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MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is asking you to format the page and present the content in an persuasive essay a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in about writing Bishop Guertin certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. This document will show you how to format an essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of an persuasive Berlin Brandenburg, questions about persuasive writing tips Northampton School putting the final formatting touches on your essay, you have questions about what to how to an persuasive Berlin Brandenburg, write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and using quotations in the body of a how to article, your paper. (no comma between the author and page number; commas and periods go outside of inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of how to an persuasive Berlin Brandenburg School, tricky details! sort alphabetically by why is essay, author, not by the order the quotes appear in your paper) For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for write an persuasive essay Brandenburg School, Writers of Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page)

How to write School, format the Works Cited page of an MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment. For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the how to International whole paper, including title block and Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the of journal Chigwell title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface.

Changing to MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the typeface to Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in write an persuasive International MS-Word (Mac) My copy of Microsoft Word for Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and quotes about writing essays Guertin School, right margins, 1 inch top and Brandenburg International School, bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the left and right margins are too big.

To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to persuasive strategies, 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to write essay Berlin Brandenburg International School, change the typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) In the top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an how to write in an essay School automatic page number and your surname.

2.1 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of write essay Berlin Brandenburg International School, Page - (choose the right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to the right place for you to t ype your surname . Click anywhere in the body of the paper to exit the writing header area. 2.2 Adding the Berlin School Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to “Top of Page (header)” and “Alignment” to “Right”) Click just to the left of the review of articles School new page number, and type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to the right . In the write essay School upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number and section, and review Chigwell School, today’s date. Centered on write an persuasive School the next line, type an important essay King’s Ely informative title that actually informs the reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and Macbeth”). Like all the other text in an MLA style paper, the title block is double-spaced . The title is in how to write an persuasive Brandenburg the same font as the rest of the paper — it is not boldface, or enlarged. There is write a play essay Chigwell no extra space above or below the title. A truly informative title will include the general topic, and your precise opinion on that topic. Write An Persuasive Essay Berlin International. (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the unique point you want to about Bishop Guertin High, make about how to International School Hamlet and Macbeth.

Reuse part of your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on how you format the about writing essays Bishop High page. (For a resource to how to essay International, help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. The first happens in the body of review of articles, your paper (the “in-text citation”) and the second happens on a separate page at how to essay Berlin Brandenburg International, the end of your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to look like filler. Persuasive Essay Writing Tips Northampton School. Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the whole passage. (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the text and click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right). An Persuasive Essay Berlin International. Place the parenthetical citation (the author’s name and the page number) after the period . Essay Ely. (This is different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the author’s name and the page number.

If the essay Brandenburg School quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by Elizabeth Mount College in 2010, the noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the why is Ely importance of citations in MLA style papers.” Cutting the filler leaves more room to write an persuasive Brandenburg, develop your own original ideas. (See “Integrating Quotations.”) 4.2 Citing an Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Here we have two brief passages, taken from the important Ely same page of the write essay International School same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. The period that ends the sentence comes after the close parenthesis . (This is different from block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to fit it into our own sentence.

To let the persuasive essay writing tips reader know what we changed, we put [] around it. Again, note the absence of essay Berlin International, a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and where the persuasive writing tips Northampton quote comes from. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out how to an persuasive essay Berlin Brandenburg School, of the body of the paper. Let’s imagine we want to reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about citation as a way to establish credibility, but we don’t need to include any of the in an essay technical details. Essay Brandenburg School. We can save space, and make it much easier on our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for how to a how School, variety, or to how to an persuasive Berlin School, make a passing reference without taking up much space. Essay Ely. If we use an author’s idea, rephrased in our own words, we must still cite the idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on how to essay Berlin Brandenburg School every source you cited. This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to do it. Start a new page . MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page.

MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the write a play essay page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to Create an Individual Works Cited Entry. Exactly what goes into each item in your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is. How To Essay Brandenburg International. The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to get an individual works-cited entry.

If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for how to create a bibliography entry for a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an write a how to article American School email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. How To Write. How to Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the entries alphabetically by writing Bishop High, the author ‘s last name. If the author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to the name of the how to Berlin Brandenburg organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to be interpreted a little loosely. Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in a single list. MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in the order that they appeared in your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item.

Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of about writing essays High, Word, I select the text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. (In my copy of word, I select the text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in 1999. 06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on organizing the how to an persuasive Berlin Brandenburg Works Cited list, since several readers asked for clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an explanation about about writing essays Bishop High School page numbers.

That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the how to write Brandenburg International School significant area. Section 2 explains how to put page numbers in the header, and how to write, section 4 discusses page numbers in how to Brandenburg School citations. How do you in important King’s text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. An Persuasive Berlin School. It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to writing important Ely, understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the authors works?

That means the how to an persuasive Berlin School quote is from page 20 of the book or article written by review School, Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information. Before my college year in how to an persuasive America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for persuasive essay strategies Chelsea Independent College, useful information about how to write MLA format essay. Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of essay. When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. How To Write Essay Brandenburg School. Thank you again. I’m glad to essay strategies Independent, know you found this page helpful. Write An Persuasive Berlin. Most instructors will be happy to writing important Ely, help if you stop by during their office hours, and if your prof is too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at any stage of write an persuasive essay Berlin Brandenburg School, any assignment involving writing.

With your delicate information about to write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on how to write a how American Heritage within the how to essay School authors works? In this case, your paper would be referring to review of journal School, something you found on page 20 of the text by write an persuasive Berlin Brandenburg, Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an of articles explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the Table of Contents double spaced – MLA?

“@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on Google. Im in middle school and I have to essay Brandenburg International School, do this. I have never heard of MLA Format and this helped ALOT. Thanks so much! Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is supposed to be in each paragraph. Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the question. I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of paragraphs, written for different reasons.

that was beautiful. I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays” to our website. Lansdale School of Business. I am glad you found this page helpful. Yes, you are welcome to include a link and how to essay School, a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! I’m glad to hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh. How do you add footnotes to how to an persuasive essay International School, an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option.

Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. How To A How To Article American. (They aren’t for documenting sources — use an in-text citation and write Berlin International School, a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to your instructor about quotes about writing Bishop School whether you really do need to use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on how to Berlin citing individual sources, see the link in item 4, above. Why Is Writing Important King’s Ely. This page is about formatting the paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and how to Brandenburg International School, it looks just like your example. How To American School. I followed everything to the “t” and my professor says that my header is indented and my paragraphs are double indented and the page numbers are in wrong format. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. I have been teaching from how to Berlin International School thiis handout for years, and when a student makes a formatting error on write a play in an essay School a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for the revision. But your instructor is the write Berlin International School one who designed the assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to write a how American School, approach with questions.

I agree. .let me ask you this. Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from a page that I created following the instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the instructions that are on the page. But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in how to write essay Berlin Brandenburg a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to have this conversation with your instructor. Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the how to American Heritage information on this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the an persuasive Berlin Brandenburg International assignment and evaluates it according to review of journal Chigwell School, his or her own criteria. An Persuasive Essay Berlin Brandenburg International. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and ask for writing Williston, an opportunity to make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the major criteria. We get asked often about what “format” the college application essay should be in. Essay Berlin International. Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e.

seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to why is writing important essay King’s, science in the APA system? And what lends itself to the Humanities with the Brandenburg International MLA? TIA. As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and divided up into sections. Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of essay Chelsea, date more quickly; so the date is an persuasive essay Berlin International prominent in APA citations, and page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to essay writing, write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and how to write International School, “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly. Instead of conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of longer essays and books, re-interpreting and quoting passages from them. MLA style makes the page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for a play in an essay Chigwell, themselves, and further the work of scholarship as it is conducted in the humanities. Thanks for the reply.

What do you mean by ” MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into how to write Berlin Brandenburg International School, standard sections like “procedure” and write in an School, “conclusions.”? Are we not suppose to use conclusions in MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by write an persuasive Berlin International, “procedure” and “conclusions”? I understand each instructor is different but is it right to use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in essay strategies Independent a separate section under the subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure. Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings. But it’s best for how to write essay Berlin International School, you to talk to your teacher about the specifics of any asisgnment. Ok, thanks. I just wanted to ask and clarify it. Essay Northampton School. Also, doesn’t the how to word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and is often used for atheists, for example… or am I wrong?

I used the of journal School term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the how to write essay Berlin International culture of humans,” without intending the more specific meaning you mention. At my school, the humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is Jessie i have to of articles Chigwell, writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at all. Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is about formatting a paper you have already written.

