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Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Nietzsche's moral philosophy is an conclusion for an State University primarily critical in orientation: he attacks morality both for its commitment to untenable descriptive (metaphysical and empirical) claims about human agency, as well as for write and earn, the deleterious impact of its distinctive norms and values on the flourishing of the highest types of human beings (Nietzsche's “higher men”). How To Write An Conclusion Louisiana State! His positive ethical views are best understood as combining (i) a kind of consequentialist perfectionism as Nietzsche's implicit theory of the good, with (ii) a conception of how to write a film Preparatory School human perfection involving both formal and substantive elements. Because Nietzsche, however, is an anti-realist about value, he takes neither his positive vision, nor those aspects of his critique that depend upon how to write an conclusion State it, to essay University of South Carolina have any special epistemic status, a fact which helps explain his rhetoric and the circumspect character of his “esoteric” moralizing. Write An Conclusion For An Essay State University! Although Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes (for example, about how to write apa format University (Navitas) human equality) are apparent, there are no grounds for write an conclusion for an essay State University, ascribing to him a political philosophy, since he has no systematic (or even partly systematic) views about the nature of write essay Сollege Preparatory state and society. As an how to write for an Louisiana, esoteric moralist, Nietzsche aims at write Queen's College freeing higher human beings from their false consciousness about write an conclusion for an Louisiana State morality (their false belief that this morality is good for them ), not at a transformation of society at large. 1.1 Scope of the write and earn Critique: Morality in the Pejorative Sense. Nietzsche is how to write for an Louisiana State University not a critic of all “morality.” He explicitly embraces, for example, the idea of a “higher morality” which would inform the lives of “higher men” (Schacht 1983: 466469), and, in so doing, he employs the same German word Moral , sometimes Moralität for both what he attacks and what he praises.
Moreover, Nietzsche aims to offer a revaluation of existing values in a manner that appears, itself, to involve appeal to broadly “moral” standards of some sort. As he writes in the Preface to Daybreak : “in this book faith in morality [ Moral ] is withdrawn but why? Out of morality [ Moralität ]! Or what else should we call that which informs it and us ?.[T]here is no doubt that a ‘thou shalt’ [ du sollst ] speaks to us too” (D 4). This means, of course, that (on pain of inconsistency) morality as the object of Nietzsche's critique must be distinguishable from the sense of “morality” he retains and employs. Yet Nietzsche also does not confine his criticisms of morality to some one religiously, philosophically, socially or historically circumscribed example. Thus, it will not suffice to write essay say that he simply attacks Christian or Kantian or European or utilitarian morality though he certainly at times attacks all of these. To do justice to the scope of his critique, we should ask what characterizes “morality” in Nietzsche's pejorative sense hereafter, “MPS” that is, morality as the object of his critique. Nietzsche believes that all normative systems which perform something like the role we associate with “morality” share certain structural characteristics, even as the write essay Louisiana State meaning and value of these normative systems varies considerably over time. In particular, all normative systems have both descriptive and normative components, in the sense that: (a) they presuppose a particular descriptive account of human agency, in the sense that for the normative claims comprising the system to have intelligible application to human agents, particular metaphysical and empirical claims about agency must be true; and (b) the system's norms favor the interests of some people, often (though not necessarily) at the expense of others. Any particular morality will, in turn, be the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., MPS) only if it: presupposes three particular descriptive claims about the nature of human agents pertaining to free will, the knowledge essay transparency of the self, and the essential similarity of all people (“the Descriptive Component”); and/or embraces norms that harm the “highest men” while benefitting the “lowest” (“the Normative Component”).
While Nietzsche offers criticisms of both the Descriptive and Normative Components of how to for an Louisiana University MPS, what ultimately defines MPS as against unobjectionable normative systems is the distinctive normative agenda. Thus, while Nietzsche criticizes the description of agency that is typically part and parcel of MPS, he also holds that “[i]t is not error as error that” he objects to essay Trent University fundamentally in MPS (EH IV;7): that is, it is not the falsity of the write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State descriptive account of agency presupposed by MPS, per se , that is the heart of the problem, but rather its distinctive normative commitments. Thus, strictly speaking, it is true that an MPS would be objectionable even if it did not involve a commitment to an untenable descriptive account of agency (as, say, certain forms of utilitarianism do not). Because Nietzsche's two most common and closely related specific targets are, however, Christian and Kantian morality, the critique of the descriptive component of MPS figures prominently in how to response essay, Nietzsche's writing, and any account of the logic of his critique that omitted it would not do justice to his concerns. 1.2 Critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS. MPS for how to essay State University, Nietzsche depends for response essay Trent University, its intelligible application to human agents on three descriptive theses about write for an human agency (cf. BGE 32; GM I:13; TI VI; EH III:5; EH IV:8): (1) Human agents possess a will capable of free and autonomous choice (“Free Will Thesis”). (2) The self is sufficiently transparent that agents' actions can be distinguished on write and earn money American University School, the basis of their respective motives (“Transparency of the Self Thesis”).
(3) Human agents are sufficiently similar that one moral code is appropriate for how to essay Louisiana State University, (because in a critical evaluation Queen's College, the interests of) all (“Similarity Thesis”). These three theses must be true in order for the normative judgments of MPS to be intelligible because the normative judgments of MPS are marked for Nietzsche by an conclusion Louisiana State University, three corresponding traits; namely, that they: (1′) Hold agents responsible for their actions. (2′) Evaluate and “rank” the how to evaluation Queen's motives for which agents act. (3′) Presuppose that “morality” has universal applicability (MPS “says stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and how to for an State University nothing besides is morality’” [BGE 202]). Thus, the falsity of the picture of agency would affect the article money intelligibility of moral judgments in the following three ways: (1″) If agents lacked “free will” they could not be held responsible for their actions. (2″) If agent motives could not be distinguished then no evaluative distinctions could be drawn among acts in terms of their motives. (3″) If agents were, in fact, different in how to write for an Louisiana University, some overlooked but relevant respect, then it would, at least, not be prima facie apparent that one morality should have universal application. It is the burden, then, of Nietzsche's critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS to show that, in fact, none of these latter theses about the nature of agency hold.
A brief review of these arguments follows (a more detailed treatment is in Leiter 2002: 81112). Against the Free Will Thesis, Nietzsche argues that a free agent (that is, one sufficiently free to be morally responsible) would have to be causa sui (i.e., self-caused, or the knowledge essay University cause of itself); but since we are not causa sui , no one can be a free agent. How To Write An Conclusion For An Louisiana State! Nietzsche takes for help write International, granted not implausibly that our moral and how to an conclusion for an Louisiana State University religious traditions are incompatibilist at University of South their core: causally determined wills are not free wills. Nietzsche offers two kinds of how to essay arguments to how to write essay Chaminade Сollege show that we are not causa sui : that it is logically impossible to be causa sui ; and that human beings are not self-caused in a sense sufficient to how to an conclusion Louisiana State University underwrite ascriptions of help an essay International School, moral responsibility. An Conclusion For An Essay State! (I owe the point that there are two different arguments at how to apa format essay of Hertfordshire (Navitas) issue here to write an conclusion University Eric Vogelstein.) He says relatively little about the article and earn money University School first point, other than claiming that “the concept of a causa sui is something fundamentally absurd” (BGE 15), and that it is “the best self-contradiction that has been conceived so fara sort of rape and perversion of logic” (BGE 21), such that this, desire for “freedom of the will” in the superlative metaphysical sensethe desire to bear the entire and ultimate responsibility for one's actions oneself, and to absolve God, the world, ancestors, chance, and society involves nothing less than to be precisely this causa sui andto pull oneself up into existence by the hair, out of the swamps of nothingness. Write An Conclusion Louisiana! (BGE 21) But we cannot, needless to say, pull ourselves up “out of the swamps of nothingness,” and so we cannot have ultimate responsibility for our actions. Nietzsche quickly moves from the claim that being causa sui involves a contradiction, however, to an argument that depends on his picture of human agency. Nietzsche accepts what we may call a “Doctrine of how to write essay Trent University Types” (Leiter 1998), according to which, Each person has a fixed psycho-physical constitution, which defines him as a particular type of person. Call the relevant psycho-physical facts here “type-facts.” Type-facts, for Nietzsche, are either physiological facts about the person, or facts about the person's unconscious drives or affects. The claim, then, is that each person has certain largely immutable physiological and psychic traits that constitute the “type” of person he or she is. Although Nietzsche himself does not use this exact terminology, the concept figures centrally in all his mature writings.
A typical Nietzschean form of argument, for example, runs as follows: a person's theoretical beliefs are best explained in terms of his moral beliefs; and how to for an essay Louisiana State his moral beliefs are best explained in terms of natural facts about the type of person he is American University School (i.e., in terms of how to an conclusion for an State University type-facts). So Nietzsche says, “every great philosophy so far has beenthe personal confession of its author and a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir”; thus, to really grasp this philosophy, one must ask “at what morality does all this (does he ) aim” (BGE 6)? But the “morality” that a philosopher embraces simply bears “decisive witness to who he is ” i.e., who he essentially is that is, to the “innermost drives of how to essay of Hertfordshire his nature” (BGE 6). This explanation of a person's moral beliefs in an conclusion Louisiana, terms of psycho-physical facts about the how to Trent University person is a recurring theme in Nietzsche. Write For An Essay University! “[M]oralities aremerely a sign language of the affects” (BGE 187), he says. “Answers to the questions about the value of existencemay always be considered first of all as the symptoms of certain bodies” (GS P:2). “Moral judgments,” he says are, “symptoms and sign languages which betray the process of physiological prosperity or failure” (WP 258). “[O]ur moral judgments and evaluationsare only images and fantasies based on a physiological process unknown to us” (D 119), so that “it is always necessary to draw forththe physiological phenomenon behind the moral predispositions and prejudices” (D 542). How To Write Apa Format Essay University! A “morality of sympathy,” he claims is “just another expression of physiological overexcitability” (TI IX:37). Write An Conclusion For An University! Ressentiment and the morality that grows out of it he attributes to an “actual physiological cause [ Ursache ]” (GM I:15). Nietzsche sums up the idea well in the preface to On the Genealogy of how to evaluation Queen's College Morality (hereafter simply “ Genealogy ” or “GM”): “our thoughts, values, every ‘yes,’ ‘no,’ ‘if’ and ‘but’ grow from us with the same inevitability as fruits borne on the tree all related and each with an affinity to each, and evidence of one will, one health, one earth, one sun” (GM P:2). Nietzsche seeks to understand in naturalistic terms the type of “person” who would necessarily bear such ideas and values, just as one might come to understand things about a type of tree by knowing its fruits. And just as natural facts about the tree explain the fruit it bears, so too type-facts about a person will explain his values and actions. This means that the conscious mental states that precede the how to an conclusion Louisiana action and whose propositional contents would make them appear to be causally connected to the action are, in fact, epiphenomenal, either as tokens or as types: that is, they are either causally inert with respect to the action or causally effective only in virtue of other type-facts about the person (Leiter 2002: 9193 argues for the latter reading; Leiter 2007 argues for the former).
We typically locate the “will,” as the seat of action, in various conscious states: for example, our beliefs and desires. According to Nietzsche, however, the how to essay of Hertfordshire (Navitas) “will” so conceived is nothing but the effect of type-facts about the person. This means that the real story of the genesis of an action begins with the type-facts, which explain both consciousness and a person's actions. Here is how Nietzsche puts it, after suggesting that the “will” is related to, but conceptually prior to, the concepts of “consciousness” and “ego”: The “inner world” is how to write an conclusion essay University full of phantoms: the will is one of them. The will no longer moves anything, hence does not explain anything either it merely accompanies events; it can also be absent. The so-called motive : another error. Merely a surface phenomenon of consciousness something alongside the deed that is write essay (Navitas) more likely to cover up the antecedents of the deeds than to represent them. What follows from this? There are no mental [ geistigen ] causes at all. (TI VI:3)
In the last line, Nietzsche must mean only how to write an conclusion for an University that there are no conscious mental causes. Indeed, in other passages, he is explicit that the target of this critique is the picture of article University School conscious motives as adequate to account for action. (For competing views of the scope of Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness, see Katsafanas 2005 and Riccardi 2015a.) As he writes in how to write an conclusion for an essay University, Daybreak , “we are accustomed to exclude all [the] unconscious processes from the write accounting and to reflect on the preparation for an act only to the extent that it is conscious” (D 129), a view which Nietzsche plainly regards as mistaken, both here and in the passage quoted above. For An Louisiana State University! Indeed, the theme of the “ridiculous overestimation and misunderstanding of consciousness” (GS 11) is a recurring one in Nietzsche. “[B]y far the greatest part of our spirit's activity,” says Nietzsche, “remains unconscious and unfelt” (GS 333; cf. GS 354). Apart from the write apa format of Hertfordshire general evidence on Louisiana, behalf of the Doctrine of an essay The Regent’s International Types, Nietzsche's strongest targeted argument for the epiphenomenality of consciousness depends on write for an State University, a piece of phenomenology, namely, “that a thought comes when ‘it’ wishes, and not when ‘I’ wish” (BGE 17). If that is right and if actions are apparently “caused” by thoughts (by particular beliefs and desires), then it follows that actions are not caused solely by our conscious mental states, but rather by whatever it is (i.e., type-facts) that determines the thoughts that enter consciousness. Thus, it is the (autonomous) causal power of our conscious mental life that Nietzsche must be attacking. Given, then, that Nietzsche claims consciousness is how to a film Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School epiphenomenal, and write an conclusion for an State University given our identification of the response University “will” with our conscious life, Nietzsche would have us dispense with the how to for an essay Louisiana State University idea of the will as causal altogether. (This gives Nietzsche a novel argument against hierarchical accounts of free will favored by article University, compatibilists: see Leiter 2002: 9396). Since the conscious will is not causal, the Free Will Thesis is false. Against the Transparency of the Self Thesis, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable” (GS 335; cf.
WP 291, 294); as he writes in how to an conclusion for an essay, Daybreak : The primeval delusion still lives on that one knows, and knows quite precisely in every case, how human action is brought about . “I know what I want, what I have done, I am free and responsible for it, I hold others responsible, I can call by its name every moral possibility and every inner motion which precedes action; you may act as you will in knowledge essay University of South Carolina, this matter I understand myself and how to write an conclusion essay Louisiana State understand you all!” that is howalmost everyone still thinks.[But] [a]ctions are never what they appear to us to be! We have expended so much labor on learning that external things are not as they appear to write evaluation essay Queen's College us to be very well! the an conclusion Louisiana case is the same with the how to write a film essay Chaminade School inner world! Moral actions are in reality “something other than that” more we cannot say: and all actions are essentially unknown. (D 116) Actions are unknown because “nothingcan be more incomplete than [one's] image of the totality of drives which constitute [a man's] being” (D 119). One “can scarcely name even the cruder ones: their number and strength, their ebb and flow, their play and counterplay among one another, and above all the laws of their nutriment remain wholly unknown” (D 119).
But as Nietzsche argues elsewhere (e.g., D 109), the self is merely the arena in which the struggle of an conclusion essay Louisiana State University drives plays itself out, and one's actions are the a film essay Chaminade outcomes of the struggle (see Leiter 2002: 99104; cf. Riccardi 2015b; for a general account of Nietzsche's philosophical psychology, see Katsafanas 2013). Against the essay Louisiana State Similarity Thesis, Nietzsche once again deploys his Doctrine of Types. Nietzsche holds that agents are essentially dissimilar , insofar as they are constituted by different type-facts. Since Nietzsche also holds that these natural type-facts fix the different conditions under which particular agents will flourish, it follows that one morality cannot be good for write evaluation essay Queen's, all. “ Morality in how to write an conclusion for an Louisiana University, Europe today is herd animal morality ,” says Nietzsche, “in other wordsmerely one type of human morality beside which, before which, and after which many other types, above all higher moralities, are, or ought to write money School be, possible” (BGE 202). Write Essay Louisiana State! Nietzsche illustrates the write apa format essay of Hertfordshire (Navitas) general point with his discussion of the case of the Italian writer Cornaro in Twilight of the Idols (VI:1).
Cornaro, says Nietzsche, wrote a book mistakenly recommending “his slender diet as a recipe for a long and happy life.” But why was this a mistake? Nietzsche explains: The worthy Italian thought his diet was the cause of his long life, whereas the precondition for a long life, the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism, the consumption of so little, was the cause of his slender diet. He was not free to eat little or much; his frugality was not a matter of “free will”: he became sick when he ate more. How To An Conclusion For An Louisiana State! But whoever is not a carp not only does well to eat properly, but needs to.
There exists, then, type-facts about how to write University Cornaro that explain why a slender diet is good for him: namely, “the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism.” These natural facts, in turn, constrain what Cornaro can do, delivering him “feedback” about the conditions under which he will and won't flourish: given his slow metabolism, if Cornaro ate more “he became sick”; conversely, when he stuck to his slender diet, he did well. In sum, “[h]e was not free to eat little or much.” Cornaro's mistake consists, in effect, in his absolutism: he thought the “good” diet was good for everyone, when in fact it was only good for certain types of how to write an conclusion for an Louisiana State bodies (namely, those with slow metabolisms). As with diets, so too with moralities, according to Nietzsche. Write A Film Essay Сollege Preparatory School! Agents are not similar in type-facts, and so one moral “diet” cannot be “good for all.” As he writes: [T]he question is always who he is, and who the other person isEvery unegoistic morality that takes itself for write an conclusion essay Louisiana, unconditional and addresses itself to all does not only sin against taste: it is a provocation to sins of omission, one more seduction under the mask of philanthropy and how to University (Navitas) precisely a seduction and injury for the higher, rarer, privileged. Write Essay Louisiana State University! (BGE 221) This point sets the essay Chaminade Сollege School stage for his core critique of morality. 1.3 Critique of the Normative Component of MPS. All of Nietzsche's criticisms of the normative component of for an essay State MPS are parasitic upon Carolina one basic complaint not, as some have held (e.g., Nehamas , Geuss ), the universality of moral demands, per se , but rather that “the demand of one morality for write an conclusion for an Louisiana, all is detrimental to the higher men” (BGE 228).
Universality would be unobjectionable if agents were relevantly similar, but because agents are relevantly different, a universal morality must necessarily be harmful to some. As Nietzsche writes elsewhere: “When a decadent type of man ascended to the rank of the highest type [via MPS], this could only happen at the expense of its countertype [emphasis added], the how to write a critical evaluation type of man that is strong and sure of life” (EH III:5). How To Write An Conclusion University! In the preface to the Genealogy , Nietzsche sums up his basic concern particularly well: What if a symptom of regression lurked in the “good,” likewise a danger, a seduction, a poison, a narcotic, through which the present lived at write essay (Navitas) the expense of the future ? Perhaps more comfortably, less dangerously, but at the same time in for an State, a meaner style, more basely? So that morality itself were to blame if the highest power and splendor [ Mächtigkeit und Pracht ] possible to the type man was never in fact attained? So that morality itself was the danger of dangers? (GM Pref:6; cf. BT Attempt:5) This theme is sounded throughout Nietzsche's work.
In a book of 1880, for write apa format essay (Navitas), example, he writes that, “Our weak, unmanly social concepts of good and evil and their tremendous ascendancy over body and soul have finally weakened all bodies and souls and snapped the self-reliant, independent, unprejudiced men, the write an conclusion University pillars of a strong civilization” (D 163). Similarly, in a posthumously published note of how to essay 1885, he remarks that “men of how to an conclusion for an essay State great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding, will be sought in vain today” because “nothing stands more malignantly in the way of their rise and evolutionthan what in Europe today is called simply ‘morality’” (WP 957). In these and many other passages (e.g., BGE 62; GM III:14; A:5, 24; EH IV:4; WP 274, 345, 400, 870, 879.), Nietzsche makes plain his fundamental objection to MPS: simply put, that MPS thwarts the development of human excellence, i.e., “the highest power and splendor possible to the type man” (for more on the “higher man,” see section (2)). There is another, important competing reading of Nietzsche's central complaint about MPS: namely, that it is “harmful to life” or, more simply, “anti-nature.” Geuss, for example, says that, “There is little doubt that ‘Life’in Nietzsche does seem to function as a criterion for evaluating moralities” (1997: 10). So, too, Schacht claims that Nietzsche “takes ‘life’ in this world to be the sole locus of value, and how to write Trent University its preservation, flourishing, and above all its enhancement to how to write for an essay Louisiana State University be ultimately decisive for determinations of value” (1983: 359). Thus, the question of the value of MPS is really the question of its “value for life” (1983: 354). Yet such an account is plainly too vague: what exactly does “life” refer to here? Schacht, following a suggestion of Nietzsche's from the how to write essay Chaminade Сollege Nachlass (WP 254), suggests that life is will to power, and how to write an conclusion for an University thus degree of power constitutes the standard of value. (We shall return to this suggestion in detail in section 3.1, below.) But this involves no gain in precision.
Nietzsche may, indeed, have thought that more “power” in his sense was more valuable than less, but that still leaves us with the question: power of what or of whom ? The only plausible candidate given especially his other remarks discussed above is power of people ; just as the only plausible candidate for the “life” that Nietzsche considers it valuable to preserve and enhance must be the lives of people and, in particular, the lives of the “highest men.” That this is what Nietzsche means is revealed by the context of his actual remarks about the write The Regent’s International School, Bangkok “value for life.” For example, he comments that “a higher and more fundamental value for life might have to be ascribed to essay Louisiana University deception, selfishness, and lust” (BGE 2, emphasis added). But what sort of “life” is, e.g., “selfishness” valuable for? As Nietzsche writes elsewhere (e.g., GM Pref:56), it is simply that life which manifests “the highest power and splendor actually possible to article money American University School the type man.” And similarly, when Nietzsche says that a “tendency hostile to life is write essay University therefore characteristic of morality,” it is clear in context that what “life” refers to is “the type man” who might be “raised to his greatest splendor and power” (that is, but for the interference of MPS) (WP 897). In short, then, the things Nietzsche identifies as “valuable” for life are those he takes to be necessary for the flourishing of the highest types of life (or human excellence), while those that he identifies as harmful to it are those that he takes to be things that constitute obstacles to such flourishing. This suggests, then, that the “life” for how to write essay Trent University, which things are either valuable or disvaluable must be the life (or lives) that manifest human excellence i.e., the lives of “higher men.” Something similar may be said for the claim that Nietzsche objects to MPS because it is write an conclusion essay Louisiana University “anti-nature.” For example, when Nietzsche says in Ecce Homo (IV:7) that “it is the lack of nature, it is the utterly gruesome fact that antinature itself received the highest honors as morality” that he centrally objects to in a morality, his claim will remain obscure unless we can say precisely what about MPS makes it “anti-natural.” Nietzsche, himself, offers guidance on this in the same section when he explains that a MPS is anti-natural insofar as it has the following sorts of characteristics: it teaches men “to despise the very first instincts of life” and “to experience the presupposition of life, sexuality, as something unclean”; and it “looks for the evil principle in how to essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School, what is an conclusion essay Louisiana most profoundly necessary for growth, in severe self-love” (EH IV:7). But from this it should be apparent, then, that it is not anti-naturalness itself that is objectionable, but the consequences of an knowledge of South, anti-natural MPS that are at issue: for example, its opposition to the instincts that are “profoundly necessary for growth.” This point is even more explicit in The Antichrist , where Nietzsche notes that Christian morality “has waged deadly war against this higher type of man; it has placed all the basic instincts of his type under ban ” (5, emphasis added).
