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Buy College Application Essay, Admissions Essay, Essay Prompts, Personal Statement. Thinking Define! New Jersey Institute of Technology Application Essays That Worked : Successful College Admission Essay Examples. Are you worried about the application essay you have to write to get admission in? Your essay is incredibly important during the Lord Wandsworth admissions process. With talented applicants coming from the top high schools in define Wilbraham Academy the country as well as the pressure to succeed, its no wonder that writing college application essays is one of the most stressful times for high schoolers like you. The New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) is a public research university in the University Heights neighborhood of Newark, New Jersey. NJIT is New Jersey#8217;s Science #038; Technology University. Centrally located in the New York metropolitan area its campus is within walking distance of downtown Newark.

New York City, 9 miles (14.5km) and under 30 minutes away, is directly accessible from argumentative essay campus via public transit.[a]Founded in 1881 with the support of local industrialists and inventors, especially Edward Weston (334 US Patents), NJIT opened as Newark Technical School in critical define and Monson Academy 1884.[b] Application oriented from inception the school grew into a classic engineering college Newark College of Engineering (NCE) and then, with the addition of a School of Cologne Business School, Architecture in 1973, into a polytechnic university that is now home to five colleges and one school.NJIT opened with 88 students.[c] As of fall 2015, the university enrolls more than 11,300 students, over 2,200 of whom live on campus. Architecturally significant buildings include Eberhardt Hall, the Campus Center, and the Central King Building in the Collegiate Gothic style which is being renovated into a STEM center. Facilities under construction include a Wellness and Events Center that will house a 3,500-seat venue for thinking define Academy social and sporting events.NJIT offers 50 undergraduate (Bachelor of ScienceArts) majors and 78 graduate (Masters and PhD) programs. Via its Honors College it also offers professional degree programs in on London International collaboration with several other institutions. These include programs in medicine (M.D.) with Rutgers New Jersey Medical School; an engineering + law program (BS, JD) with Seton Hall Law School; and critical thinking Academy, a program in Optometry (O.D.) with SUNY College of Optometry. An early leader in distance learning it trademarked the term #8220;Virtual Classroom#8221; NJIT offers a wide range of on-line courses and write a an essay School of Management, degrees.The university is organized into 21 academic departments. Thinking! Three departments, Biological Sciences, History, and Theater Arts, are federated with Rutgers-Newark whose campus borders NJIT#8217;s. The Essay Business! With a student population that is Academy, almost 20% international NJIT consistently ranks among the most ethnically diverse national universities in the country. Write A An Essay School Of Management! It has multiple study abroad options along with extensive co-op, internship, and service opportunities. According to PayScale (201516) NJIT ranks 19th among Engineering Schools and 34th among Research Universities in the US by thinking define and Monson Academy Salary Potential.0]1]NJIT is categorized as a #8216;higher research activity#8217; (R2) university under the Carnegie Classification system. Its NSF R#038;D expenditures were $106 million in 2014 and $110 million in 2015.2]3] Areas of focus include: applied mathematics, materials science, biomedical engineering, signal processing, transportation planning, and solar-terrestrial physics of which the Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research is a world leader.4] A key agent in regional economic development,5] NJIT hosts the Enterprise Development Center (EDC), an on-campus business incubator that houses over 90 start-ups, and the New Jersey Innovation Institute (NJII) which offers R#038;D services to argumentative essay on Sheridan College, business.6]7]NJIT is Land-grant university.

It is define and Monson Academy, also a Sea Grant College, and a member of the Association of Collegiate Schools of writing Auburn, Architecture. A leader in the graduate education of thinking define Wilbraham Academy, students that are underrepresented in SDA Bocconi School of Management STEM fields, it has participated in the McNair Scholars Program since 1999.8] The NJIT Highlanders (NCAA Division I) primarily compete in the Atlantic Sun Conference. Location : Newark, New Jersey, United States. Define! Do you want to write best College Admissions Essay in 10 Steps or crafting a Winning Personal Statement? Even the most seasoned professionals find business school application essays to be among the hardest pieces they ever write. We help you in writing successful College Application Essays, What Worked for argumentative essay on Sheridan College Them Can Help You Get into critical thinking Wilbraham the College of Your Choice. Elite College Application Essays : Stand out pay essay writing Lord, from the critical define Wilbraham and Monson crowd with a memorable, meaningful personal statement that will capture the attention of college admissions officers. We have used real data from Lord College thousands of Wilbraham and Monson Academy, students to discuss what works and what does not for how to Cologne Business School Ivy League schools, Harvard, UCLA, Cornell, NYU and UC Berkeley to critical Wilbraham and Monson Academy, Boston College, Williams, Smith and how to write the essay Cologne Business, Brown as well as NWU, Rice, Caltech, Duke, MIT, Stanford and University of Chicago admissions, and critical thinking define Wilbraham and Monson, presents a plan that any student can use to maximize their chances of write a an SDA Bocconi, getting accepted to a top school.

We analyzed SAT/ACT/GPA/test scores as well as qualitative things like extracurriculars and recommendations/essays from the College Confidential forums to build up a database of profiles and admission outcomes. Writing the critical define and Monson Application Essay: How to University, write the Common Application essay : Each essay our professional essay writers write is followed by analysis where strengths and weakness are detailed to show you how you can approach your stories and ultimately get your own winning essay. It teaches you how to: Get started Stand out critical Academy, Structure the best possible essay Argue your case effectively Arrange your accomplishments for maximum impact Avoid common pitfalls Play to their strengths Get their message across. Applicants need clear and compelling arguments that grab admissions officers and ib essay writing University, absolutely refuse to let go. We guide students to crafting a meaningful and critical Wilbraham and Monson, polished college admissions essay that gets them into the school of persuasive essays Academy, their dreams by expressing their unique personality, strengths, and goals. Do you want to apply for New Jersey Institute of Technology admissions? Various students sent us their New Jersey Institute of Technology application essays to help people like you. If you are worried about getting into Wilbraham and Monson college, and you want to Wandsworth, see essays examples from critical thinking and Monson Academy students that made it to their dream university, then check out collection of pay essay writing, essays that worked! Examples of essays on critical thinking and Monson common topics (family background, athletics, work experience).

This read is essay for applying to essay Business, New Jersey Institute of critical thinking define Wilbraham and Monson, Technology. Ib Essay Auburn! Apart from writing college application essay, we also provide application essay samples, admission essay examples, personal statement, essay prompts and essay questions so that you get an idea of our writing skills. We also give New Jersey Institute of critical thinking define Wilbraham, Technology application essay tips for argumentative on Sheridan the ease of our customers so that they can write an define Academy application essay themselves. Our high school application essays, college application essays and essay, university application essays are all tremendously written. Define Wilbraham And Monson Academy! An application essay writers are well trained because they have gained all the necessary expertise to write undergraduate application essays, graduate application essays, MBA application essays, scholarship essays and topics persuasive essays International Academy, Ph.D. application essays remarkably well. Now you can buy your New Jersey Institute of Technology Application Essay (College Application Essays) online here. Get latest essay examples for critical and Monson Academy University Of MIT, Harvard, Stanford, UCLA, UPenn, Yale, Berkeley, CU, UW, BYU, NYU, OU, U of A, The U, SC, PSU, Duke, UT Austin, Purdue, Penn State, Ohio, Boston, Utah, Kansas, Notre Dame, UConn, NSU, MU, KSU, FSU, DU, CU, BU, ASU and how to write School, more. Top 100 Popular College Application Essay Topics For New Jersey Institute of Technology admissions.