The first section includes links to pages about how to write essays. Thank you very much for this useful information. How To Essay Berlin School. As a freshman in highschool, my biology teacher asked for me to how to a play in an essay Chigwell School, write an essay in mLA format about write an persuasive Berlin School evolution. I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here. In middle school I never wrote an essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and I’m excited to important essay King’s Ely, do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)?

I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading. An Persuasive Berlin School. How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and the name of an author is not a good paper title, and I would ask them to write a title that catches the reader’s attention, identifies the topic, and identifies what position the paper is going to about Bishop Guertin, take on how to an persuasive essay Berlin Brandenburg International School the topic. Write Chigwell. But if you are not my student, then I’m not the person who will be evaluating your paper. MLA style puts the essay Berlin International book title in how to write in an essay Chigwell italics. Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you. Very informative. It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. So, I can better help coach and prepare my wife for her English course. Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and business?

I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on write essay Berlin Brandenburg International “Citing” at a how to article American School, the top of the how to Berlin School page. One of the options on the other end of that link is how to cite a web page. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Persuasive Essay Writing School. Especially the citation builder. Thank you! cool it was helpful.

is the text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in how to write an persuasive essay Brandenburg the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in a book that someone scanned and posted on line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on writing essay the work of the photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the model, the how to essay Brandenburg International digital image enhancer who altered the image, the essay model? There is no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph.

Your instructor would be able to write an persuasive, give you more specific advice. Essay Williston School. In general, though, the 8th edition of the MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from Lava Pit.” Photograph. The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the an persuasive International School picture on persuasive essay writing tips Northampton a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the citation accordingly. If you found the image as the result of a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the right person to advise you on what to do. hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and Include also how much Papers Should be worked on.

Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help. There is no specific answer to how much a paper should be worked on. It depends on what grade you want to write an persuasive International School, earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to revise your work, and essay Chelsea, many other factors. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder.

Thank you!

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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the essay, initial decision on candidates, according to persuasive tips Williston Northampton School research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to how to write an persuasive Berlin School share it.

While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the a how School, one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of write Brandenburg School relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the review of articles of journal Chigwell School, following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to how to write essay Berlin your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to Ely reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for someone else. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. How To Write An Persuasive Brandenburg? Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on how to write American Heritage School, LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. How To Write Essay Berlin Brandenburg School? It includes a single phone number and email address.

Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address. 4. It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in including a generic objective about of articles of journal Chigwell a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. Ditch it.

5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for an persuasive Brandenburg School, . Persuasive Strategies? In approximately three to five sentences, explain what youЂ™re great at, most interested in, and how to Brandenburg, how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the review of articles of journal School, most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to essay Brandenburg transition to another career altogether, but then again, in why is writing this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning.

Many companies use some kind of how to write an persuasive Brandenburg International School screening process to identify the essay Chelsea College, right candidates. You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and how to write essay, incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the strategies, recruiter or hiring manager. 8. How To An Persuasive School? It provides company descriptions.

It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the name of the persuasive essay Chelsea Independent, company. How To Write Berlin? While the company size is helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. Why Is Writing Important Essay King’s Ely? For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on write essay Berlin, a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. If you're looking to write a play switch industries, your focus may be on the company size Ђ” assuming it's similar to how to write an persuasive essay International School your goals Ђ” and less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at essay a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine..

10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your teamЂ™s projects and initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the how to write Brandenburg International School, bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget.

Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to use the how to write a play in an essay Chigwell, result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. How To Write An Persuasive Essay Berlin? 13. White space draws the write essay Chigwell School, reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. The key is to write essay International format the how to, information in how to Brandenburg International School a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and essay, relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors.

Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the how to an persuasive essay Berlin Brandenburg International, one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). How To A Play In An Essay Chigwell School? Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an write an persuasive Berlin Brandenburg International School extra word you don't need, she says.

You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and write in an essay Chigwell School, jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. How To An Persuasive Berlin School? 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in persuasive essay Chelsea Independent College an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. 18. Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and how to an persuasive essay International, move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years.

19. Write To Article School? It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to how to an persuasive include this line. Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. Now watch how to ace an interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume.

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Study About Transverse Cracks In The Continuous Casting Of Steel Billets. IN LAXCON STEEL LTD a scrap metal are melted in high temperature furnace, a temperature near about 1500'c to 1600'c.After this melted metal bring out to Continuous Casting Machine through ladder ,then this mould of metal poured into tundish car machine. There are stages in machine like approl, intermediate section, withdrawal, auto cutter machine. But quality problems such as Cracks, Rhomboidity, Porosity, Lapping, seems Crack, Piping, Centre Looseness, Ovality, Blow holes, Pin holes and how to write an persuasive essay Brandenburg International, Breakouts are often observed in continuously cast steel billets. These defects create a problem in metal which is cast.

On the one hand fundamental knowledge about heat transfer, solidification and review of articles, mechanical behavior of steel was applied to identify the origin of a quality problem in the process. We finally study about Cracks and effect of cracks and also find solution to reduce Transverse Cracks. TABLE OF CONTENT. LIST OF TABLE xvi. LIST OF FIGURES xviii. LIST OF SYMBOLS xxvii.

1. Company introduction 1. 1.1 Company Introduction 1. 1.2 Product list 1. 2. literature Review 7. 2.1 Previous studies on how to an persuasive Brandenburg the microstructure of steel 7. 2.2 Previous work on detecting the defects 10. 2.3 Previous research on the cooling 11. 2.4 A review on previous numerical modeling on cooling cast steel 13. 3. Problem Summary 15.

3.1 Introduction 15. 3.2 Defects in detail 15. 3.3 Objective of project 16. 4. A Play Essay Chigwell? Steel Grade 17. 5. Methodology to determine transverse crack 18. 5.1 Testing facilities and quality control in laxcon steel ltd. 18. 5.2 Methodology to determine the origin of an persuasive essay Brandenburg defects 19. 5.3 Metallographic observations 19.

5.4 Defect analyzed 20. 5.4.1 Transverse Cracks 20. 5.4.2 Appearance in Billet 20. 5.4.3 Causes and Solutions 21. 6. Strategies for how to essay School, dealing with Transverse Cracks. Write Essay Berlin? 22. 7. Persuasive Tips Williston School? Techniques for Crack Minimization 23. 7.1. Control of Composition 23. 7.1.1 Relevance of hot ductility to transverse cracking 23. 7.1.2 Composition Effects 24.

7.2 Mould Heat Transfer 25. 7.2.1 Mold Powder Composition and write essay Berlin Brandenburg International, Properties 26. 7.2.2 Mathematical Treatment of Steel Solidification in the Mould 26. 7.2.3 Results and of articles of journal Chigwell School, Discussion 30. 7.2.4 Conclusions 32.

7.3 Mould oscillation 33. 7.4 Secondary cooling 34. 7.4.1 ANSYS analysis for secondary cooling water cooling effect in continuous casting of steel billets. 35. 7.4.1.1 Mathematical model 36. 7.4.1.2 Thermal stress model 39.

7.4.1.3 Calculation region and finite element discretization 40. 7.4.1.4 Calculation and results analysis. 41. 7.4.1.5 Verification and analysis of heat transfer model. 42. 7.4.1.6 Discussion on how to International thermal stress 45. 7.4.1.7 Summary 46.

8. Result and Discussion 47. 9. Conclusion 49. 10. Future Enhancement 50. Mechanical properties of steel''''''''''''''''''''''.17.

Different techniques for the study of the defects and of journal Chigwell, the information. ''''''20. Mold powder composition and properties'''''''''''''''''..26. Parameters used in the calculations and their variation values'''''''''. 27. Main process parameters of CCM'..''''''''''''''''''. 36. Verification of write an persuasive essay Berlin Brandenburg surface temperature of billet for all covered situation''''''. 43. LIST OF DIAGRAM.

Temperature profile of the key point ( all covered ). ''''''''''''''42. Temperature profile of the key point ( 90% covered ). ''''''''''''. 42. Temperature profile of the key point ( 80% covered )'''''''''''''..43. Comparison of temperature profile in the 3 situation''''''''''''''44. LIST OF FIGURES. Square and hexagonal bright bars. ''''''''''''''''''''.

2. Continuous casting of steel billets. In An Chigwell School? ''''''''''''''''''''..5. Transverse crack in steel billet''''''''''''''''''''''15. Transverse cracks on observed by magnifying glass'''''''''''''..20. Transverse cracks on essay Berlin International observed after etching with HCL''''''''''''21. Temperature calculation grid in the vertical symmetrical half section of the steel casting copper mould. '''''''''''''''''''''''''''.

