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away essays 2007 ♥ home of services School fine hypertext products. Conclusion Essay Saint John The Baptist Diocesan High! I’ve had this damn thing up in a browser tab for literally months 1 and finally got around to reading it, “this damn thing” being editor David Foster Wallace’s introduction to essays services School, The Best American Essays 2007. How To (Navitas)! In it, Wallace describes his role in compiling the essays collection as that of The Decider. As in, he Deciders what goes into writing essays MacDuffie School the book according to his subjective view and not necessarily because the essays are “Best”, “American”, or even “Essays”. Which, yes, all right, entitles you to Lake, ask what ‘value’ means here and whether it’s any kind of improvement, in specificity and traction, over the cover’s ‘Best.’ I’m not sure that it’s finally better or less slippery than ‘Best,’ but I do know it’s different. ‘Value’ sidesteps some of the metaphysics that makes pure aesthetics such a headache, for one thing. It’s also more openly, candidly subjective: since things have value only to people, the idea of some limited, subjective human doing the valuing is sort of writing MacDuffie built right into the term. That all seems tidy and uncontroversial so far although there’s still the question of just what this limited human actually means by a problem solution Castle School, ‘value’ as a criterion. One thing I’m sure it means is that this year’s BAE does not necessarily comprise the twenty-two very best-written or most beautiful essays published in 2006. Some of the book’s essays are quite beautiful indeed, and most are extremely well written and/or show a masterly awareness of craft (whatever exactly that is).
But others aren’t, don’t, especially - but they have other virtues that make them valuable. And I know that many of these virtues have to do with the ways in which the pieces handle and respond to the tsunami of available fact, context, and perspective that constitutes Total Noise. Writing School! This claim might itself look slippery, because of course any published essay is a burst of information and context that is by definition part of 2007’s overall roar of info and context. But it is possible for something to be both a quantum of information and of argumentative essay Saint John The Baptist, a vector of meaning. Think, for instance, of the two distinct but related senses of ‘informative.’ Several of essays this year’s most valuable essays are informative in both senses; they are at once informational and instructive. That is, they serve as models and how to an argument essay University of Hertfordshire, guides for how large or complex sets of services facts can be sifted, culled, and arranged in to write University meaningful ways - ways that yield and writing, illuminate truth instead of just adding more noise to the overall roar.
Although there are some differences between what Wallace and I consider valuable, the Decidering process detailed in his essay is a dead-on description of what I do on kottke.org every day. Essay Trafalgar Castle School! I guess you could say that it resonated with me as valuable, so much so that were I editing an end-of-the-year book comprised of the most interesting links from 2007, I would likely include it, right up front. Oh, and I got a kick out of the writing essays MacDuffie third footnote, combined here with the paid of Applied Sciences associated main text sentences: I am acting as an evaluative filter, winnowing a very large field of possibilities down to a manageable, absorbable Best for your delectation. Thinking about services MacDuffie School, this kind of help Shawnigan School Decidering is interesting in all kinds of services different ways. For example, from the how to an argument (Navitas) perspective of Information Theory, the bulk of the writing essays MacDuffie Decider’s labor actually consists of excluding nominees from the final prize collection, which puts the writing help School Decider in essays services School exactly the position of Maxwell’s Demon or any other kind of entropy-reducing info processor, since the really expensive, energy-intensive part of conclusion Saint The Baptist Diocesan High such processing is always deleting/discarding/resetting. My talk at Ars Electronica 2006 on the topic of simplicity touched on writing School, similar themes and the main point was that the more stuff I can sift through (and throw away), the thinking Marian High better the end result can be. From this it follows that the more effective the aggregator is at effectively determining what the group thinks, the better the end result will be. But somewhat paradoxically, the essays MacDuffie quality of the end result can also improve as the writing University (Navitas) complexity of the group increases. In constructing kottke.org, something that I hope is a simple, coherent aggregation of the world rushing past me, this complexity is my closest ally.
Keeping up with so many diverse, independent, decentralized sources makes my job as an writing essays services School aggregator difficult reading 300 sites a day (plus all the other stuff) is no picnic but it makes kottke.org much better than it would be if I only read Newsweek and watched Hitchcock movies. As artists, designers, and corporations race to embrace simplicity, they might do well to widen their purview and, in doing so, embrace the related complexity as well. Welcome the chaos because there’s lots of good stuff to be found therein. I also attempted to tie the abundance of information (what Wallace refers to as “Total Noise”) and the simplification process of editing/aggregating/blogging into Claude Shannon’s definition of information and information theory but failed due to time contraints and a lack of imagination. It sounded good in my head though.
Anyway, if you’re wondering what I do all day, the answer is: throwing stuff out. kottke.org is not so much what’s on the site as what is not chosen for inclusion.  In actual fact, I closed that browser tab weeks ago and pasted the writing help School URL into services a “must-read items” text file I maintain. But it’s been open in a browser tab in my mind for months, literally. That and I couldn’t resist putting a footnote in this entry, because, you know, DFW. #8617;
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Obviously if you’re Irish, it comes highly recommended! However, this is yet another resume template that is writing essays School, so simple, clear, and writing a problem essay Trafalgar School, easy to read that we can easily recommend it to anyone looking for a job. The Dublin font styling looks much more airy and writing essays, less blocky, so if that suits your taste, go ahead and download it. No horizontal lines anywhere Text in headers expanded by paid essays University of Applied, 1.05pt for writing essays, an interesting effect. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 2.03? Right – 2.03? Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download.
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Great thanks for services MacDuffie School, your help … We would recommend the paid essays Saxion of Applied Sciences, ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! I am trying to decide what to use as a professional massage therapist. Thanks. Check out writing School our ‘Elegant’ templates. Write An Argument (Navitas)! Good luck on the job hunt! Hi, which template is good for the pharmaceutical industry or biology? Thanks! The ‘Harvard’ should be suitable. Good luck!
Thanks! I appreciate it. What if I already started using one of the advanced templates – dark blue contemporary? Should I switch to Harvard? I recently graduated, about a year and services, a half ago and I am looking to break into the pharmaceutical industry with a biology and write an argument essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), pharmacy background. Let me know what you think! #128578; Contemporary should work just fine. Which one would be good for a television producer?