A Beach Game A Different Kind of Love A Dramatic Coup A Ride Through the Field A Special Performance A Summer of Stem Cells A Young voice for critical thinking define and Monson Seniors Abuelo Addressing Injustices All Worth It Anything goes Bacon Beauty Beauty in a Potbelly Best reader Beyond Dictionary Definitions of pay essay Wandsworth, Leadership Beyond Plug-and-Chug Math Birthing a Business Box of Chocolates Bus Window Revelations Charlie College Essay Coming Home Concerto in C Minor Contents note continued: Running with Four Feet Contents note continued: When I Was Ten Creativity, Family, and Toilet Paper: A Journey Crime Scene report Crossing the Rubicon? Childs Play Cuddle Buddies Dear Santa Delve! Drops Elephant Daddy Endless Forms Most Beautiful Exit Door Exploring Life?s Intricacies Extra Page From Flaubert to Frisbee Fruitful Collisions Gli Strati della Storia (The Layers of History) Headlines, Herodotus#8230; and Full-Field Sprints Healing Beyond Borders Heritage Hurricane Transformations In a Pickle Inspiration from an Energy Conversion Machine Its Name Was Wheelie#8230; Ive Grown Out of It John nash Journeys from the Dress-Up Box Keeping up with the Beat of the define and Monson Academy Drum Lessons from the Immigration Spectrum Leveraging Potential Looking Beyond the Castle Minga Mother Moving Music as My Second Language Music from the Heart Music in how to Cologne School the Basement My Bedroom My Life My Unpopular Decision New Kind of Magic no Longer Invisible Overcoming the Fear of Failure Polar Bears Power of People Precious Planet Puzzles raising the Bar researching Cancer Roiphe-Harvard Supplement Essay rosencrantz and guildenstern Scientific Sparks Self Mind Simple Sentences Stage Fright Still Life Strength from thinking define Academy Family Struggles Sustainable Development in South Africa The Brooke Run The Circle Game The Computer Doctor The Freedom to Be Different The House on vocabulary list Wellington Avenue The Journey The Little Things The Space Between the Notes Then and now: How the Perseverance of a Working, Single Mother There Were No Tears Toddler Couture Transnationalism Made Flesh Unshakable Worth Untitled Wait List Supplement You Speak Too Fast Ziggurat.

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How to Construct a Killer Resume, From Start to Finish. Last week, I wrote a controversial article about resume tips that got a lot of readers fired up. As a result, I thought it would be worthwhile to go through the entire process of creating a strong resume, step by step. Step 0: Do NOT fire up Microsoft Word and use a generic resume template. Absolutely, positively , do NOT do this, no matter what. Critical Wilbraham And Monson? Microsoft Word is a powerful program, but just firing it up and opening up one of the included resume templates does one thing and one thing alone – make your resume look like everyone else’s.

You want your resume to vocabulary Business School, look unique and thinking define, memorable, but classy – Word’s default templates will not cut the pay essay writing Wandsworth mustard. Step 1: Open a plain text document and thinking, start listing all of the information you might ever include on a resume. List the details of writing Auburn University every job, including every possible relevant accomplishment at each one. List every organized activity you’ve ever participated in, and define Academy, every noteworthy honor you’ve received in pay essay writing Wandsworth your life. List everything . Tip #1: If you don’t know where to critical thinking Wilbraham, start, include the following in this order: Work experience (dates, names of writing Auburn employers, location, tasks, accomplishments) Education (dates, degrees obtained, location) Honors and awards. Other activities of note (professional organizations, special skills, etc.)

This is essentially your “default resume.” You’re never going to send it to critical thinking define Wilbraham, anyone. Instead, you’re going to use it to quickly build the Auburn real resumes that you will send to potential employers. Step 2: Read and research the job you’re interested in applying for. Once you’ve found a job that you’re actually interested in applying for, do a few minutes’ worth of research. Find out as much as you can quickly about the job itself and the employer.

If you don’t understand fully what you’re applying for and who your employer is critical thinking define Wilbraham and Monson, going to Auburn University, be, you’re essentially tossing things at critical and Monson, the wall and ib essay Auburn, hoping it will stick. Tip #2: Before you actually start assembling a resume for a job, make sure you can answer these five questions, at Wilbraham and Monson, the very least. What is the vocabulary list Rotterdam Business likely primary function of the job? What are you being hired to do? This isn’t your job title, but what you will actually be doing. What is the organization that I’m applying to? Sure, you know the critical define Wilbraham Academy name of the topics to write persuasive on London Academy organization, but what is that organization’s function?

Do they produce certain products? Do they provide certain services? What is the reputation of this organization? Applying to define and Monson, Google and to “Joe’s Desperate Search Engine” are two completely different things, even though the jobs may appear very similar on paper. Joe is argumentative essay on Sheridan College, probably seeking a programmer with very specific skills, while Google is looking for people who exhibit exceptional problem solving skills. What is my role within this organization? If you accept this job, what will your role be? Will you be working on developing the product directly, or will you be providing services to the public? Perhaps you will even be providing services to thinking define Wilbraham and Monson, the people who make the products. What skills and attributes point to success with this specific organization in the role I’m going to topics essays on London International, fill? Basically, knowing what you know about the job, what sorts of things would make you a really great candidate?

Step 3: Open a new copy of critical define and Monson your default resume and eliminate everything that isn’t highly relevant or impressive. Now that you know what you’re applying for, you should know the skills and ib essay, attributes that position would need. Eliminate everything that isn’t pertinent to the position or doesn’t speak extremely strongly for your character. If you’re applying for a job as an administrative assistant, your position as a typist is thinking define Wilbraham, probably very relevant – but if you’re seeking work as a manager of a department store, it basically just fills out your work history. Also, unless it’s highly relevant to what you’re applying for, don’t include much about positions you left more than ten years ago. Tip #3: If you’re early in your career, you may wish to list some jobs that don’t match the description very well to establish a work history. That’s fine, but go minimal on describing them. What you have now is the argumentative on Sheridan College information you want to put on the resume. Now, let’s polish it up a bit. Step 4: Make your accomplishments ring with action.

Now it’s time to critical thinking define Academy, polish up the statements about what you’ve done, focusing on argumentative essay College, two things: language that indicates that you’ve performed an action, and selection and modification of critical thinking define and Monson these statements to on Sheridan, appeal to the organization. First, go through and critical thinking define Academy, change all of the descriptions of your work tasks into action sentences. Let’s work through three examples of this. Bad job attribute : Participated in how to Business School the development of a data entry program. Better job attribute : Developed a high-throughput data entry program in a team-based environment. Bad job attribute : Chaired three committees. Better job attribute : Led the creation of new company-wide policies. Bad job attribute : Introduced a new filing system and helped set it up. Better job attribute : Implemented a new document organization system.

In each case, the define move was towards verbs that indicate more decisive action that led to a desired result. Employers want actions that lead to on London Academy, results, not participation. Next, mold these action-oriented accomplishments so that they speak to the job you’re applying for . Critical Thinking Define Wilbraham Academy? Let’s look at pay essay writing Lord, that data entry program developer. Thinking Define Wilbraham And Monson? A person with that on their resume might be applying for a software development position. In that case, one might want to Cologne, highlight the code-based accomplishment:

Great job attribute : Wrote 22,000 lines of Java for critical Wilbraham, a data-handling class for a high-throughput data-entry tool. On the how to write a an essay SDA Bocconi School of Management other hand, if you’re looking for a leadership job, you may want something like this: Great job attribute : Led a team of and Monson Academy seven to develop a high-throughput data entry program. In the end, you want to highlight those parts of the tasks you have done that will make you seem most exciting to the potential employer. Step 5: Write a one sentence pitch explaining why your job attributes make you a good candidate. Your resume should not have an argumentative on Sheridan, objective on it. A person hiring you can guess your objective from the critical Wilbraham and Monson Academy simple fact that you applied. Instead, you should have a statement explaining how your specific skills make you the right person for the job. Here’s a good example.

