% (Table 2, entry 16) and 63%, respectively (Table 2, entry 25) with TOF of the same order of magnitude reflective of the metal/substrate ratio.
This observation implies that in the case of highly metal-loaded Au 101 -derived catalysts, the essay writing University of Dayton, formation of larger, metallic nanoparticles (which is likely to coincide with even more pronounced loss of phosphine ligands during aggregation) could be responsible for the observed activity. The gold nanoparticles in how to a thesis for a narrative essay Millfield Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts agglomerated slightly after the catalytic tests (Table 2). Admission Writing Services University Of Dayton? The 31 P NMR spectrum of the reaction mixture showed the write narrative Millfield, presence of triphenylphosphine oxide, which was formed from the phosphine ligands dislodged from the gold core, which then oxidised during the writing essays, catalytic reaction and dissolved in the catalytic reaction mixture. The Au 101 /TiO 2 -untreated catalyst was active upon recycling ( i.e. in write narrative essay Millfield School the 2nd consecutive catalytic test) and showed noticeably increased conversion (29%, Table 2, entry 10) compared to inactive fresh catalyst, and how to a good expository essay, formed considerable amounts of benzaldehyde as compared to other catalytic tests in this study (Fig. S11†). Again, the how to a thesis for a narrative, increase in activity of the 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 -untreated samples upon admission writing of Dayton, recycling could be attributed to an increase in a thesis for a essay size of the gold nanoparticles and the simultaneous loss of essay writing services of Dayton, phosphine ligands from the gold core during the first catalytic test. However, comparison between the two catalysts with very similar ca. 3.5 nm particle sizes – 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 recycled (Table 2, entry 10) and activated by calcination under O 2 (Table 2, entry 5) shows that particle size is clearly not the only factor. A Thesis For A Essay? It should be emphasized that the TEM imaging does not allow easy quantification of the density/number of Au particles per particle of support and such TEM-based sizing alone could miss the how to a good expository Downside School, presence of an inactive population of TEM-invisible smaller particles.
For example, recycled untreated catalyst (Table 2, entry 10) could contain a lower density/number of large gold nanoparticles than calcined catalysts (Table 2, entries 8, 9, 11 and 12). How To For A Narrative Essay Millfield? Yet, a possibly more important factor in teaching School, Bangkok explaining the how to a thesis, observed differences could be the effect of the higher-temperature treatment under O 2 atmosphere which could form a better contact between the gold particles and the support, while PPh 3 removal from the gold core is www.how, even more pronounced when compared to the recycled catalysts. For example, Haruta et al. suggested the calcination of the as-prepared gold/metal oxide catalysts in an oxidizing atmosphere ( e.g. O 2 ) would form a strong interaction between gold nanoparticles with a metal oxide having an how to write a thesis essay School, oxygen-enriched surface. 87 Both heat treated Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts under O 2 and O 2 –H 2 showed no significant loss of essay, catalytic activity and selectivity after the first catalytic test. The evolution of conversion and selectivity of benzyl alcohol oxidation as a function of time is presented in Fig. 7. The high conversion of benzyl alcohol (80–90%) was observed after the first two to how to write a thesis for a narrative School three hours. Define? The selectivity towards the formation of methyl benzoate and benzoic acid are independent of reaction time but primarily dependent on the reaction temperature, as shown in how to for a essay Fig. 8. Writing? A considerable amount ( ca. 20%) of a thesis for a essay Millfield School, benzaldehyde was formed after one hour and then depleted over time (Fig.
7), suggesting that benzaldehyde is the intermediate in for the formation of benzoic acid and methyl benzoate in admission writing University of Dayton benzyl alcohol oxidation. How To Write Narrative School? 88–90 The effect of the temperature in teaching how to an essay International this reaction was studied from room temperature (25 °C) up to 80 °C (Fig. 8). Reduction in the temperature of the catalytic reaction results in the reduction of the catalytic activity. However, the product selectivity shows non-linear behaviour.
The highest selectivity towards methyl benzoate (93%) was observed at 50 °C with 53% conversion of benzyl alcohol, suggesting the selective formation of methyl benzoate is possible by manipulating the reaction temperature.