27. Calculated solid steel thickness along the mould walls at mould thermal conductivities: (a) = 50, (b) = 150, (c) = 250, (d) =350 (W/m-K). ''''''''''''''31. Calculated solid steel thickness along the about School mould walls at steel thermal conductivities: (a) = 25, (b) = 30, (c) = 35, (d) = 40 (W/m-K). An Persuasive Essay Berlin Brandenburg International? ''''''''''''''''..32. the finite element meshes and key point of the calculation region. '''''''..40. Scheme of the secondary cooling water covering all the surface of bloom''''..41. scheme of the secondary cooling water covering part of the of journal Chigwell surface of bloom'''41. the stress field at the exit of FSSCZ '''''''''''''''''''45. the stress field at the exit of write essay Berlin Brandenburg International School FSSCZ'''''''''''''''''''.46. CHAPTER 1 COMPANY INTRODUCTION.

1.1. Of Articles Of Journal Chigwell School? COMPANY INTRODUCTION. LAXCON STEELS LTD. Ever since its foray into the steel trade in 1978,Gopal Group has established itself as name to reckon with, in the the steel.over the years, through meticulous quality control and outstanding customer care, it has built a reputation for quality, reliability and integrity. What started off as a small steel plat with a capacity of 2400 MT/year, Gopal Group has now grown into an organization with manufacturing facility at how to essay Berlin Brandenburg School, multiple locations with a combined production capacity of 120000 MT/year, strong value of family run enterprise backed by an assembly of industry's most talented professionals has given the group its current forms stature. Laxcon Steels LTD. is a very well-known player in why is writing important Ely the global market in the stainless steel industry.Thanks to its strategic planning, ultra-modern facilities and how to write essay Berlin Brandenburg School, exceptional team. The Group companies work hand in hand to produce the finest stainless steel products, with a focus to fit each client's requirements.Company offer superior quality bright bars in a variety of grades, sizes, tolerances and strategies Independent College, Precision Quality. 1.2 PRODUCT LIST. Size range -5mm ' 10mm. Length- 3 to how to write essay School 6.5 meters.

Cold drawn, centerless ground, peeled and polished, smooth turned bars. Precision quality shaft bars. Figure 2: Precision quality shaft bars. Size range -6mm ' 75mm. Length- 3 to 6 meters. Heat treatment- Soft annealing, solution annealing, quenched and tempered. Square and hexagonal bright bars. Figure 3: Square and hexagonal bright bars. Size range -16mm ' 45mm. Length- 3 to why is 6 meters. Heat treatment- soft annealed, solution annealed, oil and water tempered.

Size- 25*25, 30*30, 40*40, 50*50, 60*60, 65*65. Length- upto 6 meters. Hot rolled, annealed pickled, shot blasted. Forged and turned round bars. Figure 5: Forged and turned round bars.

Length- 3 to 6 meters. Heat treatment- soft annealed, solution annealed, oil and water tempered. Hot rolled round bars. Figure 6: Hot rolled round bars. Size range- 16mm ' 120mm. Length- up to 8 meters. Hot rolled surface. Continuous casting of steel billets.

100*100, 120*120, 200*200, 220*220, 280*280, 300*300. Length- up to 8 meters. Suitable for rerolling, forging and write Berlin International School, ring rolling. Square, fluted, round. Spot ground, free of surface cracks.

CHAPTER 2 Literature review. This section provides a review on previous research work on the topics related to about this research work to understand the extensive work done on the topics related to this research work. An Persuasive? These literature reviews are partly with focus on the research studies on why is writing important King’s Ely soundness and other anomalies generated during solidification whose effects determine the critical cooling rate of hot solidified strands of write an persuasive Berlin International School steel. Essay School? The other part of the review section reviews the publications on the topics which are used to achieve the objective of this dissertation. Write An Persuasive Essay? Hence, the following sections presents literature review in a how to article studies on the microstructure defects and Berlin Brandenburg School, the source of the how to write to article Heritage defects, monitoring of microstructure by the NDT method, effect of inclusion, on the microstructure, experimental study on cooling rate and numeral simulation and modeling methods on the study of phase transformation. 2.1 Previous studies on the microstructure of steel. R. Kiessling, J. Harza, D. Caffarrelli, S. Ramalingma. Studies on MnS inclusions have shown that they are responsible for chip fracture during machining by initiating cracks as a result of increasing stress in the machining shear zone [1,2].

D. B. Evteev, Berg Huettenmann. some research work shows these additive elements may also degrade steel quality. Sulfur content can increase the extent of cracking at how to write an persuasive essay Berlin International, high temperature [3]. The susceptibility of steel to overheating depends on alloying and micro-additions [4]. C. J. Adams, H. F. How To Write To Article American? Hall, A Fuchs.

Segregation of sulfur and phosphorous from the liquid film at grain boundaries into the interdendritic region creates a low ductility and strength region and, consequently, forms cracks in the microstructure of steel between the solidus and 2420 degrees Fahrenheit [5-7] K. Matsubara, H. Mori. The ratio of precipitation of MnS in how to write essay Brandenburg International School the matrix and precipitation of AlN along grain boundaries generates cracks in steel during solidification by forming different low ductility regions at different temperature ranges [8,9]. Formation cracks are inevitable during solidification and may increase in the cooling process of hot solid steel slabs to room temperature or any future heat treatment and machining of the steel. Brimacomb J, Sorimachi K. Cracks and write a play School, microcracks are more serious than other defects occurring during solidification. How To Write Essay School? Brimacombe and Sorimachi have classified the origin of cracks systematically [10]. Grill, Brimacombe, Weinberg. Internal stresses during surface reheating create cracks because of zero ductility of steel at American Heritage School, solidification temperature [11]. During solidification, internal and surface cracks degrade the steel quality.

Surface cracks may be caused by uneven heating, which introduces transverse and longitudinal facial cracks [12]. L. An Persuasive Brandenburg International School? I. Motozenskii. Internal cracks formed during solidification can be classified into five groups of halfway and midway cracks, start or centerline cracks, diagonal cracks, bending cracks and writing important, pinch roll cracks. The work of Morozenskii et al. [13], shows that near solidification elongation to rupture in how to an persuasive Brandenburg International steel with carbon content of essay Ely 0.17 to 0.2% is minimum. This sudden change can be caused by how to an persuasive an unbalanced rate between radiation and convection cooling along secondary cooling zones or different boundary conditions such as below the mold where the hot surface is cooled suddenly by how to write a play in an essay water spray. At weak or non-ductile regions, resultant tensile stress of surface expansion generates cracks between the dendrites in the columnar zone perpendicular to the equiaxed zone tensile stress.

Likewise, centerline cracking is how to an persuasive Berlin Brandenburg School, due to tensile stresses raised by abrupt change in about essays temperature of the centerline with completion of solidification because of bad machine conditions at the final solidification area or too low secondary water-cooling [13]. International Iron and how to write an persuasive Berlin Brandenburg International School, Steel Institute; Committee on Technology; Brussels; 1986. Longitudinal cracks can be formed from stress at the meniscus during solidification by King’s high mold wear and an persuasive essay Berlin Brandenburg School, poor mold surface as well as insufficient strand support below the mold, including caster or mold misalignment and thermal stresses due to Chelsea College non-uniform cooling [14]. Transverse cracks in steel may be generated by too large mold taper, poor oscillation conditions, a low surface temperature at write Brandenburg International, straightening and abrupt cast speed changes. Uneven cooling of the surface also causes local type star cracks [14]. G. van Drunen, J. K. Brimacombe, F Weinerg. Too high or too low cooling of slab's side surfaces as well as bad equipment conditions can introduce triple point cracks in the slab [15]. H. Mori, Tetsu to Hagane, L Schmit, H Fredriksson. Tensile stress raised by review of articles Chigwell School a high, different, temperature at surfaces making an obtuse corner creates diagonal cracks at right angle to the strain [16,17] Y. Aketa, et al.: Tetsu-To-Hagan. Billet dimensions control the effect of corner radius on longitudinal cracks such that more cracks are formed in larger billets [18]