I have nine years experience developing high-throughput Java-based data entry software and leading teams in pay essay Wandsworth College the implementation of define and Monson this software. In other words, write a one-sentence summary of your qualifications as they specifically relate to the job you’re applying for. This will go right at the top of the resume. Now that you have all the information ready, it’s time to fire up Microsoft Word and make it shine. Step 6: Make a polished document out of the material you’ve created. There are several useful tutorials for just this task. I recommend starting with LifeClever’s tips for giving your resume a face lift, for starters. Argumentative On Sheridan College? I strongly recommend using Georgia as your font, as it is fairly distinctive while still quite legible in print, and critical and Monson Academy, I also recommend making your line spacing 120% (go to Format, choose Paragraph, choose Multiple, and persuasive on London International Academy, set it to 1.2).

I also recommend putting things in the following order: Summary of critical thinking Academy Qualifications. Work Experience (unless this is your first “real” job) Professional Organizations (unless these are slim, the eliminate or move to end) Honors (unless these are slim, then eliminate or move to end) A note indicating that references are available upon request. Ideally, you want this to University, be as short as possible.

One page, with an critical define Wilbraham, additional cover letter, is best. College? If you feel the need to define and Monson Academy, include more stuff, feel free, but every time you add something more to argumentative essay on Sheridan College, the resume, you provide more and more cover for your truly excellent attributes to critical thinking and Monson Academy, hide in University a sea of merely good attributes. One strong approach is to critical and Monson, create a short resume and a long resume, and include a short URL (made at TinyURL) to download the how to write the essay School longer one if interested. I generally encourage people to include reference contact information in their long resume, but not in critical define Wilbraham and Monson the short one. Remember, always, that you’re trying to sell yourself to the company . Think of yourself as a product on the shelf, next to many competitors. How are you going to grab their attention in a positive way, show off your best attributes, and make them at least consider buying you (i.e., interview you)?

Keep that in mind at all times when constructing your resume, and you’ll do fine. Get rid of high interest debt with a 0% balance transfer credit card. Earn credit card points toward your favorite ways to travel. Save money and essay on Sheridan College, expand your travel budget by critical thinking define Academy, packing any one of these cards on your trip. A comprehensive guide to maximizing rewards and getting paid back for writing School, everything you buy. “Chaired three committees” is critical and Monson Academy, many times better than “Led the creation of new company-wide policies”, which is so vague it could mean writing a roster for pay essay Lord College, filling the office dishwasher. I like a bullet list of facts in the resumes I review, and putting that at the very top has always proved successful in my job applications. Critical Thinking Define Wilbraham And Monson Academy? Achieved $5million in sales in 2006. Worked on essay on Sheridan College, 6 university research facilities.

Supervise and thinking, mentor 10 junior personnel. Etc. I’m not a fan of using inflated “office language” in place of these facts. This research into the job/company before creating a tailor-made resume reminds me a lot of submitting stories for publication. This research into the job/company before creating a tailor-made resume reminds me a lot of submitting stories for publication. Vocabulary List Rotterdam Business? The more you know… You mentioned honors and critical define Wilbraham and Monson Academy, awards. Is it okay to put in academic ones? I’ve been in the workforce for University, only a couple of years, so my experience is pretty limited.

Also, some of my affiliations/volunteer work are religious in nature. These gave me valuable leadership, project management and teaching experience. Would that be okay to and Monson Academy, put into my resume? You mentioned honors and awards. Is it okay to put in academic ones? I’ve been in the workforce for only a couple of years, so my experience is write a an essay School of Management, pretty limited. Also, some of my affiliations/volunteer work are religious in nature. These gave me valuable leadership, project management and critical thinking define Academy, teaching experience.

Would that be okay to writing Lord Wandsworth College, put into thinking define and Monson Academy, my resume? Thanks! I am always amazed at the poor quality of resumes submitted by many job applicants. If you are not willing to put forth a little effort to get the job, it really makes me question your overall work ethic and your motivation to have a successful career. I think people should stop including their “objective” in their resumes.

Obviously the objective is to get a job in a related field. Frequently, applicants include nothing useful as their objective with things like “To find a position in the customer service sector that will utilize my people skills etc etc… This type of information is better left in your cover letter. One thing you didn’t mention is personal interests. I have a short list on my resume, and it is essay writing vocabulary list Rotterdam Business, great for building rapport and starting the conversation, especially if your interviewer shares similar interests. For the most part, this advice is great. But as guinness416 noted, your “bad job attributes” and “better job attributes” need work. “Chaired three committees” is awesome to me as an employer. It conveys specific information. “Led the creation of new company-wide policies”, as guinness said, could mean anything. Your advice about including a pitch instead of an objective statement are spot-on. Objective statements are a waste of space.

I have no idea who is critical thinking define Academy, perpetuating the idea that they’re a good idea, but they’re not. I’ve lurked here for quite a while now and thought i’d throw in the opinion of a HR professional. Essay On Sheridan College? In terms of the thinking Wilbraham Academy “bad attributes and good attributes” a better thing would be to mesh the two together; “Chaired three committes leading to argumentative on Sheridan, the creation of new company-wide policies” I agree with Money that objective statements are becoming a thing of the past. @Rita, In terms of the religios nature of your awards/affiliations, it is up to you. However, you should be ready to have comments made about this (of course it would depend on the industry you are in) If I eliminate everything that isn’t highly relevant or impressive, I’d be down to define Academy, almost nothing! I have had two low-wage dead-end jobs over the last 25 years. What’s impressive about that? I can SAY I have certain skills, but if those wkills have never been relevant to my employment, how are employers going to topics persuasive essays International Academy, receive that claim? There are non-employment attributes I could include (e.g. I was on the board of my neighborhood association and critical thinking define, a local food co-op) but wouldn’t that be excessive reaching in the context of scant job achievement?

(Yes, “excessive reaching” itself is excessive reaching. Irony intended.) Any opinions to the idea that pitch and/or objective statements are both unneeded? The pitch is how you should begin your cover letter. I agree the resume should be tailored to the job opening, but I am no fan of any opening paragraphs. I do list my most relevant abilities on writing Business School, the top depending on the job, which could be seen as a bulleted form of a pitch.

Good stuff, Trent. Especially original (and after my own heart) is starting in a text editor…not letting someone else’s (poor) cookie cutter form dictate your personal marketing document. One thing that bears repeating and thinking, CANNOT be stressed enough: tailor your resume individually for writing Lord, each and every job opportunity you’re applying for. Unless you’re applying to manager of cereal branding at General Mills and want to critical Wilbraham and Monson Academy, impress people with your mass marketing skills, no hiring manager will waste time with your resume unless ever inch of it sings your praises for the one job you’re being considered for. If you really want the job, take the essay Rotterdam time to figure out which of your strengths are appropriate for THAT job, and define and Monson Academy, move them to the very top of your resume and eliminate everything that’s not relevant or interesting to the hiring manager. Despite my firm belief in the philosophy of the ib essay Purple Cow, my instinct is to critical define, save the personal interests for pay essay Lord Wandsworth College, the interview. Resumes are screened by computers and/or HR people for keyword richness, not your hobbies, and critical thinking Wilbraham and Monson Academy, you can really only turn people off at the scanning stage. “Trent juggles? Oh no, the hiring manager’s mom was killed by a juggler. Writing? Pass.” Wait until you get the interview, look around the manager’s office for “no juggling” signs or voodoo dolls of clowns, then bring up your interests that make you remarkable and memorable.

I would refuse to hire you on critical define Academy, the grounds that “throughput” is not a real word, and I wouldn’t want to have to work with someone who uses abstruse business-speak instead of real words. Throughput is for to write persuasive essays on London International, sure a real world, usually used in context of critical define and Monson computers, processors… How much data can be put through how quickly. Funny you should bring this up. I came across an essay on Sheridan College, interesting resume format the define Academy other night. I recognize the shameless blog plug, but it’s located on my site at essay School of Management, entry titled “Resumes Suck. Define And Monson Academy? (Until Now)”. Rick Turoczy of the More Than a Living blog has an awesome format. Great post. For those of us who are recent graduates and haven’t had much experience putting a resume together, firing up Word or downloading a resume format is usually the first step. Lord? It’s usually a fear of the formality of the document and not having a solid grasp of thinking Wilbraham and Monson what to include in pay essay Lord College it. I like how the personal interests were actually not mentioned.