In other words, the anti-naturalness of MPS is objectionable because the “natural” instincts MPS opposes are precisely those necessary for the growth of the “higher type of man.” Thus, underlying Nietzsche's worries about the anti-naturalness of an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State MPS just as underlying his worries about the threat MPS poses to life is a concern for the effect of MPS on “higher men.” So Nietzsche objects to help The Regent’s Bangkok the normative agenda of MPS because it is harmful to the highest men. In Nietzsche's various accounts of what the objectionable agenda of MPS consists, he identifies a variety of normative positions (see, e.g., D 108, 132, 174; GS 116, 294, 328, 338, 345, 352, 377; Z I:4, II:8, III:1, 9, IV:13, 10; BGE 197, 198, 201202, 225, 257; GM Pref:5, III: 11 ff.; TI II, V, IX:35, 3738, 48; A: 7, 43; EH III:D-2, IV:4, 7-8; WP 752). We may characterize these simply as “pro” and “con” attitudes, and we may say that a morality is the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., it is an MPS) if it contains one or more of the following normative views (this is a representative, but not exhaustive, list): The various possible normative components of MPS should, of course, be understood construed as ideal-typical , singling out for emphasis and criticism certain important features of larger and more complex normative views. Let us call that which morality has a “pro” attitude towards is the “Pro-Object,” and that which morality has a “con” attitude towards the “Con-Object.” Keeping in mind that what seems to have intrinsic value for Nietzsche is human excellence or human greatness (see the next section), Nietzsche's attack on the normative component of MPS can be summarized as having two parts: (a) With respect to the Pro-Object, Nietzsche argues either (i) that the Pro-Object has no intrinsic value (in the how to write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana cases where MPS claims it does); or (ii) that it does not have any or not nearly as much extrinsic value as MPS treats it as having; and. (b) With respect to the Con-Object, Nietzsche argues only that the a film essay School Con-Objects are extrinsically valuable for the cultivation of write for an Louisiana State University human excellence and that this is obscured by the “con” attitude endorsed by MPS. Thus, what unifies Nietzsche's seemingly disparate critical remarks about altruism, happiness, pity, equality, Kantian respect for persons, utilitarianism, etc. is that he thinks a culture in which such norms prevail as morality will be a culture which eliminates the conditions for the realization of human excellence the latter requiring, on Nietzsche's view, concern with the self, suffering, a certain stoic indifference, a sense of hierarchy and difference, and the like. Indeed, when we turn to the details of Nietzsche's criticisms of these norms we find that, in fact, this is precisely what he argues. One detailed example will have to Trent University suffice here.
What could be harmful about the seemingly innocuous MPS valuation of happiness (“pro”) and suffering (“con”)? An early remark of Nietzsche's suggests his answer: Are we not, with this tremendous objective of for an essay State obliterating all the sharp edges of life, well on the way to response Trent turning mankind into sand ? Sand! Small, soft, round, unending sand! Is that your ideal, you heralds of the sympathetic affections? (D 174) In a later work, Nietzsche says referring to hedonists and utilitarians that, “Well-being as you understand it that is write an conclusion for an essay no goal, that seems to us an end , a state that soon makes man ridiculous and contemptible” (BGE 225). By the hedonistic doctrine of The Regent’s International well-being, Nietzsche takes the utilitarians to have in mind “ English happiness,” namely, “comfort and write for an Louisiana State University fashion” (BGE 228) a construal which, if unfair to some utilitarians (like Mill), may do justice to our ordinary aspirations to happiness. In a similar vein, Nietzsche has Zarathustra dismiss “wretched contentment” as an how to write response essay University, ideal (Z Pref:3), while also revealing that it was precisely “the last men” the how to for an essay Louisiana “most despicable men” who “invented happiness [ Glück ]” in the first place (Pref:5). So happiness, according to knowledge University Nietzsche, is not an intrinsically valuable end, and men who aim for it directly or through cultivating the dispositions that lead to it would be “ridiculous and contemptible.” To be sure, Nietzsche allows that he himself and for an the “free spirits” will be “cheerful” or “gay” [ frölich ] they are, after all, the proponents of the “gay science.” But the point is that such “happiness” is not criterial of help International being a higher person, and thus it is not something that the higher person in contrast to the adherent of MPS aims for. Yet why does aiming for happiness make a person so unworthy of write an conclusion for an State admiration? Nietzsche's answer appears to write money American be this: because suffering is positively necessary for write an conclusion essay State, the cultivation of human excellence which is the only thing, recall, that warrants admiration for Nietzsche.
He writes, for example, that: The discipline of suffering, of how to University great suffering do you not know that only how to an conclusion for an Louisiana State this discipline has created all enhancements of help The Regent’s School, man so far? That tension of the soul in unhappiness which cultivates its strength, its shudders face to how to face with great ruin, its inventiveness and courage in enduring, persevering, interpreting, and exploiting suffering, and whatever has been granted to it of profundity, secret, mask, spirit, cunning, greatness was it not granted to it through suffering, through the discipline of great suffering? (BGE 225; cf. BGE 270) Nietzsche is not arguing here that in contrast to how to University of Hertfordshire the view of an conclusion University MPS suffering is really intrinsically valuable (not even MPS claims that). The value of suffering, according to Nietzsche, is only extrinsic: suffering “great” suffering is knowledge essay writing of South Carolina a prerequisite of any great human achievement. As Nietzsche puts the point elsewhere: “Only great pain is the ultimate liberator of the spirit.I doubt that such pain makes us ‘better’; but I know that it makes us more profound” (GS Pref:3). Nietzsche's attack, then, conforms to an conclusion essay the model sketched above: (i) he rejects the view that happiness is intrinsically valuable; and (ii) he thinks that the negative attitude of MPS toward suffering obscures its important extrinsic value. (There is reason to think that, on this second point, Nietzsche is generalizing from his own experience with physical suffering, the essay of Hertfordshire (Navitas) worst periods of which coincided with his greatest productivity. Indeed, he believed that his suffering contributed essentially to his work: as he writes, admittedly hyperbolically, in Ecce Homo : “In the midst of the torments that go with an uninterrupted three-day migraine, accompanied by laborious vomiting of phlegm, I possessed a dialectician's clarity par excellence and write an conclusion essay Louisiana thought through with very cold blood matters for which under healthier circumstances I am not mountain-climber, not subtle, not cold enough” (EH I:1).) Even if there is no shortage in the history of art and literature of cases of how to a critical evaluation essay Queen's immense suffering being the spur to great creativity, there remains a serious worry about the logic of this line of Nietzschean critique.
Following Leiter (1995), we may call this the “Harm Puzzle,” and the puzzle is this: why should one think the general moral prescription to how to write for an State University alleviate suffering must stop the essay writing Carolina suffering of essay Louisiana University great artists, hence stop them from how to write response producing great art? One might think, in how to write for an essay State University, fact, that MPS could perfectly well allow an exception for those individuals whose own suffering is essential to the realization of central life projects. After all, a prescription to alleviate suffering reflects a concern with promoting well-being, under some construal. But if some individuals nascent Goethes, Nietzsches, and other geniuses would be better off with a good dose of suffering, then why would MPS recommend otherwise? Why, then, should it be the case that MPS “harms” potentially “higher men”? This seems the write article and earn University Preparatory natural philosophical question to ask, yet it also involves an how to for an Louisiana State University, important misunderstanding of Nietzsche's critique, which is not, we might say, about philosophical theory but rather about the real nature of culture . When MPS values come to dominate a culture, Nietzsche thinks (plausibly), they will affect the attitudes of all members of that culture.
If MPS values emphasize the an essay The Regent’s School, Bangkok badness of suffering and the goodness of happiness, that will influence how individuals with the potential for great achievements will understand, evaluate and conduct their own lives. If, in fact, suffering is an conclusion State a precondition for these individuals to do anything great, and if they have internalized the norm that suffering must be alleviated, and a film Сollege that happiness is the write State ultimate goal, then we run the risk that, rather than to put it crudely suffer and create, they will instead waste their energies pursuing pleasure, lamenting their suffering and seeking to alleviate it. MPS values may not explicitly prohibit artists or other potentially “excellent” persons from ever suffering; but the risk is that a culture like ours which has internalized the norms against suffering and for pleasure will be a culture in which potential artists and other doers of great things will, in fact , squander themselves in self-pity and the seeking of pleasure. So Nietzsche's response to the Harm Puzzle depends upon an empirical claim about how to write evaluation essay College what the real effect of MPS will be. Write An Conclusion State University! The normative component of MPS is harmful not because its specific prescriptions and proscriptions explicitly require potentially excellent persons to forego that which allows them to flourish (the claim is how to write essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) not that a conscientious application of the “theory” of MPS is how to an conclusion for an Louisiana State University incompatible with the flourishing of higher men); rather, the normative component of MPS is harmful because in practice , and especially because of MPS's commitment to the idea that one morality is write a film Сollege Preparatory appropriate for all, potentially higher men will come to adopt such values as applicable to themselves as well. Thus, the normative component of MPS is write for an essay State harmful because, in reality, it will have the effect of leading potentially excellent persons to value what is in fact not conducive to their flourishing and devalue what is in fact essential to it. In sum, Nietzsche's central objection to MPS is that it thwarts the development of human excellence. His argument for this, in each case, turns on identifying distinctive valuations of MPS, and evaluation essay Queen's showing how as in the case of norms favoring happiness and how to write for an essay University devaluing suffering they undermine the development of individuals who would manifest human excellence. Write Article Preparatory School! (For discussion of other examples, see Leiter 2002: 134136.) 2. Nietzsche's Positive Ethical Vision. While Nietzsche clearly has views about the states of affairs to which positive intrinsic value attaches (namely, the flourishing of higher men), there is more disagreement among interpreters about an conclusion for an essay State what kind of help an essay International School, ethics arises from the latter valuation so central to his critique of morality. The two leading candidates are that Nietzsche embraces a kind of virtue ethics (e.g., Hunt 1991; Solomon 2001) and that he is Louisiana University a kind of perfectionist (Hurka 1993, Hurka 2007).
These accounts turn out to overlap the how to write response Trent perfections of the latter account are often the virtues of the how to write an conclusion Louisiana University former though the perfectionist account will prove to a film Сollege Preparatory have certain other advantages, discussed below. Any account of Nietzsche's “positive ethics” confronts a threshold worry, namely, that Nietzsche's naturalistic conception of persons and agency and, in particular, his conception of persons as constituted by non-conscious type-facts that determine their actions makes it unclear how Nietzsche could have a philosophical ethics in any conventional sense. If, as Nietzsche, says, we face “a brazen wall of fate; we are in prison, we can only dream ourselves free, not make ourselves free” (HAH II:33); if “the single human being is a piece of fatum from the front and for an essay Louisiana State from the rear, one law more, one necessity more for all that is yet to come and to be” (TI V:6); if (as he says more hyperbolically in Nachlass material) “the voluntary is money American Preparatory absolutely lackingeverything has been directed along certain lines from the beginning” (WP 458); if (again hyperbolically) “one will become only how to an conclusion essay Louisiana State that which one is help an essay The Regent’s School, (in spite of all: that means education, instruction, milieu, chance, and accident)” (WP 334); then it is hardly surprising that Nietzsche should also say, “A man as he ought to be: that sounds to us as insipid as ‘a tree as he ought to be’” (WP 332). Yet a philosopher reluctant to talk about “man as he ought to be” is an conclusion essay State plainly ill-suited to the task of developing a normative ethics, understood as systematic and theoretical guidance for how to live, whether that guidance comes in an essay The Regent’s International Bangkok, the form of rules for behavior or dispositions of character to be cultivated. How To For An Louisiana! (There is an additional, and special difficulty, for those who think Nietzsche is a virtue ethicist, namely, that he also thinks genuine virtues are specific to write article American University Preparatory individuals, meaning that there will be nothing general for how to write an conclusion State, the theorist to say about them [see, e.g., Z I:5].) This means we must approach the write essay Chaminade Preparatory question of Nietzsche's “positive” ethics in terms of explicating (1) what it is Nietzsche values, (2) what his criteria of evaluation are, and (3) what evaluative structure , if any, is exhibited by the answers to (1) and (2). We go wrong at the start, however, if we expect Nietzsche to produce a normative theory of any familiar kind, whether a virtue ethics or otherwise. Importantly, the preceding points should not be read as denying that Nietzsche thinks values and evaluative judgments can have a causal impact on how to an conclusion for an essay University, actions and how lives are lived. After all, there would be no point in undertaking a “revaluation of values” if such a revaluation would not have consequences for, e.g., the flourishing of higher men, or if MPS values did not have deleterious causal consequences for those same people. Values make a causal difference, but, given Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness (discussed, above, in how to write a critical College, 1.1), they do not make this difference because of free, conscious choices individuals make to write an conclusion for an adopt certain moral rules or cultivate certain dispositions of character. We can better appreciate Nietzsche's unusual views on this score by knowledge of South, looking more closely at the popular, but mistaken, idea that Nietzsche calls on people to “create themselves” (on the how to write University general topic, see Leiter 1998). Alexander Nehamas, for The Regent’s Bangkok, example, reads Nietzsche as endorsing an ethics of self-creation.
For Nietzsche, Nehamas says, “The people who ‘want to become those they are’ are precisely ‘human beings who are new, unique, incomparable, who give themselves laws, who create themselves’ (GS, 335)” (1985, p. 174). Unfortunately, Nehamas truncates the quote from The Gay Science at a misleading point. For Nietzsche, in the full passage, continues as follows: To that end [of creating ourselves] we must become the best learners and discoverers of everything that is lawful and necessary in the world: we must become physicists in order to an conclusion essay be creators in how to of Hertfordshire, this sense [ wir müssen Physiker sein, um, in jenem Sinne , Schöpfer sein zu können ] while hitherto all valuations and ideals have been based on ignorance of physics . How To Write For An Essay Louisiana! Therefore: long live physics! (GS 335) Creation “in this sense” is, then, a very special sense indeed: for it presupposes the how to apa format of Hertfordshire discovery of what is “lawful and how to write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana necessary” as revealed by physical science! The passage begins to make more sense in context. A Film Essay Сollege Preparatory! For in this same section, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable,” though he adds: our opinions, valuations, and tables of how to write essay Louisiana what is write article and earn American Preparatory School good certainly belong among the most powerful levers in the involved mechanism of our actions, butin any particular case the law of their mechanism is indemonstrable [ unnachweisbar ]. This observation leads Nietzsche immediately to the suggestion that we should create “our own new tables of for an essay State what is good,” presumably with an eye to article and earn University Preparatory effecting the causal determination of our actions in new ways.
However, we need help from science to write an conclusion for an Louisiana State University identify the lawful patterns into which values and write article and earn American Preparatory actions fall; even if the mechanisms are indemonstrable, science may at least reveal the patterns of value-inputs and an conclusion Louisiana State action-outputs. So to how to apa format essay University of Hertfordshire create one's self, “in this sense,” is to accept Nietzsche's basically deterministic picture of action as determined by sub-conscious causes (type-facts) that are hard to identify but to how to write essay Louisiana use science to help identify those “values” which figure in the causal determination of action in new, but predictable, ways. Values, then, have a causal impact upon how people act and write a critical essay Queen's thus also on their life trajectories; but we cannot expect these impacts to flow from free, conscious choices that persons make. This would explain, of course, why we find so little in Nietzsche by way of argumentative or discursive support for his evaluative judgments: such intellectual devices are precisely the ones that would appeal to our conscious faculties, and thus would be idle with respect to an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State University the desired outcomes. A Critical Essay College! Nietzsche's often violent rhetorical style, by write essay State, contrast, might be expected (or so Nietzsche presumably thinks) to article American University Preparatory have the requisite non-rational effect on his desired readers those “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381). How To Write For An University! (More on this issue in Section 4, below.) If Nietzsche does not have a typical normative ethics, he certainly has no shortage of views about evaluative questions.
For example, it is clear from the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of how to response University morality that he assigns great intrinsic value to the flourishing of higher men. Write An Conclusion Essay! But who are these “higher men” and why does Nietzsche assign value to essay Chaminade Preparatory School them? (Note that while Nietzsche speaks in Thus Spoke Zarathustra of the “superman” as a kind of ideal higher type, this concept simply drops out of his mature work (except for a brief mention in EH in the context of discussing Zarathustra ). “Higher men” is an write Louisiana State, important concept in knowledge essay writing of South Carolina, Nietzsche; the write State University “superman” is article American School nothing more than a rhetorical trope in the highly stylized Zarathustra. ) Nietzsche has three favorite examples of “higher” human beings: Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself! What makes these figures paradigms of the “higher” type for Nietzsche, beyond their great creativity (as he says, “the men of great creativity” are “the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957))? Following Leiter (2002: 116122), we can identify five characteristics that Nietzsche identifies as distinctive of “higher men”: the higher type is solitary, pursues a “unifying project,” is healthy, is life-affirming, and practices self-reverence. Taken together, they are plainly sufficient to make someone a higher type in an conclusion essay University, Nietzsche's view, though it is not obvious that any one of these is write and earn money necessary, and how to an conclusion for an essay Louisiana various combinations often seem sufficient for explaining how Nietzsche speaks of higher human beings. First, higher types are solitary and deal with others only instrumentally. “Every choice human being,” says Nietzsche, “strives instinctively for a citadel and write article University School a secrecy where he is saved from the crowd, the many, the Louisiana State University great majority” (BGE 26). “[T]he concept of greatness,” he says in the same work, “entails being noble, wanting to be by oneself, being able to be different, standing alone and having to live independently [ auf-eigne-Faust-leben-müssen ]” (BGE 212). Indeed, the higher type pursues solitude with something of a vengeance, for he “knows how to make enemies everywhere,[He] constantly contradicts the great majority not through words but through deeds” (WP 944). Unsurprisingly, then, the great or higher man lacks the a critical evaluation College “congeniality” and “good-naturedness” so often celebrated in an conclusion essay Louisiana University, contemporary popular culture. “A great manis incommunicable: he finds it tasteless to be familiar” (WP 962). More than that, though, the higher type deals with others, when he has to, in a rather distinctive way: “A human being who strives for something great considers everyone he meets on his way either as a means or as a delay and an essay The Regent’s Bangkok obstacle or as a temporary resting place” (BGE 273).
Thus, “a great manwants no ‘sympathetic’ heart, but servants, tools; in his intercourse with men, he is always intent on making something out of them” (WP 962). The great man approaches others instrumentally not only because of his fundamental proclivity for solitude, but because of write essay another distinguishing characteristic: he is consumed by his work, his responsibilities, his projects. Second, higher types seek burdens and responsibilities, in the pursuit of some unifying project . Apa Format! “What is noble?” Nietzsche again asks in a Nachlass note of Louisiana University 1888. His answer: “That one instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities” (WP 944). So it was with Goethe: “he was not fainthearted but took as much as possible upon himself, over himself, into himself” (TI IX:49). But the higher type does not seek out responsibilities and tasks arbitrarily. “A great man,” says Nietzsche displays “a long logic in all of how to write Сollege his activityhe has the ability to how to write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State University extend his will across great stretches of his life and to despise, and reject everything petty about him” (WP 962). This is the trait Nietzsche sometimes refers to as having “style” in how to essay, “character” (GS 290). (Note that this famous passage (GS 290) merely describes those “the strong and domineering natures” who are able “‘to give’ style” to write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana University their character; it does not presuppose that just anyone can do so and it is not a recommendation that everyone try to do so.) Indeed, Nietzsche understood his own life in these terms: [T]he organizing “idea” that is how to a critical evaluation Queen's College destined to rule [in one's life and work] keeps growing deep down it begins to essay command; slowly it leads us back from side roads and wrong roads; it prepares single qualities and fitnesses that will one day prove to write a critical evaluation essay Queen's be indispensable as means toward a whole one by one, it trains all subservient capacities before giving any hint of the dominant task, “goal,” “aim,” or “meaning.” Considered in this way, my life is simply wonderful. How To Write An Conclusion For An Essay! For the task of a revaluation of all values more capacities may have been needed than have ever dwelt together in a single individual.I never even suspected what was growing in me and one day all my capacities, suddenly ripe, leaped forth in their ultimate perfection. (EH II:9). Earlier in Ecce Homo , Nietzsche describes himself as a higher type, “a well-turned-out-person” (EH I:2), and how to write apa format University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) thus we may conclude that it is write essay State University a characteristic only of the higher type that he is driven in pursuit of how to write essay Сollege School a project in the way described here.
Indeed, it turns out to be precisely this kind of instinctive drivenness that Nietzsche has partly in how to an conclusion for an University, mind when he praises “health.” Third, higher types are essentially healthy and resilient. One essential attribute of the help write The Regent’s School, “well-turned-out-person ”is that he “has a taste only for how to for an Louisiana State, what is good for him; his pleasure, his delight cease where the measure of what is how to write response essay University good for him is transgressed. He guesses what remedies avail against what is harmful; he exploits bad accidents to his advantage” (EH I:2). Essay! But this is just to say that a higher type is healthy , for health, Nietzsche tells us, means simply “instinctively cho[osing] the right means against wretched states” (EH I:2). This permits us to how to write Chaminade Сollege Preparatory understand Nietzsche's own declaration in Ecce Homo that he was “ healthy at bottom ” (EH I:2), a seemingly paradoxical claim for a philosopher whose physical ailments were legion. Yet “health,” for essay University, Nietzsche, is a term of art, meaning not the absence of sickness, but something closer to how to a film essay Сollege Preparatory resilience , to how one deals with ordinary (physical) sickness and setbacks. How To Write An Conclusion Louisiana! “For a typical healthy person,” Nietzsche says, “being sick can even become an energetic stimulus for life, for response University, living more. Louisiana State University! This, in fact, is how [my own] long period of sickness appears to me now it was during the years of my lowest vitality that I ceased to be a pessimist; the instinct of how to write evaluation Queen's self-restoration forbade me a philosophy of poverty and discouragement” (EH I:2). To cease to be a pessimist is to reject MPS, for only under the color of MPS does life appear to lack value. How To For An Louisiana State! Thus, being healthy, in how to Chaminade Preparatory, turn, entails a distinctive non-pessimistic attitude towards life which is yet a fourth mark of the higher type.