Or someone in the media industry? Thanks! The ‘Milano’ sounds like the writing essays services School, right way to write an argument of Hertfordshire (Navitas) go. Best of luck! which template would be good for essays services School, a high school student? which template would be great for executive. Which template is good for how to write an argument University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), fresher seeking job in IT industry. I’m BCA graduate.
Try the ‘Chicago’ on for size. Good luck on the job hunt! which template suitable for internship? which template is suitable for a project manager. Which template is suitable for a job at a bank? which Template is better for essays services School, a job of medical field? You might want to check out our internship and engineering resume samples: Good luck on the job hunt! What resume is most suitable for a Professional Sales Manager that is hoping to change careers to an Executive Asst. HI, what resume is suitable for a management consultant? or an how to write essay of Hertfordshire (Navitas) auditor? The ‘Milano’ would suit either of those professions.
Good luck! The decision is writing services School, really a matter of preference. Critical Words School! We suggest you try a few and essays MacDuffie School, see which one you like best. Good luck! Thank you very much for sharing!! Very helpful!! Hi what would you recommend for how to University, a recent master graduate wanting to get into the Conflict resolution/ humanitarian field? Try out the writing services, ‘Elegant’ Template. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi what would you recommend for a school district instructional assistant?
Or a childcare provider (lead teacher)? Recommendation for something in the legal profession? Specifically pretrial services assessor? Didn’t see anything for paralegals, either… The resumes above are templates, but it sounds like you are looking for solution Castle, samples. Writing Services! Check out our paralegal resume sample, here: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/paralegal-resume-example. Good luck on the job hunt, Hi what would be a good resume for someone with multiple skills.(Retail Management, Computer Repair and The Baptist School, Maintenance , Low Voltage Tech, Lab Courier) We suggest trying the ‘Park’ template. It offers plenty of space for you to include all of your skills.
what if you have no experience making a job application whatsoever and you don’t know which template to use for a beginner. For a beginner, our ‘Classic’ is always a solid choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Any of the writing essays services, resumes above could be used for someone with a criminal history, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago.’ Also, you should check out our tips on how to conclusion of argumentative John Diocesan address criminal history in a cover letter: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions#Red-flag-8:-Criminal-history. Try using the ‘Park’ template. Writing Essays Services MacDuffie School! Good luck with finding an writing solution Trafalgar School internship!
We suggest the ‘Milano.’ Don’t forget to check out our Pharmacist resume: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/pharmacist-resume-example Good luck on writing, the internship. What resume would you recommend for a Human Resource Manager with 5 years of experience. What kind of critical words Catholic High School, resume would you recommend for writing essays services MacDuffie School, someone changing careers from a lower tier job to a more career building one? The ‘Park’ template would be an appropriate choice. Good luck with the career change. which template wouldb good for construction,HVAC? We’d suggest going with the ‘Modern’ template.
Best of luck finding an HVAC job. which template would i use? I was recently fired and how to write an argument essay University, need a job asap, i worked in customer service for a department store and then moved into a supervisor position but for only 7months. My previuos jobs were a ups helper and writing essays services, a busser at a resturaunt. Go with the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck!
What template would you suggest to use? I am changing careers from a major University as a Farm Attendant Lead to CDL Truck Driver either over writing essays Shawnigan Lake, the road or Local? Try going with the ‘Milano’ template. MacDuffie School! Good Luck! What template do you recommend for essay University, a middle aged person with plenty of related experience including being a small business owner, applying for a flight attendant position? You should visit our nurse resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/nursing-resume-example. You can download the example and fill in your own information.
Hi, what kind of resume template you recommend for essays services, a engineer with 4 years of experience?. which resume would you recommend for college student applying for jobs with no experience. Hi, what kind of resume will you recommend for how to an argument essay University, a college student, applying for a job. which resume would you recommend for a fashion merchandiser/executive assistant stay at home mom returning to work? Good luck on the job hunt! which resume do you recommend for essays services MacDuffie, an budding flight attendant career? Thanks for this! I’ll use the conclusion of argumentative essay Saint John High, Harvard Resume Template. #128578; Hey there Rayhan, The key to writing writing a resume fresh out of college without work experience is to: 2. Make your education section strong, and of argumentative essay The Baptist High, include key relevant projects/leadership experiences from college that pertain to the position to writing services which you’re applying.
Good luck with your job search! Hey there Aditya, I’d recommend the Classic B W template for your resume. It’s a nice standard look — nothing too fancy, but it gets the job done. Good luck! With all of that experience, you have some flexibility! When in doubt, the a strong essay University (Navitas), reverse-chronological is writing services School, a good choice. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/chronological-samples-writing-guide. Enjoy the fresh start, and best of luck with the job application! Which resume would your recommend for conclusion essay Saint The Baptist, applying for a position in a company that you currently work in that is merging?
All staff must re-apply. All of these resume templates are perfect for someone in your situation – it just depends on your preference. Since your goal is to writing essays services MacDuffie prove the a problem essay Trafalgar Castle School, value you bring to the table to writing essays your new employers, you want your resume to stand out for paid to write Saxion Sciences, its content even more than its format. Things that are quantifiable (think numbers, dollar signs, etc.) give your resume weight – check out the following link for services School, some ideas to make the content of your resume stand out: https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/accomplishments-on-resume-quantify-achievements. Good luck, and please feel free to comment again if you have further questions! I would suggest that you first decide which type of resume best suits your situation, then choose a matching template. Check out this link and see if one jumps out at you: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/ Good luck with your career! I’d first recommend checking out this page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. What you want to do is highlight your education over professional experience since most likely that’s a stronger area for you, then proceed from there.
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Pay especially close attention to the department you’d like to join. Find out what the team is paid to write essays University of Applied Sciences doing and essays services, how they’re doing it, and take note of the areas that you know you can contribute to. Including that specific information in the cover letter shows that you’re interested and already have ideas for how you can help the company. So let’s say that you’re applying for an internship position at a company like The Muse. You might say something like: I really enjoy reading the productivity section on Trafalgar Castle School, The Daily Muse— it’s got a great blend of psychological and technical tips, many of which I’ve taken to heart. I’m a sucker for this type of writing essays “food for write essay University (Navitas) thought” material, so I have my own ideas and resources that would make me a strong contributor in this vertical.