Some interests are frankly lame, and a resume can only ‘describe’ so much of thinking and Monson you. An interview is a much better way to list Rotterdam School, show how interesting of a person you are. I?d further reccomend that people, Trent included, that are interested in this to check out the Manager Tools podcast and website. They have a podcast titled “Your resume stinks!” and critical Wilbraham and Monson, I believe they know it. Write The Essay? The hosts have worked in corporate recruiting for critical thinking define and Monson Academy, many years, specifically in technical jobs.

Minimum wage, having a steady job history looks good, no matter what the job. It looks especially good for entry-level jobs where employers experience a lot of problems with absenteeism and tardiness–just showing up and actually doing your work impresses them. And absolutely, positively include any actual experience related to the jobs you want. Just because you didn’t get paid, doesn’t mean it’s not work experience. In fact, if you can get volunteer gigs that require the skills you want to argumentative on Sheridan College, use in your next job, that’s a good plan. Did you accomplish anything impressive on these boards? If not, can you now, now that you know how things are currently done and have a better idea of the big picture? Another approach is to critical Wilbraham, get an vocabulary Business, entry-level job in a company that also hires people for the kind of job you want. I’ve even heard of people crossing the invisible barriers–I know an assembly line worker who got a job as an critical thinking Wilbraham Academy, engineer in the same firm just by speaking up at write Business School, a meeting once (in addition to critical thinking and Monson, doing awesome work). Another approach is to join the writing Lord professional associations that people who have the job you want next belong to critical thinking Wilbraham and Monson Academy, and do committee work so that you can meet people and get good advice on to write Academy, what to do next.

Thanks for a great post! Any resume advice is Academy, greatly appreciated! Good tips, though I don’t agree with step #5. You should always include a cover letter with your resume which is where your pitch should go. Putting a pitch at the top of your resume is (or at least should be) redundant. In regards to hobbies and personal interests, I find that to be a bit of a gray area. Professionally I don’t think that should make a difference to whether or not someone is how to School, hired.

Their life outside of the job is their own business. On the critical thinking and Monson flip side you want to hire someone that fits with your team and write a an essay of Management, common interests can be an easy way to critical thinking define, have a conversation and find out a bit about someone’s personality. I disagree with you, DrBdan on step #5. Generally speaking, you are right – this should most certainly be shouted out at in your cover letter – thats the ib essay writing Auburn University blurb that is going to get the critical thinking Wilbraham Academy potential employer to read your resume, period. However, if you can do two different blurbs, having it at essay SDA Bocconi School, the top of your resume will 1 – reinforce the idea, and 2 – show your employer that you didn’t just copy and paste a blurb from the web, because you were able to organize your skills in two different ways. Thinking Define Academy? I think its a great idea to replace the mission statement with a pitch.

I want to ib essay writing, add that finding a job while employed seems to thinking define and Monson Academy, be much easier than finding one when unemployed. I setup a linkedin.com page and have been using it heavily. Ib Essay Writing University? Every time I meet someone whether we are in Boston or Bangalore I send them an invite. Slowly but surely my network is growing and people are coming to ME to see if I will work for them rather than the define Wilbraham Academy other way around. Resumes get you in the door but if you can be proactive while you are employed you can create your own safety net! I am so glad to how to write Business, see resume/cv related advice, but how do you get all that data together to start with? I’ve often been told to provide anecdotal evidence, but I can never remember any when called upon! Stephen’s comment that “an interview is a much better way to show how interesting of and Monson a person you are” is right on. Remember, resumes get you interviews, and interviews get you jobs. Essay Writing Business School? Write the best resume you can, but don’t neglect interview prep.

I once interviewed a person who sounded absolutely perfect on his resume, but in his interview he was an arrogant jerk, and thinking Wilbraham and Monson Academy, we never talked to him again. Write A An School Of Management? We hired someone with a resume that was “marginal” because of her limited experience, but in her interview it was clear she would be a terrific fit for our department. (And she was.) As a resume reviewer, I think personal interests are generally not helpful unless they demonstrate some personality trait relevant to the job — for example, if you run marathons, it gives me a sense that you are capable of setting goals and sticking to them. Please don’t tell me you do yoga. I do yoga. Most of the people in my office do yoga. It probably makes you a better worker.

But it’s not going to start a conversation or get you the job. If you can make it interesting — “Recently completed 108 sun salutations in one day to raise money for thinking Wilbraham and Monson Academy, victims of domestic violence” — now that gets my attention. Which also ties in to Minimum Wage’s question — serving on the board of any organization definitely counts as relevant for essay, a lot of jobs. Critical Define Wilbraham? It (hopefully) shows that you’re willing to pitch in when people need help, and that you’ve probably been in situations where you had to solve problems or make decisions as a team. Write Essay? You could have a whole section of your resume for “Leadership Positions” that may or may not include anything from your paid employment. Hey Simple Dollar, I keep ending up here from like 10 different places (MyMoneyBlog, this time it’s CodeProject!), good job on the market. There’s a line from the Tao Te Ching: “good speaking leaves nothing to define Academy, pick at”, however, the fact that everyone is picking at the same thing (chaired committees and objective) gives me the impression that what you’ve written is Auburn University, very good.

So good that “we” only critical define and Monson, want to “fix” two things to Auburn, make it perfect. So congrats! :) I will add my two cents to “Objective” discussion: Write a good objective or leave it out . If you don’t think that you can write a good one, leave it out. I like mine, it’s brief, it’s distinct, it says that I’m here and I’m going there. The same things go for personal interests.

My interests include Magic: the Gathering Pro Tour Competitor. This isn’t small potatoes, this is big money, I got a free flight to Geneva! I’ve won money at critical thinking define Wilbraham Academy, an amateur open event and I’m one of the top-ranked players in Canada (in Limited). In a brain field, this is College, a relevant hobby. Though I can understand the personalized resume, I rarely customize the resume b/c I’m usually looking for the same type of job.

As a computer consultant, the and Monson Academy 71 different buzzwords and TLAs on Lord Wandsworth College, my two page resume are all quite specific. I usually just spend extra time (1+ hours) to thinking Wilbraham and Monson, customize the cover letter. Interesting about the font type (Georgia) but you don’t reference the font size. What is considered a readable font size? Font size = minimum 12. Objective. hmmm what if the employer is filling 6 different positions and HR gets ALL the argumentative essay on Sheridan College resumes. Which resume goes with which job? Objective: Programmer (Job Title) or using a profile instead of an objective? Minimum Wage: with 25 years of work experience you have a truckload of critical define transferable skills (hard and Business, soft skills).

The biggest part of critical thinking making a resume work is publishing it. Essay? I would absolutely work to get a website or publish through a networking company such as LinkedIn. Wilbraham? I’ve not had to send my resume to anyone in years. Definitely agree with point # 0 2. Do not use Microsoft Templates to ensure that your resume stands out from the crowd and be sure to argumentative essay, research the job before applying for it and this way you will be able to create a customized resume which is thinking Wilbraham Academy, cognizant to pay essay Lord Wandsworth College, the needs of the job and hence ensure at least a interview. Every time I write a resume, I don’t feel good about it.

But when there’s a call for an interview, I think there’s a hope for me. My resume is not too bad. But what is a value of good resume without the skill for an interview. So, I basically think, a good resume is useless without a good skill for an interview. Resume constructing tips found here really great. Definitely i will follow some of them.Thanks for sharing useful information for critical thinking define and Monson, job seekers. Whatever your taste, this is a great story! Bingo! I love this blog…just bookmarked it. Keep it coming. These tips helped me to pay essay Lord, make perfect resume and i got my job finally, all credits goes to you..thanks a Lot.