Experiments on write an persuasive Brandenburg International School tundish temperature show that after a critical temperature, the length of why is cracks increases as the temperature of the tundish increases [19]. 2.2 Previous work on an persuasive International detecting the how to write a play in an defects. Malkiewicz T, Rudnik. Experimental workers identify non-metallic inclusions by metallographic, chemical and petrographic methods [20]. B. G. Zhang, L. Write An Persuasive Essay Berlin School? Thomas. Zhang and Thomas [21,22] discussed more than 30 methods for detecting the anomalies under two main categories of direct and indirect methods. Writing High School? However, the direct technique measurements are accurate but they are costly compared to indirect ones [22]. Debiesme [23] explained the Hydrogen Induced Crack test and Magnetoscopy for sheet tests. detected the strains with a resolution of about 25 x 10-6 using a non-contact laser speckle technique, in a thermal fatigue test performed by how to write essay Berlin cyclic induction heating and internal cooling test rods. Furuya et al. [24], described the ultrasonic fatigue test technique for detecting the review of articles of journal Chigwell inclusions. Drury J. How To Write An Persuasive Essay Brandenburg International? C, http://www.ndt-ed.prg/, 2006 ,http://www.matter.org.uk/steelmatter/casting, 2000. More background about NDT and important King’s, its applications can be found in many websites, books, and literature ( [25-27]

However, five sources of stress fields developed during cooling slabs, explained previously, affect the steel matrix in the same way. Accumulating of friction forces at the contact surface between matrix and inclusion create a stress concentration zone. How To Brandenburg? This zone is believed to be responsible for changing the shape of the inclusion [28]. Waudby P. Writing Tips? E, Baker T. J., Charles J., Gove KB, Charles JA. For either type, characteristics of the stress field around the how to write an persuasive International School inclusion are generated by distribution, concentration and rate of change of the stress field. Some of the main effective factors in inclusion deformation [29-31], include morphology, strength of inclusion and matrix, composition, inclusion-matrix interface, temperature, strain and quotes writing Guertin School, strain rate, particle size, stress state, second phase particles and frictional forces at interfaces. N. Nagayama, T. Abe and S. Nagaki 1989. Nagayama and his co-workers [32] used a Von Mises yield criterion in write essay Berlin International School their FEM analyses to model the deformation of rigid-plastic inclusions in an inhomogeneous material with different yield stresses. Pietzyk, M. Kusiak J., Kusiak K., Grosman , Milenin A. A. Work on how to a play in an large plastic deformation of an inclusion-matrix system for different inclusion shapes were subsequently published [33,34]

2.3 Previous research on the cooling. Varde A. S., Maniruzzaman M., Rundensteiner E. Essay Berlin School? A., Sisson R. D. Parameters affecting the cooling rate include: quenchant type, quenchant temperature, agitation velocity, viscosity, agitation type, aging, polymer foaming, polymer degradation, part material, geometry, part area, part volume, density, specific heat, oxide layer, surface roughness, suspension, carbon content, grain nature, grain size, plastic deformation and number of other issues [35]. Parameters, which shall be considered in quotes about essays Bishop Guertin School the quenching process of a bulk material, are desired suspension, cooling rate, cooling nature, heat transfer coefficient, residual stress, desired hardness and other material properties, distortion tendency, and cracking potential [35]. MacKenzie D. International? S., Lambert D.

Quenching is accelerating cooling with a quenchant such as air, water, oil, salt, natural or vegetable base quenchant, polymers and other chemical compounds [36].Three stages of quenching for a liquid quenchant are: vapor stage, boiling stage and convection stage [36]. Heat transfer coefficient is a function of persuasive essay Northampton fluid properties, geometry, surface condition, and agitation. Heat transfer depends on heat transfer coefficient, time and location within the bulk material [36]. First, any participation may vary the shape of the TTT diagram and, secondly, as the cooling rate increases, the residual stresses stored in the bulk material increases as well [37]. There are many publications on the quenching topic, which provides the information about Berlin Brandenburg, different quenchants and the thermodynamic and Independent College, chemical properties [38]. Heat Treating and Surface Engineering, Indiana.

Quenching is very common in the manufacturing process, which is known as quench hardening. Factors, which are considered in quenching hardening, are residual stresses and distortion, prevention of crack initiation, microstructural evolution necessary to improve properties (wear resistance and how to Berlin School, toughness), and meeting the desirable hardness [39]. Baker T. Write A How To Article American Heritage School? J., Gove K. B. Charles J. An Persuasive Brandenburg School? A.; Application of quenching in steel manufacturing is done to obtain the desired mechanical properties such as, hardness, yield strength, and how to a play Chigwell School, ductility [40]. Bhadeshia H. K. D. H.

Bhadeshia [41] has suggested some modes to decrease the temperature of solid-solid phase transformations. Driven force for polymorphic austenite to how to Berlin School ferrite transformation is greater than grain growth by two orders. Kobasko's [42] experimental results showed that the tendency for crack formation is higher with a range of cooling rates and write to article Heritage, it decreases for how to write an persuasive essay Berlin International School, the cooling rate higher or lower than this critical cooling rate range as a function of quenching rate. The factors governing the behavior of material at high temperature are time, temperature, stress, and environment or atmosphere. Prince J. C., Marono R., Leon F. At low temperature mechanical behavior like fatigue damage, is Northampton, controlled by the level of the essay Berlin International mean stress, amplitude of stress fluctuation and number of cycles [43]. Kametani [44] analyzed the length of longitudinal cracks on the surface of persuasive strategies Chelsea College continuously cast steel slabs and how to Brandenburg International School, gave crack frequency as a function of crack length using fractal distribution methods. Berns H., Broeckmann C., Weichert D, Gross-Weege A., Weichert D, Broeckmann C. Tensile test experiments on tool steel showed that cracks initiate (or exist) in the carbide band growth straight forward in writing tips Williston the matrix and how to an persuasive International, after kink type dislocation in the carbide rich region split in the same direction of the region then jump to the next carbide band and grow in the same manner and so on [45,46] Donnay B., Jeraman J. C., Leroy V., Lotter U., Grossterlinden R., Pircher H,Parker K. V. Computer simulations have been deployed in the last decade to lower the cost of writing important essay Ely microstructural experiments.

Much work on modeling of thermo-mechanical treatments of steel has provided the capability to predict the final microstructure [47-48] 2.4 A review on previous numerical modeling on cooling cast steel. Smolijan [49] predicted the strain and residual stress evolution within a geometrically complex specimen (e.g. cylinder, cones, spheres, etc) dealing with estimation of an persuasive essay Berlin School microstructure and hardness distribution after quenching using a mathematical method based on the finite volume method and Jominy tests results. He did not consider in important King’s his simulations any existence or formation of essay International School anomalies or defects before or after quenching. Mishnaevsky L., Lippmann N., Schmauder S.

Mishnaevsky [50] et al. discussed the crack propagation under dynamic load in real and quasi-real idealized two-phase microstructure of carbide in the steel matrix microstructure model for writing essays High School, tool steel material. Beer, F.P., Johnston, Jr., E.R. (1981) Some researchers [51] have used a Global Extraction element-by-element (GEBE) to simulate crack propagation to get a faster results compare to other methods. McClintock F. How To International? A, Lay B., Brunet M., Boivin M. Other researchers modeled the nucleation and propagation of voids under tensile forces [52,53]

Ueda Y., Tanigawa M. , Murakawa. Macro crack propagation simulation with size effect properties in persuasive essay strategies some work [54] was presented to model ship collision, which poses a huge numerical model. Yu H. J.; Brechnung von Abkuhlungs, Leblond j. Write An Persuasive Berlin Brandenburg International School? B., Mottet G, Devaux J. C. Different researchers [55,56] investigated the effect of phase transformation on the residual stresses within quenched bodies. These residual stresses have an important role in changing the soundness of the write a play Chigwell steel during cooling.

Wittmann [57] used the Fictitious Crack Model (FCM), to predict the crack formation in how to write essay Brandenburg International School composite material. CHAPTER 3 PROBLEM SUMMARY. During our industrial training we found a quality problem in steel billets, which is cast by cone casting machine. A transverse cracks is commonly obtained quality problem in steel billets. 3.2 Defects in persuasive essay strategies Independent College Detail. The surface crack of CC slab is an important problem, which affected the continuous caster yield and the quality of the slab. If it affected little the slab would be sized, if it affected seriously it would bring on molten steel bleeding or rejected slab, therefore the continuous caster yield and the quality of the slab can be improved greatly. How To Brandenburg School? In the writing Ely producing of the hull structur, the transverse corner crack in the slab occurred more, which made difficult to plan the how to write an persuasive Berlin Brandenburg producing and affected the order of structural steel finished punctually. During continuous casting of steels, longitudinal and how to a play Chigwell, transverse cracks tend to occur in brittle temperature ranges by thermal and mechanical deformation. In the temperature dependence of hot steel ductility, two critical temperature ranges can be found namely at temperatures near to solidus and at intermediate temperature range.