Problem #4: You’re Underselling Yourself. Writing Essays. If you have any lines in your cover letter that read like these, you must remove them: I’m probably not the most qualified candidate… I’m sure you have many other more qualified candidates who have applied… Give me a chance to prove myself… Why would the a strong of Hertfordshire (Navitas), hiring manager not hire the most qualified candidate? That would be absurd! The Fix: Make an Argument for Yourself. Even if you feel under-qualified, put on a brave face and tell the hiring manager the attributes that would make you a strong candidate. Respond to the job description, and play up the directly related and transferable skills you have that would allow you to essays MacDuffie, meet the challenge. For instance, someone applying for an entry-level position as a salesperson might write: During college, I was responsible for ad sales in our newspaper, The Blue and Gold . I learned how to create, manage, and maintain professional relationships with business owners around our campus.
My direct efforts led to a 10% profit margin increase over the year, and I believe that those skills can be directly applied to your open position. If you’re still unsure, check out write University of Hertfordshire career counselor Lily Zhang’s suggestions for drawing out your strengths instead of School your weaknesses. Of course, remember that having too much bombast (“I’m absolutely the best and you better believe it!”) also isn’t good. The following is one of the essays help Lake, most important rules to remember about writing your cover letter: It isn’t just about essays MacDuffie School you. In other words, avoid writing about how working at your target company will create a great boost for your resume and career.
Hiring managers are fully aware of that. What they need to know is paid to write Saxion University of Applied how you’re going to provide a boost for the company. The Fix: Ask What You Can Do for the Company. Your cover letter should state what you can do for the company. Ask yourself—what is it about your education and experience that would allow you to meet the challenges of the essays School, open job position? How can you leverage your expertise for the benefit of the company? What ideas do you have to move the business forward? It’s perfectly fine to mention that being hired would be mutually beneficial—the hiring manager wouldn’t want you to be a demoralized worker in a role that doesn’t suit your career prospects. Essays Help. Just keep it to a quick sentence and then move on to wooing the reader with what you can do for the company. Writing Essays MacDuffie School. Problem #6: It’s Full of Irrelevant Filler.
Got a paragraph about to write essays of Applied your semester abroad, or some other travel experience where you found your “true calling?” You should probably delete it. Do you have sentences like, “I am a hard working, efficient, and loyal person?” Don’t make a series of lists of positive sounding words about yourself. Services MacDuffie School. It’s not convincing. Most importantly, if you’ve included personal information about your religion, marital status, or race, delete it. Even if you think it’s adding personality, it’s actually irrelevant to the job and could cause you to be discriminated against. The Fix: Focus on Your Relevant Skills and History. Only talk about the experiences that directly relate to your skills and abilities that will help you succeed in the position. So if you learned a relevant skill while you were abroad, like a language? Then it’s perfectly fine to bring it up. You should also make sure to show the writing essays Shawnigan, hiring manager proof of your skills rather than simply say that you have them.
For any word you choose to describe yourself, make sure to include an example from your work experience to back up your claim. For example, instead of saying that you’re “hard-working” or “a problem solver,” write something like: I felt like my own training could have been better, so I took the initiative to create new documents and checklists to make employee training less resource-intensive, which led to shorter training periods and essays School, faster content production. Problem #7: It Has Too Much Information About College Metrics. This may be strange to hear, but here are four things that don’t really factor in your cover letter: the Marian Catholic, university you attended, your GPA, the essays services School, classes you took, or your senior thesis. You should be proud of yourself if you got into an Ivy League school and have a great GPA, but in most cases, they aren’t great metrics for determining whether you’ll be a strong employee. Writing Essays Shawnigan. The Fix: Stick to Activities and essays services MacDuffie School, Responsibilities. To the greatest extent possible, talk about activities you participated in essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), both inside and outside of college that have some relevance to the job. A student with a 2.9 GPA but with experience as editor of a college newspaper is still very likely to get an interview for a media job.
The reason that activities speak louder than statistics is because they act as proof that you have the soft skills necessary to be a good employee and writing MacDuffie School, co-worker. Activities provide experience you can use to show that you are organized, have leadership skills, can work in a team, and can easily get used to a problem Trafalgar, a professional environment. Above all, activities show that you were motivated to succeed beyond simply earning a degree. Photo of cover letter courtesy of Shutterstock. Mark Slack is a Senior Resume Consultant and Career Advisor at services MacDuffie School, Resume Genius, the smartest resume builder. He is an avid biker and hiker, and conclusion of argumentative Saint John The Baptist Diocesan High School, can read, write, and writing services MacDuffie School, speak Mandarin.
You can follow him on Twitter @TheResumeGenius and on Google Plus. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for how to write University this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out essays all the a problem essay Trafalgar Castle, amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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Is the Criminal-Justice System Racist? T he race industry and its elite enablers take it as self-evident that high black incarceration rates result from discrimination. Writing Essays Services MacDuffie School? At a presidential primary debate this Martin Luther King Day, for instance, Senator Barack Obama charged that blacks and whites “are arrested at very different rates, are convicted at very different rates, [and] receive very different sentences . . . for the same crime.” Not to be outdone, Senator Hillary Clinton promptly denounced the “disgrace of a criminal-justice system that incarcerates so many more African-Americans proportionately than whites.” If a listener didn’t know anything about how to (Navitas) crime, such charges of disparate treatment might seem plausible. After all, in 2006, blacks were 37.5 percent of all state and federal prisoners, though they’re under 13 percent of the national population. About one in 33 black men was in prison in 2006, compared with one in 205 white men and one in 79 Hispanic men. Eleven percent of all black males between the ages of 20 and 34 are in prison or jail. The dramatic rise in the prison and jail population over the last three decades—to 2.3 million people at the end of 2007 (see box)—has only amplified the racial accusations against the criminal-justice system. The favorite culprits for high black prison rates include a biased legal system, draconian drug enforcement, and even prison itself. None of these explanations stands up to scrutiny. The black incarceration rate is overwhelmingly a function of black crime.
Insisting otherwise only worsens black alienation and further defers a real solution to the black crime problem. R acial activists usually remain assiduously silent about that problem. But in 2005, the essays services MacDuffie School black homicide rate was over seven times higher than that of whites and a problem Castle, Hispanics combined, according to the federal Bureau of Justice Statistics. From 1976 to 2005, blacks committed over writing essays MacDuffie School 52 percent of all murders in America. In 2006, the black arrest rate for most crimes was two to writing a problem solution essay Trafalgar Castle, nearly three times blacks’ representation in the population. Blacks constituted 39.3 percent of all violent-crime arrests, including 56.3 percent of writing essays all robbery and 34.5 percent of all aggravated-assault arrests, and 29.4 percent of Catholic High School all property-crime arrests. The advocates acknowledge such crime data only indirectly: by charging bias on the part of the system’s decision makers. As Obama suggested in the Martin Luther King debate, police, prosecutors, and judges treat blacks and whites differently “for the same crime.”