Any experienced resume reviewer can advise on the best way to name a resume? Thanks. Heya i’m for the first time here. I came across this board and thinking Wilbraham and Monson Academy, I find It really useful it helped me. out a lot. I hope to give something back and aid others. like you helped me. Good information. How To Cologne Business School? Lucky me I ran across your website by accident (stumbleupon). I have saved as a favorite for later! Just sign up to The Simple Dollar Daily and start saving today.

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and good essay The remainder of this essay writing tutorial is based on define Wilbraham Academy, a short sample #039;divorce essay#039; (about 1,000 words). To complete all of the associated tasks, it is easiest if you have the sample essay in front of you. A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an how to write Cologne Business School, increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is borne out critical thinking Wilbraham and Monson Academy clearly in census figures. List Rotterdam School! For example thirty years ago in Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is critical define and Monson, more than one in ib essay University three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45).

A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in thinking Wilbraham and Monson Academy the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997). An important issue for sociologists, and indeed for all of society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework. One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on topics to write essays on London International Academy, changes in Wilbraham and Monson Academy laws relating to marriage. For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of topics persuasive, marital instability. They suggest that changes in define Wilbraham the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301). Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in essay vocabulary Business School divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in the legal system. The problem with this type of explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in critical thinking define and Monson the first place.

It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of more fundamental changes in society. Another type of explanation is a an essay SDA Bocconi School, one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the family. One example of these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and economic providers. According to Hart, the contradiction of critical Wilbraham, these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in families where only the husband is working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in Business School family relations to broader social forces, would seem to be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change.

The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in relation to how the problem of increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the solutions also being determined in this domain. If rises in divorce are thought to be the consequence of liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable. And Monson Academy! This approach, one imagines, would lead to a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to writing, the problems of marital stress and breakdown in society. Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at critical Academy symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the experience of social workers, working in the area of the essay, family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in critical define Academy some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981).

In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic. Apart from all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by Australians. (Harrison, 1990). Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of writing vocabulary Rotterdam Business, men and women. It is difficult to know however, how such an analysis might be translated into practical social policies. This is because the Hart program would appear to require in the first place a radical restructuring of the economic system. Critical Define Wilbraham Academy! Whilst this may be desirable for argumentative essay, some, it is not achievable in the present political climate. Hart is thinking define Academy, right however, to suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to the economic circumstances of families. To Write Essays On London Academy! This is borne out in thinking define Wilbraham and Monson many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of argumentative essay on Sheridan College, divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to providing support and security for these types of families. It is little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and it is even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by critical define, it.

Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the essay Business School most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Finally, it is worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the critical thinking Wilbraham Academy exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in the past, single parent and step families were more common than is assumed - although the disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the premature death of one or both parents. Cologne School! This situation suggests that in studying the modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of looking to the past in searching for ways of thinking Wilbraham Academy, dealing with problems in ib essay writing University the present. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1996). Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service.

Bell, R. and G. Zajdow (1997) Family and household. In R. Jureidini, S. Critical Thinking Define Wilbraham And Monson! Kenny and M. Essay Writing Vocabulary List School! Poole (eds). Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards. NSW: Allen and Unwin. Critical Thinking Define And Monson! Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and P. Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. London: MacMillan.

Haralambos, M. (1995). Sociology: Themes and Perspectives , 3rd edition. London: Bell and Hyman. Harrison, M. (1995). Grounds for divorce. Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35. Johnson, V. (1981). The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Kilmartin, C. (1997). On Sheridan College! Children divorce and one-parent families.

Family Matters . Thinking Define Wilbraham! No. 48. ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. (1993). Family Trends and argumentative essay on Sheridan Structure in Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Problems? Questions?

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case study pneumonia Department of Pediatrics, University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of critical thinking define Wilbraham Medicine. Chapter VI.11. Pulmonary Infections. Return to Table of Contents. A previously healthy 4 year old boy is brought to an urgent care center by his mother for write a an essay SDA Bocconi School of Management difficulty breathing for one day. Three days prior he had developed a runny nose, cough, and low grade fevers with a temperature maximum of 101 degrees F (38.3 degrees C).

He continued to take liquids well, but his solid intake has decreased. His temperature this morning was 103 degrees F (39.4 degrees C) and critical define and Monson, he was breathing fast and working hard to breathe. He does not have any ill contacts. He has never been hospitalized or had any surgeries. He was born at term without any complications. He is not taking medications other than acetaminophen. His immunizations are up to date for Lord his age (except he had not received the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine). His parents and 10 year old sister are healthy and the remainder of critical thinking Academy his family history is non-contributory. There are no smokers in the household, and he has not traveled recently. He does not have a history of choking or vomiting.

He has not had frequent ear or skin infections. He does not have a history of foul-smelling stools. Exam: VS T 40 degrees C (104 degrees F), P 130, RR 40, BP 100/70, oxygen saturation 87% in room air. His height and weight are in the 50th percentile for School his age. Critical Thinking Wilbraham And Monson? He is awake and alert, in essay writing list School, moderate distress. His conjunctiva and TMs are normal. His nasal mucosa is erythematous with yellowish discharge.

His lips and mucous membranes are dry. His neck is supple, with several small anterior cervical lymph nodes. Lungs: Moderate subcostal, intercostal, and supraclavicular retractions, symmetric expansion, dullness to percussion at the right base, increased vocal fremitus over the right base, decreased air entry over right lower lobe with crackles, no wheezes. Thinking Academy? Heart: Tachycardia, regular rhythm without murmur. Pulses are 2+, and capillary refill time is 3 seconds.

His abdomen, skin, and neurological examinations are unremarkable. CBC WBC 20,000, 70% segs, 11% bands, 15% lymphs, 3% monos, 1% eos. Hemoglobin 12.4, platelet count 280,000. Chest x-ray (CXR): Right lower lobe opacity consistent with a round pneumonia (technically air/space disease, commonly called infiltrates by most physicians). Because of the hypoxia, he is the essay Business School, given supplemental oxygen (with subsequent improvement in oxygen saturation), as hospitalization arrangements are made. A 20 cc/kg infusion of normal saline was given through an intravenous (IV) line and then maintenance fluids are started. A blood culture is obtained and he is Wilbraham Academy, started on IV cefuroxime. He improves over the next day. His respiratory distress slowly resolves and he is weaned off supplemental oxygen over the next two days.

His blood culture shows no growth. He is discharged home on argumentative essay on Sheridan College high dose amoxicillin for critical Wilbraham Academy a total of 10 days of how to essay SDA Bocconi School therapy. His discharge diagnosis is probably pneumococcal pneumonia. Acute childhood respiratory infections cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mortality is high in developing countries with up to one-third of deaths in children less than 5 years caused by acute respiratory infections (ARI) (1). The disparity in critical Wilbraham and Monson Academy, mortality is due to the severity of infection (perhaps due to write a an School of Management, differences in nutrition, overall health, immunization practices, and medical care availability) since the incidence of acute respiratory infections is similar between developed and developing countries with infants experiencing about 4-8 episodes per year (1).

In the US, mortality from critical thinking Academy ARIs has declined since 1968 (1,2). There are 2 basic classification systems used for acute respiratory tract infections: the writing case-management classification system used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the traditional clinical classification system (1). The case management system divides ARIs by symptoms (i.e., stridor, wheezing, and no wheezing) and their severity (i.e., mild, moderate, severe, and very severe). The traditional system classifies ARIs by thinking define Academy upper respiratory tract infections (e.g., acute otitis media, pharyngitis), middle respiratory tract infections (e.g., croup and epiglottitis), and lower respiratory tract infections (e.g., bronchiolitis, bronchitis, pneumonia). Therefore, studies evaluating ARIs are not uniform and use different definitions from clinical findings alone to write SDA Bocconi School, clinical findings in combination with other various ancillary tests (e.g., chest radiography). Of the acute respiratory infections, pneumonia has the highest mortality rate accounting for critical define Wilbraham and Monson Academy approximately 70% of the Lord Wandsworth College worldwide 4.5 million deaths from acute respiratory infections (4).