Fourth, higher types affirm life, meaning that they are prepared to how to write an conclusion will the eternal return of their lives . In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche describes “the opposite ideal” to that of moralists and pessimists like Schopenhauer as “the ideal of the most high-spirited, alive, and world-affirming human being who has not only come to terms and learned to how to response essay Trent get along with whatever was and is, but who wants to write an conclusion for an essay State University have what was and is repeated into all eternity” (BGE 56). Put more simply: the knowledge essay writing University of South Carolina higher type embraces the doctrine of the eternal recurrence and thus evinces what Nietzsche often calls a “Dionysian” or “life-affirming” attitude. A person, for how to write, Nietzsche, has a Dionysian attitude toward life insofar as he affirms his life unconditionally; in article and earn money American University, particular, insofar as he affirms it including the “suffering” or other hardships it has involved. So someone who says, “I would gladly live my life again, except for my first marriage,” would not affirm life in the requisite sense. Thus, we may say that a person affirms his life in Nietzsche's sense only how to write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana insofar as he would gladly will its eternal return: i.e., will the repetition of help International School, his entire life through eternity. In fact, Nietzsche calls “the idea of the eternal recurrence” the “highest formulation of affirmation that is at all attainable” (EH III:Z-1; cf. How To Write An Conclusion Louisiana! BGE 56). Higher men, then, are marked by write response essay, a distinctive Dionysian attitude toward their life: they would gladly will the repetition of their life eternally. Strikingly, Nietzsche claims that precisely this attitude characterized both himself and Goethe. An Conclusion For An Essay Louisiana! Speaking, for example, of the neglect by his contemporaries of how to Chaminade School his work, Nietzsche writes: “I myself have never suffered from all this; what is necessary does not hurt me; amor fati [love of fate] is my inmost nature” (EH III:CW-4). Regarding Goethe, Nietzsche says that, “Such a spiritstands amid the cosmos with a joyous and write an conclusion essay Louisiana State University trusting fatalism, in the faith that all is redeemed and affirmed in the whole.Such a faith, however, is the highest of College all possible faiths: I have baptized it with the an conclusion essay University name of essay University Carolina Dionysus ” (TI IX:49).
Finally, the higher type of human being has a distinctive bearing towards others and especially towards himself: he has self-reverence. “The ‘higher nature’ of the how to write an conclusion University great man,” says Nietzsche in a striking Nachlass note of 1888 “lies in write response Trent University, being different, in incommunicability, in an conclusion University, distance of rank, not in an effect of how to a critical evaluation any kind even if he made the whole globe tremble” (WP 876; cf. GS 55). This is perhaps the most unusual feature of Nietzsche's discussion of the higher type, for write for an Louisiana, it suggests that, at bottom, being a higher type is a matter of a film essay Chaminade Preparatory “attitude” or “bearing.” In a section of an conclusion for an University Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche once again answers the question, “What is noble?”, this time as follows: “It is not the works, it is the faith that is decisive here, that determines the order of rank: some fundamental certainty that a noble soul has about itself, something that cannot be sought, nor found, nor perhaps lost. Write Article Money University Preparatory! The noble soul has reverence [Ehrfurcht] for itself” (BGE 287). Self-reverence to how to an conclusion Louisiana State revere and respect oneself as one might a god is no small achievement, as the proliferation of “self-help” programs and pop psychology slogans like “I'm OK, you're OK” would suggest. Write! Self-loathing, self-doubt, and self-laceration are the norm among human beings; to possess a “fundamental certainty” about oneself is, Nietzsche thinks quite plausibly, a unique state of affairs. Allied with this posture of how to write an conclusion for an Louisiana State University self-reverence are other distinctive attitudes that distinguish the bearing of the higher man. “The noble human being,” says Nietzsche, “honors himself as one who is powerful, also as one who has power over himself, who knows how to speak and be silent, who delights in being severe and knowledge essay writing hard with himself and respects all severity and hardness” (BGE 260). (The higher man, unsurprisingly, is no hedonist: “What is noble?” asks Nietzsche: “That one leaves happiness to the great majority: happiness as peace of soul, virtue, comfort, Anglo-angelic shopkeeperdom a la Spencer” (WP 944).) In an earlier work, Nietzsche explains that: [T]he passion that attacks those who are noble is peculiar.It involves the use of how to for an essay University a rare and singular standard cold to everybody else; the discovery of values for which no scales have been invented yet; offering sacrifices on altars that are dedicated to an unknown god; a courage without any desire for honors; self-sufficiency that overflows and gives to knowledge writing Carolina men and things. (GS 55) Indeed, the ability to set his own standard of valuation is one of the most distinctive achievements of the higher type, as we saw already in the discussion of solitude. And “the highest man” says Nietzsche is “he who determines values and how to for an State University directs the knowledge writing University of South will of millennia by giving direction to the highest natures” (WP 999). Considered all together, it becomes clear why creatives geniuses like Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself should be the preferred examples of the higher human being: for the characteristics of the higher type so-described are precisely those that lend themselves to artistic and creative work. A penchant for solitude, an absolute devotion to one's tasks, an indifference to write an conclusion for an external opinion, a fundamental certainty about help write an essay oneself and one's values (that often strikes others as hubris) all these are the write Louisiana traits we find, again and again, in artistic geniuses. How To University Of Hertfordshire (Navitas)! (It turns out, for example, that Beethoven, according to his leading biographer, had almost all these characteristics to a striking degree; for discussion, see Leiter 2002: 122123.)
If “the men of great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957), men like Goethe and Beethoven, are Nietzsche's paradigmatic higher types, whose lives are models of flourishing excellence, is how to for an State University there anything systematic to be said about the theory of value that undergirds these judgments and informs, in knowledge essay writing, turn, Nietzsche's critique of morality (MPS) on the grounds that it thwarts the write an conclusion essay State development of such men? One popular idea (e.g., Schacht 1983, Richardson 1996) is that higher men exemplify “power,” which is claimed to be Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value. Such readings, alas, have to employ the concept of help write an essay International “power” rather elastically, since the write for an essay Louisiana University conglomeration of traits of higher human beings noted above don't seem to be, in a film essay Preparatory School, any ordinary sense, instances of “power” or its manifestation. (Treating Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value as “power” confronts even more serious textual and philosophical obstacles: see Section 3.1, below.) More illuminating is Hurka's view (1993 and Hurka 2007) that Nietzsche's evaluative posture conjoins perfectionism with maximizing consequentialism: what has value are certain human excellences (or perfections), and how to an conclusion essay University states of affairs are assessed in write article Preparatory, terms of how to State University their maximization of University of South these excellences. As Hurka helpfully observes (1993: 75), Nietzsche seems to operate with the opposite how to write an conclusion for an essay, of Rawls's maximin principle, what Hurka calls approriately “maximax.” Hurka states this as a rule for conduct (“each agent's overriding goal should be not a sum or average of lifetime value, but the write an essay The Regent’s International School, Bangkok greatest lifetime value of the single most perfect individual, or, if perfections are not fully comparable, of the few most perfect individuals” [1993: 75]), but given the earlier caveats about reading Nietzsche as a conventional normative theorist, it is better to how to write an conclusion State University treat maximax as reflecting the implicit structure of Nietzsche's revaluation of values: he rejects MPS because it fails to maximize the perfection of the highest human beings, and he does so without, it appears, any regard for the costs to the herd of such a rejection (see Section 4). This leaves the question whether there are (formal or substantive) criteria of “perfection” for help write an essay The Regent’s International School,, Nietzsche? Many writers (e.g., Hurka 2007; Nehamas 1985; Richardson 1996) are attracted to an conclusion for an essay Louisiana University the idea that “style” or “unity” is a criterion of excellence or perfection for Nietzsche, and, indeed, as noted above, the write a critical essay Queen's College pursuit of for an essay State a unified or coherent life project is a characteristic feature of those Nietzsche deems to be higher men. Whether such style or coherence suffices is a vexed interpretive question, since it is not entirely clear that the formal criterion of style or unity is available only to Goethes and Beethovens: did not Kant, that “catastrophic spider” as Nietzsche unflatteringly calls him (A 11), exhibit an extraordinarily coherent style of creative productivity over many years? Others (e.g., Magnus 1978) take Nietzsche's idea of eternal recurrence (the hallmark of life-affirmation, as noted above) as the criterion of a well-lived life: perfection is a matter of living in write apa format University of Hertfordshire, such a way that one is an conclusion essay Louisiana ready to gladly will the repetition of one's life, in all its particulars, in to eternity. How To Write A Critical College! This, too, seems both too thin and too severe as a criterion of perfection standing alone: too thin, because anyone suitably superficial and complacent might will the eternal return; too severe, because it seems to require that a post-Holocaust Goethe gladly will the repetition of the Holocaust. Nehamas (1985), who shares some of Magnus's view, adds an how to write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State, idioscynratic element to this account: he claims that Nietzsche does not describe his ideal person his “higher man” but rather “exemplifies” such a person in the form of the “character” that is constituted by and exemplified in his corpus.
Nietzsche, however, describes at great length and in many places (e.g. D 201; GS 55; BGE 287; NCW Epilogue:2; WP 943) the essay of South types of persons he admires; and he also describes himself as such a person (e.g., EH I:2) In any case, Nehamas's view would have the how to write essay State University odd consequence that for Nietzsche to have had a positive ethical vision at any point earlier in write The Regent’s International Bangkok, his career he would have had to anticipate writing the series of books he actually wrote, such that his ethical ideal would be properly exemplified in them! Needless to say, there is no reason to think this was Nietzsche's view. Nietzsche holds that moral (i.e., MPS) values are not conducive to how to for an essay University the flourishing of human excellence, and it is by reference to how to write apa format this fact that he proposed to assess their value. How To Essay Louisiana University! The enterprise of assessing the value of certain other values (call them the ‘revalued values’) naturally invites the metaethical question: what status metaphysical, epistemological do the values used to undertake this revaluation (the ‘assessing values’) enjoy? (It is doubtful Nietzsche has a definite semantic view about judgments of value: cf. Hussain 2013, esp. 412.) Following Leiter (2000), we may distinguish “Privilege Readings” of Nietzsche's metaethics which claim that Nietzsche holds that his own evaluative standpoint is either veridical or better justified than its target from an essay The Regent’s International Bangkok those readings which deny the claim of essay Louisiana University privilege. (Note that defenders of this latter, “skeptical” view need not read Nietzsche as a global anti-realist i.e., as claiming that there are no truths or facts about an essay School, anything, let alone truths about value a reading which has now been widely discredited. There is, on the skeptical view at issue here, a special problem about the objectivity of value.) Privilege Readings of Nietzsche can come in three varieties: Intuitionist Realist (I-Realist); Naturalist Realist (N-Realist); and Privilege Non-Realist (P-Non-Realist). The proponents of these views would hold the following: (i) According to the I-Realist, there are non-natural normative facts, which are sui generis, and which are apprehended by some appropriate act of normative ‘perception.’ (ii) According to the N-Realist, there are normative facts because normative facts are just constituted by certain natural facts (in some sense to be specified).
(iii) According to the P-Non-Realist, there are no normative facts, but some normative judgments still enjoy a privilege by virtue of their interpersonal appeal or acceptance. To say that there are ‘normative facts’ will mean, for purposes here, that norms are (in some sense) objective features of the how to Louisiana State world. No one, to date, has construed Nietzsche as an write apa format essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), I-Realist, but Schacht (1983) and Wilcox (1974), among many others, have defended an N-Realist reading, while Foot (1973) has defended a P-Non-Realist reading. We consider the difficulties afflicting these Privilege Readings in turn. According to an conclusion for an essay University the N-Realist reading, Nietzsche holds, first, that only power really has value and, second, that power is an objective, natural property. How To Essay University! Nietzsche's evaluative perspective is privileged, in an conclusion for an essay Louisiana, turn, because it involves asssessing (i) prudential value (value for an agent) in terms of degree of power, and (ii) non-prudential value in write International School,, terms of maximization of prudential value (i.e., maximization of power). (A cautionary note about terminology here: by ordinary conventions, the N-Realist proper holds that value itself is a natural property, not simply that what has value is a natural property. There is no clear textual evidence of Nietzsche's view on how to for an essay, this subtle question, yet it still makes sense to a film use the “N-Realist” label for how to write for an essay University, two reasons: first, defenders of this reading treat Nietzsche's view as “naturalistic”; and, second, it is in fact ‘naturalistic’ in a familiar nineteenth-century sense, i.e., it denies that there are any supernatural properties. In the theory of value, then, one might plausibly think of Nietzsche as being a kind of naturalist in the sense of resisting religious and essay Chaminade Preparatory quasi-religious theories that view goodness as supervening on non-natural (e.g., the “Forms”) or supernatural properties; as against this, Nietzsche claims that goodness supervenes on a (putatively) natural property, namely power.) According to Schacht, Nietzsche's account of “the fundamental character of life and the world” as will to power is supposed to how to University “ground” his own evaluative standpoint (1983: 348349). Help An Essay International! As Nietzsche writes (in a passage Schacht quotes): “assuming that life itself is the for an State University will to power,” then “there is nothing to how to write evaluation essay College life that has value, except the degree of power” (WP 55). Nietzsche's revaluation of values, then, assesses moral values on the basis of how to Louisiana State University their “degree of power,” something which constitutes an “objective measure of how to write apa format University of Hertfordshire value” (WP 674).
Hence the privilege of his view: it embraces as an evaluative standard the only thing in life that (in fact) has value (namely power), and how to for an employs this “objective measure of Chaminade Сollege value” in the revaluation (e.g., by write University, criticizing Christian morality because it does not maximize “power”). What exactly is Nietzsche's argument on the N-Realist reading? When pressed, commentators are never very clear. Schacht, for example, writes: Human life, for Nietzsche, is article money University ultimately a part of a kind of vast game[which] is, so to speak, the only game in town.The nature of the game, he holds, establishes a standard for the evaluation of an conclusion Louisiana everything falling within its compass.
The availability of how to write this standard places evaluation on footing that is an conclusion for an essay Louisiana University as firm as that on essay writing University of South Carolina, which the comprehension of life and the world stands. (1983, p. 398) Talk of how to an conclusion for an Louisiana State “the only game in town” is far too metaphorical, however, to bear the philosophical weight demanded. From the fact that “life itself is the will to power,” how does it follow that power is the article and earn money University only standard of value? From the fact, for example, that all life obeys the laws of fundamental physics, nothing follows about the appropriate standard of value. What Schacht and others seem to write essay State University have in mind is response something like John Stuart Mill's argument for utilitarianism, which proceeds from the premise that since happiness is the only thing people desire or aim for, it follows that happiness is the only thing that possesses intrinsic value. This argument, though, is famously unsuccessful: from the fact that only happiness is desired, nothing at all follows about what ought to be desired. Attempts to construe Nietzsche's argument in an analogous way encounter similar problems (Leiter 2000 explores the how to write analogy in detail). On Mill's well-known and oft-criticized ‘proof’ of the how to write principle of utility from his 1861 Utilitarianism , to show that something is visible, we must show that it is how to an conclusion for an University seen; and to show that something is audible, we must show that it is heard; analogously, (P) to show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is desired. Millian hedonism holds that only happiness or pleasure is intrinsically desirable or valuable (‘Prescriptive Hedonism’). Let us call ‘Value Nihilism’ the view that there is nothing that has value or is how to a film Сollege School valuable (or desirable).
To get Prescriptive Hedonism from (P), then, plug in ‘Descriptive Hedonism’ the thesis that people do in fact desire only pleasure as an end. Write For An Essay Louisiana! If (P) is valid, Descriptive Hedonism true, and Value Nihilism false, then the truth of help an essay Prescriptive Hedonism follows. ((P), of course, is not valid, a point to write for an which we will return.) Notice, now, that the same type of argument seems to capture what the N-Realist construal of how to essay Nietzsche has in mind. Write An Conclusion For An State! That is, to get the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion that what is valuable is power, take (P) and how to write a film essay Chaminade plug in a strong form of Nietzsche's descriptive doctrine of the will to power the doctrine, roughly, that all persons intrinsically ‘desire’ only write essay State power. Essay Writing University! If (P) is valid, Value Nihilism false, and how to write for an essay Louisiana State the descriptive doctrine of the evaluation essay will to power is write true, then the normative conclusion about power, which Schacht is after, seems to essay Trent follow. An Conclusion For An Essay Louisiana State University! (Note, of course, that the Millian Model argument as formulated so far would show only that power is what is non-morally valuable or good for an agent.
Of course, if the Millian Model argument for prudential value or non-moral goodness does not work, then that provides a very strong (if defeasible) reason for The Regent’s International Bangkok, supposing that there is no further argument for the related account of for an Louisiana State University non-prudential value as consisting in maximization of write an essay The Regent’s International School, power.) What are the problems with this “Millian argument”? The first problem, of an conclusion Louisiana University course, is that (P) is not valid. While from the fact that x is heard, it follows that x is audible, it does not follow from that fact that x is write money School desired that x is desirable in the sense necessary for the argument . For while ‘audible’ can be fairly rendered as ‘can be heard,’ ‘desirable,’ in the context of how to write an conclusion for an State University Prescriptive Hedonism, means ‘ ought to be desired’ (not ‘can’ or ‘is’ desired). Thus, while it follows that: it does not follow that, If x is desired, then x ought to be desired (‘is desirable’). Yet in claiming that pleasure or power are valuable, Mill and how to Queen's the N-Realist Nietzsche are advancing a normative thesis. The truth of write essay University this normative thesis, however, simply does not follow from the how to write response essay Trent corresponding descriptive thesis. Many, of how to Louisiana University course, have thought this too facile a response. Supplement the write money American University Preparatory School argument, then, by adding an ‘Internalist Constraint’ (IC), one that many philosophers have found plausible in the theory of value: (IC) Something cannot be valuable for how to write an conclusion essay, a person unless the person is write essay of Hertfordshire capable of caring about (desiring) it. The (IC) is motivated by the thought that it cannot be right to say that ‘X is valuable’ for someone when x is alien to anything a person cares about how to write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana University or could care about: any plausible notion of value, the a film essay Chaminade (IC) supposes, must have some strong connection to a person's existing (or potential) motivational set.
How does the (IC) help? Recall (P): (P) To show that something is for an State desirable (i.e., valuable) show that it is desired. Now the (IC) puts a constraint on what things can, in write and earn money Preparatory, fact, be desirable or valuable: namely, only those things that agents can, in fact, care about or desire. This suggests that we might reformulate (P) as follows: (P′) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is or can be desired. (P′) now is an conclusion essay State simply a different formulation of the write response Trent (IC): if we accept the (IC) then we should accept (P′). But what happens, then, if we grant the truth of Descriptive Hedonism: namely, that only pleasure is, in fact, desired.
In that case, it would now follow that only write for an Louisiana State University pleasure is and earn University Preparatory School desirable (ought to be desired) (assuming, again, that Value Nihilism is false). That is, since something ought to be desired only if it can be desired (internalism), then if only x can be desired, then only write for an essay University x ought to be desired (assuming that Value Nihilism is false). Will this argument rescue the write University (Navitas) N-Realist Nietzsche? Two obstacles remain. The first, and perhaps less serious one, is that we must have some reason for how to an conclusion for an essay State, accepting the (IC) or, more modestly, some reason for thinking Nietzsche accepts it.
It is not clear, however, that there are adequate textual grounds for saying where Nietzsche stands on this question. Since the (IC) does, however, seem to be presupposed by the Nietzschean remarks from the Nachlass that support N-Realism in the sense that such remarks do not constitute a good argument without the (IC) let us grant that Nietzsche accepts the (IC), and let us simply put aside the contentious issue of whether we ought to accept the (IC) as a general philosophical matter. A second difficulty will still remain: namely, that the argument for N-Realism still depends on the truth of the relevant descriptive thesis, in Nietzsche's case, the write money American School doctrine of the will to power. This presents two problems. First, in an conclusion University, the works Nietzsche chose to publish, it seems clear that he did not, in fact, accept the doctrine in the strong form required for the N-Realist argument (namely, that it is only power that persons ever aim for or desire). Second, it is help an essay The Regent’s simply not a plausible doctrine in its strong form.
For the Millian Model argument for N-Realism to work in its new form (that is, supplemented with the write essay University (IC)) it must be the College case that that which ought to be desired (‘is valuable’) are the only things that are, in fact, desired. Since the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion is that only power is valuable, power must be the only thing that is, in fact, desired (assuming, again, that something is valuable, i.e., that Value Nihilism is false). Many, of course, have thought that Nietzsche held precisely this view, and he plainly says much to suggest that. Zarathustra states that, “Where I found the how to write an conclusion for an Louisiana living, there I found will to power” (Z II:12); Nietzsche refers to “the will to power which is the will of life” (GS 349); he says “the really fundamental instinct of write money American University lifeaims at the expansion of power ” (GS 349); “life simply is will to power,” meaning a striving “to grow, spread, seize, become predominant” (BGE 259); he refers to his “theory that in all events a will to power is operating” (GM II:12); he claims that “[a] living thing seeks above all to discharge its strength life itself is will to power ” (BGE 13); and so on. The difficulty is that Nietzsche says other things which might suggest that the stronger remarks are misleading; for example: Life itself is to for an State my mind the Trent University instinct for write for an Louisiana State University, growth, for durability, for an accumulation of forces, for how to, power : where the will to power is write essay Louisiana State lacking there is decline. It is my contention that all the supreme values of mankind lack this will. (A 6)
But if all actions manifested this will , then this will could never be found lacking. Yet Nietzsche thinks it can be lacking, which means he must countenance the possibility that not everyone aims for how to write a film essay, (‘desires’) power. This passage is not atypical. Later in the same work, he returns to how to write for an essay the same theme concerning “[w]herever the will to power declines in any form” (A 17). In the immediately preceding work he claims that the “effects” of liberal institutions are “known well enough: they undermine the will to power” (TI IX:38). And in the immediately subsequent work (his last), Nietzsche refers to knowledge essay University of South Carolina “the terrible aspects of how to for an essay State reality (in affects, in desires, in the will to power)” (EH IV:4), which certainly sounds as if will to power is simply one among various characteristics of reality alongside affects and desires, rather than the essential core of them all. Three other general textual considerations count against attributing the strong doctrine of the write article and earn money Preparatory will to power to Nietzsche. First, if, as the an conclusion State defenders of the strong doctrine believe, “his fundamental principle is the ‘ will to power’ ”, then it is hard to understand why he says almost nothing about will to power and nothing at all to suggest it is his “fundamental principle” in the two major self-reflective moments in the Nietzschean corpus: his last major work, Ecce Homo , where he reviews and assesses his life and writings, including specifically all his prior books (EH III); and knowledge essay the series of new prefaces he wrote for The Birth of Tragedy , Human, All Too Human , Dawn , and The Gay Science in 1886, in write essay State University, which he revisits his major themes. That this putative “fundamental principle” merits no mention on either occasion strongly suggests that its role in Nietzsche's thought has been greatly overstated. Second, the view at issue presupposes an unusually strong doctrine of the will to power: a doctrine, to the effect, that all life (actions, events) reflects the will to power.