Let’s start with the essays services idea that cops over-arrest blacks and ignore white criminals. In fact, the race of criminals reported by crime victims matches arrest data. As long ago as 1978, a study of robbery and aggravated assault in help, eight cities found parity between the race of essays services assailants in victim identifications and in writing a strong essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), arrests—a finding replicated many times since, across a range of crimes. No one has ever come up with a plausible argument as to writing essays services MacDuffie School, why crime victims would be biased in conclusion Diocesan School, their reports. Moving up the enforcement chain, the campaign against the criminal-justice system next claims that prosecutors overcharge and judges oversentence blacks. Obama describes this alleged postarrest treatment as “Scooter Libby justice for some and Jena justice for others.” Jena, Louisiana, of course, was where a D.A. initially lodged attempted second-degree murder charges against black students who, in December 2006, slammed a white student’s head against a concrete beam, knocking him unconscious, and then stomped and kicked him in the head while he was down. As Charlotte Allen has brilliantly chronicled in The Weekly Standard , a local civil rights activist crafted a narrative linking the attack to an unrelated incident months earlier, in writing services, which three white students hung two nooses from a problem solution Trafalgar School, a schoolyard tree—a display that may or may not have been intended as a racial provocation. This entrepreneur then embellished the tale with other alleged instances of redneck racism—above all, the essays initial attempted-murder charges. Paid Saxion University? An enthusiastic national press responded to the bait exactly as intended, transforming the “Jena Six” into services MacDuffie School, victims rather than perpetrators. In the seven months of critical Marian School ensuing headlines and protests, Jena became a symbol of writing services systemic racial unfairness in America’s court system. If blacks were disproportionately in prison, the refrain went, it was because they faced biased prosecutors—like the paid essays Saxion of Applied one in Jena—as well as biased juries and judges.
Backing up this bias claim has been the MacDuffie holy grail of criminology for decades—and the writing essays help School prize remains as elusive as ever. In 1997, criminologists Robert Sampson and Janet Lauritsen reviewed the massive literature on charging and services MacDuffie, sentencing. They concluded that “large racial differences in criminal offending,” not racism, explained why more blacks were in prison proportionately than whites and for a problem solution Trafalgar Castle School, longer terms. A 1987 analysis of writing services MacDuffie Georgia felony convictions, for example, found that blacks frequently received disproportionately lenient punishment. Writing University? A 1990 study of 11,000 California cases found that slight racial disparities in sentence length resulted from blacks’ prior records and other legally relevant variables. A 1994 Justice Department survey of felony cases from the country’s 75 largest urban areas discovered that blacks actually had a lower chance of prosecution following a felony than whites did and that they were less likely to be found guilty at trial. Following conviction, blacks were more likely to receive prison sentences, however—an outcome that reflected the gravity of MacDuffie School their offenses as well as their criminal records. Another criminologist—easily as liberal as Sampson—reached the same conclusion in 1995: “Racial differences in patterns of offending, not racial bias by police and other officials, are the principal reason that such greater proportions of blacks than whites are arrested, prosecuted, convicted and imprisoned,” Michael Tonry wrote in Malign Neglect . (Tonry did go on to impute malign racial motives to drug enforcement, however.) The media’s favorite criminologist, Alfred Blumstein, found in 1993 that blacks were significantly underrepresented in prison for homicide compared with their presence in arrest. This consensus hasn’t made the writing essays help Lake School slightest dent in the ongoing search for writing essays services School, systemic racism. An entire industry in the law schools now dedicates itself to flushing out conclusion essay Saint The Baptist High School prosecutorial and judicial bias, using ever more complicated statistical artillery.
The net result? A few new studies show tiny, unexplained racial disparities in sentencing, while other analyses continue to essays School, find none. Any differences that do show up are trivially small compared with the exponentially greater rates of criminal offending among blacks. No criminologist would claim, moreover, to have controlled for every legal factor that affects criminal-justice outcomes, says Patrick Langan, former senior statistician for the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Prosecutors and University of Hertfordshire, judges observe the heinousness of a defendant’s conduct, for example, but a number-crunching researcher has no easy way to discover and quantify that variable. Some criminologists replace statistics with High Theory in writing essays services MacDuffie, their search for racism. Trafalgar School? The criminal-justice system does treat individual suspects and criminals equally, they concede. But the problem is how society defines crime and criminals. Crime is a social construction designed to marginalize minorities, these theorists argue.
A liberal use of scare quotes is virtually mandatory in such discussions, to signal one’s distance from primitive notions like “law-abiding” and writing MacDuffie, “dangerous.” Arguably, vice crimes are partly definitional (though even there, the law enforcement system focuses on them to essay John Diocesan High School, the extent that they harm communities). But the social constructivists are talking about all crime, and it’s hard to see how one could “socially reconstruct” assault or robbery so as to writing, convince victims that they haven’t been injured. U nfair drug policies are an equally popular explanation for black incarceration rates. Legions of pundits, activists, and academics charge that the war on drugs is a war on minorities—a de facto war at best, an intentional one at worst. Playing a starring role in this conceit are federal crack penalties, the source of the greatest amount of misinformation in the race and incarceration debate. Crack is a smokeable and highly addictive cocaine concentrate, created by cooking powder cocaine until it hardens into essays help Lake School, pellets called “rocks.” Crack produces a faster—and more potent—high than powder cocaine, and it’s easier to use, since smoking avoids the unpleasantness of needles and writing essays, is more efficient than snorting. Under the 1986 federal Anti-Drug Abuse Act, getting caught with five grams of crack carries a mandatory minimum five-year sentence in federal court; to writing Shawnigan School, trigger the writing essays services same five-year minimum, powder-cocaine traffickers would have to get caught with 500 grams. On average, federal crack sentences are three to a problem solution, six times longer than powder sentences for equivalent amounts.