Although mortality from pneumonia in children in the United States has declined by 97% between 1939 and 1996 (5), pneumonia continues to be a leading cause of morbidity in children. The risk of acquiring pneumonia is highest in children less than 5 years of age (1). The etiology of pneumonia varies and depends on: the age of the child, where the pneumonia was acquired (i.e., community vs. nosocomial), local epidemiology (e.g., influenza epidemics), host factors (e.g., immunologic status, recent or intercurrent antibiotic use, vaccination, and overall health status of the child), and thinking define and Monson Academy, environmental factors (e.g., travel, season of the argumentative on Sheridan year, daycare, or crowded living conditions) (4,6-9). Determination of the precise etiology of pneumonia often requires invasive testing (e.g., lung biopsy), and therefore, this is done infrequently. Critical Define Academy? Rather the etiology of pneumonia is usually based on generalizations in the relevant clinical setting.

In the neonatal period, the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia is group B beta-hemolytic streptococci (GBS) and gram negative enteric bacilli (e.g., E.coli), the essays International same organisms associated with neonatal sepsis (4). Thinking And Monson Academy? In infants and children outside of the neonatal period, viruses are the most common cause of writing Lord Wandsworth pneumonia (4,6,10-11) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common causes in infancy, especially in critical and Monson, premature infants (9,12). College? Of the bacterial pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) occurs most frequently (6,9,11,13); however, the studies isolating S. pneumoniae were performed prior to the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (6). Critical Thinking Define And Monson? Outcome analysis of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine demonstrated that up to 33% of chest radiograph confirmed pneumonia were prevented in topics to write essays on London International, immunized patients compared to those who were not immunized (14). Therefore, a different bacterial pathogen may supersede S. Thinking And Monson Academy? pneumoniae as the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in write a an of Management, the coming years. Critical Define Wilbraham? Other organisms to consider are Chlamydia trachomatis in infants 3-19 months of age (4) and Mycoplasma and Chlamydia pneumoniae in children and adolescents (8-9,11-12). Writing Vocabulary? In special cases, for example, patients with neuromuscular impairment and impaired swallowing, aspiration pneumonia with anaerobic bacteria should be considered (15). The etiology of critical thinking Academy pneumonia varies in other conditions including immunosuppressed patients, nosocomial infections, cystic fibrosis patients, and anatomic airway anomalies (e.g., tracheostomies). Writing Auburn? In addition, the etiology of pneumonia is thinking Academy, complicated since mixed infections (e.g., viral-bacterial) can occur in 16-34% of patients (7,11,13). The lower respiratory tract in healthy persons is sterile (16).

Bacteria access the respiratory tract by inhalation, microaspiration, or by hematogenous spread. If bacteria gain access to how to write School, alveoli, host immunologic systems begin to critical thinking define and Monson Academy, work on eliminating bacteria. There are 2 major mechanisms by which lung defenses work to keep the airways sterile: physical defenses (i.e., mucociliary clearance and lymphatic drainage) and mechanisms that destroy bacteria (i.e., opsonization, specific immunoglobulin G antibody (IgG), alveolar macrophage ingestion, or complement mediated bacterial lysis) (17). If these mechanisms fail, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are recruited with a resultant inflammatory response. Perpetuation of to write persuasive essays on London International this inflammatory response leads to pneumonia. There are 4 major histologic steps seen in pneumococcal pneumonia described by Tuomanen, et al (18): engorgement, red hepatization, grey hepatization, and resolution. Engorgement is associated with presence of bacteria in the alveoli and thinking and Monson, an associated serous exudate.

This then progresses to red hepatization secondary to leakage of erythrocytes into argumentative essay the alveoli. Thinking And Monson? The next phase, grey hepatization, results from leukocyte migration to the affected area with intravascular fibrin deposition disrupting perfusion to the area. The final phase results in resolution, with phagocytosis of pneumococci and how to Cologne Business School, clearance of fibrin and other debris. Outside of the neonatal period, pneumonia is critical thinking Wilbraham Academy, suspected in patients with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of writing vocabulary list School impairment of the define Wilbraham and Monson lower respiratory tract. Distinguishing bacterial from write the essay Cologne other causes of critical thinking and Monson Academy pneumonia cannot be accomplished by clinical findings alone (7). Symptoms of pneumonia are nonspecific and include: fever, ill appearance, cough, fatigue, decreased appetite and sometimes, abdominal pain. Signs of pay essay Wandsworth College lower respiratory tract involvement include: tachypnea (greater than 50 breaths/minute in children less than 12 months, and greater than 40 breaths/minute for older children) (4), cyanosis, increased work of breathing (i.e., use of accessory muscles, grunting), pleuritic pain, and abnormal auscultatory findings. These signs do not differentiate a viral from bacterial process. Critical Define Wilbraham? A chest radiograph is used to argumentative essay, verify the critical thinking define Wilbraham and Monson Academy clinical suspicion of pneumonia and characterize the essay list Rotterdam Business disease process, but may not be performed on every patient. Viral respiratory tract infections are often associated with hyperinflation, perihilar peribronchial infiltrates, segmental or lobar atelectasis, and critical define and Monson, hilar adenopathy (19). Lobar consolidation and fluffy alveolar infiltrates with air bronchograms are more characteristic of bacterial infection (13).

However, there is overlap between these two groups (13). Computed tomography and ultrasound of the chest are used in special circumstances (e.g., evaluate for pleural effusion, adenopathy, improved imaging of lung architecture) but these are not routinely obtained (4). Commonly used screening laboratory tests such as white blood cell count with differential, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and the C-reactive protein (CRP) are not accurate in differentiating between bacterial, viral, mixed, or idiopathic causes of childhood pneumonia (7). Determination of precise etiology of pneumonia is difficult due to the lack of sensitive and specific tests. Many clinicians treat pneumonia empirically with minimal laboratory or radiographic evaluation and thus up to 80% of non-bacterial pneumonia may be treated with antibiotics (6).

This approach is a an essay School, satisfactory when clinical risk is deemed to be low. When a more precise diagnosis is required, more invasive techniques are required. Critical Thinking Define And Monson? Bacteria found in write SDA Bocconi, the blood, pleural fluid (thoracentesis), or lung tissue is critical Wilbraham and Monson Academy, considered diagnostic in a patient presumed to have pneumonia (4). Blood cultures are only positive in 1-8% of pneumonia (11) but continue to be recommended (4). Some question the write SDA Bocconi of Management necessity of blood culture after cost-based analyses (6, 11).

Transthoracic needle aspirates, transtracheal aspirates, and open lung biopsy (the gold standard for diagnosis) are rarely performed due to the risk involved for critical thinking Wilbraham these procedures (11,20), except in severe cases or in immunocompromised hosts (4). Sputum is often contaminated with organisms unrelated to the specific etiology (16) and is difficult to obtain in children less than 8 years old (4). A sputum sample that may be helpful is characterized by many polymorphonuclear cells and a bacteria of essay on Sheridan College single morphology on gram stain (4). And Monson Academy? Bronchoalveolar lavage from bronchoscopy is difficult to essay School, interpret as well. The results are non-specific (i.e., higher neutrophil counts than lymphocyte counts in patients with infection) and the organism found may or may not be the etiologic agent (16). Bacterial serology and bacterial antigen testing are often difficult to interpret (4,6). Bacterial cultures of the nasopharynx or throat correlate poorly with lung tissue cultures and are not helpful in establishing a diagnosis (16). Specific viral antigen testing, along with cultures for suspected pathogens, serologies for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia, and PPD skin testing for tuberculosis may be helpful (6). Pneumonia is treated with antimicrobials when the clinical suspicion for bacterial etiology is high. Greater pneumonia severity and findings that are consistent with bacterial pneumonia (e.g., lobar consolidation, leukocytosis, high fever) are more likely to Wilbraham Academy, warrant antimicrobial treatment.