But recent scholarship has cast doubt on whether Nietzsche ultimately accepted such a doctrine. The single most famous passage on a film Chaminade School, will to power in the Nietzschean corpus, for example, is the concluding section (1067) of The Will to Power , where he affirms that, “ This world is the will to power and nothing besides ! And you yourselves are also this will to power and nothing besides!” Although a favorite of commentators for write an conclusion essay State, many years, the passage has now been conclusively discredited by and earn money American University Preparatory School, the leading scholar of the Nachlass , the late Mazzino Montinari. Montinari has shown that Nietzsche had, in fact, discarded the write State passage by evaluation essay Queen's College, the spring of 1887 (1982, pp. 103104)! It was, as Montinari notes, made part of the how to an conclusion State Köselitz-Forster compilation of The Regent’s International School, Bangkok The Will to Power (the basis for the English-language edition by Kaufmann and Hollingdale) notwithstanding “Nietzsche's literary intentions” (1982, p. 104).
Finally, Maudemarie Clark has argued that Nietzsche could not have accepted the very strongest form of the doctrine of the will to power namely, that all force , animate and how to for an Louisiana inanimate, is will to power given the putative argument he gives for it. Clark points out that the help write an essay The Regent’s International only argument for this doctrine of the how to an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State will to power in Nietzsche's published works in Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil is cast in the conditional form: if we accept certain initial hypotheses, then, Nietzsche thinks, the strong doctrine of the will to power follows. But one of the antecedents of this conditional is the “causality of the will,” and Clark argues that Nietzsche clearly rejects such causality elsewhere in his work (e.g., GS 127, TI II:5, TI VI:3). Therefore, this section cannot constitute an and earn Preparatory, argument for the strongest doctrine of the will to power that Nietzsche, himself, would actually accept! Rather than embracing the strongest form of the doctrine, Clark argues that Nietzsche is, somewhat ironically, illustrating the how to write for an essay Louisiana State very flaw of philosophers he warns against in the surrounding passages: namely, their tendency to propound theories of the essence of reality that are just projections of their own evaluative commitments (Clark 1990, pp. 212227). Thus, Nietzsche says of the Stoic talk of article and earn money American living “according to nature” that “while you pretend rapturously to read the essay canon of your law in how to apa format essay University of Hertfordshire, nature, you want something opposite.Your pride wants to impose your morality, your ideal, on nature” (BGE 9).
How, Clark wonders, could Nietzsche's own doctrine of will to power be exempted from such a charge? (Note, too, that Montinari claims that the essay one surviving relic of Сollege 1067 of The Will to Power in the published works is precisely the how to for an essay State ironic Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil (1982, p. Knowledge Writing University! 104).) What, then, does Nietzsche believe about will to power? As others have noted (e.g., Clark 1990: 209212), Nietzsche's doctrine of how to an conclusion State will to how to write essay Chaminade Сollege power in its original deployment and most of its later development is psychological in character: the will to power is posited as the best psychological explanation for write Louisiana State University, a wide variety of human behaviors. But as the preceding passages and considerations make clear, Nietzsche could not have believed that will to power was the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. To the extent he sometimes seems to embrace this stronger claim (see the example, above), we must simply take Nietzsche to knowledge writing University of South have overstated his case something which his penchant for hyperbolic rhetoric and write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State polemics often leads him to do or to be engaged in write Queen's, the kind of write an conclusion for an Louisiana State ironic move described by help write International Bangkok, Clark, above. How To For An Essay! That would, of course, be quite fortunate, since it is hardly plausible that will to essay writing power is the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. There is an write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State, additional, textual worry for the argument that will to power provides an write apa format essay University of Hertfordshire, objective criterion of value lurking here as well.
Nietzsche only makes the how to write essay Louisiana University remarks that seem to knowledge essay Carolina suggest that power is an objective criterion in passages from the how to write essay Louisiana State University Nachlass , work that Nietzsche never published during his lifetime. Thus, even if one thought that Nietzsche really held the strong descriptive doctrine of the will to power the write International doctrine that all animate force (perhaps all force) is will to power in write an conclusion for an University, his published works, it is still the case that he only uses this doctrine to argue for the normative conclusion in Nachlass material. Since scholars have now raised important doubts about the canonical status of this Nachlass material (Montinari 1982, pp. 92104; Hollingdale 1985, pp. 166172, 182186), this might suggest that a view ought not to be attributed to Nietzsche solely on the basis of its articulation in how to write, these notebooks, which is exactly what the N-Realist reading requires.
Although not attributing to Nietzsche any kind of value realism, Philippa Foot, like Schacht, wants to show that Nietzsche is doing something more than simply expressing his idiosyncratic view, a view that admits of no interpersonal justification. While agreeing that Nietzsche's intention is, in part, “to present us with a clash of interests the good of the strong against that of the weak,” Foot adds that “this is not all he wants to suggest” (1973: 162). Noting that Nietzsche “seems to want to how to write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana say that anyone who is strong, independent, and so on anyone who fits his description of the how to College higher type of man is one who has value in himself” (163), Foot goes on to explicate this notion of “value” as follows: [I]t does make sense to say that we value strong and exceptional individuals. We do find patterns of reaction to exceptional men that would allow us to see here a valuing rather similar to valuing on an conclusion Louisiana, aesthetic grounds. I am thinking of the interest and admiration which is the an essay The Regent’s International School, common attitude to remarkable men of exceptional independence of mind and how to write an conclusion essay Louisiana State University strength of will. [Nietzsche] is appealing to our tendency to how to write a film essay admire certain individuals whom we see as powerful and splendid. [There is] a similarity between the way we attribute value (aesthetic value) to art objects and the value that Nietzsche attributes to a certain kind of man, both resting on a set of common reactions. (1973: 163)
So Nietzsche, on this account, does not claim that his evaluative perspective is veridical; he simply claims that it enjoys a certain sort of interpersonal appeal, owing to our “common attitude to remarkable men,” “our tendency to how to write for an essay University admire certain individuals,” to find them aesthetically appealing. There may be no fact-of-the-matter as to how to Preparatory whether higher men are or are not really valuable, but Nietzsche's evaluative standpoint is privileged by how to write an conclusion for an University, virtue of its appeal to all of us. We're all interested, it seems, in write response, the flourishing of higher men. Yet Nietzsche could not embrace the view that the flourishing of “higher men” will appeal to how to write essay State University “ our tendency” to admire such men or to any sort of “common” attitude, given the logic of his critique of morality. This follows from what we may call Nietzsche's ‘Callicleanism,’ after Plato's Callicles in writing of South Carolina, the Gorgias . It has now become something of a commonplace for how to an conclusion for an Louisiana University, commentators to note that Nietzsche did not accept one sort of Calliclean view, namely, the view that “anyone who is to live aright should suffer his appetites to grow to the greatest extent and not check them” ( Gorgias , 419e) (cf. Nehamas 1985: 202203; BGE 188). Yet there remains a more important respect in which Nietzsche's view is Calliclean: namely, in its embrace of the Calliclean doctrine that the inferior employ morality to make “slaves of those who are naturally better” ( Gorgias , 491e-492a), that the weaker folk, the knowledge essay of South majorityframe the laws [and, we might add, the morals] for their own advantage’ in order to ‘frighten [the strong] by saying that to overreach others is how to write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State University shameful and evil’ ( Gorgias , 483b-d). In short, Callicles' view is that morality is simply the prudence of the weak, who unable to do what the strong can do, opt instead to put the actions of the help International strong under the ban of morality. This, of course, is essentially Nietzsche's view as well. So, for example, Nietzsche describes slave morality as simply ‘the prudence [ Klugheit ] of the lowest order’ (GM I:13), and he observes that “everything that elevates an individual above the herd and intimidates the neighbor iscalled evil ” (BGE 201), that “[m]oral judgments and condemnations constitute the favorite revenge of the how to write an conclusion for an essay State spiritually limited against those less limited” (BGE 219), and he claims that the essay School “chief means” by which the “weak and mediocreweaken and pull down the stronger” is “the moral judgment” (WP 345). Recall, now, that Foot wanted to resist the how to for an essay State University view that in write apa format (Navitas), his revaluation Nietzsche simply “present[s] us with a clash of interests the how to for an essay Louisiana University good of the strong against that of the weak” (1973: 162); instead, Foot suggests that Nietzsche is appealing to a ‘common’ tendency to admire higher men, men who would otherwise be thwarted by the reign of moral values.
But for a Calliclean like Nietzsche, it is part of the very appeal of morality that it does thwart the help write an essay The Regent’s School, Bangkok flourishing of higher men. If that is right, then he could not think that the flourishing of “higher men” would appeal to how to write for an State University everyone. It is precisely because it doesn't that morality arises in the first place, as a means for Trent, the low and base to thwart the flourishing of the high. This is not to deny that higher men may still be admirable in the eyes of the base and low (hence their envy); it is to deny, however, that Nietzsche's evaluative perspective that it is an how to write essay Louisiana, objection to morality that it thwarts the how to write a film essay Chaminade School high could enjoy a privilege in essay, virtue of this shared admiration. On the Calliclean picture, there is a fundamental hostility between the write apa format essay of Hertfordshire high and low, the strong and the weak, one which will not be bridged by inviting the low to admire the high, or the weak, the strong. “The well-being of the majority and the well-being of the few are opposite viewpoints of value,” Nietzsche says in how to write an conclusion for an essay, the ‘Note’ at the end of the first essay of the Genealogy . And in Nietzsche's revaluation, it appears, there is no evaluative standpoint from which one could successfully mediate and reconcile the write a film essay normative claims of the write an conclusion for an State opposing moralities. If Nietzsche is write article University Preparatory School not a realist about how to an conclusion Louisiana State University value, then he must be an anti-realist: he must deny that there is any objective fact of the matter that would privilege his evaluative perspective over its target. (This, in fact, is the most familiar reading outside the and earn money School secondary literature on Nietzsche; one finds this view of write an conclusion for an essay State Nietzsche's metaethics, for example, in the sociologist Max Weber and the moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, among many others.) We must be careful about the kinds of judgments to which this anti-realism applies. Recall that in his critique of morality, Nietzsche appears to Preparatory hold that, e.g., “herd” morality is good for the herd, but that it is bad for higher men. He says, for example, that, “The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd but not reach out how to write for an Louisiana State University, beyond it” (WP 287; emphasis added); and elsewhere he describes slave morality as simply “the prudence of the lowest order” (GM I:13). It may appear that regarding value judgments pertaining to welfare or prudential goodness what is good or bad for write response, particular sorts of persons Nietzsche believes there is an objective fact of the essay Louisiana matter, though one relative to write International School, Bangkok type-facts about persons. But this is not right: while Nietzsche believes it is objectively correct that different moralities have certain effects on different kinds of people, that these effects are good or bad itself admits of anti-realist interpretation (cf. Leiter 2015: 119 for a revision of the view defended in Leiter 2002).
Even more importantly, though, Nietzsche's anti-realism applies to the “revaluative” judgment that follows upon these judgments about the how to write an conclusion Louisiana effects of different moralities: that is, the judgment that because herd morality is good for the herd but bad for higher men, herd morality (or the universal reign of herd morality) is bad or disvaluable. Nietzsche certainly says much that sounds like he is how to write denying the objectivity of values. Zarathustra tells us that, “Verily, men gave themselves all their good and evil [ Gut und Böse ]” (Z I:15) and that “good and how to an conclusion for an State evil that are not transitory do not exist” (Z II:12). In The Gay Science , Nietzsche explains that, “Whatever has value in our world now does not have value in write apa format University (Navitas), itself, according to its nature nature is always value-less, but has been given value at how to an conclusion for an Louisiana some time” (301; cf. D 3). Indeed, like certain radical anti-realists, he tends to equate evaluative questions with matters of taste. “What is now decisive against Christianity is our taste [ Geschmack ], no longer our reasons” (GS 132), he writes, noting later in the same work that what counts as “justiceis by all means a matter of taste, nothing more” (GS 184). Nietzsche's central argument for anti-realism about value is explanatory : moral facts don't figure in the “best explanation” of how to apa format (Navitas) experience, and write an conclusion for an essay University so are not real constituents of the objective world. Moral values, in how to write evaluation essay Queen's, short, can be “explained away.” Such a conclusion follows from Nietzsche's naturalism (on the latter, see the competing accounts in how to essay State, Janaway 2007 and Leiter 2013). As we saw in the context of how to apa format (Navitas) Nietzsche's critique of morality, Nietzsche thinks a person's moral beliefs can be explained in naturalistic terms, i.e., in terms of type-facts about that person. Thus, to explain a person's moral judgments, one needn't appeal to how to write an conclusion essay the existence of objective moral facts: psycho-physical facts about the person suffice.
Thus, since non-evaluative type-facts are the primary explanatory facts, and since explanatory power is the mark of objective facts, it appears that there cannot be any value facts. Moral judgments and evaluations are “images” and “fantasies,” says Nietzsche, the write The Regent’s International School, mere effects of how to an conclusion for an Louisiana University type-facts about agents (D 119). To describe Nietzsche as a moral anti-realist is how to write response essay Trent University so far only to ascribe to him a metaphysical view: namely, that there are no objective facts about what is morally right and wrong. It is a somewhat vexed interpretive question whether we should also ascribe to Nietzsche a particular view about the semantics of an conclusion for an Louisiana State University moral judgment, a topic about which no philosopher prior to how to write essay Сollege Preparatory School the 20 th century had a workedout view (see again Hussain 2013). For example, while it seems clear (from the passages quoted above) that Nietzsche has distinct views on the central metaphysical question about value, it seems equally apparent that there are inadequate textual resources for how to write for an Louisiana State, ascribing to him a satisfying answer to the semantic question. Elements of write an essay The Regent’s International Bangkok his view, for example, might suggest assimilation to what we would call non-cognitivism and, in particular, expressivism. For example, in describing master and Christian morality as “opposite forms in the optics of value [ Werthe ],” Nietzsche goes on to assert that, as opposite an conclusion essay, “optical” forms, they “areimmune to reasons and refutations. One cannot refute Christianity; one cannot refute a disease of the eye.
The concepts ‘true’ and ‘untrue’ have, as it seems to me, no meaning in optics” (CW Epilogue). This passage typical of putatively expressivist passages in Nietzsche is, however, ambiguous. For the passage could mean that “true” and “false” are meaningless not because evaluative judgments are essentially non-cognitive, but rather because competing evaluative views are immune to the effects of how to essay (Navitas) reasoning. There may be rational grounds for thinking one view better than another, perhaps for how to write an conclusion essay State, thinking one true and the other false, but since reasoning has so little impact in this context, it is help an essay School, “meaningless” (in the sense of pointless) to raise issues of for an State University truth and falsity. More recently, Hussain (2007) has argued that we read Nietzsche as a fictionalist about moral value: granted that Nietzsche is an anti-realist about value (there exists no objective fact about money what has value in-itself), Hussain wonders what it is those who “create values” can understand themselves to have done? Valuation, in this Nietzschean world, Hussain argues, involves a kind of “make-believe,” pretending that things are valuable-in-themselves, while knowing that nothing, in fact, has such value. There is how to write an conclusion for an University a pressing philosophical question here whether “make-believe” about value really could suffice for valuing but also an interpretive problem: does Nietzsche really think that moral judgments express beliefs , that is, truth-apt propositional attitudes which then requires fictionalist treatment?
It would be astonishing if any 19 th -century philosopher were to have a clear answer to such a question (Hussain 2013 seems to have come around to this view). While Nietzsche was, to be sure, among the first to recognize the extent to which linguistic and grammatical practices generate metaphysical assumptions and problems, he simply did not view metaphysical questions themselves as best framed as issues about the semantics of Trent a given region of discourse (e.g., are the terms genuinely and successfully referential, or are they “merely” expressive?). It is doubtful, then, that there are adequate grounds for how to write an conclusion essay Louisiana University, assigning Nietzsche a view on such subtle matters as whether ethical language is primarily cognitive or non-cognitive, when it clearly evinces aspects of both descriptive and help Bangkok prescriptive discourse. Two aspects of Nietzsche's work may, however, seem to be in tension with value anti-realism, even understood as only Louisiana a metaphysical doctrine: first, his reliance on write apa format essay of Hertfordshire, the distinction between “higher” and for an essay State “lower” types of human beings; and second, the force and seriousness with which he presents his evaluative judgments. As we saw, above, Nietzsche's critique of morality presupposes a distinction between higher and how to apa format essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) lower types of people. Write An Conclusion Louisiana State! But are there objective facts about who is “high” and who is “low”? And if so, would such a view be compatible with anti-realism? Suppose there are objective facts about “high” and “low”: Goethe really is a higher type, and essay Carolina the herd animal really is for an essay State University a lower type. But there is still no objective fact about whether MPS is non-prudentially disvaluable just because it has the write of Hertfordshire effect of thwarting the flourishing of objectively higher types. Realism about “high” and an conclusion for an “low” does not entail realism about non-prudential value, so the argument might go.
Such a response cannot work for essay (Navitas), two reasons. Write An Conclusion Essay Louisiana University! First, the judgment that “X is a higher person” includes a significant evaluative component: “Goethe is write apa format essay a higher type” is not evaluatively neutral in the manner of “Goethe is a taller than average type.” In saying that someone is a higher type, we seem committed to some positive evaluative attitude towards that person (e.g., that it is good to have persons like that around). If there is an objective fact that “X is write for an essay Louisiana a higher type,” and how to write a film it is a fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of higher types, then it would seem that at least some objective weight must accrue to the Nietzschean position that MPS is disvaluable because of this effect it has. Second, if it is an objective fact that Goethe is a higher type and, say, Hitler is a herd animal, then the following counterfactual would seem to be true: (C) If Hitler had been like Goethe, he would have been better off. He would have been better off because he would have been a higher type, instead of a lower type and it is an objective fact that the high are really high, and the low are really low. But this seemingly objective judgment that Hitler would have been better off had he been more like Goethe is an conclusion for an essay University a non-prudential value judgment; it is not a judgment about what is response Trent good for Hitler under the circumstances, but rather a judgment about what would make Hitler better off, but for his circumstances.
In general, it seems that conceding the objectivity of “high” and “low” permits one to how to write for an State University make objective non-prudential value judgments like: the good of the higher type is superior to the good of the lower type. For these reasons, if Nietzsche is an anti-realist about non-prudential moral value, then he must also be an anti-realist about judgments of “high” and “low,” It may be an objective fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of those Nietzsche regards as higher types; but it is not an objective fact that they are really higher. In fact, there is textual evidence that this is exactly Nietzsche's view. For example, in write and earn Preparatory School, Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Nietzsche writes that, “Good and how to write an conclusion for an University evil, and rich and article money American Preparatory School poor, and high and an conclusion essay Louisiana low [ Hoch und Gering ], and all the names of values arms shall they be and clattering signs that life must overcome itself again and again” (Z II:7). Here Nietzsche is explicit that “high and write and earn money University low” are simply “names of values,” just like “good and evil.” But since, as we have just seen, Nietzsche is an anti-realist about these latter evaluative concepts, it should hardly be surprisingly that he is an anti-realist about the former. The actual contexts in which Nietzsche marks traits as “high” and “low” invite the same reading. Consider, for example, the exposition in the Genealogy (I:14) of the sense in which slave morality is the “prudence of the for an lowest order” (GM, I:13). Write Article And Earn Money American School! According to Nietzsche, slave morality takes certain typical characteristics of the “lowest order” and redescribes them in morally praiseworthy lights. So, for example, their impotence becomes “goodness of heart,” their anxious lowliness becomes “humility,” their “inoffensiveness” and “lingering at how to essay State University the door” becomes “patience”, and their desire for retaliation becomes a desire for justice.
If Nietzsche were really a realist about the concept of “lowness”, then we ought to be able to identify the and earn money American University School objective facts in essay, virtue of which something is really low. Yet when Nietzsche tries to describe all patience as nothing more than a “lingering at the door” and all humility as simply “anxious lowliness,” it is natural to think that there is knowledge no “objective” fact about write an conclusion essay Louisiana University “lowness” here but simply a polemical and evaluatively loaded characterization. Knowledge Essay Of South! To think that all humility is really “anxious lowliness” is just to identify oneself as one who shares Nietzsche's evaluative sensibility, one “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381), one “predisposed and predestined” for Nietzsche's insights (BGE 30). In short, given the how to write an conclusion for an essay State University way in which Nietzsche actually speaks of the “high” and “low,” we should understand Nietzsche's metaethical position as also characterizing these terms: to say that “X is low” is not to describe an objective fact, but rather to identify oneself as sharing in a film essay Preparatory School, a certain evaluative sensibility or taste. There remains a final interpretive difficulty: for for an, Nietzsche simply does not write like someone who thinks his evaluative judgments are merely his idiosyncratic preferences!
On the how to response metaethical position elaborated here, it seems Nietzsche must believe that if, in response to his point that “morality were to an conclusion University blame if the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man was never in write article American University Preparatory School, fact attained” (GM Pref:6), someone were to say, “So much the better for how to write Louisiana State University, morality!”, there would be nothing further to say to that person: at the best, Nietzsche might turn his back and say, “Oh well doesn't share my evaluative tastes.” Yet there seems to be a substantial amount of Nietzschean rhetoric (see, e.g., BGE 259; TI V:6 IX:35; EH IV:4, 7, 8) that cannot be reconciled with this metaethical view, and which cries out instead for some sort of realist construal. Three sorts of considerations, however, block the inference from Nietzsche's rhetoric to the conclusion that he embraced a realist metaphysics of value. First, while the rhetoric is forceful, the language of truth and falsity is conspicuously absent. As some of the passages quoted above suggest, Nietzsche writes with great force and write Сollege passion in opposition to MPS. But it is striking that he does not use the how to write Louisiana State epistemic value terms the language of truth and falsity, real and write and earn University Preparatory unreal in this context. How To For An State University! This, of course, might not be notable, except for the fact that in how to write essay, his equally forceful attacks on, e.g., Christian cosmology, or religious interpretations of how to write Louisiana natural events, he invokes the and earn American University Preparatory conceptual apparatus of truth and falsity, truth and lie, reality and appearance, all the how to write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State time (cf. Leiter 1994, pp. 336338). Thus, for example, Nietzsche lampoons Christian cosmology as lacking “even a single point of contact with reality” and as “pure fiction” which “falsifiesreality” (“ die Wirklichtkeit fälscht ”) (A, 15).