The media love to writing essays services School, target the federal crack penalties because crack defendants are likely to be black. Paid Essays Of Applied? In 2006, 81 percent of essays services federal crack defendants were black, while only thinking words Marian High School 27 percent of writing services School federal powder-cocaine defendants were. Since federal crack rules are more severe than those for powder, and crack offenders are disproportionately black, those rules must explain why so many blacks are in conclusion of argumentative The Baptist Diocesan School, prison, the conventional wisdom holds. But consider the writing services actual number of crack sellers sentenced in essay The Baptist High, federal court each year. In 2006, 5,619 were tried federally, 4,495 of them black. From 1996 to 2000, the federal courts sentenced more powder traffickers (23,743) than crack traffickers (23,121). It’s going to MacDuffie School, take a lot more than 5,000 or so crack defendants a year to account for the 562,000 black prisoners in state and solution essay Trafalgar Castle School, federal facilities at the end of 2006—or the writing services MacDuffie 858,000 black prisoners in custody overall, if one includes the population of paid to write essays Sciences county and city jails.
Nor do crack/powder disparities at the state level explain black incarceration rates: only 13 states distinguish between crack and services MacDuffie School, powder sentences, and a strong, they employ much smaller sentence differentials. The press almost never mentions the federal methamphetamine-trafficking penalties, which are identical to those for services MacDuffie, crack: five grams of meth net you a mandatory minimum five-year sentence. In 2006, the 5,391 sentenced federal meth defendants (nearly as many as the crack defendants) were 54 percent white, 39 percent Hispanic, and critical words High, 2 percent black. But no one calls the services federal meth laws anti-Hispanic or anti-white. N evertheless, the federal crack penalties dominate discussions on race and incarceration because they seem to provide a concrete example of egregious racial disparity. This leads to a commonly expressed syllogism: crack penalties have a disparate impact on essays Shawnigan School blacks; disparate impact is essays MacDuffie racist; therefore, crack penalties are racist. This syllogism has been particularly prominent recently, thanks to the U.S. Essays Help Shawnigan? Sentencing Commission’s 2007 decision to lighten federal crack penalties retroactively in the name of writing essays services MacDuffie School racial equity.
The press has covered this development voraciously, serving up a massive dose of crack revisionism aimed at proving the racist origins of the war on crack. Crack was never a big deal, the revisionist story line goes. But when Boston Celtics draft pick Len Bias died of a crack overdose in 1986, the media went into how to write an argument University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), overdrive covering the essays MacDuffie School crack phenomenon. Thinking Words Marian Catholic High School? “Images—or perhaps anecdotes—about the evils of crack, and the street crime it was presumed to stoke” circulated, as the New York Times archly put it in a December 2007 article. A “moral panic” (Michael Tonry’s term) ensued about an imaginary threat from a powerless minority group. Whites feared that addicted blacks would invade their neighborhoods. Sensational stories about “crack babies” surfaced. All this hysteria resulted in the unnecessary federal crack penalties. Since the 1980s, the revisionist narrative continues, experts have determined that powder and crack show more pharmacological “similarities than differences,” in the Times ’s words, and that crack is no more damaging to fetuses than alcohol. Writing Essays MacDuffie School? The belief that crack was an inner-city scourge was thus a racist illusion, and the sentencing structure to quell it a racist assault. Or, as U.S. District Judge Clyde Cahill put it, in what one hopes is writing a problem solution Trafalgar Castle not a representative sample of the federal judicial temperament: “Legislators’ unconscious racial aversion towards blacks, sparked by unsubstantiated reports of the effects of crack, reactionary media prodding, and an agitated constituency, motivated the writing services MacDuffie School legislators . . . to produce a dual system of punishment.”
Leave aside the thinking Catholic irony of the press’s now declaring smugly that the press exaggerated the ravages of crack. (The same New York Times that now sneers at “images—or perhaps anecdotes—about the evils of MacDuffie crack” ran searing photos of crack addicts in 1993 that included a woman kneeling before a crack dealer, unzipping his fly, a baby clinging to her back; such degraded prostitutes, known as “strawberries,” were pervasive casualties of the epidemic.) The biggest problem with the revisionist narrative is its unreality. Critical Words Marian Catholic? The assertion that concern about crack resulted from “unconscious racial aversion towards blacks” ignores a key fact: black leaders were the writing first to sound the alarm about the thinking words Catholic High School drug, as Harvard law professor Randall Kennedy documents in Race, Crime, and the Law . Harlem congressman Charles Rangel initiated the federal response to the epidemic, warning the writing School House of Representatives in March 1986 that crack had made cocaine “frightening[ly]” accessible to youth. A few months later, Brooklyn congressman Major Owens explicitly rejected what is now received wisdom about media hype. Critical Thinking Words Catholic High School? “None of the press accounts really have exaggerated what is actually going on,” Owens said; the crack epidemic was “as bad as any articles have stated.” Queens congressman Alton Waldon then called on his colleagues to act: “For those of essays us who are black this self-inflicted pain is the worst oppression we have known since slavery. . . . Let us . . . pledge to writing a problem essay Castle School, crack down on crack.” The bill that eventually passed, containing the MacDuffie crack/powder distinction, won majority support among black congressmen, none of whom, as Kennedy points out, objected to it as racist. These politicians were reacting to a devastating outbreak of inner-city violence and addiction unleashed by paid to write essays University of Applied Sciences, the new form of cocaine. Writing? Because crack came in small, easily digestible amounts, it democratized what had been a rarefied drug, making an of argumentative essay The Baptist Diocesan, intense high available to people with very little money. Writing Essays Services MacDuffie? The crack market differed radically from the discreet phone transactions and private deliveries that characterized powder-cocaine distribution: volatile young dealers sold crack on street corners, using guns to establish their turf.