Young infants, unreliable parents, poor access to medical care, and more severe infections often require hospitalization. Argumentative Essay? Treatment of pneumonia is define Academy, often empirically based and thus, information on antibiotic resistance patterns and topics persuasive, mechanisms of resistance is important to determine the most appropriate treatment. For S. pneumoniae, the most common mechanism of resistance to penicillins is alteration of penicillin-binding sites that can be overcome with higher doses of the drug (6). For macrolides, alteration to thinking and Monson, the 50S ribosomal binding site of the macrolide inhibits binding of the how to SDA Bocconi School antibiotic and thus, prevents protein synthesis inhibition (6). Thinking Define And Monson Academy? In addition, there is also an increase in efflux pumps for macrolides and this property can be overcome by using macrolides that achieve high tissue concentrations at the site of infection (e.g. Topics Persuasive On London International Academy? azithromycin) (6). Penicillin resistant pneumococci are often resistant to multiple drugs including macrolides and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (21).

Therefore, high-dose amoxicillin and/or azithromycin are recommended for empiric treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in children (6,8-9,11-12,20). Some clinicians will use clinical factors and ancillary tests in aggregate such as age, exposures, CXR pattern, fever, and leukocytosis, to stratify the risk to favor pneumococcus (high dose amoxicillin would be better) or Mycoplasma/Chlamydia (macrolide would be better). Critical Thinking? For those children requiring hospitalization, a second or third generation cephalosporin, occasionally in combination with a macrolide, is generally recommended (8,20). Most treatment regimens are continued for on Sheridan College a total of 7-14 days although this is based on little evidence (4). Pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus is uncommon, but particularly severe. Critical Academy? S. aureus pneumonia usually results from inhalation of organisms, but it may also occur in Wandsworth College, patients with a cutaneous source (e.g., impetigo, boils, abscesses) with hematogenous spread or staphylococcal bacteremia from another source (e.g. osteomyelitis, central line infection). If S. aureus pneumonia is suspected, vancomycin should be started empirically. Culture and sensitivity data permits changing to an alternate antibiotic later.

Pleural effusion (empyema), pneumothorax, and pneumatoceles often complicate S. aureus pneumonia. Pleural effusions can be classified in several ways. They can be a transudate or an exudate based on their protein content. Thinking Define Wilbraham And Monson Academy? A subpulmonic effusion versus an empyema is more clinically relevant. The former implies a transudate which is usually sterile, while the term empyema is how to a an essay School of Management, usually used to describe pus (purulent exudate) with a positive gram stain and culture. The overall outcome in children with pneumonia is excellent. The majority of children will recover without complications (11). Follow up chest radiographs are not required routinely, but should be performed for critical thinking define patients with complicated pneumonia, persistent respiratory problems, pleural involvement, and neonates (4,22).

About 80% of infiltrates on CXR will resolve by 3-4 weeks and the remainder will usually resolve by 3 months (22). Recurrent pneumonia with radiologic clearance between episodes requires further evaluation (e.g., immunodeficiencies, gastroesophageal reflux, pulmonary anomalies, etc.) (4). Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization for respiratory tract infections in ib essay writing University, young children (4,23-25). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the primary cause of bronchiolitis, but parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus, and adenovirus may also cause bronchiolitis (23-24). In the United States, the majority of RSV infections occur during the months of November to March (4,23). RSV infections account for a significant amount of critical Academy morbidity and health care expense in the young age group (24). RSV is essay list Rotterdam Business, transmitted by direct contact with large droplets or fomites. Transmission can be limited by thinking Academy good handwashing (23). RSV bronchiolitis results from the spread of RSV to write a an essay, the lower respiratory tract after an incubation period 2-8 days where the virus undergoes replication in the nasopharynx (23).

The infection results in infiltration of the respiratory epithelium with resultant inflammation and thinking and Monson, necrosis, sloughing of the write School epithelium and increased mucus production causing airflow limitation in the small airways leading to the hallmarks of the critical thinking and Monson disease (23). Thus, affected infants have signs of airflow limitation including hyperinflation, atelectasis, and wheezing. The diagnosis is often made on clinical grounds during the RSV season. Diagnostic testing can be done by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) tests if the diagnosis is unclear. Therapy is often supportive which may include: supplemental oxygen, fluids, and upright positioning. Essay On Sheridan College? Aerosolized ribavirin is the only known proven therapy for RSV infection, but its expense, potential toxicity, difficulty of administration, and lack of conclusive evidence for its efficacy (24,26) limit its use. The use of bronchodilators and corticosteroids are controversial and may only be mildly effective at best (i.e., not been proven to be highly efficacious) (24-26).

For those with moderate to severe disease, helium-oxygen mixtures or nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in improving gas-exchange and symptomatology (27-30). Montelukast, a leukotriene antagonist, has recently been reported to make a difference in future wheezing episodes (31). Prophylaxis with palivizumab (RSV monoclonal antibody) or RSV-IVIG is given to select pediatric populations recommended by thinking Wilbraham and Monson Academy the American Academy of writing list Pediatrics during RSV season to reduce RSV infection risk (32). Growing premature infants and infants with congenital heart disease and other chronic lung conditions are at increased risk for RSV pneumonia, apnea and respiratory failure. Healthy term infants with RSV usually develop mild bronchiolitis. Older children, teens and adults with RSV will usually have cold symptoms.

Bronchiolitis is usually a self limited disease and complete resolution takes about 4-8 weeks. In neonates and young infants, bronchiolitis may present with apnea and minimal respiratory symptoms, but the apnea is critical Wilbraham Academy, usually short-lived (33). Although bronchiolitis self-resolves, patients with RSV bronchiolitis may be predisposed to future episodes of wheezing (34). RSV infection can recur since there is an incomplete and poorly sustained immune response (23). In summary, bronchiolitis and pneumonia significantly impact the pediatric population. Determining likely etiologies of pneumonia and understanding effective treatment modalities will improve patient outcomes. Acknowledgments: I would like to thank Edward Fong, MD, Leslie Barton, MD and John Mark, MD for their critical review of the chapter. 1. Which of the following is the most common cause of essay writing vocabulary Business School pneumonia outside of the neonatal period? 2. S. pneumonia resistance to penicillins is due to: . Critical Thinking Define Wilbraham And Monson? . . . . a. Production of beta-lactamase.

. . Argumentative Essay On Sheridan College? . . . b. Alteration of penicillin binding proteins. . . Critical? . . . c. Increased efflux pumps. . . To Write Persuasive On London Academy? . . . d. Low tissue bioavailability. 3. True/False: Nasopharyngeal and throat cultures are useful in define, determining etiology of bacterial pneumonia. 4. Vocabulary Rotterdam? True/False: Lobar consolidation on chest x-ray provides conclusive evidence for bacterial pneumonia. 5. Which factor does not appear to affect the etiology of pneumonia?

. Thinking Define Wilbraham Academy? . . . . Wandsworth? b. Vaccination status. . . . . . c. Current antibiotic use. 6. The most common cause of bronchiolitis is: . . . . Critical Define Wilbraham And Monson? . a. Respiratory syncytial virus. . . . Lord Wandsworth College? . Critical Thinking Define Wilbraham? . b. Human Metapneumovirus. 7. Topics Essays On London Academy? True/False: Bronchiolitis may initially present with apnea and minimal respiratory symptoms. 8. Treatment of bronchiolitis should include all of the following except: a. Define Wilbraham And Monson? Supplemental oxygen for infants with hypoxia. b. Intravenous fluids and ib essay writing Auburn University, close monitoring of nutritional status. c. Good handwashing. d. Antibiotics. 9. True/False: Corticosteroids and bronchodilators are highly efficacious therapies for critical define RSV bronchiolitis. Pneumonia case presenting with abdominal pain: Yamamoto LG. Abdominal Pain with a Negative Abdominal Examination. In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds).

Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1994, volume 1, case 3. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v1c03.html. Staph pneumonia case: Yamamoto LG, Young LL. Tachypnea and Abdominal Pain. Business? In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1995, volume 2, case 5. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v2c05.html. Series of pediatric chest radiographs: Yamamoto LG. Test Your Skill In Reading Pediatric Chest Radiographs. In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1995, volume 3, case 20. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v3c20.html.

Another series of critical define Wilbraham Academy pediatric chest radiographs: Yamamoto LG. Test Your Skill In Reading Pediatric Chest Radiographs. In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1996, volume 4, case 5. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v4c05.html. 1. Graham NMH. The Epidemiology of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children and Adults: A Global Perspective.

Epidemiol Rev 1990;12:149-178. 2. Pay Essay Lord? National Center for Health Statistics. National Vital Statistics report (www.cdc.gov) 2001;49(1):14. 3. Dixon RE. Thinking Define And Monson Academy? Economic Costs of Respiratory Tract Infections in writing, the United States. Am J Med 1985;78(6B): 45-51.

4. Miller MA, Ben-Ami T, Daum RS. Chapter 39-Bacterial Pneumonia in Neonates and Older Children. In: Taussig LM, Landau LI (eds). Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, first edition. 1999, St. Louis: Mosby, pp. 595-664. 5. Critical Wilbraham Academy? Dowell SF, Kupronis BA, Zell ER, Shay DK. How To SDA Bocconi? Mortality From Pneumonia in Children in define, the United States, 1939 Through 1996. N Engl J Med 2000;342(19):1399-1407.

6. Bradley JS. Management of Community-Acquired Pediatric Pneumonia in an Era of Increasing Antibiotic Resistance and Conjugate Vaccines. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21(6):592-598. 7. Nohynek H, Valkeila E, Leinonen M, Eskola J. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, White Blood Cell Count and Serum C-reactive Protein in Assessing Etiologic Diagnosis of Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in pay essay, Children. Critical Thinking Wilbraham? Pediatr Infect Dis J 1995;14(6): 484-490.

8. Nelson J. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children: Guidelines for Treatment. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19(3):251-253. 9. Heiskanen-Kosma T, Korppi MN, Jokinen C, et al. Etiology of Childhood Pneumonia: Serologic Results of a Prospective, Population-Based Study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998;17(11):986-991. 10. McIntosh K. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children. N Engl J Med 2002;346(6);429-437. 11. Ruuskanen O, Mertsolon J. Childhood Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Sem Resp Infect 1999;14(2):163-172. 12. How To Essay SDA Bocconi School Of Management? McCraken, GH Jr. Etiology and Treatment of Pneumonia. Critical Thinking Wilbraham? Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19(4):373-377. 13. Korppi M, Kiekara O, Heiskanen-Kosma T, Soimakallio S. Comparison of Radiological Findings and essay writing vocabulary list Rotterdam Business School, Microbial Aetiology of Childhood Pneumonia. Acta Paediatr 1993;82: 360-363. 14.

Overturf GD, Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. Critical Define Wilbraham And Monson Academy? Technical Report: Prevention of Pneumococcal Infections, Including the Use of Pneumococcal Conjugate and Polysaccharide Vaccines and writing Auburn University, Antibiotic Prophylaxis. Pediatrics 2000;106(2):367-376. 15. Brook I, Finegold SM. Bacteriology of Aspiration Pneumonia in critical and Monson, Children. Pediatrics 1980;65(6):1115-1120. 16.

Laurenzi GA, Potter RT, Kass EH. Bacteriologic Flora of the Lower Respiratory Tract. N Engl J Med 1961;265:1271-1278. 17. Green GM, Kass EH.

The Role of the Alveolar Macrophage in the Clearance of Bacteria from the Lung. J Exp Med 1964;119:167-175. 18. Tuomanen EI, Austrian R, Masure HR. Pathogenesis of College Pneumococcal Infection. N Engl J Med 1995(19);332:1280-1284. 19. Thinking Wilbraham Academy? Wildin SR, Chonmaitree T, Swischuk LE.

Roentgenographic Features of essay on Sheridan College Common Pediatric Viral Respiratory Tract Infections. Critical Define Wilbraham And Monson? Am J Dis Child 1988;142:43-46. 20. Hart CA, Duerden BI. Respiratory Infections. Write Business School? J Med Microbiol 2002;51:903-914. 21. Whitney CG, Farley MM, Hadler J, et al.

Increasing Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus Pneumoniae in the United States. N Engl J Med 2000;343(26):1917-1924. 22. Grossman LK, Wald ER, Nair P, Papiez J. Thinking Wilbraham And Monson Academy? Roentgenographic Follow-Up of Acute Pneumonia in pay essay writing Lord Wandsworth, Children. And Monson Academy? Pediatrics 1979(1);63:30-31. 23. Ib Essay Writing University? Hall CB.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Parainfluenza virus. N Engl J Med 2001;344(25):1917-1928. 24. Greenough A. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: Clinical Features, Management, and Prophylaxis. Curr Opin in Pulm Med 2002;8:214-217. 25. Jartti T, van den Hoogen B, Garofalo RP, et al.

Metapneumovirus and Acute Wheezing in Children. Lancet 2002;360:1393-1394. 26. Patel H, Platt RW, Pekeles GS, Ducharme FM. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effectiveness of Nebulized Therapy with Epinephrine Compared with Albuterol and Saline in Infants Hospitalized for Acute Viral Bronchiolitis. J Pediatr 2002(6);141:818-824.

27. Hollman G, Shen G, Zeng L, et al. Helium-Oxygen Improves Clinical Asthma Scores in Children with Acute Bronchiolitis. Crit Care Med 1998;26(10):1731-1736. 28. Martinon-Torres F, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Martinon-Sanchez JM. Thinking Define Wilbraham And Monson Academy? Heliox Therapy in Infants with Acute Bronchiolitis. Pediatrics 2002(1);109:68-73.

29. Beasley JM, Jones SEF. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Bronchiolitis. British Medical Journal 1981;283:1506-1508. 30.

Soong W, Hwang B, Tang R. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure by Nasal Prongs in Bronchiolitis. Pediatr Pulmonol 1993;16:163-166. 31. Bisgaard H for the essay Cologne the Study Group on critical Montelukast and Respiratory Syncytial Virus. A Randomized Trial of how to write a an of Management Montelukast in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Postbronchiolitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:379-383. 32. Halsey NA, Abramson JS, Chesney PJ, et al.

American Academy of Pediatrics: Prevention of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Indications for the Use of Palivizumab and Update on the Use of RSV-IGIV. Pediatrics 1998;102(5):1211-1216. 33. Bruhn FW, Mokrohisky ST, McIntosh K. Apnea Associated with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Academy, Young Infants. J Pediatr 1977;90:382-386.

34. Sigurs N, Bjarnason R, Sigurbergsson F, Kjellman B. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Infancy is an Important Risk Factor for Asthma and to write persuasive on London, Allergy at Age 7. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:1501-1507. Answers to critical thinking Wilbraham, questions. 1.c. Overall, viruses cause the majority of pneumonias in children; however, the incidence of viral pneumonia decreases with age, becoming less common in older children and adolescents.

4.False. Lobar pneumonias are more likely to writing vocabulary Rotterdam, be of bacterial etiology, but this is not definitive since some lobar pneumonias will still be viral.