Such epistemic value terms are strikingly absent in Nietzsche's remarks about how to a film Chaminade value. One natural explanation for how to write an conclusion for an University, this difference in rhetoric natural especially in light of the essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) substantial evidence for write for an State, his anti-realism is precisely that in the moral case he does not think there is Chaminade Сollege any fact of the matter. Second, in undertaking a “revaluation of all values,” Nietzsche, as we have seen, wants to alert “higher” types to write State the fact that MPS is not, in fact, conducive to essay University their flourishing. Thus, he needs to “wake up” his appropriate readers those whose “ears are related” to his to the dangers of MPS, a task made all the more difficult by MPS's pretension to be “morality itself.” Given, then, that Nietzsche's target is a certain sort of misunderstanding on how to an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State, the part of higher men, and given the essay writing Carolina difficulty of supplanting the norms that figure in this misunderstanding (the norms of MPS), it should be unsurprising that Nietzsche writes with passion and force: he must shake higher types out of their intuitive commitment to the moral traditions of two millenia! Moreover, Nietzsche's naturalism, and how to for an the prominent role it assigns to non-conscious drives and type-facts, leads him to be skeptical about the efficacy of knowledge University Carolina reasons and an conclusion arguments. But a skeptic about the essay University of South Carolina efficacy of rational persuasion might very well opt for persuasion through other rhetorical devices. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a rhetorical tone like Nietzsche's looked at in the context of how to write an conclusion essay State his life does not really suggest realism about the content, but rather desperation on how to write response, the part of the author to reach an how to write an conclusion for an essay, increasingly distant and uninterested audience.
The Nietzsche who was almost completely ignored during the years before illness erased his intellect and deprived him of his sanity might have resorted to more and more strident and violent rhetoric in frustration over not being heard and help an essay The Regent’s International School, Bangkok not because he was a realist. Indeed, in write an conclusion University, the absence of explicit evidence of response value realism, this seems the most plausible explanation for the vast majority of the passages with which we have been concerned in this section. For these various reasons, then, the character of how to write an conclusion for an University Nietzsche's rhetoric can be understood as compatible with his anti-realism about value. 4. Nietzsche's Lack of a Political Philosophy. When the Danish critic Georg Brandes (18421927) first introduced a wider European audience to Nietzsche's ideas during public lectures in 1888, he concentrated on Nietzsche's vitriolic campaign against how to, morality and what Brandes dubbed (with Nietzsche's subsequent approval) Nietzsche's “aristocratic radicalism.” On this reading, Nietzsche was primarily concerned with questions of value and culture (especially the value of morality and its effect on how to for an, culture), and his philosophical standpoint was acknowledged to a film Chaminade be a deeply illiberal one: what matters are great human beings, not the “herd.” The egalitarian premise of all contemporary moral and political theory the premise, in one form or another, of the an conclusion State University equal worth or dignity of write essay University each person is simply absent in Nietzsche's work. This naturally leads to the question: what politics would Nietzsche recommend to us in write essay Louisiana State, light of his repudiation of the egalitarian premise? A striking feature of the reception of Nietzsche in The Regent’s International School,, the last twenty years is the large literature that has developed on how to an conclusion for an essay Louisiana, Nietzsche's purported political philosophy. Two positions have dominated the literature: one attributes to an essay Bangkok Nietzsche a commitment to aristocratic forms of social ordering (call this the “Aristocratic Politics View” [e.g., Detwiler 1990]), while the other denies that Nietzsche has any political philosophy at all (call this the “Anti-Politics View” [e.g., Hunt 1985]). More recently, Shaw (2007) has staked out a third position, namely, that Nietzsche was, in fact, concerned with the normative legitimacy of state power, but was skeptical that with the demise of religion, it would be possible to achieve an how to Louisiana State University, effective normative consensus in society at large that was untained by the exercise of state power itself. Whether Nietzsche is really interested in these issues has been contested (Leiter 2009).
Here we will concentrate on how to write essay, the two dominant lines of interpretation, noting that the evidence favors the second view. Even the Louisiana University casual reader knows, of course, that Nietzsche has intense opinions about everything , from German cuisine to the unparalleled brilliance (in Nietzsche's estimation) of Bizet's operas, not to response Trent mention various and sundry “political” matters. The interpretive question, however, is whether scattered remarks and parenthetical outbursts add up to write an conclusion for an essay University systematic views on questions of write an essay philosophical significance. Is Nietzsche even interested in political philosophy? Martha Nussbaum (1997: 1) declares that, “Nietzsche claimed to be a political thinker, indeed an important political thinker”, but she can produce no clear textual evidence in an conclusion essay Louisiana, support of that contention. How To Apa Format Of Hertfordshire! She notes that, “In Ecce Homo he announced that he was ‘a bringer of glad tidings like no one before me,’ and that those glad tidings are political” (1997: 1).
In fact, Nietzsche does not say the “tidings” are political; indeed, as the earlier discussion of his critique of morality shows, the “tidings” are directed only at select readers, nascent higher human beings, for whom morality is harmful. That this section from Ecce Homo (IV:1) concludes with the hyperbolic claim that only with Nietzsche does “the earth [first] know[ ] great politics ” does as little to establish that he has a political philosophy as the write for an essay State University claim, in the very same passage , that Nietzsche's “glad tidings” will cause “upheavals, a convulsion of earthquakes, a moving of mountains and valleys” does to establish that he has a geological theory. Nussbaum goes on to suggest that “serious political thought” (1997: 2) must address seven precise topics (e.g., “procedural justification” [“proceduresthat legitimate and/or justify the resulting proposals” for “political structure”], “gender and the family,” and knowledge essay University Carolina “justice between nations”) most of which, of course, Nietzsche does not address. (Marx does not address most of them either.) Instead of drawing the natural conclusion Nietzsche was not interested in questions of political philosophy she, instead, decries his “baneful influence” in political philosophy (1997: 12)! Those who claim to find a political philosophy in Nietzsche typically rely on a handful of passages most often, sections 5657 of The Antichrist as the slender evidence on the basis of which elaborate views about the ideal forms of social and political organization are attributed to Nietzsche. For An Louisiana State University! In particular, Nietzsche is said to endorse (in A 5657) the caste-based society associated with the Hindu Laws of Manu as his political ideal: The order of castes, the supreme, the dominant law, is merely the sanction of a natural order , a natural lawfulness of the first rank, over which no arbitrariness, no “modern idea” has any powerNature, not Manu, distinguishes the pre-eminently spiritual ones, those who are pre-eminently strong in muscle and temperament, and those, the third type, who excel neither in one respect nor in the other, the mediocre ones the last as the great majority, the first as the elite. (A 57) This reading, however, does not withstand scrutiny, as Thomas Brobjer (1998) has argued. As Brobjer notes, the only other published discussion of the laws of Manu, in Twilight of the Idols , is highly critical, not laudatory (pp. Write Response University! 304305); Nietzsche's discussions of how to for an comparable caste-based societies are all critical (pp. How To Write College! 308309); and Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks contain numerous entries on the theme “a critique of the how to write essay State Laws of response Trent University Manu” (pp. Write For An Essay Louisiana State! 310312).
The passage from help an essay The Regent’s School, The Antichrist only seems laudatory when read out of context; as Brobjer remarks: [Nietzsche's] purpose [in these passages in The Antichrist ] is to make the write an conclusion University contrast with Christianity as strong as possible, to provoke the reader, to make the reader “realize” that even the laws of Manu is higher and more humane than Christianity. Whereas Christianity destroys, the University intention at least of the an conclusion for an essay University laws of Manu was to save and protect. (1998, pp. Knowledge Carolina! 312313) In other words, the rhetorical context of the passage is how to essay crucial, though it is typically ignored by commentators defending the Aristocratic Politics View. Indeed, the passage quoted above from A 57 is write and earn Preparatory specifically introduced to illustrate the use of the how to write Louisiana State University “holy lie” (the lie being, in this case, the article and earn American University School claim that “nature, not Manu” distinguishes the castes). And as even the title of the book would suggest, Nietzsche's target is Christianity, and the laws of Manu are invoked simply to drive home that point. Thus, although Manu and Christianity both depend on lies, at least the Manu lies, according to write an conclusion for an Louisiana State University Nietzsche, are not put in write essay, the service of Christian ends, i.e., “poisoning, slander, negation of life, contempt for the body, the degradation and how to write Louisiana self-violation of man through the concept of sin” (A 56). Similarly, Nietzsche goes out of his way to show that Christian views of female sexuality compare unfavorably with Manu views (A 56). The most balanced and essay University careful defense of the Aristocratic Politics View, Detwiler (1990), is not able to adduce much additional evidence. For example, Detwiler (1990) ends up relying quite heavily on an essay the how to an conclusion for an essay State 27-year-old Nietzsche never published (1990: 39-41, 63)!
As to passages in the “mature” corpus, Detwiler adduces ones that “appear[ ] to have explicit political implications” (1990: 43; cf. 44), or that “strongly suggestpolitical consequences” (1990: 4546), or that “raise the issue of troubling political implications of Nietzschean immoralism” (1990: 49). But “implications” and “consequences” are one thing, and having a political philosophy another. The canon of political philosophers is composed of thinkers (like Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau) who have philosophical views about write article money University Preparatory political questions the state, liberty, law, justice, etc. not thinkers whose views about how to write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana University other topics merely had “implications” for write response essay, politics. As the an conclusion University conscientious Detwiler admits: “[t]he political implications of Nietzsche's revaluation of values are never center stage for long” (1990: 58). Yet it is natural to how to write essay think that Nietzsche's attack on morality does indeed have real political implications. When Nietzsche commends the laws of essay Louisiana University Manu for “mak[ing] possible the higher and how to essay of Hertfordshire the highest types” (A 57), this resonates, all too obviously, with Nietzsche's central concern that morality is harmful to how to an conclusion essay State the highest types of human beings. Write Trent University! Yet the undeniable “resonance” fails to show that Nietzsche endorses the how to an conclusion essay laws of Manu. Most obviously, the “higher types” protected by the laws of knowledge essay writing University Carolina Manu essentially a priestly caste have nothing in common with the nascent Goethes that concern Nietzsche. Nietzsche's worry for these potential higher types is, as we have seen, that they suffer from false consciousness , i.e., the false belief that “morality in State University, the pejorative sense,” i.e., MPS, is good for them. MPS is a threat to Trent the flourishing of nascent Goethes, and how to write for an Louisiana University it is this flourishing that interests Nietzsche above all.
It would suffice for Nietzsche's purposes that nascent Goethes give up their faith in how to write apa format of Hertfordshire, MPS in other words, it is individual attitudes not political structures that are Nietzsche's primary object (“The ideas of the write an conclusion Louisiana University herd should rule in the herd,” says Nietzsche, “and not reach out beyond it” [WP 287]). That should hardly be surprising if we recall Nietzsche's sustained hostility to politics throughout his career, as defenders of the Anti-Politics View emphasize. Even in the early Untimely Meditations , this hostility is already evident. University Of South Carolina! So, for example, Nietzsche comments: Every philosophy which believes that the write an conclusion for an problem of existence is touched on, not to say solved, by a political event is a joke- and pseudo-philosophy. Many states have been founded since the world began; that is an old story.
How should a political innovation suffice to turn men once and for all into contented inhabitants of the how to write evaluation earth? [That people think the answer to existential questions might come from politics shows] that we are experiencing the consequences of the doctrinethat the state is the highest goal of mankind and that a man has no higher duty than to serve the state: in which doctrine I recognize a relapse not into paganism but into stupidity. It may be that a man who sees his highest duty in serving the state really knows no higher duties; but there are men and an conclusion for an essay University duties existing beyond this and how to write response Trent one of the duties that seems, at for an essay Louisiana University least to me, to be higher than serving the state demands that one destroys stupidity in every form, and therefore in this form too. That is why I am concerned with a species of man whose teleology extends somewhat beyond the a film Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School welfare of for an essay State University a state, and with [this kind of write a film essay Chaminade man] only in relation to a world which is again fairly independent of the how to write essay State University welfare of how to a critical College a state, that of culture. How To An Conclusion Essay! (U III:4) The same, almost anarchistic attitude is evaluation essay apparent in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , where Nietzsche calls the “statethe coldest of write an conclusion for an Louisiana University all cold monsters” and remarks, aptly enough, that “the statewhatever it says it liesEverything about it is false” (Z I:11). “Only where the state ends, there begins the human being who is how to write a critical evaluation Queen's not superfluous” (Z I:11) Of course, it is an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State only the latter individual that really interests Nietzsche. And who is that individual? The next section (Z I:12) tells us: he is the one who values his “solitude,” which is how to essay of Hertfordshire (Navitas) precisely what the “marketplace” of write Louisiana State politics violates, with its “showmen and how to write a critical Queen's actors of great [sic] things.” “Far from the market place and from fame happens all that is great” (Z I:12): in other words, great things (and great people) are to how to an conclusion for an Louisiana State be found far from the realms of politics and economics. Passages like these seem to support the Anti-Politics View. On this account, Nietzsche occasionally expresses views about knowledge writing Carolina political matters, but, read in how to write State University, context, they do not add up to a theoretical account of any of the questions of political philosophy. He is more accurately read, in the end, as a kind of esoteric moralist , i.e., someone who has views about human flourishing, views he wants to communicate at least to a select few. “This book belongs to the very few,” he says of The Antichrist , though the point holds more generally. Indeed, Nietzsche is clearly describing his own work when he writes in an earlier book that, It is not by any means necessarily an objection to a book when anyone finds it impossible to understand: perhaps that was part of the author's intention he did not want to be understood by just ‘anybody.’ All the nobler spirits and tastes select their audience when they wish to communicate; and choosing that, one at the same time erects barriers against ‘the others.’ All the more subtle laws of any style have their origin at this point: they at the same time keep away, create a distance, forbid ‘entrance,’ understanding, as said above while they open the how to write evaluation essay Queen's College ears of those whose ears are related to ours. (GS 381)
Or similarly: “Our highest insights must and should sound like follies and sometimes like crimes when they are heard without permission by those who are not predisposed and write for an predestined for write essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), them” (BGE 30). Nietzsche, the esoteric moralist, wants to reach only select individuals those nascent higher human beings who are “predisposed and predestined” for his ideas and write an conclusion essay State alter their consciousness about Preparatory School morality. The larger world, including its forms of political and economic organization, is simply not his concern. Even without a political philosophy, however, there remain disturbing questions about Nietzsche's critique of morality and its political implications . For example, when Nietzsche objects that morality is an obstacle to “the highest power and how to write an conclusion Louisiana University splendor possible” to man, one is tempted to object that this gets things perversely backwards. For surely it is the lack of morality in social policy and public institutions a lack which permits widespread poverty and despair to persist generation upon generation; that allows daily economic struggle and write a film Chaminade Preparatory uncertainty to define the basic character of most people's lives that is most responsible for a lack of human flourishing. Surely, in a more moral society, with a genuine commitment to social justice and write for an essay University human equality, there would be far more Goethes, far more creativity and admirable human achievement. As Philippa Foot has sharply put it: “How could one see the present dangers that the world is in as showing that there is too much pity and too little egoism around?” (1973, p. 168).
Here, though, one must remember the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality. Consider the Nietzsche who asks: “Where has the article and earn American Preparatory last feeling of decency and self-respect gone when even our statesmen, an otherwise quite unembarrassed type of man, anti-Christians through and how to write an conclusion Louisiana through in their deeds, still call themselves Christians today and attend communion?” (A 38). Clearly this Nietzsche is under no illusions about the extent to which public actors do not act morally. Indeed, Nietzsche continues in even more explicit terms: “Every practice of every moment, every instinct, every valuation that is Chaminade Preparatory translated into action is today anti-Christian: what a miscarriage of for an Louisiana University falseness must modern man be, that he is not ashamed to be called a Christian in spite of all this!” (A 38). What, then, is going on here? If Nietzsche is not, contrary to write American University School Foot's suggestion, embracing the an conclusion State absurd view that there is too much pity and altruism in the world, what exactly is his critical point? Recall Nietzsche's paradigmatic worry: that a nascent creative genius will come to take the how to a film essay Сollege Preparatory School norms of MPS so seriously that he will fail to realize his genius. Rather than tolerate (even welcome) suffering, he will seek relief from how to an conclusion for an essay State University hardship and knowledge essay writing University of South Carolina devote himself to the pursuit of pleasure; rather than practice what Nietzsche calls “severe self-love”, and attend to how to an conclusion for an himself in the ways requisite for productive creative work, he will embrace the knowledge of South Carolina ideology of altruism, and reject “self-love” as improper, and so forth.
It is not, then, that Nietzsche thinks people practice too much altruism after all, Nietzsche tells us that egoistic actions “have hitherto been by far the most frequent actions” (D 148) but rather that they believe too much in the value of altruism, equality, happiness and the other norms of write for an essay MPS. Even though there is neither much altruism nor equality in the world, there is almost universal endorsement of the value of altruism and equality even, notoriously (and as Nietzsche seemed well aware), by those who are its worst enemies in practice. So Nietzsche's critique is that a culture in write article and earn Preparatory School, the grips of MPS, even without acting on MPS, poses the how to an conclusion essay real obstacle to flourishing, because it teaches potential higher types to disvalue what would be most conducive to their creativity and University of Hertfordshire value what is irrelevant or perhaps even hostile to it. Nietzsche's worry, in an conclusion essay, short, is that the man in how to write essay Trent, the grips of MPS becomes “ imprisoned among all sorts of terrible concepts [ schrekliche Begriffe ]” that leave him “sick, miserable, malevolent against himself: full of hatred against the springs of how to Louisiana State University life, full of suspicion against a film Сollege Preparatory, all that was still strong and happy” (TI VII:2, emphasis added). So, contrary to Foot, Nietzsche is not claiming that people are actually too altruistic and too egalitarian in their practice; he is worried that (as a consequence of the slave revolt in morals, etc.) they are now “imprisoned among.concepts” of equality and altruism, and that this conceptual vocabulary of value is itself the obstacle to the realization of certain forms of how to an conclusion for an human excellence. That is a very different charge, one that raises subtle psychological questions that no one, to date, has really explored. To be sure, one might still object that if our society really were more altruistic and egalitarian, more individuals would have the write University Preparatory School chance to essay flourish and write essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) do creative work. Yet it is precisely this moral optimism common, for example, to utilitarians and Marxists this belief that a more moral society would produce more opportunity for more people to do creative work that Nietzsche does, indeed, want to question.
Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes in this regard are once again apparent; he says to take but one example that, “We simply do not consider it desirable that a realm of justice and harmony [ Eintracht ] should be established on earth” (GS 377). It is bad enough for Nietzsche that MPS values have so far succeeded in saying, “stubbornly and write essay inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and how to write Trent University nothing besides is morality’” (BGE 202); it could only be worse on his view if more and more of our actions were really brought into University accord with these values. For Nietzsche wants to urge contrary to the moral optimists that in a way largely unappreciated and (perhaps) unintended a thoroughly moral culture undermines the write response Trent University conditions under which the most splendid human creativity is possible, and write for an generates instead a society of write essay University Zarathustra's “last men” (Z P:5): “What is love? What is how to write essay Louisiana State creation? What is longing? What is write article American University Preparatory School a star?” thus asks the last man, and he blinks. The earth has become small, and on it hops the last man, who makes everything small. His race is as in eradicable as the flea-beetle; the last man lives longest.
“We have invented happiness,” say the last men, and they blink. If we are trained always to think of happiness and comfort and safety and the needs of others, we shall cut ourselves off from the preconditions for how to for an essay Louisiana State University, creative excellence on the Nietzschean picture: suffering, hardship, danger, self-concern, and the rest. Consider a particularly powerful statement of this view. How To Write A Critical Evaluation Queen's College! Speaking of for an essay Louisiana State University those “eloquent and profoundly scribbling slaves of the how to democratic taste and its ‘modern ideas’” who seek to how to write an conclusion essay Louisiana promote “the universal green-pasture happiness of the write University Preparatory School herd” and who take “suffering itselffor something that must be abolished” (BGE 44), Nietzsche retorts that when we look at, how the how to an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State University plant “man” has so far grown most vigorously to a height we think that this has happened every time under the opposite conditions, that to this end the dangerousness of his situation must first grow to the point of enormity, his power of invention and simulation (his “spirit”) had to develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity. We think thateverything evil, terrible, tyrannical in man, everything in him that is kin to The Regent’s School, beasts of prey and serpents, serves the enhancement of the how to for an essay University species “man” as much as its opposite does. Indeed, we do not even say enough when we say only that much. (BGE 44)
At the end of this passage, Nietzsche does hint at article money University Preparatory a role for morality as well it is an conclusion for an essay Louisiana University just that what morality opposes is equally important. He, of course, qualifies this by suggesting that even to concede their equal importance may “not even say enough”: that is, perhaps there will not be much role for morality at all in the conditions under which “the plant ‘man’” will grow to its greatest heights. But notice that, even in this passage, what is called for is not a political transformation, but an individual one, that of the nascent higher human being: it is “his situation” that “must first grow to the point of enormity” and article and earn money American University Preparatory it is “ his power of invention and write an conclusion essay Louisiana University simulation” that “had to how to write of Hertfordshire (Navitas) develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity.” As he writes in how to write an conclusion University, a Nachlass note of 1887, regarding those “human beings who are of any concern to and earn money Preparatory me”: “I wish [them] suffering, desolation, sickness, ill-treatment, indignities I wish that they should not remain unfamiliar with profound self-contempt, the write an conclusion essay torture of self-mistrust, the wretchedness of the vanquished” (WP 910). And Earn Money American! This is not the how to write for an Louisiana State University outline of a political program, but rather a severe regimen for the realization of individual potential at least for the select few. A. Nietzsche's Writings and Key to Citations. For untranslated material and how to write essay Queen's emendations to write an conclusion University existing translations, I have relied on Friedrich Nietzsche, Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe in 15 Bänden , ed. G. Colli M. Montinari (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1980); this is cited as KSA, followed by the volume number, a colon, and the fragment number(s). Nietzsche's works are cited as follows, unless otherwise noted: roman numerals refer to major parts or chapters in Nietzsche's works; Arabic numerals refer to sections, not pages. The Antichrist , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as A. Beyond Good and Evil , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966.
Cited as BGE. The Birth of Tragedy , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BT. The Case of Wagner , trans. W. Help Write An Essay The Regent’s International School, Bangkok! Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as CW. Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of Morality , trans. R.J. Hollingdale, ed. M. Clark B. Leiter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Cited as D. How To An Conclusion Louisiana! Ecce Homo , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1967. Cited as EH. The Gay Science , trans. Write School,! W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1974. Cited as GS. On the Genealogy of Morality , trans. M. Clark A. Swensen, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1998. Cited as GM. Human, All-too-Human , trans.
R.J. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Cited as HAH. Nietzsche contra Wagner , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as NCW.
Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks , trans. M. For An State University! Cowan, Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway, 1962. Cited as PTAG. Philosophy and Truth: Selections from how to essay Nietzsche's Notebooks of the Early 1870's , ed. trans. D. How To An Conclusion For An Essay Louisiana State University! Breazeale, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1979.
Cited as PT, by page number. The Portable Nietzsche , ed. trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Viking, 1954. Money American University Preparatory School! Cited as PN, by page number. Thus Spoke Zarathustra , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Write For An Louisiana! Cited as Z. Twilight of the Idols , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as TI.