In this case, the trough of how to an persuasive essay Berlin School plasticity falls in the temperature range between 1100??C and 700??C in which the straightening operation of continuously cast products is carried out. The combination of low ductility and induced tensile strain may cause transverse cracking in this temperature range. To prevent the occurrence of cracks, the better understanding on essay Independent College physical mechanical, metallurgy properties of continuously cast steel in the course of its cooling is a necessary condition. 3.3 Objective of project. Primary work to know the defects occur in steel billets.

Based on the work result find out the write an persuasive defects.To minimize the defects with improving quality of write a play in an essay Chigwell School steel billets.Referring the entire process the sample have been evaluated to check the possibilities on our various study and essay Berlin Brandenburg School, analysis for providing the write to article American Heritage School best quality and reducing the an persuasive essay Brandenburg International defects in steel billets. CHAPTER 4 STEEL GRADE. Generally a many types of steel grades are used in billet production, according to the customer demand. We consider a 20CrMnTiH steel grade. Table -1: Mechanical properties. Treatment Thermal ref.

Tensil strength 615 N/mm2. Yield point .395 N/mm2. Reduction of area 15% Absorption energy (j) 47. Table-2: Chemical properties. Other Tr 0.04-0.10. (SOURCE- LAXCON STEELS LTD.) CHAPTER 5 METHODOLOGY TO DETERMINE TRANSVERSE CRACK. 5.1 Testing Facilities and Quality Control in LAXCON STEEL LTD. Optical Emission Spectrometers.

Leco Gas Analyzer for H2, O2, N. Mobile Handheld Spectrometers. State of the why is important essay King’s Art Chemical Testing Laboratory. Radio Activity Testing. Brinell Hardness Testing. Rockwell Hardness Testing. Poldy Hardness Tester.

Jominy Hardenability Testing. Magnetic Particle Inspection. Impact Testing Machine (Assited with Notch, Broaching Profile Projector) Optical Microscope for Testing Microstructure / Grain Size / Defect Depth / Delta Ferrite Measurement, Non-Metallic Inclusion Rating, Decarburization. Universal Testing Machine for Testing Tensile Strength / % Elongation / % Reduction in C/S Area. Proof Test by Electronic Extensometer. Optical Pyrometer for Temperature Measurement. 5.2 Methodology to determine the origin of defects. The determination of the how to an persuasive Brandenburg International origin of defects includes the recording and analysis of general information. Quotes About High? It is important to know the frequency of defect, position in write International School same corner or face of the billet, position in bar or wire rod.

It is also relevant an exhaustive study of the general appearance of the defect by naked eye or with magnifying glass. Strategies? After that, the observation of polished samples, generally transverse cuts of the rolled products or of the billet and International, microscopic study at higher magnification, etching with reagents give insight defects features. The information of the quotes writing essays Bishop Guertin School continuous casting and the rolling processes are necessary and can give relevant data. Sometimes it could be important to design the follow up of heats in an persuasive Brandenburg School the metal shop and rolling mill processes. Table- 3: Steps to determine defects. Frequency, position, in one of the strands or in one of the faces of the billet, position in wire rod, influence of some steel grade, etc. 5.3 Metallographic Observations.

The metallographic observation of various samples gives key information when the origin of a defect needs to be determined .often; it is not possible to a play in an essay Chigwell School find out the origin of defect with just observation of transverse cuts under microscope, without an idea of the general aspect of the defect. In Table 4 different techniques for the study of the defects and how to an persuasive Berlin Brandenburg School, the information that can be taken from them, regarding to the origin of defects are monitored. Table- 4: Different techniques for persuasive essay, the study of the defects and the information. With naked eye or with magnifying glass. 5.4 Defect analyzed. 5.4.1 Transverse cracks. Transverse cracks, although not always detect in the inspection of how to write an persuasive Berlin International School billets, may also give place to serious defect in the rolled products. 5.4.2 Appearance in billet. Figure 10 and Figure 11 shows the how to a play essay Chigwell School aspect of transverse cracks in continuous casted billets observed by magnifying glass and by HCL etching closed to a surface, the how to Berlin School cracks are looks as if it has been formed at high temperature, probably in the mould.

Figure 10: Transverse cracks on observed by magnifying glass. Figure 11: Transverse cracks on observed after etching with HCL. 5.4.3 Causes and Solutions. Transverse cracks can form in the mould or during strengthening. When they are located in any corner, they are likely to be formed due to tensile effort related to sticking, this can be worsen by a play in an Chigwell School deep oscillation marks When the cracks are present only in the corner belonging to inner radius, they could be formed by essay Brandenburg School tensile efforts during strengthening. This is common when corner temperature is quotes writing Guertin, within low ductility range. How To An Persuasive Essay Berlin International School? A sound approach to solve the problem is to set proper secondary cooling to avoid the dangerous temperature range in the corners during strengthening. STRATEGIES FOR DEALING WITH TRANSVERSE CRACKS. Control of important essay King’s Composition. Composition strongly influence transverse cracking by their influence on how to write Berlin Brandenburg hot ductility.

Choose C and alloy additions to writing Ely avoid peritectic solidification, and particularly avoid 0.1-0.13%C. Mould Heat Transfer. The degree of how to essay Berlin Brandenburg School steel superheat has a noticeable; Effect on solidified steel thickness.Surface structure can be influenced by heat transfer in the mould. It is important to consider the type of mould powder used, particularly viscosity, mould thermal conductivity. Depth of these oscillation marks can be reduced by increasing the mould oscillation frequency and/or decreasing the stroke to reduce the heal time.

Slab straightening is carried out within this ductility trough, transverse cracking can result.A steep temperature gradient through the slab thickness is tips, also desirable using this cooling strategy, to minimize the how to write Berlin Brandenburg International penetration of surface cracks which may form in cold spots. Mechanical stresses can be introduced by poor alignment of the writing essays Bishop High School components of the an persuasive essay Brandenburg International School machine, and from many other sources, but of most relevance to transverse cracking is the straightening operation. About Writing Essays High? Straightening may be carried out over a single point, or by multipoint straightening. The effect of these two types of straightening operation on transverse cracking are not clear, but there are reasons to suppose that multi-point bending will not improve hot ductility: strain rate will be reduced, which will reduce hot ductility; more time will be allowed for dynamic precipitation; and at least for how to write an persuasive essay International, Nb containing steels, stress relaxation between each bending point seems to be minimal. CHAPTER 7 TECHNIQUES FOR CRACK MINIMIZATION. 7.1. Control of Composition. It is evident from the above discussion that composition, and particularly the use of micro alloying elements, can strongly influence transverse cracking by their influence on hot ductility. This suggests that to minimize cracking a steel composition should be chosen which maximizes hot ductility bearing in mind the final product requirements.

The following guidelines should help to maximize hot ductility and minimize transverse cracking: Choose C and alloy additions to avoid peritectic solidification, and particularly avoid 0.1-0.13%C. Use V or V/N combinations to replace Nb. Make V additions to Nb steels. Consider Ti additions. 7.1.1 Relevance of Hot Ductility to Transverse Cracking. In qualitative terms, hot ductility as measured in quotes about Bishop laboratory tests appears to bear some relationship to the observations of transverse cracking; the detrimental effects of how to write Berlin Brandenburg International School Nb, N and Al on transverse cracking are all reflected in reductions in hot ductility. However, there are few examples of more quantitative relationships between measures of of journal Chigwell hot ductility and transverse cracking.A relationship between the number of transverse cracks per slab and the reduction of write School area in a hot tensile test.

Above a reduction of area value of persuasive College 75%, no cracked slabs were observed. A value of 60% reduction of area to avoid slab cracking, 30-40% is more realistic. It can therefore be seen that there is how to write an persuasive Brandenburg School, considerable discrepancy between the suggested values, and it is likely that such a value can only be ascribed to specific tensile test conditions and slab assessment methods. As well as the depth of the School ductility trough, the temperature at which it occurs is also significant; if slab straightening can be carried out outside the temperature range of low ductility, then transverse cracking may be avoided. Considering the upper temperature range, the simple hot tensile test is unlikely to write Brandenburg International give a reliable indication of this temperature as dynamic recrystallization occurs during tensile testing giving a marked increase in ductility.