Crack, homicides, and assaults went hand in hand; certain areas of New York became “like a war zone,” retired DEA special agent Robert Stutman told PBS’s Frontline in 2000. Conclusion John Diocesan School? The large national spike in violence in the mid-1980s was largely due to writing essays, the crack trade, and its victims were overwhelmingly black inner-city residents. Though the elites are furiously rewriting crack history, many people who lived through it are not. In April 2007, Los Angeles prosecutor Robert Grace won the conviction of a crack dealer who had raped and strangled to death ten strawberries between 1987 and 1998. The “crack epidemic was one of the worst things that happened to the black and writing a problem Trafalgar Castle, brown community,” Grace asserts. Matthew Kennedy managed an infamous public housing project in Watts during the crack epidemic. “Some of us remember how bad it was,” he says. When children avoid school for fear of getting shot by drug gangs, “you’ve just lost that generation.” Lawrence Tolliver has witnessed his share of shootings outside his South Central barbershop. “Sometimes it was so bad you had to scout the horizon like a gazelle at a watering hole in Africa,” he recalls. It takes shameless sleight of writing essays MacDuffie School hand to turn an effort to protect blacks into a conspiracy against paid to write essays, them. If Congress had ignored black legislators’ calls to increase cocaine-trafficking penalties, the outcry among the groups now crying racism would have been deafening. Yes, a legislative bidding war drove federal crack penalties ultimately to an arbitrary and excessive point; the reduction of those penalties is writing services MacDuffie School appropriate.
But what led to the crack-sentencing scheme wasn’t racism but legal logic. Prosecutors rely on heavy statutory penalties to induce defendants to spill the beans on their criminal colleagues. “An amazing public spirit is engendered when you tell someone he is facing 150 years to life but has the writing a problem solution essay Trafalgar possibility of getting out after eight if he tells you who committed a string of homicides,” says Walter Arsenault, who headed the Manhattan district attorney’s homicide-investigation unit in the 1980s and 1990s. R ace activists endlessly promote the claim that the draconian federal crack laws are sweeping up mere sad sacks with a little extra crack to spare. But anyone who fits that description is exempt from the federal sentencing scheme. Traffickers with only a modest criminal history who didn’t injure others or have a gun when arrested can escape the mandatory federal sentences if they don’t lie to the government about their offense (there is no requirement to writing services MacDuffie School, rat out others). In 2006, only 15.4 percent of crack-cocaine defendants qualified for this safety-valve provision, compared with 48.4 percent of powder-cocaine offenders; in 2000, even fewer crack defendants qualified—12.6 percent. Crack sellers seldom merit the of Applied Sciences escape clause because their criminal histories tend to be much more severe than powder sellers’ and because they’re more likely to have or use weapons. The congressional distinction between crack and powder sellers, it turns out, had a firm grounding.
Equally misleading is the criticism that few crack “kingpins” can be found in federal prison. This is not surprising, because “kingpins” in essays MacDuffie School, the traditional sense—heads of major drug-importing rings—don’t exist in the crack world. Crack is not imported but cooked up locally. Its supply and essays University of Applied, distribution scheme is more horizontal than vertical, unlike that of powder cocaine and heroin. Federal crack enforcement wasn’t about stopping the services MacDuffie flow of illegal drugs into writing a problem solution Trafalgar Castle School, the country; it was about stopping urban violence.
And that violence was coming from street dealers. C ritics follow up their charges about writing services MacDuffie crack with several empirical claims about critical words Catholic High School drugs and imprisonment. None is true. The first is that drug enforcement has been the most important cause of the overall rising incarceration rate since the writing services MacDuffie 1980s. Yet even during the most rapid period of population growth in a problem essay Trafalgar Castle School, prisons—from 1980 to 1990—36 percent of the growth in state prisons (where 88 percent of the writing essays MacDuffie nation’s prisoners are housed) came from violent crimes, compared with 33 percent from how to write essay, drug crimes.
Since then, drug offenders have played an even smaller role in state prison expansion. From 1990 to essays, 2000, violent offenders accounted for to write Saxion Sciences, 53 percent of the census increase—and all of the increase from 1999 to 2004. Next, critics blame drug enforcement for writing services MacDuffie School, rising racial disparities in a strong of Hertfordshire (Navitas), prison. Again, the facts say otherwise. In 2006, blacks were 37.5 percent of the 1,274,600 state prisoners. If you remove drug prisoners from that population, the writing MacDuffie percentage of black prisoners drops to 37 percent—half of writing Trafalgar Castle School a percentage point, hardly a significant difference. (No criminologist, to writing essays services MacDuffie School, the best of my knowledge, has ever performed this exercise.) The rise of drug cases in the criminal-justice system has been dramatic, it’s important to to write University of Applied, acknowledge. In 1979, drug offenders were 6.4 percent of the state prison population; in 2004, they were 20 percent. Even so, violent and property offenders continue to dominate the ranks: in 2004, 52 percent of state prisoners were serving time for writing essays MacDuffie, violence and 21 percent for writing essay University of Hertfordshire, property crimes, for writing essays MacDuffie, a combined total over three and a half times that of state drug offenders.
In federal prisons, drug offenders went from 25 percent of all federal inmates in 1980 to 47.6 percent of all federal inmates in 2006. Drug-war opponents focus almost exclusively on federal, as opposed to paid to write Saxion, state, prisons because the proportion of drug offenders is highest there. But the MacDuffie School federal system held just 12.3 percent of the words Catholic nation’s prisoners in 2006. S o much for the claim that blacks are disproportionately imprisoned because of the war on drugs. But a final, even more audacious, argument maintains that incarceration itself, not criminals, causes crime in writing essays services MacDuffie, black neighborhoods. Because blacks have the highest prison rate, this argument holds, incarceration constitutes an unjust and disproportionate burden on Shawnigan them. This idea has gained wide currency in the academic world and in essays services MacDuffie, anti-incarceration think tanks.
Columbia University law professor Jeffrey Fagan offered a representative version of the theory in a 2003 law review article coauthored with two public health researchers. Sending black males to a problem solution essay Trafalgar Castle School, prison “weakens the general social control of writing children and University Sciences, especially adolescents,” Fagan writes. Incarceration increases the number of single-parent households. With adult males missing from their neighborhoods, boys will be more likely to get involved in crime, since they lack proper supervision. The net result: “Incarceration begets more incarceration [in] a vicious cycle.” A few questions present themselves. How many convicts were living in a stable relationship with the mother (or one of the mothers) of writing essays services MacDuffie School their children before being sent upstate? (Forget even asking about conclusion Saint The Baptist Diocesan High their marriage rate.) What kind of positive guidance do men who are committing enough crimes to end up in prison, rather than on writing services MacDuffie School probation (an exceedingly high threshold), provide to young people? Further, if Fagan is writing a strong essay University of Hertfordshire right that keeping criminals out of prison and on writing School the streets preserves a community’s social capital, inner cities should have thrived during the 1960s and early 1970s, when prison resources contracted sharply. In fact, New York’s poorest neighborhoods—the subject of Fagan’s analysis—turned around only in the 1990s, when the prison population reached its zenith. Fagan, like many other criminologists, conflates the writing essay University (Navitas) effects of prison and crime. Neighborhoods with high incarceration rates suffer disproportionate burdens, he claims.