Untimely Meditations , trans. R.J. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Cited as U. The Will to write and earn money American University Preparatory Power , trans. W. Kaufmann R.J. How To Write An Conclusion For An Essay Louisiana University! Hollingdale, New York: Vintage, 1968. Article And Earn Money University School! Cited as WP. B. References and Works on Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Brobjer, Thomas, 1998. “The Absence of Political Ideals in Nietzsche's Writings: The Case of the Laws of Manu and the Associated Caste-Society,” Nietzsche-Studien , 27: 300318.
Clark, Maudemarie, 1990. Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 1994. For An Essay State! “Nietzsche's Immoralism and the Concept of a critical essay Morality,” in Schacht (1994). , 2001. “On the Rejection of Morality: Bernard Williams's Debt to for an Louisiana State Nietzsche,” in Schacht (2001). Clark, Maudemarie and Brian Leiter, 1997. Сollege School! “Introduction” to Nietzsche's Daybreak , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Detwiler, Bruce, 1990. Nietzsche and the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism , Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Foot, Philippa, 1973. “Nietzsche: The Revaluation of Values,” reprinted in write for an State, Richardson Leiter (2001). Gemes, Ken, and John Richardson (eds.), 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Geuss, Raymond, 1997. “Nietzsche and Morality,” European Journal of Philosophy , 5: 120. Hollingdale, R.J., 1985. Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy , London: Ark Paperbacks. Hunt, Lester, 1985. “Politics and Anti-Politics: Nietzsche's View of the State,” History of Philosophy Quarterly , 2: 453468. , 1991. Nietzsche and the Origin of Virtue , London: Routledge. , 1993. “The Eternal Recurrence and Nietzsche's Ethic of how to write a critical evaluation Virtue,” International Studies in Philosophy , 25 (2): 311. Hurka, Thomas, 1993. Perfectionism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2007. “Nietzsche: Perfectionist,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007).
Hussain, Nadeem, 2007. “Honest Illusions: Valuing for Nietzsche's Free Spirits,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007). How To For An Essay Louisiana State! , 2013. “Nietzsche's Metaethical Stance”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Janaway, Christopher, 2007. Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Katsafanas, Paul, 2005. “Nietzsche's Theory of Mind: Consciousness and University of Hertfordshire Conceptualization,” European Journal of Philosophy , 13: 131. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Philosophical Psychology,”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Leiter, Brian, 1994. “Perspectivism in Nietzsche's Genealogy of how to Louisiana Morals ,” in Schacht (1994). , 1997. “Nietzsche and the Morality Critics,” Ethics , 107: 250285. Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). Writing University! , 1998. “On the Paradox of how to an conclusion for an Louisiana Fatalism and Self-Creation in Nietzsche,” in C. Janaway (ed.), Willing and Nothingness: Schopenhauer as Nietzsche's Educator , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). Knowledge Of South Carolina! , 2000. “Nietzsche's Metaethics: Against the Privilege Readings,” European Journal of Philosophy , 8: 277297. , 2002. Write An Conclusion Essay University! Nietzsche on Morality , London: Routledge. , 2007. How To Write Essay Chaminade Preparatory! “Nietzsche's Theory of the Will,” Philosophers' Imprint , 7 (7): 115. , 2009. Write University! “Review of Shaw (2007)”, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , 2009.01.21 [Available online]. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Naturalism Reconsidered,” in Gemes and Richardson (2013). , 2015. Nietzsche on Morality , 2nd edition, London: Routledge.
Leiter, Brian and Neil Sinhababu (eds.), 2007. Nietzsche and Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Essay University Carolina! Magnus, Bernd, 1978. Nietzsche's Existential Imperative , Bloomington: Indiana University Press. May, Simon, 1999. Nietzsche's Ethics and his “War on an conclusion Louisiana, Morality” , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Montinari, Mazzino, 1982. Nietzsche Lesen , Berlin: de Gruyter.
Nehamas, Alexander, 1985. Nietzsche: Life as Literature , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, esp. Chs. 57. Nussbaum, Martha, 1997. “Is Nietzsche a Political Thinker?” International Journal of Philosophical Studies , 5: 113. Reginster, Bernard, 2006. Help School, Bangkok! The Affirmation of Life: Nietzsche on Overcoming Nihilism , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Riccardi, Mattia, 2015a. “Nietzsche on the Superficiality of Consciousness”,in M. Dries (ed.), Nietzsche on Consciousness and the Embodied Mind , Berlin, de Gruyter. , 2015b. State! “Inner Opacity: Nietzsche on Introspection and Agency”, Inquiry , 58: 221243. Richardson, John, 1996.
Nietzsche's System , Oxford: Oxford University Press, esp. Apa Format Essay! Ch 3. Richardson, John, and Brian Leiter (eds.), 2001. An Conclusion For An Essay! Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Schacht, Richard, 1983. Write And Earn Money American Preparatory! Nietzsche , London: Routledge, esp. Chs.
IV-VII. (ed.), 1994. How To Write University! Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality , Berkeley: University of California Press. (ed.), 2001. Nietzsche's Postmoralism , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Essay University Of South Carolina! Shaw, Tamsin, 2007. Nietzsche's Political Skepticism , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Solomon, Robert C., 2001. “Nietzsche's Virtues: A Personal Inquiry,” in Schacht (2001). Wilcox, John, 1974.
Truth and Value in Nietzsche: A Study of His Metaethics and Epistemology , Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Williams, Bernard, 1993. Write An Conclusion Louisiana State University! “Nietzsche's Minimalist Moral Psychology,” European Journal of Philosophy , 1: 414. Reprinted in Schacht (1994). Nietzsche Chronicle, maintained by Malcolm Brown, Dartmouth College Brian Leiter's Nietzsche Blog Journal of Nietzsche Studies. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free.
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Solo Practice University® the practice of law school. Tips for how to write an conclusion Louisiana State University, Writing a Great #BarExam Essay. A few weeks ago, we talked about tips for a film essay Preparatory, succeeding on the multiple-choice portion of the bar exam. But passing the how to write an conclusion essay State University MBE is not enough to find bar exam success (even if it is 50 percent of essay Queen's College your state’s exam). You must be able to conquer the for an writing portion of the exam as well. So today we focus on how to approach the write response Trent University essay portion of the bar exam.
Instead of thinking about the essay portion of the bar exam as a written exam, think of it as a written interview . I mentioned this in my first blog post a few weeks ago, and I think it is critical to how to write an conclusion essay Louisiana State University, elaborate on because thinking about the bar exam as one big interview can help you deliver a passing performance. If instead of essay University showing up at the testing center for a test, what if you were showing up for an in-person interview with a bar grader? Then, what would you think about when preparing? These are some likely considerations. Who will be “meeting” with you and evaluating you? Now in California, bar graders are practicing attorneys, many of whom grade the bar exam at how to write for an Louisiana University night and on the weekends. Although they do get paid, I don’t think most people do it for the money necessarily (you can learn more about California bar grader compensation here).How much information is published about the bar graders depends on the jurisdiction. For example, in New York the graders are made up of members of the Board of Law Examiners who are appointed by the Court of Appeals. Help Write An Essay The Regent’s School,? Each one of these board members has teams of practicing attorneys who grade essays and PTs. (The website www.seperac.com has a lot of additional information on the New York bar exam, if you are interested.)So in both New York and California, just as in a job interview, you are meeting with practicing attorneys.
But instead of evaluating you for a job, they are evaluating you as to your readiness to an conclusion essay Louisiana, practice law. That means that you are writing for an attorney. A Film Essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory? That is very important to keep in mind.Do you know who grades the an conclusion for an Louisiana University bar exam in your jurisdiction? If not, you should find out! What types of questions will be asked in the “interview?” Prior to law school I was a consultant with a large consulting firm. In interviews for consulting jobs, we would frequently be given a business problem and asked to walk through a solution (I remember one was about selling eyeglass frames in write and earn University Preparatory School Asia—don’t ask me why I remember that one 12 years later!).The bar exam is not all that different. The bar examiners present you with a fact pattern or a performance text in order to test your legal skills, just as my business knowledge and how to write essay Louisiana University analysis were being tested in the consulting interview.
I wasn’t required to write The Regent’s International, know any specifics about the Asian eyeglass market; the for an essay State University focus of the how to a film Chaminade Сollege interview was on my analysis of the question at hand.On the bar exam, to how to an conclusion Louisiana State University, a degree you are being evaluated on your knowledge of the law (some jurisdictions specifically call it minimum competency) but as in how to write Preparatory School an interview the real focus is on your analysis of the factual situation. Do you know how to “think like a lawyer”? And that makes sense, right? Practicing lawyers are evaluating you as to whether or not they think you are ready to be a lawyer. What will you “wear?” I know that many law students spend a lot of time picking out the how to write essay Louisiana University perfect interview suit.
Endless debate can be had as to essay Chaminade Сollege, pin stripes versus classic black or skirts versus slacks. Don’t even get me started on what kind of shoes are appropriate!However, I will be honest, in my experience, many students don’t put the same effort into their written presentation. By written presentation I mean the use of headers and formatting to make your work easy to read for the grader. But if you approach the bar exam like an interview, shouldn’t you focus on looks as well? So in the same way you wouldn’t wear a wrinkled suit to an interview, please don’t present your exam in a sloppy way! It reflects on your professionalism, which is a critical part of the interview and the bar review process.
How will you present yourself with confidence? Attorneys are a confident bunch (or at least we like to think we are). It takes poise to stand up in court or represent a client in a heated negotiation. In practice, you must be able to communicate in a professional, confident way both in writing and in person. In an how to write essay Louisiana, interview, of course, you want to present yourself as you would as an attorney—someone the how to essay interviewer would want to have on his or her side of a litigation.I would argue the bar exam is an conclusion for an Louisiana University, no different! You want to write Preparatory School, show the how to an conclusion Louisiana exam grader that you are the write apa format essay of Hertfordshire type of lawyer he or she would want to work with!
And that attorney is poised, confident, and how to write for an essay State professional.How do you convey confidence with your writing? You write in a clear and concise way. You state the rules as if you are sure they are the right rules to apply (hopefully you are right). You argue both sides when appropriate and clearly conclude what you think will be the outcome of the case. How can you make an write article and earn American University, impression within a limited time?
Have you ever had a short interview? Fifteen minutes or even shorter? To prepare for a short interview, you would likely focus on making sure you put your best foot forward in the time allowed, right?Likewise, it is important to recognize how much time the bar graders spend reading each of your answers. For example, in write an conclusion essay Louisiana University California, bar graders spend an average of 2 to 3 minutes reading each essay exam and 3 to 5 minutes on the performance exam. I have read reports that in other jurisdictions (especially those with shorter essays) bar graders spend on average 2 minutes grading an essay.So given those statistics, calculate how much time a grader in your jurisdiction will spend grading your entire written exam. In California that number is about 28 minutes (on the high end) for 12 hours of written exams. Essay Writing University Of South? That isn’t very long. So you have limited time to make a good impression.
Use what little time you have to make the best impression possible. How will you be sure to answer the question asked? In an interview, it is very important to answer the question asked by the interviewer. Write An Conclusion State University? If you are asked, “Where do you see yourself in five years?” then don’t talk about help write The Regent’s International School,, your work on law review! The same is true on the bar exam. The call of the question is so important. If the call of the question is in three parts, answer all three parts. State University? If the question asks you to write from the help write an essay International perspective of plaintiff’s counsel, make sure you do that! How will you answer the questions “correctly?” Now let’s be honest—many of us at times in our interview history have perhaps told an interviewer the answer we know he or she wanted to how to an conclusion for an, hear. Knowledge Essay Writing University? Let’s take the question above, “Where do you see yourself in five years?” Most people know better than to say, “Not working here!” (even if that thought crosses your mind).
You frame the answer in a way that will be pleasing to the interviewer.The same is true for the bar exam. You need to write for an Louisiana, give the write essay Trent University bar examiner what is write for an Louisiana University, asked for. A Critical College? Say you are an Louisiana State University, expert on how to evaluation essay Queen's the present sense impression exception to write for an essay, the hearsay rule. Heck, you even wrote a journal article about it. Preparatory? Should you spend your entire evidence essay talking about present sense impression? No! That is not what the examiner wants to hear. The examiner wants you to go through the different exceptions in a simple and organized way.
He or she doesn’t want your in-depth analysis. So don’t do that! So really though, what are the qualities of a great bar essay answer? It answers the questions asked both from the call of the question and by the facts in the fact pattern. It shows you know how to how to an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State University, “think like a lawyer” (or at least how the bar examiners believe you should “think like a lawyer”). It should be written in a critical evaluation College a professional and confident way.
It should be organized with clear headers and helpful formatting. How To An Conclusion Essay University? It should display your knowledge of the law. Response Essay Trent University? It should be written in the time allowed. What if you are still struggling with the written portion of the bar exam? Each jurisdiction is how to write an conclusion State, different, with different essay requirements.
However, what is response essay University, universal is that if you are struggling with the how to an conclusion for an essay State writing portion, you must seek help! So what type of how to write a critical evaluation essay College help is how to write essay Louisiana State University, out there? Hire a tutor. Tutors can give you individualized feedback on your writing. Many people feel that this is something missing from the bar prep process. But all tutors are not created equal! You should ask around for how to response essay, recommendations, read testimonials, and even ask for student references if you think that would be helpful.
Read books. There are a number of helpful books on writing essay exams. One that I think is write an conclusion for an essay, helpful is by Mary Campbell Gallagher; it’s called Scoring High on Bar Exam Essays. Review real student essays . I think that many students learn well from reviewing other student essays (both successful and how to evaluation essay College not successful). It puts the student in the place of the grader and shows what can be communicated through the written page. It can be a very powerful study tool! There are different places you can find sample answers. Beyond the write for an essay University model or sample answers published by various bar examiners (California, New York, and MEE), there are other tools for students as well. There are books that give commentary on and earn money American University Preparatory School student essays from various jurisdictions. Write For An Essay? (See my What NOT to Write California book review here.
There are also Massachusetts and knowledge essay of South Carolina New York editions.) There are also websites that compile sample essays for students to review. State University? (BarEssays.com does this for the California bar.) Check out blog posts on how to a film essay Preparatory School different essay writing tips . Contrary to how to an conclusion for an essay University, what many people may think, I think that social media and blogs can help in your bar study. A lot of practitioners are sharing information and tips for free out how to response University, there in the blogosphere! Outside of your study hours you should check out different perspectives and approaches and see what resonates with you. Or if you are planning to take the write for an essay State University bar in apa format of Hertfordshire the future, start reading blogs now in order to familiarize yourself with the tips and tools available. Treating the essay portion like an interview can help you realize that you already have the for an Louisiana State skills necessary to be successful. And focusing on who is evaluating you and how you are being evaluated can help you put together a passing essay. All opinions, advice, and experiences of guest bloggers/columnists are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the opinions, practices or experiences of Solo Practice University®. Lee Burgess, Esq. is the write a film Chaminade Сollege School co-founder of the Law School Toolbox, a resource for law students that demystifies the law school experience, the how to an conclusion for an essay State Bar Exam Toolbox, a resource for students getting ready for the bar exam, and how to response essay Trent Trebuchet, a legal career resource. Lee has also been adjunct faculty at two bay area law schools where she has taught classes on write for an Louisiana State University law school and bar exam preparation. You can find Lee on Twitter at how to apa format essay of Hertfordshire (Navitas) @leefburgess, @lawschooltools, @barexamtools @trebuchetlegal. Google+ / Faculty Bio.
Enjoy our blog posts with lunch! Enter your email address and we'll send you an email each time a new blog post is published. The highly trained team of how to write an conclusion for an Louisiana offsite receptionists who handle all your calls with the perfect mix of help an essay School, Bangkok friendliness and professionalism. 3 comments on “ Tips for Writing a Great #BarExam Essay ” Very well said tips Lee. It could be a great help to students who is write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana, planning to take their bar exam. And Earn Preparatory? This could also be apply on different field of expertise as it will lead you the path of professionalism. Thank you! I agree that we too often don’t think about professionalism as it relates to tests (even those in how to an conclusion for an State University professional schools).
I am glad you enjoyed the help an essay post. Thanks for giving me a new perspective to consider as I plan to sit for my state bar exam in how to for an State two years. Knowledge Essay Of South Carolina? Having enrolled into law school several years after being in the non-legal workforce, I can absolutely appreciate viewing the bar exam as a job interview … something I believe I can do! Thanks for the blog research tip, too – getting an advanced start on preparation always keeps me sane! Comments are closed automatically 60 days after the post is published. Newly-minted or well seasoned, Solo Practice University® is devoted to all solo/small firm practitioners, discussing issues faced, offering advice, education, support and inspiration. Want your free copy of Embracing Change ? Subscribe by email and how to an conclusion State download it immediately. Check the requirements for your state now. Learn more → Why Going Solo as a Young Attorney Could Be the Best Decision Ever with Susan Cartier Liebel from Solo Practice University®. Staying Motivated While Starting A Solo Law Practice.
On this episode of New Solo from the Legal Talk Network, Adriana Linares interviews Susan Cartier Liebel from essay writing of South Carolina Solo Practice University® about how to stay motivated throughout the process of how to an conclusion for an Louisiana State starting a solo law practice. Motivation in life is very important. I share seminal moments which have shaped me as a human being and helped me become who I am today. Learning To Build And Run A Solo Practice. On this podcast from Lawpreneur Radio, Miranda McCroskey interviews Susan Cartier Liebel from write and earn money School Solo Practice University® about perceptions of fear, failure and other issues facing solos.
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What is Critique? An Essay on Foucault’s Virtue. What is it to offer a critique? This is something that, I would wager, most of us understand in some ordinary sense. But matters become more vexing if we attempt to distinguish between a critique of how to write an conclusion for an Louisiana State this or that position and critique as a more generalized practice, one that might be described without reference to its specific objects. Can we even ask such a question about the generalized character of critique without gesturing toward an essence of critique? And if we achieved the generalized picture, offering something which approaches a philosophy of critique, would we then lose the very distinction between philosophy and critique that operates as part of the definition of critique itself?
Critique is always a critique of an essay School, some instituted practice, discourse, episteme, institution, and it loses its character the moment in which it is abstracted from its operation and made to stand alone as a purely generalizable practice. But if this is true, this does not mean that no generalizations are possible or that, indeed, we are mired in particularisms. On the contrary, we tread here in an area of constrained generality, one which broaches the philosophical, but must, if it is to remain critical, remain at a distance from that very achievement. The essay I offer here is how to write for an essay State, about Foucault, but let me begin by suggesting what I take to be an interesting parallel between what Raymond Williams and Theodor Adorno, in how to write University different ways, sought to accomplish under the name of “criticism” and what Foucault sought to understand by “critique.” I maintain that something of Foucault’s own contribution to, and alliance with, a progressive political philosophy will be made clear in the course of the comparison. For An Essay University! Raymond Williams worried that the notion of help write The Regent’s International School, Bangkok criticism has been unduly restricted to the notion of an conclusion essay Louisiana State University “fault-finding” and proposed that we find a vocabulary for the kinds of responses we have, specifically to cultural works, “which [do] not assume the habit (or right or duty) of judgment.” And what he called for was a more specific kind of response, one that did not generalize too quickly: “what always needs to be understood,” he wrote, “is the specificity of the response, which is not a judgment, but a practice.”(76) I believe this last line also marks the trajectory of Foucault’s thinking on this topic, since “critique” is help write International, precisely a practice that not only suspends judgment for him, but offers a new practice of values based on that very suspension. How To Write An Conclusion For An Essay! So, for how to essay Queen's, Williams, the practice of how to an conclusion for an essay Louisiana critique is not reducible to how to write a critical evaluation essay College arriving at judgments (and expressing them).
Significantly, Adorno makes a similar claim when he writes of the “danger. of judging intellectual phenomena in a subsumptive, uninformed and administrative manner and assimilating them into how to essay State University the prevailing constellations of power which the intellect ought to expose.” So, the task of how to write exposing those “constellations of power” is impeded by the rush to “judgment” as the exemplary act of write essay State critique. For Adorno, the very operation of judgment serves to separate the critic from the social world at hand, a move which deratifies the results of its own operation, constituting a “withdrawal from praxis.” (23) Adorno writes that the critic’s “very sovereignty, the claim to a more profound knowledge of the object, the separation of the idea from its object through the independence of the critical judgment threatens to essay Queen's College succumb to the thinglike form of the object when cultural criticism appeals to a collection of ideas on display, as it were, and fetishizes isolated categories.”(23) For critique to operate as part of a praxis, for Adorno, is for how to write for an State, it to apprehend the ways in which categories are themselves instituted, how the field of knowledge is ordered, and how what it suppresses returns, as it were, as its own constitutive occlusion. Judgments operate for both thinkers as ways to subsume a particular under an writing University of South already constituted category, whereas critique asks after the occlusive constitution of the field of categories themselves. What becomes especially important for Foucault in this domain, to write an conclusion essay University try to think the problem of how to write apa format of Hertfordshire (Navitas) freedom and, indeed, ethics in general, beyond judgment: critical thinking constitutes this kind of effort. In 1978, Foucault delivered a lecture entitled, “What is Critique?”, a piece that prepared the way for his more well-known essay, “What is Enlightenment?” (1984). He not only asks what critique is, but seeks to understand the kind of question that critique institutes, offering some tentative ways of how to for an circumscribing its activity. What remains perhaps most important about that lecture, and the more developed essay that followed, is the question form in write a film Сollege Preparatory which the matter is put. An Conclusion For An Louisiana State University! For the very question, “what is write article and earn Preparatory, critique?” is an instance of the how to write an conclusion essay Louisiana State University critical enterprise in question, and so the question not only poses the problem—what is this critique that we supposedly do or, indeed, aspire to do?—but enacts a certain mode of questioning which will prove central to the activity of critique itself. Indeed, I would suggest that what Foucault seeks to do with this question is something quite different from what we have perhaps come to expect from critique.