However, the strains encountered at the surface of continuously cast slab are only. 1-2%, which is insufficient for recrystallization to occur. The hot bend test should give a more reliable indicator of this temperature than the tensile test. Considering the lower end of the why is writing Ely ductility trough, recovery of ductility is associated with the completion of a certain proportion of transformation, and therefore the hot tensile test should give a more reliable indication of this temperature. However, the how to essay International higher strains encountered during the tensile test may again give misleading temperatures, due to the influence of how to a play in an essay School strain in transformation, and the bend test is write an persuasive International School, again more likely to give accurate indications. 7.1.2 Composition Effects. There have been several studies of the influence of V on hot ductility using hot tensile tests.

The results from all the various studies are consistent in that V additions of up to 0.1% at low N contents (0.005%) have only a very slight detrimental effect on hot ductility by broadening the ductility trough. Review Of Journal School? At higher N levels, the effect of V additions becomes more marked, and the ductility trough. Becomes deeper and broader. How To An Persuasive Essay Berlin? In fact, a good relationship can be constructed between the product VxN, and the depth and breadth of the ductility trough, it should also be noted that in this example it is only at the highest VxN product, 0.1%Vx0.01%N, that hot ductility approaches that of a 0.028%Nb steel. There have been a very large number of studies of the effect of Nb on hot ductility, and write essay Chigwell, the activity in this field is probably related to the perceived detrimental effect of Nb on how to Brandenburg School slab surface quality. These results can be summarised by saying that Nb additions deepen and broaden the ductility trough to extend to higher temperatures. Nb additions of as little as 0.017% had a detrimental effect, and ductility continues to deteriorate up to at least 0.074%. As with Ti, the effect of S on the hot ductility of Nb steels also depends upon the thermal cycle used in the test. For steels reheated to a solution temperature prior to testing, S has little effect on hot ductility.

However, for in-situ melted test pieces increasing S levels have a detrimental effect on hot ductility, as more S is taken into solution to precipitate on quotes about essays School grain boundaries. When examining the influence of Ti on hot ductility, it is important to consider the austenite grain size. In some reports, the apparent benefit to hot ductility of Ti additions is due to a refinement of grain size. It is most appropriate to evaluate the influence of Ti on hot ductility using samples melted in-situ, as this technique produces approximately similar grain sizes for Ti and Ti free steels. There are relatively few reports looking at how to write an persuasive essay Brandenburg International, the influence of Ti additions to C-Mn-Al steels after in-situ melting, and relationship between Ti and hot ductility appears to be complex. In situations where large TiN precipitates can form, such as at slow cooling rates or high values of TixN, hot ductility may be slightly improved by Ti additions, but for conditions which generate large volume fractions of fine TiN particles, such as a stoichiometric ratio of Ti:N in low N steels, hot ductility can deteriorate with Ti additions. (Source :laxcon steel ltd.) 7.2 Mould Heat Transfer. Figure 12: Mold heat transfer. 7.2.1 Mold powder composition and properties.

Table -5: Mold powder composition and properties. Composition Basicity SiO2 CaO MgO Al2O3 TiO2 Fe2O3 MnO2 P2O5 Na2O K2O F B2O3 Li2O. 1.10 38.60 42.28 0.89 6.34 0.19 0.36 0.03 0.03 3.64 0.12 7.14 0 0.37. Properties Solidif. Temperature. (??C) Softening Temperature. (??C) Melting Temperature. (??C) Viscosity at 1300 ??C.

1149 1170 1180 3.12. 7.2.2 Mathematical treatment of steel solidification in the mould. Table -6: Parameters used in the calculations and their variation values. Parameter Units Varied. Values Constant value Remarks. copper mould W/m-??k 50, 150, steel W/m-??k 25, 30, Super heat Degrees 5, 10, 15, Mould wall thikness Mm 12, 16, (calculated) W/m2-??k 250 Constant.

Prandtl's number Pr 7 Assumed. Figure 13: Temperature calculation grid in the vertical symmetrical half section of the write a how American steel casting copper mould. Where the parameters T, Q^m, ??k, . t are temperature ( ' ), heat rate of heat generation/consumption (W/m^3) thermal conductivity (W/m-??k), time (s) and diffusivity (m/s^2), respectively. Based on the above assumptions, (1) can be simplified to. This equation represents transient heat transfer by conduction in one direction, and coupled with appropriate boundary conditions evolved in the cooling process, it can be solved to give temperature distributions in write Berlin International School the calculation domain.

The method adopted in solving this equation is by the use of finite difference technique and solving the a how American Heritage resulting equations explicitly. Referring to the nodal distribution both in the steel and mould wall areas shown in Figureure 13. This equation represents transient heat transfer by conduction in one direction, and an persuasive essay Berlin International School, coupled with appropriate boundary conditions evolved in persuasive strategies the cooling process, it can be solved to give temperature distributions in the calculation domain. Write An Persuasive International? The method adopted in solving this equation is by the use of finite difference technique and solving the resulting equations explicitly. In An? Referring to the nodal distribution both in the steel and mould wall areas shown in Figureure 13. Where, the first term indicated the temperature at how to write School, node n at the current time (p+1) which is calculated from persuasive essay Williston Northampton, temperatures of the previous time step (p).

F_o in (7) is known as Fourier's number which is given as. ' T'_N^(p+1)='2F'_o [T_(n-1)^p+B_i T_w ]+(1-'2F'_o-2B_i F_o)T_N^p (9) Where R_e and P_r are the dimensionless Reynold's and Prandtl's numbers and f is the friction factor, respectively .The friction factor can be expressed as. Equations (7) and (9) are solved with the how to Berlin Brandenburg appropriate parameters shown in Table 1 using MS Excel worksheet by which temperatures at quotes about Guertin High School, each node in the steel and mould wall were solved at write an persuasive essay, accumulative time intervals covering the whole residence time of the steel in the mould. The total residence time of how to write American Heritage School steel in the mould was determined from knowledge of mould height and volumetric steel casting speed. This time period was divided into a number of how to write an persuasive Berlin International calculation time intervals satisfying the stability requirements of (7) and (9). Calculation of the increasing solidified steel shell thickness as the steel moves down the mould were performed at different conditions. When pouring steel into review of articles of journal Chigwell the mould, the amount of superheat which it exhibits (the temperature above the solidifying temperatures) is of paramount importance on how to essay Berlin how fast the of journal Chigwell School steel starts to solidify when it enters the mould. Solidified steel shell thicknesses were calculated using different superheats of essay Berlin Brandenburg 5, 10, 15 and 20 degrees. It can be seen from the Figure that the degree of of journal Chigwell steel superheat has a big effect on the thickness of solidified steel. However, steel superheat is not too easy to how to essay Berlin International control and is dependent on a number of how to write a play in an School factors which include steel.

Mould thermal properties such as its thermal conductivity controls the rate of write an persuasive Brandenburg heat transfer from the steel to the cooling water, i.e., the cooling and essay School, solidification processes.This factor has been varied in the calculations and the results of Brandenburg these variations are shown in Figure 14. A factor in steel casting which is of great importance is persuasive essay tips Williston Northampton School, changing steel chemical composition. Based on customer specifications of the type of steel required, steel chemistry can change many time in the casting operation. How To Berlin International School? Different steels have different thermal conductivities, and hence, this factor was examined in these calculations. As can be seen from Figure 15. Figure 15: Calculated solid steel thickness along the mould walls at of articles of journal Chigwell, steel thermal conductivities: (a) = 25, (b) = 30, (c) = 35, (d) = 40 ( W/m-??k ) Changing steel thermal conductivity resulted. in how to write an persuasive Brandenburg International School great variations in the calculated solidified steel shell thickness. This factor has the most effect compared to the other previously discussed factors. Calculations of solidified steel shell thicknesses within the casting copper mould during casting of steel billets showed that.

The degree of steel superheat has a noticeable effect on why is writing important solidified steel thickness, and hence, this factor should be well controlled in the casting operation. Mould thermal conductivity has little affect on the solidified steel thickness, for a mould thickness of 12 mm, and hence, casting mould material could very well be changed. Thermal conductivity of molten steel is of great importance in the casting operation, and hence, great care should be taken when changing steel grades of differing thermal conductivities. 7.3 Mould Oscillation. Figure 16: Mould Oscillation. Oscillation marks are the most recognizable feature of continuous casting and can be related to the subsurface defects that can be found on how to write Berlin Brandenburg International School product rolled from about writing Bishop High School, continuous cast slabs.The physical surface defect of the oscillation marks themselves does not necessarily pose a significant problem in many grades. But many subsurface defects have been found to be associated with oscillation marks, especially when the mark can form a hook.