Firms are reluctant to locate in writing essays services School, such areas, decreasing job opportunities. Police pay closer attention to these high-incarceration zones, increasing the chance that any given criminal within them will wind up arrested. A Problem Solution School? Thus, incarceration “provides a steady supply of offenders for more incarceration.” But if business owners think twice about certain communities, it’s because they fear crime, not a high concentration of ex-convicts per se. It’s unlikely that prospective employers even know the services School population of ex-cons in a neighborhood; what they are aware of is its crime rates. And an employer who hesitates to hire an ex-con is almost certainly reacting to his criminal record, even if he has been given community probation instead of prison. Likewise, if the writing solution Trafalgar police give extra scrutiny to neighborhoods with many ex-convicts, it’s because those convicts commit a lot of School crime.
Finally, putting more criminals on probation, rather than sending them to prison—as Fagan and others advocate—would only increase law enforcement surveillance of high-crime neighborhoods. This popular “social ecological” analysis of incarceration, as Fagan and other criminologists call it, treats prison like an outbreak of infectious disease that takes over certain communities, felling people on a seemingly random basis. “As the risks of how to write University of Hertfordshire going to jail or prison grow over services MacDuffie time for persons living in those areas, their prospects for marriage or earning a living and family-sustaining wage diminish as the incarceration rates around them rise,” Fagan says. This analysis elides the role of individual will. Fagan and others assume that once one lives in a high-incarceration—that is, high-crime—area, one can do little to avoid prison. But even in the most frayed urban communities, plenty of people choose to avoid the “Life.” Far from facing diminished marriage prospects, an upstanding, reliable young man in the inner city would be regarded as a valuable catch. No one doubts that having a criminal record—whether it results in community probation or prison—is a serious handicap. People convicted of crimes compete for jobs at a clear disadvantage with those who have stayed crime-free. Shawnigan Lake School? But for all the writing School popularity of the view that the John High system is to blame, it’s not hard to find dissenters who believe that individuals are responsible for the decision to break the law. “My position is not hard,” says public housing manager Matthew Kennedy. “You don’t have to essays services MacDuffie School, do that crime.” Kennedy supported President Bill Clinton’s controversial 1996 “one-strike” rule for public housing, which allowed housing authorities to a problem essay, evict drug dealers and other lawbreaking tenants on their first offense. “I’m trying to protect the good people in writing services, my community,” Kennedy explains. Essay School? “A criminal record is preventable. Writing Essays Services? It’s all on you.” Kennedy has no truck with the argument that it is unfair to send ex-offenders back to prison for violations of their parole conditions, such as staying away from their gang associates and hangouts. “Where do they take responsibility for their own actions?” he wonders. “You’ve been told, ‘Don’t come back to essay (Navitas), this community.’ Why would you come back here? You’ve got to change your ways, change the habits that got you in there in the first place.” Though you’d never know it from writing essays School, reading the academic literature, some people in minority communities even see prison as potentially positive for individuals as well as for communities. The Baptist Diocesan? “I don’t buy the idea that there’s no sense to prison,” says Clyde Fulford, a 54-year-old lifelong resident of the William Mead Homes, a downtown Los Angeles housing project.
Having raised his children to essays MacDuffie School, be hardworking, law-abiding citizens, Fulford is a real role model for his neighborhood, not the specious drug-dealing kind posited by the “social ecological” theory of incarceration. “I know a lot of people who went to prison,” Fulford says. “A lot changed they life for essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), the better. Prison was they wake-up call.” Is prison unavoidable and thus unfair? “They knew they was going to pay. It’s up to that person.” What if the essays School prisoners hadn’t been locked up? “Many would be six feet under.” R obert Grace, the Los Angeles prosecutor, is paid of Applied acutely aware of the fragility and writing services, preciousness of the rule of law. “As a civilized society, we can’t allow what’s happening in Latin America to take over here,” he says. “Venezuela and essay Saint The Baptist Diocesan School, Mexico are awash in appalling violence because they don’t respect the law.” Thus, when prominent figures like Barack Obama make sweeping claims about racial unfairness in the criminal-justice system, they play with fire. “For any political candidate to services, make such claims out of expediency is wrong,” Grace says. “If they have statistics that back up the claim, I’d like to see them. But to create phony perceptions of injustice is as wrong as not doing anything about the real thing.” The evidence is clear: black prison rates result from crime, not racism. America’s comparatively high rates of incarceration are nothing to celebrate, of course, but the alternative is far worse. The dramatic drop in conclusion of argumentative John The Baptist, crime in the 1990s, to which stricter sentencing policies unquestionably contributed, has freed thousands of MacDuffie School law-abiding inner-city residents from the bondage of fear.
Commerce and street life have revived in those urban neighborhoods where crime has fallen most. The pressure to divert even more offenders from prison, however, will undoubtedly grow. Saint School? If a probation system can finally be crafted that provides as much public safety as prison, we should welcome it. But the continuing search for the chimera of MacDuffie criminal-justice bigotry is a useless distraction that diverts energy and attention from the crucial imperative of helping more inner-city boys stay in school—and out of trouble. Punishment and write, Crime. Those who tar the writing essays services MacDuffie School criminal-justice system as racist often make a broader claim: incarceration doesn’t even lower crime, making the of argumentative essay Saint John The Baptist Diocesan nation’s skyrocketing prison rolls a particularly senseless injustice.
Incarceration foes are right about one thing: the U.S. prison population has swollen dramatically over writing services School the last three decades. The per-capita rate of imprisonment increased three times from 1973 to 2000; the number of state and federal prisoners grew fivefold between 1977 and 2007, from 300,000 to 1.59 million. When inmates in jails are included, the total number in correctional facilities at the end of 2007 was 2.3 million, according to the Pew Center on paid the States. Writing? One in 100 adults is in custody. This expansion represents a resounding rejection of the reigning crime philosophy of the 1960s. To Write Saxion Of Applied Sciences? The 1967 report of the President’s Commission on writing essays services MacDuffie Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, a classic Great Society document, argued that society could reduce crime only by eliminating poverty and racism, ideally through government-funded social programs.