Habermas made the operation of critique quite problematic when he suggested that a move beyond critical theory was required if we are to seek recourse to norms in making evaluative judgments about social conditions and social goals. A Film Preparatory! The perspective of an conclusion Louisiana State critique, in his view, is write article and earn money American Preparatory, able to call foundations into question, denaturalize social and political hierarchy, and even establish perspectives by write for an State University which a certain distance on the naturalized world can be had. But none of these activities can tell us in what direction we ought to how to University (Navitas) move, nor can they tell us whether the activities in which we engage are realizing certain kinds of normatively justified goals. Hence, in his view, critical theory had to give way to a stronger normative theory, such as communicative action, in an conclusion Louisiana University order to supply a foundation for critical theory, enabling strong normative judgments to be made, and for politics not only to have a clear aim and normative aspiration, but for us to be able to evaluate current practices in and earn money University Preparatory terms of their abilities to how to reach those goals. In making this kind of criticism of how to write response essay Trent critique, Habermas became curiously uncritical about the very sense of normativity he deployed. For the how to an conclusion essay State University question, “what are we to knowledge writing of South do?” presupposes that the “we” has been formed and that it is known, that its action is possible, and the field in which it might act is delimited. Write For An University! But if those very formations and delimitations have normative consequences, then it will be necessary to ask after the values that set the stage for action, and this will be an important dimension of any critical inquiry into how to a critical evaluation Queen's normative matters. And though the write an conclusion essay University Habermasians may have an answer to how to response essay Trent University this problem, my aim today is not to write an conclusion for an essay State University rehearse these debates nor to answer them, but to mark the essay Carolina distance between a notion of critique that is characterized as normatively impoverished in some sense, and another, which I hope to offer here, which is not only more complex than the usual criticism assumes but which has, I would argue, strong normative commitments that appear in forms that would be difficult, if not impossible, to read within the how to write an conclusion for an University current grammars of normativity. Indeed, in this essay, I hope to show that Foucault not only makes an important contribution to normative theory, but that both his aesthetics and his account of the subject are integrally related to both his ethics and Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, politics. Whereas some have dismissed him as an how to write an conclusion essay Louisiana State aesthete or, indeed, as a nihilist, I hope to suggest that the foray he makes into the topic of self-making and, by presupposition, into how to write evaluation College poiesis itself is central to the politics of desubjugation that he proposes.
Paradoxically, self-making and desubjugation happen simultaneously when a mode of existence is risked which is unsupported by what he calls the regime the truth. Foucault begins his discussion by affirming that there are various grammars for the term, “critique,” distinguishing between a “high Kantian enterprise” called critique as well as “the little polemical activities that are called critique” (24) Thus, he warns us at the outset that critique will not be one thing, and how to write an conclusion Louisiana University, that we will not be able to define it apart from the various objects by which it itself is defined. “By its function,” he writes “[critique] seems to be condemned to dispersion, dependency and pure heteronomy.” “It only exists in relation to something other than itself.” Thus, Foucault seeks to define critique, but finds that only a series of how to write approximations are possible. Critique will be dependent on its objects, but its objects will in turn define the very meaning of critique. Further, the primary task of critique will not be to evaluate whether its objects —social conditions, practices, forms of knowledge, power, and how to an conclusion essay Louisiana University, discourse—are good or bad, valued highly or demeaned, but to bring into relief the very framework of evaluation itself. What is the relation of knowledge to knowledge writing power such that our epistemological certainties turn out to support a way of structuring the world that forecloses alternative possibilities of ordering? Of course, we may think that we need epistemological certainty in order to state for sure that the world is and ought to be ordered a given way.
To what extent, however, is that certainty orchestrated by forms of knowledge precisely in order to foreclose the possibility of an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State University thinking otherwise? Now, one might wisely ask, what good is thinking otherwise, if we don’t know in advance that thinking otherwise will produce a better world? If we do not have a moral framework in which to decide with knowingness that certain new possibilities or ways of thinking otherwise will bring forth that world whose betterness we can judge by sure and already established standards? This has become something of and earn University School a regular rejoinder to Foucault and the Foucaultian-minded. And shall we assume that the relative silence that has greeted this habit of fault-finding in Foucault is a sign that his theory has no reassuring answers to give? I think we can assume that the answers that are being proffered do not have reassurance as their primary aim. This is, of course, not to say what withdraws reassurance is, by definition, not an answer. Indeed, the only rejoinder, it seems to write an conclusion essay Louisiana me, is to return to a more fundamental meaning of “critique” in order to see what may well be wrong with the University question as it is posed and, indeed, to pose the how to an conclusion essay State University question anew, so that a more productive approach to the place of essay of South ethics within politics might be mapped.
One might wonder, indeed, whether what I mean by “productive” will be gauged by standards and measures that I am willing to reveal, or which I grasp in full at the moment in which I make such a claim. But here I would ask for your patience since it turns out that critique is a practice that requires a certain amount of patience in the same way that reading, according to how to State University Nietzsche, required that we act a bit more like cows than humans and learn the art of slow rumination. Foucault’s contribution to a film School what appears as an impasse within critical and post-critical theory of our time is how to write State, precisely to help an essay School, Bangkok ask us to rethink critique as a practice in which we pose the question of the write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana University limits of our most sure ways of knowing, what Williams referred to as our “uncritical habits of mind” and what Adorno described as ideology (where the “unideological thought is that which does not permit itself to be reduced to ‘operational terms’ and instead strives solely to help the things themselves to that articulation from which they are otherwise cut off by the prevailing language.”) One does not drive to the limits for a thrill experience, or because limits are dangerous and sexy, or because it brings us into a titillating proximity with evil. One asks about the limits of ways of write American Preparatory knowing because one has already run up against a crisis within the epistemological field in which one lives. Write Louisiana University! The categories by which social life are ordered produce a certain incoherence or entire realms of unspeakability.
And it is from this condition, the tear in the fabric of our epistemological web, that the practice of help write an essay The Regent’s International critique emerges, with the awareness that no discourse is adequate here or that our reigning discourses have produced an write for an impasse. Indeed, the article and earn American University School very debate in which the strong normative view wars with critical theory may produce precisely that form of discursive impasse from which the necessity and urgency of critique emerges. For Foucault, critique is “a means for a future or a truth that it will not know nor happen to be, it oversees a domain it would not want to police and how to essay, is unable to regulate.” So critique will be that perspective on how to write apa format essay University, established and ordering ways of knowing which is essay Louisiana State, not immediately assimilated into that ordering function. Apa Format (Navitas)! Significantly, for Foucault, this exposure of the limit of the epistemological field is linked with the practice of virtue, as if virtue is counter to regulation and order, as if virtue itself is to be found in the risking of established order. He is not shy about the write for an Louisiana State relation here. Bangkok! He writes, “there is something in critique that is akin to virtue.” And then he says something which might be considered even more surprising: “this critical attitude [is] virtue in general.” (25) There are some preliminary ways we can understand Foucault’s effort to cast critique as virtue. Virtue is most often understood either as an an conclusion University attribute or a practice of a subject, or indeed a quality that conditions and write article American Preparatory School, characterizes a certain kind of action or practice. It belongs to how to write an conclusion University an ethics which is not fulfilled merely by knowledge essay of South following objectively formulated rules or laws. And virtue is not only a way of how to an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State University complying with or conforming with preestablished norms. It is, more radically, a critical relation to those norms, one which, for Foucault, takes shape as a specific stylization of morality. Foucault gives us an indication of what he means by virtue in the introduction to The Use of Pleasure: The History of Sexuality, Volume Two.  At this juncture he makes clear that he seeks to move beyond a notion of ethical philosophy that issues a set of apa format (Navitas) prescriptions.
Just as critique intersects with philosophy without quite coinciding with it, so Foucault in that introduction seeks to make of his own thought an example of a non-prescriptive form of moral inquiry. In the same way, he will later ask about forms of moral experience that are not rigidly defined by a juridical law, a rule or command to which the self is how to for an essay Louisiana State University, said mechanically or uniformly to submit. The essay that he writes, he tells us, is itself the example of such a practice, “to explore what might be changed, in its own thought, through the practice of a knowledge that is foreign to it.” (9) Moral experience has to do with a self-transformation prompted by a form of knowledge that is foreign to one’s own. And this form of write and earn American University Preparatory School moral experience will be different from the submission to a command. How To Write For An Essay Louisiana State University! Indeed, to the extent that Foucault interrogates moral experience here or elsewhere, he understands himself to be making an inquiry into moral experiences that are not primarily or fundamentally structured by prohibition or interdiction. In the how to write evaluation essay Queen's first volume of how to essay State University The History of Sexuality , he sought to write essay School show that the primary interdictions assumed by psychoanalysis and the structuralist account of cultural prohibitions cannot be assumed as historical constants. Moreover, historiographically considered, moral experience cannot be understood through recourse to a prevailing set of interdictions within a given historical time. Although there are codes to be studied, these codes must always be studied in relation to the modes of subjectivation to which they correspond. He makes the claim that the juridification of law achieves a certain hegemony within the write essay State thirteenth century, but that if one goes back to Greek and of South, Roman classical cultures, one finds practices, or “arts of existence” (10) which have to how to write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana University do with a cultivated relation of the self to itself. How To Write A Critical Evaluation Queen's College! Introducing the notion of “arts of existence,” Foucault also reintroduces and reemphasizes “intentional and voluntary actions,” specifically, “those actions by which men not only set themselves rules of conduct, but also seek to how to essay Louisiana University transform themselves in their singular being, and to make their life into an oeuvre.” Such lives do not simply conform to moral precepts or norms in such a way that selves, considered preformed or ready-made, fit themselves into a mold that is set forth by the precept. On the contrary, the self fashions itself in terms of the norm, comes to inhabit and incorporate the norm, but the norm is not in this sense external to the principle by which the article School self is formed . How To An Conclusion! What is at issue for him is not behaviors or ideas or societies or “ideologies,” but “the problematizations through which being offers itself to be, necessarily, thought—and the practices on the basis of which these problematizations are formed.”(11) This last claim is hardly transparent, but what it suggests is of Hertfordshire (Navitas), that certain kinds of practices which are designed to handle certain kinds of problems produce, over time, a settled domain of for an essay Louisiana State University ontology as their consequence, and this ontological domain, in turn, constrains our understanding of what is possible.
Only with reference to this prevailing ontological horizon, itself instituted through a set of practices, will we be able to understand the kinds of relations to write an essay School, Bangkok moral precepts that have been formed as well as those that are yet to write an conclusion essay Louisiana University be formed. How To Trent University! For instance, he considers at length various practices of austerity, and he ties these to the production of a certain kind of how to for an essay Louisiana State masculine subject. The practices of austerity do not attest to a single and abiding prohibition, but work in the service of crafting a certain kind of help an essay Bangkok self. Or put in a more precise way, the self, incorporating the rules of conduct that represent the virtue of austerity, creates itself as a specific kind of subject. This self-production is “the elaboration and stylization of an activity in the exercise of its power and the practice of its liberty.” This was not a practice that opposed pleasure pure and simple, but a certain practice of pleasure itself (24), a practice of pleasure in the context of write an conclusion for an essay moral experience. Thus, in section 3 of that same introduction, Foucault makes clear that it will not suffice to offer a chronicled history of moral codes, for such a history cannot tell us how these codes were lived and, more specifically, what forms of subject-formation such codes required and facilitated. Essay School! Here he begins to sound like a phenomenologist. But there is, in addition to the recourse to the experiential means by which moral categories are grasped, a critical move as well, for the subjective relation to those norms will be neither predictable nor mechanical. The relation will be ‘critical’ in the sense that it will not comply with a given category, but rather constitute an interrogatory relation to the field of categorization itself, referring at least implicitly to the limits of the epistemological horizon within which practices are formed. The point will not be to refer practice to a pregiven epistemological context, but to establish critique as the very practice that exposes the limits of that epistemological horizon itself, making the contours of the horizon appear, as it were, for an conclusion for an University, the first time, we might say, in relation to its own limit. Moreover, the critical practice in question turns out to entail self-transformation in relation to a rule of conduct.
How, then, does self-transformation lead to the exposure of how to a film Chaminade School this limit? How is how to write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State University, self-transformation understood as a “practice of liberty,” and how is this practice understood as part of Foucault’s lexicon of virtue? Let us begin first by understanding the notion of self-transformation at stake here, and then consider how it is related to the problem called “critique” which forms the focus of our deliberations here. It is, of course, one thing to conduct oneself in relation to a code of conduct, and it is another thing to form oneself as an how to essay Trent University ethical subject in an conclusion for an Louisiana University relation to help a code of conduct (and it will be yet another thing to form oneself as that which risks the orderliness of the code itself). The rules of an conclusion for an Louisiana chastity provide an important example for how to a film Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School, Foucault. There is a difference, for instance, in not acting on how to an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State University, desires that would violate a precept to which one is morally bound and developing a practice of desire, so to speak, which is informed by a certain ethical project or task. The model according to which submitting to a rule of law is required would involve one in not acting in certain ways, installing an knowledge essay of South effective prohibition against the acting out of certain desires. But the model which Foucault seeks to understand and, indeed, to incorporate and exemplify takes moral prescription to how to write an conclusion for an Louisiana State participate in the forming of a kind of action. Foucault’s point here seems to be that renunciation and proscription do not necessarily enjoin a passive or non-active ethical mode, but form instead an ethical mode of conduct and a way of stylizing both action and pleasure.
I believe this contrast that Foucault lays out how to a film Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, between a command-based ethics and the ethical practice which centrally engages the formation of the self sheds important light on the distinction between obedience and virtue that he offers in his essay, “What is Critique?” Foucault contrasts this yet to how to write Louisiana State University be defined understanding of “virtue” with obedience, showing how the possibility of this form of virtue is established through its difference from an uncritical obedience to authority. The resistance to authority, of course, constitutes the hallmark of the Enlightenment for Foucault. And he offers us a reading of the Enlightenment which not only establishes his own continuity with its aims, but reads his own dilemmas back into how to response the history of the Enlightenment itself. The account he provides is one that no “Enlightenment” thinker would accept, but this resistance would not invalidate the characterization at hand, for what Foucault seeks in how to an conclusion Louisiana the characterization of the Enlightenment is article Preparatory, precisely what remains “unthought” within its own terms: hence, his is a critical history. In his view, critique begins with questioning the demand for absolute obedience and subjecting every governmental obligation imposed on subjects to write Louisiana State University a rational and reflective evaluation. Although Foucault will not follow this turn to reason, he will nevertheless ask what criteria delimit the sorts of reasons that can come to bear on the question of obedience. He will be particularly interested in the problem of how that delimited field forms the subject and how, in knowledge of South Carolina turn, a subject comes to form and reform those reasons. This capacity to form reasons will be importantly linked to the self-transformative relation mentioned above. To be critical of an authority that poses as absolute requires a critical practice that has self-transformation at its core. But how do we move from understanding the reasons we might have for an conclusion essay State, consenting to a demand to forming those reasons for ourselves, to transforming ourselves in the course of producing those reasons (and, finally, putting at risk the field of reason itself)?
Are these not distinct kinds of problems, or does one invariably lead to the other? Is the autonomy achieved in forming reasons which serve as the basis for accepting or rejecting a pregiven law the same as the article American Preparatory transformation of the self that takes place when a rule becomes incorporated into the very action of the subject? As we shall see, both the transformation of the self in relation to ethical precepts and the practice of critique are considered forms of “art,” stylizations and write Louisiana State, repetitions, suggesting that there is no possibility of accepting or refusing a rule without a self who is stylized in response to the ethical demand upon it. In the context where obedience is required, Foucault locates the desire that informs the question, “how not to be governed?” (28) This desire, and the wonderment that follows from it, forms the central impetus of critique. It is of course unclear how the desire not to be governed is linked with virtue. He does make clear, however, that he is not posing the write response essay possibility of radical anarchy, and write Louisiana, that the question is not how to become radically ungovernable.
It is University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), a specific question that emerges in relation to a specific form of government: “how not to be governed like that , by Louisiana State that, in the name of write article and earn University School those principles, with such and an conclusion for an Louisiana, such an objective in mind and by means of such procedures, not like that, not for that, not by them.” This becomes the signature mark of “the critical attitude”(28) and write a critical evaluation College, its particular virtue. For Foucault, the how to write for an essay question itself inaugurates both a moral and political attitude, “the art of not being governed or, better, the a critical essay Queen's art of not being governed like that and at that cost.”(29) Whatever virtue Foucault here circumscribes for us will have to do with objecting to that imposition of power, to its costs, to the way in which it is administered, to an conclusion essay Louisiana State University those who do that administering. One might be tempted to think that Foucault is simply describing resistance, but here it seems that “virtue” has taken the place of that term, or becomes the means by how to apa format of Hertfordshire which it is write essay Louisiana State, redescribed. We will have to write article and earn American University Preparatory School ask why. Moreover, this virtue is described as well as an “art,” the art of not being governed “quite so much,” so what is the relation between aesthetics and ethics at work here? He finds the origins of critique in how to an conclusion essay University the relation of resistance to ecclesiastical authority.
In relation to church doctrine, “not wanting to be governed was a certain way of refusing, challenging, limiting (say it as you like) ecclesiastical rule. It meant returning to the Scriptures. it meant questioning what kind of truth the Scriptures told.” (30). And this objection was clearly waged in write evaluation Queen's College the name of an alternative or, minimally, emerging ground of truth and of justice. This leads Foucault to how to an conclusion essay University formulate a second definition of “critique”: “Not to want to how to write a film essay Chaminade Сollege be governed. How To Write For An Louisiana State University! not wanting to accept these laws because they are unjust because. they hide a fundamental illegitimacy.”(30) Critique is that which exposes this illegitimacy, but it is knowledge essay University of South Carolina, not because critique has recourse to a more fundamental political or moral order. Foucault writes that the critical project is an conclusion for an State, “confronted with government and the obedience it stipulates” and that what “critique means” in how to a critical evaluation this context is “putting forth universal and indefeasible rights to which every government, whatever it may be, whether a monarch, a magistrate, an educator or a pater familias, will have to submit.”(30). The practice of critique, however, does not discover these universal rights, as Enlightenment theorists claim, but it does “put them forth.” However, it does not put them forth not as positive rights. The “putting forth” is an write Louisiana State University act which limits the help write The Regent’s power of the law, an act which counters and write State, rivals the workings of power, power at the moment of its renewal. Write Article And Earn American University Preparatory! This is the positing of limitation itself, one that takes form as a question and which asserts, in write an conclusion for an essay State its very assertion, a “right” to question. From the sixteenth century on, the question “how not to be governed” becomes specified as “What are the limits of the right to govern?”(31) “‘To not want to be governed’ is how to write Preparatory, of course not accepting as true. what an authority tells you is true, or at how to essay State University least not accepting it because an authority tells you that it is true, but rather accepting it only if one considers valid the reasons for doing so.” There is University, of course a fair amount of ambiguity in this situation, for what will constitute a ground of validity for accepting authority? Does the validity derive from the consent to accept authority?
If so, does consent validate the reasons offered, whatever they are? Or is it rather the case that it is write an conclusion for an essay State, only on the basis of a prior and discoverable validity that one offers one’s consent? And do these prior reasons, in their validity, make the consent a valid one? If the first alternative is write a critical College, correct, then consent is the criterion by which validity is judged, and it would appear that Foucault’s position reduces to a form of voluntarism. But perhaps what he is offering us by way of “critique” is an act, even a practice of freedom, which cannot reduce to voluntarism in how to write Louisiana State any easy way.
For the practice by essay University which the limits to write an conclusion absolute authority are set is one that is fundamentally dependent on the horizon of knowledge effects within which it operates. Write! The critical practice does not well up from the innate freedom of the soul, but is formed instead in the crucible of a particular exchange between a set of rules or precepts (which are already there) and a stylization of how to for an University acts (which extends and reformulates that prior set of rules and apa format University of Hertfordshire, precepts). This stylization of the write essay Louisiana State University self in how to write apa format (Navitas) relation to the rules comes to count as a “practice.” In Foucault’s view, following Kant in an attenuated sense, the act of consent is a reflexive movement by which validity is write for an essay State University, attributed to or withdrawn from authority. But this reflexivity does not take place internal to a subject. For Foucault, this is an how to Chaminade Сollege act which poses some risk, for the point will not only be to object to this or that governmental demand, but to ask about the order in which such a demand becomes legible and possible. And if what one objects to are the epistemological orderings that have established the rules of governmental validity, then saying “no” to the demand will require departing from the established grounds of its validity, marking the limit of that validity, which is essay University, something different and far more risky than finding a given demand invalid. In this difference, we might say, one begins to enter a critical relation to such orderings and the ethical precepts to which they give rise. The problem with those grounds that Foucault calls “illegitimate” is not that they are partial or self-contradictory or that they lead to write a film essay Сollege Preparatory School hypocritical moral stands. The problem is precisely that they seek to foreclose the how to for an essay Louisiana University critical relation, that is, to extend their own power to order the entire field of evaluation essay Queen's moral and how to write an conclusion for an Louisiana, political judgment.
They orchestrate and exhaust the field of certainty itself. How does one call into question the exhaustive hold that such rules of ordering have upon how to a critical College certainty without risking uncertainty, without inhabiting that place of wavering which exposes one to the charge of immorality, evil, aestheticism. The critical attitude is not moral according to the rules whose limits that very critical relation seeks to interrogate. But how else can critique do its job without risking the denunciations of those who naturalize and render hegemonic the how to write an conclusion Louisiana University very moral terms put into University question by critique itself? Foucault’s distinction between government and governmentalization seeks to show that the how to write essay University apparatus denoted by the former enters into the practices of those who are being governed, their very ways of knowing, their very ways of being. To be governed is not only to have a form imposed upon one’s existence, but to be given the terms within which existence will and will not be possible.
A subject will emerge in relation to an established order of truth, but it can also take a point of view on that established order that retrospectively suspends its own ontological ground. If governmentalization is. this movement through which individuals are subjugated in the reality of write The Regent’s International School, Bangkok a social practice through mechanisms of power that adhere to a truth, well, then! I will say that critique is the movement by which the subject gives himself the how to an conclusion State right (le sujet se donne le droit) to question truth on its effects of power and question power on how to Trent, its discourses of truth. An Conclusion Essay! (my emphasis, English text, 32; French text, 39) Note here that the subject is said to article American University Preparatory “give himself that right,” a mode of self-allocation and selfauthorization that seems to foreground the reflexivity of the claim. Is this, then, a self-generated movement, one which shores up the subject over and against a countervailing authority? And what difference does it make, if any, that this self-allocation and self-designation emerges as an “art”? “Critique,” he writes, “will be the art of voluntary insubordination, that of reflected intractability [ l’indocilite reflechie ].” If it is an “art” in essay State his sense, then critique will not be a single act, nor will it belong exclusively to a subjective domain, for it will be the stylized relation to the demand upon it. Write An Essay School,! And the style will be critical to the extent that, as style, it is not fully determined in advance, it incorporates a contingency over time that marks the limits to the ordering capacity of the field in question. So the stylization of this “will” will produce a subject who is not readily knowable under the established rubric of write an conclusion Louisiana truth. More radically, Foucault pronounces: “Critique would essentially insure the desubjugation [ desassujetiisement ] of the subject in the context [ le jeu ] of what we could call, in a word, the politics of how to essay Сollege Preparatory truth.” (32, 39) The politics of truth pertains to those relations of power that circumscribe in an conclusion for an essay State advance what will and write an essay School, Bangkok, will not count as truth, which order the world in certain regular and regulatable ways, and which we come to write an conclusion essay University accept as the how to apa format given field of knowledge. We can understand the write for an Louisiana University salience of this point when we begin to ask: What counts as a person? What counts as a coherent gender?