These defects include entrapped argon bubbles, inclusions and elemental segregation. The oscillation marks also act as nucleation sites for surface cracking and how to write an persuasive Berlin Brandenburg International, transverse cracks often form in persuasive essay Williston School the roots of the essay Berlin Brandenburg International oscillation marks in transverse crack sensitive grades. The formation mechanism of the oscillation mark is the increased solidification rate in the meniscus area of the mold due to movement of the meniscus towards the mold wall during the negative strip time of the mold. This indicates that it is possible to affect meniscus mark formation by either changing the about essays Bishop Guertin High heat transfer rate in write an persuasive Berlin Brandenburg International School the meniscus area of the caster or by changing the position of the liquid steel meniscus, or by essays Bishop affecting both issues. This leads to the potential for some completely novel approaches to either eliminating or minimizing the oscillation marks that are found on cast slab surfaces. 7.4 Secondary Cooling. There is a wide ductility trough associated with microalloyed steels, and if slab straightening is carried out within this ductility trough, transverse cracking can result. If slab straightening is carried out at temperatures either above or below this temperature range, cracking should be minimized. Both these different cooling strategies ('soft' cooling and 'hard' cooling) have been used on various machines around the write essay International world, with some success in reducing transverse cracking.

Figure 17: Secondary cooling zone. A variant on the use of writing tips Williston School different cooling strategies which has been used to minimize crack formation during the rolling of hot charged slabs is the use of slab quenching. This technique rapidly chills the slab surface layers below the transformation temperature, leading to the development of a fine grain structure at the surface.This fine grain structure then. restricts the formation and propagation of cracks. Non-uniform secondary cooling can promote thermal stresses, and hence lead to how to write an persuasive essay Brandenburg International School cracking.This requires good nozzle design and maintenance, and a how, preferably the use of air-mist cooling. 7.4.1 ANSYS analysis for secondary cooling water cooling effect in continuous casting of steel billets. Billet quality, one of the crucial problems in steel industry, is mainly determined by the secondary cooling water distribution, thus the key to achieve improvement of it is to establish rational cooling system. Concerning the formation of external and internal cracks, scholars from different countries have established the write an persuasive essay Berlin International School solidification heat transfer model and stress model. On the condition of the how to write in an Chigwell same specific water flow rate, the spraying effect of secondary cooling water can be evaluated by to way in the productive process of write an persuasive bloom, which cover all thye bloom surface or part of the surface. with the help of finite element analysis software of quotes writing essays Bishop ansys, the essay Berlin International School model of solidification and thermo-mechanical analysis have been developed.

20CrMnTiH bloom is choosen as object.maine process parameters of this CCM are as below. Table 7: Main process parameter. ITEM PROCESS PERAMETER. Machine type Curve type. Section of why is essay billet 200mm*200mm.

Casting speed 0.70 m/min. Length of 1st segment of sec. Cooling zone 1.19 m. Length of 2nd segment of sec. Cooling zone 1.49 m. Length of 3rd segment of sec. How To An Persuasive Brandenburg International School? Cooling zone 2.30 m. Length of 4th segment of sec.

Cooling zone 2.30 m. Length of 5th segment of sec. How To To Article American Heritage? Cooling zone 1.20 m. Distance from meniscus to straighning point 14.70 m. Basic hypothesis of thermo-mechanical mathematical model. Into the heat transfer and mechanics of billet during solidification process from meniscus to air cooling zone a two dimension unsteady heat transfer model has been developed on the basis of the two dimensional slice method in moving coordinate system for simplification, several assumptions are made as below. The steel meets the requirements of the small deformation theory, and billet deformation is tiny compared with its cross section.

The billet cross section is assumed to be in the state of plane stress. The constraints of mold wall bound on the billet, and they are removed as soon as the slice comes out of mold. The impact of longitudinal thermal stress is ignored. Heat transfer analytic model. The two dimensional unsteady heat transfer equation is.

Where ,[c] and [??] are heat capacity matrix and heat conduction matrix of the how to essay International School system respectively, is heat load array equation (2) is a series of first order differential equation about time, and the temperature distribution of node [T] [C] can be obtained after time domain is dispersed. Where (' T'_(c )) casting temperature, The heat transfer of billet has axisymmetric feature, and the diffusion boundary of the center symmetry axis can be considered as adiabatic condition. In the quotes essays High mold q_s^m=A-B'T (6) In the how to an persuasive Brandenburg International secondary cooling zone q_s^c=h^c (T_b-T_w) (7) Radiation q_s^r=[?? ??(T_b+273)^4 - (T_0+273)^4] (8) ?? = 5.670373(21) ??10'8 W m'2 K'4 (10)

7.4.1.2 Thermal stress model. Thermal stress of the billet can be calculated by obtaining the changes of the temperature field, and thus the constitutive equation is built- In the equation (11) Total strain increment, Elastic strain increment,

Strain increment changed with temperature, Thermal strain increment, Zero displacement constraints are applied to the symmetry boundary. The displacement constraints are applied to the billet surface in the mold. Molten steel possesses the fluidity, and its stress impact upon how to write a how to article Heritage, the solidified shell is ignored. Physical parameters of how to write an persuasive essay Berlin Brandenburg International School steel (20CrMnTiH)

Density -The volume of the quotes writing essays Bishop High School billet varies in write an persuasive essay Berlin International School the solidification process, and the density of persuasive strategies College billet is related with steel grades, temperature and phase transition, however it has little change. In this ??_s =7600 kg/m^3, ??_1=7200 kg/m^3, ??_s^1 = 7400 kg/m^3. Thermal conductivity -In solid region, ??_s is 29.7 W/ m^2??C, while in mushy region and liquid region, the equivalent thermal conductivity is used to analyze the effects of an persuasive School convection. Where (??^* ) equivalent thermal conductivity, W/m^2??C, (m) empirical constant, generally is 4-7 times value of ??_s and about Guertin, 4 is chosen in an persuasive essay Berlin International School this analysis. Specific heat capacity (c) specific heat capacity increase with temperature rising, but it change very little on conditions of high temperature, so it is considered as constant in this analysis c_1=0.88 kJ/kg ??C. Latent heat of solidification (L_f) the solidification of billet is why is writing essay Ely, a nonlinear thermal transfer process, thus the latent heat need to be taken into account, and the latent heat of 20CrMnTiH is 272000 J/Kg in this analysis.

In the calculation, the how to write essay Berlin Brandenburg latent heat is defined as the enthalpy of steel, which varies as temperature change. 7.4.1.3 Calculation region and finite element discretization. A quarter of billet cross section is selected as the calculation region, and the distribution of persuasive tips Williston School temperature and stress field from write Brandenburg School, meniscus to air cooling zone can be calculated by a finite element analysis model of ANSYS. How To To Article Heritage? And this discusses the results through the heat transfer analysis of the key points of slice of write essay Berlin Brandenburg School billet. The finite element meshes and the key point of the calculation region shown in Figure-18. Figure 18: the finite element meshes and key point of the calculation region. 7.4.1.4 Calculation and results analysis. The actual production condition of plant as follows.-superheat of liquid steel 30 ??C, and casting speed is 0.7 m/mm. On the condition of the some specific water flow rate (0.27 l/kg), the focuses on the research of changing the coverage rate of important essay King’s Ely cooling water on billet in secondary cooling zone shown in Figure 19 and 20 below.

Figure 20: scheme of the secondary cooling water covering part of the surface of how to an persuasive Berlin International School billet. Three situations are selected for research in the analysis. Secondary cooling water covers all the surface of billet (all covered for a how to article American School, short, here in International School after). Secondary cooling water covers 90% area of the surface of billet. Secondary cooling water covers 80% area of the surface of billet. 7.4.1.5 Verification and about writing Guertin High School, analysis of write essay Berlin heat transfer model. The temperature behavior of key points for three situations is shown in graph -1 using calculation model.

Graph 2: temperature profile of the key point (90% covered ) Graph 3: temperature profile of the key point (80% covered) Temperature measuring experiments were carried out to verify the review of articles of journal model by infrared measurement of temperature. And the result are shown in Table 8. Table 8: Verification of surface temperature of billet for all covered situation. Distance from meniscus, m 4.09 9.14 14.1. Measured temperature, ??C 1096 1003 986. Calculated temperature, ??C 1105 1011 1004.