Consistent with this theory, prison capacity began dropping during the thinking words Catholic High sixties and only stopped falling during the late 1970s, when crime reached intolerable levels. Thereafter, the states started adding prison beds and passing laws to keep offenders locked up longer and to reduce judicial discretion to writing essays MacDuffie, issue very lenient sentences. Few subjects have proved more contested in criminology than whether this prison buildup lowered crime—and, if so, by how much. Anyone entering the to write essays of Applied thickets of incarceration studies should abandon all commonsense assumptions, such as that locking away, say, a burglar, would reduce burglary rates. Not so, say the writing essays School criminologists, and at first glance, the crime data from the late-twentieth-century prison expansion seem to support them. Only after 1991 was the rise in incarceration consistently accompanied by decreasing crime rates; in the 1980s, crime went up and down, even as the essays help prison population steadily grew. And now that crime is falling, the criminology world finds itself even more puzzled by why the prison population keeps increasing.
Two of the most common theories as to writing essays MacDuffie School, why prison doesn’t lower crime are logically weak and empirically ungrounded. The first is that locking a criminal up won’t decrease crime, since another criminal will replace him. Yet while crimes meeting an illicit consumer demand may operate within a supply-and-demand framework, opportunities for violence and property crimes hit no natural ceiling. There are plenty of potential victims of violence and theft to go around; a potential robber need not wait for a competitor to writing essays help, go to jail before he can begin his own crime spree. The second theory to MacDuffie School, explain why prison doesn’t work applies the law of diminishing returns to incarceration. Paid Essays University? As we lock up ever more people, we start scraping the bottom of the criminal barrel, the critics say. The prisoners we incarcerate become more innocuous than those picked up initially, so we get a diminishing bang for essays, the buck for every new prisoner sent away. However impeccable the economic reasoning behind this claim, there is no empirical evidence for it. The diminishing-returns argument assumes that the universe of unapprehended and writing a problem solution essay Trafalgar, unincarcerated criminals is shrinking. It is not. The chances of getting caught and sent to prison remain extraordinarily low.
The JFA Institute, an anti-incarceration advocacy group, estimated in 2007 that in only 3 percent of violent victimizations and property crimes does the offender end up in prison. In 2004, only 1.6 percent of burglars were in prison, according to services, the Bureau of Justice Statistics. The people in prison today, says statistician Patrick Langan, are “not very different from prisoners in writing Trafalgar, the past, in terms of their prior records.” In the essays services MacDuffie overwhelming majority of writing essay University cases, whatever the services MacDuffie School race of the essay Trafalgar Castle convicted, prison remains what it has always been: a lifetime achievement award for persistence in criminal offending. Absent recidivism or a violent crime, the criminal-justice system will do everything it can to keep you out essays services MacDuffie School of the state or federal slammer. It can be disconcerting for the average law-abiding citizen to hear a prosecutor’s typology of the crime universe: most thefts, for writing (Navitas), example, are considered “nonserious crimes” that do not merit prison sentences, unless they concern a huge amount of essays MacDuffie School money or took place in the victim’s presence. Steal an unoccupied car or burgle an unoccupied home and conclusion essay The Baptist Diocesan High, you’ll probably get probation; hijack a car from writing MacDuffie, a driver or stick up a pedestrian, however, and you’ll probably go to prison. Columbia University law professor Dan Richman had a chance to test the “harmless offenders in prison” claim as chair of New York City’s Local Conditional Release Commission. Paid To Write University Sciences? Richman studied the criminal profile of Rikers jail inmates in late 2004.
Jails are supposed to be where the most “innocuous” lawbreakers end up—those with misdemeanor convictions or sentences of less than a year. “It struck me how serious the offenders were,” he says. Essays MacDuffie? “I’d come from the academy, where there’s persuasive writing about over-incarceration. I had assumed there would be mostly first-time offenders in jail, but it wasn’t true.” About 40 percent of the inmates had prior felony convictions, Richman discovered, and writing a strong University of Hertfordshire, the inmates’ most recent offenses, which had put them in jail this time around, were usually serious. People in for writing essays, assault would have pleaded down from attempted manslaughter; possession pleaded down from distribution. “These weren’t people who were there by accident,” says Richman. One can also test the theory that locking away offenders doesn’t lower crime by seeing what prisoners do when they get out. The Bureau of writing a strong (Navitas) Justice Statistics studied the writing essays School postprison careers of over 272,000 state prisoners released in 1994.
Within three years, 67.5 percent of the a strong (Navitas) group had been rearrested for essays School, 744,000 new felonies and serious misdemeanors. How To Write An Argument University (Navitas)? How many additional crimes they committed during those three years before getting arrested is essays MacDuffie School unknown; estimates of the number of crimes that a typical unapprehended criminal commits per essays Shawnigan year range from zero to several hundred. And the ex-cons’ post-release crime spree seems not to have resulted from the negative effects of essays prison itself, since convicts who spent the longest time behind bars had significantly lower rearrest rates than others. Not all criminologists and Saxion University, law professors dispute that prison lowers crime. University of Chicago economist Steve Levitt hypothesized in 1996 that had incarceration rates not risen sharply from essays School, 1971 to 1993, violent crime would have been 70 percent higher and property crime almost 50 percent higher. More typical estimates attribute 10 to 25 percent of the Shawnigan 1990s crime drop to writing MacDuffie, incarceration. And Berkeley law professor Franklin Zimring rejected the diminishing-returns argument against solution essay Trafalgar Castle, incarceration in his 2007 book The Great American Crime Decline . The fact that crime started dropping consistently only at the end of the decades-long prison buildup makes perfect sense, he argued, since that’s when the greatest number of criminals were off the streets. Heather Mac Donald is a contributing editor of City Journal and the John M. Olin Fellow at the Manhattan Institute. Her latest book, coauthored with Victor Davis Hanson and writing MacDuffie, Steven Malanga, is The Immigration Solution.
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Heather Mac Donald discusses Is the Criminal-Justice System Racist? A quarterly magazine of urban affairs, published by the Manhattan Institute, edited by Brian C. Anderson. New York, NY 10017 (212) 599-7000. Send a question or comment using the critical words form below. This message may be routed through support staff.