Absolute error, C 9 8 18. Relative error, % 0.82 0.80 1.81. It can be seen from Table that the calculated temperature values are almost the same as the measured ones, and their relative errors are within 2.0% From graph-2 it is known that the temperature changes of center point on wide side surface have basically kept the same trend as of wide side surface graph-3.Illustrates a comparison of the temperature curves of the key point in three situations. Graph 4: comparison of temperature profile in the 3 situation. Discussions on the result from graph 4. With the reduction of coverage are of secondary cooling water, the corner reheating of the billet is intensified in the first segment of the an persuasive essay Berlin Brandenburg International School secondary cooling zones, which are 57 ??C, 81??C, 117 ??C for all covered, 90% covered and 80 % covered situation respectively. In the review of journal School last two cases, the corner of billet is how to an persuasive essay Berlin, not covered by cooling water in the FSSCZ, where cooling condition are the radiation and air convection, and the relative intensity of cooling falls, therefore, the review Chigwell School reheating of billet, corner is enhanced as the coverage area of secondary cooling water is reduced.

However, cooling condition of billet corner keeps stable when strands pass the FSSCZ, so the temperature profile are smoother than that in an persuasive essay School all covered situation, and reheating phenomena of billet obviously decreased after the strands leave the FSSCZ. With the reduction of spraying area of secondary cooling water, temperature of center point of wide side surface decreases slightly, and the value of 80% covered situation is 20 ??C less than that of write a how to article American Heritage School all covered one. The reason is that the specific water flow rate keeps the same value under the three situations. Accordingly, cooling water flow rate of billet surface covered by water changes more with the reduction of write area coverage of secondary cooling water, hence the cooling intensity of strand is increased. With the reduction of spraying area of of articles School secondary cooling water, temperature difference between the Berlin International School middle and corner of the billet surface decreases a little, the value of 90% covered situation is 35 ??C less than that of writing important essay King’s Ely all covered one, so the temperature field of 90% covered situation become more homogeneous than that all covered situation. 7.4.1.6 Discussion on thermal stress. Compared with water coverage areas of an persuasive essay Berlin Brandenburg School billet in ahead segment, that in review of articles of journal the FSSCZ begins to change, the calculation of stress field are shown in Figure- 21 22, maximum equivalent stress is presented in how to essay Berlin Brandenburg the billet corner, and the stress field distribution is similar to that of different water coverage area of the billet, meanwhile, maximum equivalent stress of all covered situation is write to article American Heritage, 25.3 MPa.

Figure 21 the stress field at the exit of an persuasive Berlin International School FSSCZ. Figure 22: the stress field at the exit of FSSCZ. A strong reheating of billet corner does happen when secondary cooling water covers part of the billet surface. Important Essay Ely? And with the reduction of coverage area of water, the extent of billet reheating is increased. Analysis indicates that, under the 90%-covered situation, the cooling effect of billet is better than that of all-covered situation. According to how to essay Brandenburg the actual production selecting an review of articles of journal Chigwell School appropriate coverage rate of how to essay School secondary cooling water would realize a more homogeneous temperature field of billet, and its cooling effect is better than that of all-covered situation, thus the billet transverse crack could be reduced.

In the process of continuous casting, billet surface suffers the greatest stress, and it's easy to cause transverse cracks, so it's useful to improve product quality through selecting the appropriate coverage rate of secondary cooling water. CHAPTER 8 RESULT AND DISCUSSION. The share of the bloom, continuously cast in the company, represents approx 45-60%, the essay writing Williston Northampton School balance being billets for another company. The material defects at the steel continuous casting appear during the solidification and School, cooling of the continuously cast semi-finished products, often leading to important material losses. Of Articles School? To prevent these losses, the purpose of metallurgical technologies and constructive solutions is to detect the causes of occurrence, prevention and removal. literature reviews are partly with focus on the research studies on soundness and other anomalies generated during solidification whose effects determine the critical cooling rate of hot solidified strands of steel.it is include below points which helps us to find out appropriate solution of problem. Previous studies on the microstructure of steel.

Previous work on detecting the defects. Previous research on the cooling. A review on previous numerical modeling on cooling cast steel. During continuous casting of steels, transverse cracks tend to how to write an persuasive essay Berlin Brandenburg International School occur in brittle temperature ranges by thermal and mechanical deformation in persuasive Williston Northampton School the temperature dependence of hot steel ductility. How To Write An Persuasive Essay Berlin Brandenburg School? Methodology is important to know the frequency of defect, position in same corner or face of the billet, position in essay College bar or wire rod. How To Write An Persuasive International School? The metallographic observation of various samples gives key information when the origin of a defect needs to be determined. Strategies for dealing with transverse cracks. Control of composition. Mould heat transfer. Techniques for crack minimization.in which we use a ansys analysis for the solution by mathematical model, thermal stress model.

The following guide lines helps to maximize hot ductility and minimize transverse cracking: Choose C and alloy additions to avoid peritectic solidification, and particularly avoid 0.1-0.13%C. Use V or V/N combinations to replace Nb. Make V additions to Nb steels. Consider Ti addition. When pouring steel into strategies College the mould, the amount of superheat which it exhibits (the temperature above the solidifying temperatures) is of paramount importance on how fast the steel starts to solidify when it enters the mould.

Solidified steel shell thicknesses were calculated using different superheats of 5, 10, 15 and 20 degrees. Different steels have different thermal conductivities, and hence, this factor was examined in these calculations. Changing steel thermal conductivity resulted in great variations in the calculated solidified steel shell thickness. This factor has the most effect compared to the other previously discussed factors. How To An Persuasive Berlin Brandenburg International? Thermal conductivity also affects the write to article Heritage hot ductility of how to write essay Brandenburg International School steel which directly related with transverse crack of steel billet.

This indicates that it is quotes essays Bishop Guertin School, possible to affect meniscus mark formation by either changing the heat transfer rate in the meniscus area of the caster or by changing the position of the how to essay International liquid steel meniscus, or by affecting both issues. Analysis indicates that, under the 90%-covered situation, the cooling effect of essay billet is better than that of all-covered situation. In the process of continuous casting, billet surface suffers the greatest stress, and it's easy to cause transverse cracks, so it's useful to improve product quality through selecting the appropriate coverage rate of secondary cooling water. CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION. After the study and observation of process of continuous casting of steel billets we found the major defect like transverse crack in product.

And then we have done ANSYS analysis on. Mould thickness, Secondary cooling zone, We also conduct study other techniques which effect on transverse crack in steel billet, like. Mould heat transfer. Add the micro alloying element like Nb, V, Ti for Brandenburg, improvement of mechanical property of material.Finally we found that the defect of essay writing tips transverse crack can be reduced.

CHAPTER 10 FUTURE ENHANCEMENT. After done this work, apply this strategy for future improvements in continues casting of steel billet. By do more work on this report and Berlin, changing the PLC coding and operation technique, more good quality steel billet can be obtained. Improve arrangement of write a how American secondary cooling nozzle in how to essay Brandenburg International circular form around billet. Improve micro alloying element and composition of material. Improve SCZ and withdrawal mechanism. APPENDIX: LIST OF SYMBOLS. ?? Density of steel, kg/m^3. v Casting speed, m/min. c Specific heat capacity of how to write Heritage School steel, kJ/kg ??C.

?? Thermal conductivity coefficient, W/ m^2??C. ??^* Equivalent thermal conductivity, W/m^2??C. T Temperature, ??C. q_s^w Heat flux of wide surface, J/m^2s. q_s^m Heat flux of billet surface in the mold, J/m^2s.

q_s^r Heat flux of billet surface when radiation is considered on boundary condition J/m^2s. q_s Heat flux, J/m^2s. C_w Specific heat of water, kJ/kg ??C. Q_m Water flow rate of mold. T_c Casting temperature, ??C.

' Specific water flow rate, l/kg. h Heat transfer coefficient, W/m^2??C. s Stefan-Boltzmann constant. e Radiation coefficient. C_1 Specific heat of liquid steel, kJ/kg ??C. C_s Specific heat of solid steel, kJ/kg ??C. L_f Latent heat, kJ/kg. T_w Cooling water temperature, ??C. q_s^n Heat flux of narrow surface, J/m^2 s. q_s^c Heat flux of billet surface covered secondary cooling water, J/m^2 s. q_s^a Heat flux of billet surface when air convection is considered as boundary condition J/m^2 s. h_a Heat transfer coefficient between billet and air convection, W/m^2 s. ?? Elastic strain increment. d??

Total strain increment. d??_(e,T) Strain increment changed with temperature changes. d??_T Thermal strain increment. T_o Ambient temperature, ??C. [1]. R. Kiessling, Nonmetallic Inclusions in Steel ( Part III), ISI Publication 115, 1968. [2].

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