What qualifies as a citizen? Whose world is legitimated as real? Subjectively, we ask: Who can I become in such a world where the meanings and response essay University, limits of the subject are set out in advance for me? By what norms am I constrained as I begin to ask what I may become? And what happens when I begin to become that for which there is no place within the write for an State University given regime of truth? Is this not precisely what is meant by “the desubjugation of the subject in the play of. the politics of truth”(my translation)?
At stake here is the relation between the limits of ontology and epistemology, the link between the limits of write article money University School what I might become and the limits of what I might risk knowing. Deriving a sense of critique from Kant, Foucault poses the question that is the question of critique itself: “Do you know up to what point you can know?” “Our liberty is at stake.” Thus, liberty emerges at the limits of what one can know, at the very moment in how to an conclusion University which the desubjugation of the subject within the politics of truth takes place, the moment where a certain questioning practice begins that takes the following form: “‘What, therefore, am I’, I who belong to this humanity, perhaps to writing University Carolina this piece of it, at this point in time, at this instant of humanity which is subjected to the power of truth in general and truths in particular?”(46) Another way of putting this is the following: “What, given the contemporary order of being, can I be?” If, in posing this question, liberty is at an conclusion for an Louisiana stake, it may be that staking liberty has something to do with what Foucault calls virtue, with a certain risk that is put into play through thought and, indeed, through language where the contemporary ordering of being is brought to its limit. But how do we understand this contemporary order of being in which I come to stake myself? Foucault chooses here to characterize this historically conditioned order of being in a way that links him with the critical theory of the Frankfurt school, identifying “rationalization” as the article and earn money American School governmentalizing effect on ontology. Allying himself with a Left critical tradition post-Kant, Foucault writes, From the write essay Louisiana University Hegelian Left to the Frankfurt School, there has been a complete critique of positivism, rationalization, of techne and technicalization, a whole critique of the relationships between the write an essay International School, fundamental project of science and techniques whose objective was to show the connections between science’s naive presumptions, on one hand, and the forms of how to write for an Louisiana State University domination characteristic of contemporary society, on the other. (39) In his view, rationalization takes a new form when it comes into the service of University bio-power. Write An Conclusion Louisiana University! And what continues to write article money American be difficult for most social actors and critics within this situation is to write for an State University discern the relationship between “rationalization and power.”(39) What appears to be a merely epistemic order, a way of ordering the write The Regent’s International School, world, does not readily admit of the constraints by which that ordering takes place. Nor does it eagerly show the way in which the intensification and totalization of rationalizing effects leads to an intensification of power. Foucault asks, “How is it that rationalization leads to the furor of essay Louisiana University power?”(42) Clearly, the how to a critical essay Queen's College capacity for rationalization to reach into the tributaries of life not only write for an State characterizes modes of scientific practice, “but also social relationships, state organizations, economic practices and perhaps even individual behaviors?”(43) It reaches its “furor” and its limits as it seizes and pervades the subject it subjectivates. Power sets the limits to how to essay Preparatory School what a subject can “be,” beyond which it no longer “is,” or it dwells in a domain of suspended ontology. But power seeks to constrain the subject through the force of coercion, and the resistance to coercion consists in the stylization of the self at the limits of established being.
One of the first tasks of critique is to discern the relation “between mechanisms of how to write for an essay Louisiana coercion and elements of knowledge.” (50) Here again we seem confronted with the limits of what is knowable, limits which exercise a certain force without being grounded in article and earn money Preparatory any necessity, limits which can only be tread or interrogated by risking a certain security within an available ontology: [N]othing can exist as an element of knowledge if, on the one hand, it . For An Louisiana! does not conform to apa format University (Navitas) a set of rules and constraints characteristic, for how to an conclusion State University, example, of a given type of scientific discourse in a given period, and if, on how to apa format essay (Navitas), the other hand, it does not possess the effects of how to write coercion or simply the incentives peculiar to what is scientifically validated or simply rational or simply generally accepted, etc. (52) He then continues to show that knowledge and apa format essay University of Hertfordshire, power are not finally separable, but work together to establish a set of subtle and how to write an conclusion essay State, explicit criteria for thinking the write apa format world: “It is how to an conclusion essay State University, therefore not a matter of describing what knowledge is and what power is and how one would repress the other or how the other would abuse the one, but rather, a nexus of knowledge-power has to be described so that we can grasp what constitutes the acceptability of a system.” (52-53) The critic thus has a double task, to show how knowledge and how to essay Trent, power work to constitute a more or less systematic way of ordering the world with its own “conditions of acceptability of how to write an conclusion Louisiana University a system,” but also “to follow the breaking points which indicate its emergence.” So not only is it necessary to knowledge writing University isolate and identify the peculiar nexus of power and knowledge that gives rise to the field of intelligible things, but also to track the way in which that field meets its breaking point, the moments of its discontinuities, the sites where it fails to constitute the intelligibility for which it stands. What this means is that one looks both for the conditions by which the object field is constituted, but also for the limits of those conditions, the moments where they point up their contingency and their transformability. In Foucault’s terms, “schematically speaking, we have perpetual mobility, essential fragility or rather the complex interplay between what replicates the same process and what transforms it.” (58) Indeed, another way to talk about this dynamic within critique is to write for an State say that rationalization meets its limits in desubjugation. If the how to response essay University desubjugation of the subject emerges at the moment in which the write Louisiana University episteme constituted through rationalization exposes its limit, then desubjugation marks precisely the fragility and transformability of the epistemics of power. Critique begins with the write The Regent’s School, presumption of governmentalization and then with its failure to totalize the subject its seeks to know and to subjugate. But the means by which this very relation is articulated is described, in a disconcerting way, as fiction. Why would it be fiction?
And in what sense is it fiction? Foucault refers to “an historical-philosophical practice [in which] one had to make one’s own history, fabricate history, as if through fiction [ de faire comme par fiction ], in terms of how it would be traversed by the question of the relationships between structures of rationality which articulate true discourse and the mechanisms of subjugation which are linked to it.” (45, 44) There is thus a dimension of the how to an conclusion Louisiana State methodology itself which partakes of fiction, which draws fictional lines between rationalization and desubjugation, between the knowledge-power nexus and its fragility and how to essay (Navitas), limit. We are not told what sort of how to write an conclusion for an University fiction this will be, but it seems clear that Foucault is drawing on Nietzsche and, in particular, the kind of fiction that genealogy is said to be. You may remember that although it seems that for Nietzsche the write The Regent’s International genealogy of morals is the attempt to locate the write Louisiana State University origins of write article and earn money University Preparatory values, he is actually seeking to find out how the very notion of the origin became instituted. And the how to an conclusion University means by which he seeks to how to write a film Preparatory explain the origin is fictional. He tells a fable of the nobles, another about a social contract, another about how to write essay, a slave revolt in morality, and yet another about creditor and debtor relations. None of these fables can be located in space or time, and any effort to try to find the knowledge essay University of South historical complement to Nietzsche’s genealogies will necessarily fail. Indeed, in how to an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State University the place of an account that finds the how to apa format essay origin to values or, indeed, the origin of the how to write for an essay University origin, we read fictional stories about the way that values are originated. University Of Hertfordshire! A noble says something is the case and it becomes the case: the speech act inaugurates the value, and becomes something like an atopical and atemporal occasion for the origination of State University values. Indeed, Nietzsche’s own fiction-making mirrors the very acts of inauguration that he attributes to those who make values. How To Write Evaluation Queen's! So he not only describes that process, but that description becomes an instance of value- production, enacting the very process that it narrates.
How would this particular use of how to Louisiana University fiction relate to write article and earn money American Preparatory School Foucault’s notion of critique? Consider that Foucault is trying to understand the possibility of desubjugation within rationalization without assuming that there is a source for resistance that is housed in the subject or maintained in some foundational mode. Where does resistance come from? Can it be said to be the how to for an essay Louisiana University upsurge of some human freedom shackled by the powers of rationalization? If he speaks, as he does, of a will not to be governed, how are we to understand the knowledge essay writing of South status of that will?
In response to a query along these lines, he remarks. I do not think that the will not to be governed at all is something that one could consider an originary aspiration ( je ne pense pas en effet que la volonte de n’etre pas gouverne du tout soit quelque chose que l’on puisse considerer comme une aspiration originaire) . I think that, in fact, the will not to be governed is always the will not to be governed thusly, like that, by an conclusion for an Louisiana State University these people, at this price. (72) He goes on to warn against the absolutizing of this will that philosophy is always tempted to perform. He seeks to avoid what he calls “the philosophical and how to write response University, theoretical paroxysm of something that would be this will not to be relatively governed.”(72-73) He makes clear that accounting for this will involves him in a problem of the origin, and he comes quite close to ceding the terrain, but a certain Nietzschean reluctance prevails. He writes, I was not referring to something that would be a fundamental anarchism, that would be like an originary freedom ( qui serait comme la liberte originaire ), absolutely and wholeheartedly ( absolument et en son fond) resistant to any governmentalization. I did not say it, but this does not mean that I absolutely exclude it ( Je ne l’ai pas dit, mais cela ne veut pas dire que je l’exclus absolument ). I think that my presentation stops at this point, because it was already too long, but also because I am wondering ( mais aussi parce que je me demande ). if one wants to explore this dimension of critique that seems to me to be so important because it is both part of, and not part of, philosophy. it is supported by something akin ( qui serait ou ) to the historical practice of an conclusion essay University revolt, the article and earn American University Preparatory non-acceptance of a real government, on for an essay State, one hand, or, on the other, the individual refusal of governmentality.”(72-73, 59) Whatever this is that one draws upon as one resists governmentalization will be “ like an originary freedom” and “something akin to knowledge writing University of South the historical practice of revolt” (my emphasis). Essay Louisiana University! Like them, indeed, but apparently not quite the same. As for Foucault’s mention of “originary freedom,” he offers and withdraws it at once. “I did not say it,” he remarks, after coming quite close to saying it, after showing us how he almost said it, after exercising that very proximity in how to Trent the open for us in what can be understood as something of a tease. What discourse nearly seduces him here, subjugating him to its terms? And how does he draw from the very terms that he refuses?
What art form is this in which a nearly collapsible critical distance is performed for how to for an essay Louisiana State, us? And is this the same distance that informs the practice of wondering, of questioning? What limits of knowing does he dare to broach as he wonders out loud for essay of South Carolina, us? The inaugural scene of critique involves “the art of voluntary insubordination,” and the voluntary or, indeed, “originary freedom” is given here, but in the form of write an conclusion University a conjecture, in a form of art that suspends ontology and brings us into the suspension of disbelief. Foucault finds a way to write apa format University (Navitas) say “originary freedom,” and I suppose that it gives him great pleasure to utter these words, pleasure and how to write for an Louisiana, fear. He speaks them, but only through staging the words, relieving himself of an ontological commitment, but releasing the words themselves for a certain use.
Does he refer to originary freedom here? Does he seek recourse to it? Has he found the well of originary freedom and drunk from it? Or does he, significantly, posit it, mention it, say it without quite saying it? Is he invoking it so that we might relive its resonances, and know its power? The staging of the term is not its assertion, but we might say that the assertion is write essay University, staged, rendered artfully, subjected to an ontological suspension, precisely so it might be spoken. And that it is this speech act, the one which for a time relieves the how to write an conclusion for an essay State phrase, “originary freedom,” from the epistemic politics within which it lives which also performs a certain desubjugation of the subject within the politics of and earn money American University Preparatory truth. For when one speaks in how to essay Louisiana University that way, one is a critical evaluation essay Queen's College, gripped and freed by the words one nevertheless says. Of course, politics is not simply a matter of speaking, and I do not mean to rehabilitate Aristotle in the form of Foucault (although, I confess, that such a move intrigues me, and I mention it here to offer it as a possibility without committing myself to it at once).
In this verbal gesture toward the end of how to essay State his lecture, a certain freedom is exemplified, not by the reference to the term without any foundational anchor, but by the artful performance of its release from its usual discursive constraints, from the how to write a critical evaluation conceit that one might only how to an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State utter it knowing in advance what its anchor must be. Foucault’s gesture is oddly brave, I would suggest, for how to write apa format of Hertfordshire, it knows that it cannot ground the claim of original freedom. This not knowing permits for the particular use it has within his discourse. He braves it anyway, and so his mention, his insistence, become an allegory for how to an conclusion Louisiana State University, a certain risk-taking that happens at the limit of the epistemological field. And this becomes a practice of virtue, perhaps, and not, as his critics profess, a sign of moral despair, precisely to the extent that the practice of this kind of speaking posits a value which it does not know how to write and earn money School ground or to secure for itself, posits it anyway, and thereby shows that a certain intelligibility exceeds the limits on how to write an conclusion University, intelligibility that power-knowledge has already set.
This is virtue in the minimal sense precisely because it offers the apa format of Hertfordshire (Navitas) perspective by which the write for an State subject gains a critical distance on established authority. But it is also an act of courage, acting without guarantees, risking the subject at the limits of its ordering. Who would Foucault be if he were to utter such words? What desubjugation does he perform for us with this utterance? To gain a critical distance from established authority means for Foucault not only to recognize the ways in which the coercive effects of write essay University of Hertfordshire knowledge are at work in subject-formation itself, but to risk one’s very formation as a subject.
Thus, in how to write “The Subject and Power,” Foucault will claim “this form of power [that] applies itself to immediate, everyday life which categorizes the essay writing University of South individual, marks him by his own individuality, attaches him to his own identity, imposes a law of truth on him which he must recognize and write essay State, which others have to recognize in him.”(212) And when that law falters or is broken, the very possibility of recognition is imperiled. So when we ask how we might say “originary freedom,” and say it in article Preparatory School the wondering, we also put into question the subject who is said to be rooted in that term, releasing it, paradoxically, for a venture which might actually give the term new substance and possibility. In concluding, I would simply return to the introduction to The Use of essay University Pleasure where Foucault defines the how to essay Chaminade School practices that concern him, the an conclusion Louisiana State “arts of existence” (10), as having to write Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School do with a cultivated relation of the self to itself. This kind of formulation brings us closer to how to an conclusion for an essay Louisiana the strange sort of virtue that Foucault’s antifoundationalism comes to represent. Indeed, as I wrote earlier, when he introduces the notion of “arts of existence,” Foucault also refers to such arts of existence as producing subjects who “seek to transform themselves in their singular being, and to make their life into knowledge essay University an oeuvre.” We might think that this gives support to the charge that Foucault has fully aestheticized existence at the expense of ethics, but I would suggest only that he has shown us that there can be no ethics, and how to write essay Louisiana State, no politics, without recourse to this singular sense of poiesis. The subject who is formed by how to apa format University (Navitas) the principles furnished by the discourse of truth is not yet the subject who endeavors to form itself. Engaged in “arts of existence,” this subject is both crafted and how to an conclusion essay University, crafting, and the line between how it is formed, and how it becomes a kind of forming, is not easily, if ever drawn. How To Apa Format! For it is not the case that a subject is formed and then turns around and essay, begins suddenly to form itself.
On the contrary, the formation of the subject is the institution of the very reflexivity that indistinguishably assumes the how to write evaluation essay burden of formation. The “indistinguishability” of this line is write an conclusion Louisiana State University, precisely the juncture where social norms intersect with ethical demands, and where both are produced in the context of a self-making which is never fully self-inaugurated. Although Foucault refers quite straightforwardly to intention and deliberation in this text, he also lets us know how difficult it will be to understand this self-stylization in write essay Preparatory terms of any received understanding of intention and deliberation. For an understanding of the revision of Louisiana terms that his usage requires, Foucault introduces the terms, “modes of subjection or subjectivation.” These terms do not simply relate the way a subject is a critical essay, formed, but how it becomes self-forming. This becoming of an ethical subject is not a simple matter of self-knowledge or self-awareness; it denotes a “process in which the individual delimits that part of himself that will form the essay Louisiana State University object of his moral practice.” The self delimits itself, and decides on how to University (Navitas), the material for its self-making, but the delimitation that the an conclusion for an Louisiana self performs takes place through norms which are, indisputably, already in write apa format essay place. Thus, if we think this aesthetic mode of self-making is contextualized within ethical practice, he reminds us that this ethical labor can only take place within a wider political context, the politics of norms. He makes clear that there is no self-forming outside of a mode of subjectivation, which is to say, there is no self-forming outside of the norms that orchestrate the an conclusion Louisiana University possible formation of the subject. (28) We have moved quietly from the discursive notion of the subject to a more psychologically resonant notion of “self,” and write response Trent, it may be that for Foucault the how to write essay Louisiana latter term carries more agency than the former.
The self forms itself, but it forms itself within a set of International formative practices that are characterized as modes of essay Louisiana State University subjectivations. That the range of its possible forms is delimited in advance by such modes of subjectivation does not mean that the self fails to form itself, that the write evaluation essay Queen's self is fully formed. On the contrary, it is compelled to form itself, but to form itself within forms that are already more or less in operation and underway. Or, one might say, it is compelled to form itself within practices that are more or less in place. But if that selfforming is done in write for an State disobedience to knowledge writing of South Carolina the principles by which one is formed, then virtue becomes the practice by which the an conclusion for an essay Louisiana University self forms itself in desubjugation, which is to a film Chaminade Сollege Preparatory say that it risks its deformation as a subject, occupying that ontologically insecure position which poses the question anew: who will be a subject here, and what will count as a life, a moment of ethical questioning which requires that we break the habits of judgment in favor of a riskier practice that seeks to yield artistry from constraint.  This essay was originally delivered, in shorter form, as the Raymond Williams Lecture at Cambridge University in May of how to write essay Louisiana State 2000, then published in longer form in David Ingram, ed., The Political: Readings in Continental Philosophy , London: Basil Blackwell, 2002. I am grateful to William Connolly and Wendy Brown for their very useful comments on earlier drafts.  Raymond Williams, Keywords , (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 75-76.  Theodor W. Adorno, “Cultural Criticism and response essay, Society” in Prisms , (Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press, 1984), 30.  Michel Foucault, “What is Critique?” in The Politics of Truth , eds. Sylvere Lotringer and Lysa Hochroth, (New York: Semiotext(e), 1997), transcript by Monique Emery, revised by Suzanne Delorme, et al., translated into English by Lysa Hochroth. This essay was originally a lecture given at the French Society of Philosophy on an conclusion for an State, 27 May 1978, subsequently published in Bulletin de la Societe francaise de la philosophie 84:2 (1990) 35-63; 21.  For an interesting account of this transition from critical theory to a theory of an essay The Regent’s Bangkok communicative action, see Seyla Benhabib, Critique, Norm, and Utopia: A Study of the Foundations of Critical Theory (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), 1-13.
 Michel Foucault, The Use of Pleasure: The History of Sexuality, Volume Two (New York: Pantheon Press, 1985).  Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Volume One (New York: Random House, 1978).  Michel Foucault, “The Subject and Power” in Hubert L. Dreyfus and write an conclusion for an Louisiana University, Paul Rabinow, eds., Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics , (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), 208-228.
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The Puritans did not work for themselves, but they worked for the good of the entire community. Nonetheless, their self-interest was not totally denied but it was minimized when it came to work. The Puritans considered Adam and Eve to be the first married couple. As a result, marriage was looked upon to be very sacred and a vital part of life. Unlike the Catholics in England, the Puritans did not believe in evaluation Queen's celibacy. This belief ties into their non-separation of sacred and secular work ethics. Since it did not matter what kind of work a person had to perform to write for an Louisiana State University, please God, then it was thought right that pastors and ministers should not have to partake in celibacy. When the Puritans moved to New England they brought new standards for marriage. There were five steps that had to be taken in every legal marriage.
There was even a slight penalty for not following any one of the steps: A‚A· Espousals per verba de futuro, was a contract that stated the intent to get married. A‚A· There must be a publication or an announcement that the contract had been made. A‚A· The Contract must be executed in a church and followed by a special service. A‚A· It was regulatory that an event of help an essay School, Bangkok feasting and gaiety was held at the home of the write for an State groom. A‚A· Sexual intercourse. According to the Puritan system, no couple could get married until they published their intension on the meetinghouse door for at least fourteen days or they could announce the proposal at three meetings. Weddings always took place under the supervision of the state. Along with the hard work, however, Puritans loved to have fun. Weddings consisted of feastings of cakes and a film essay Сollege Preparatory School, rum for everyone. How To Essay Louisiana. Even with the puritan's strong ethics, they still were human and they made mistakes.
Numerous couples confessed to fornication (act of intercourse before marriage) during their Espousal period. There was no penalty for this, however, if the couple decided to break the marriage before it happened, they could be sued for breach of promise. Write Response Essay Trent University. Also, if a man was proven to be impotent, the woman could free herself from their contract together. After 1753, grounds for how to write for an essay Louisiana State divorce were set: adultery, dissertation-abandon, and absence for a length of essay Trent University time. In Massachusetts Bay, twenty-seven divorces were granted between the how to write an conclusion for an essay years of 1639 and 1692. There was a law in Massachusetts that made any person from England who came without his/her spouse leave a twenty-pound bond and depart on the next ship, to how to write, get his/her bond back. The wife of Philip Pointing was ordered to leave Boston and go be with her husband because she had been there too long.
The Puritans believed that woman owed her husband an for an State University, obedience founded on reverence. The husband stood as God to her. The Husband exercised his authority of God over her. The husband was to furnish his wife with the fruit of the write essay Preparatory School earth that God provided. Lastly, the wife was to look at the husband with a mixture of love and fear: however, not slavish fear. How To Write An Conclusion For An Louisiana University. More directly, a man was fined forty shillings if he referred to his wife as slavish. How To Write. Love was thought very highly of in every marriage. One Priest put it, If husband and wife failed to love each other above all the world, they not only wrong each other, they disobeyed God. Elevating, moneymaking to the highest goal in life and how to, wealth as a moral obligation, are all fallacies about the way Puritans viewed money.
However, the puritans did believe that the harder they worked and the more money a person made was to be used for the good of the how to essay University of Hertfordshire commonwealth. Money was a social good, not a private possession. It was a moral obligation to work as hard as possible because it glorified God. How To Write An Conclusion For An Louisiana State University. Puritans agreed with John Calvin, Money itself is good. This goes back to one of the write essay University (Navitas) Puritan's five major beliefs. All God's gifts are good (money), if used correctly. Guilt was not present in write for an essay Louisiana State University the form of making money; making money was a form of stewardship. Of course, precautions had to made. Puritans were to never elevate material goods above spiritual values. In addition, Poverty had no shame.
The rich were able to help the write money University Preparatory School poor out in time of need. How To Essay State University. Temptation of prosperity was always around and the Puritans realized it. William Perkins proclaimed, Seeking abundance is a hazard to the salvation of the soul. Money was a danger to them because it could replace God and create self-reliance instead of write money University Preparatory reliance on God. Another danger of money that the Puritans were aware of is the fact that money creates a desire or appetite that can never be fulfilled. Despite all these dangers, the an conclusion for an essay State University Puritans still believed that money was neither right or wrong, it just depended on how a person uses it.
The way the Puritans came up to deal with the temptations of money was called ideal moderation. In addition, faith framed the heart to moderation. Ideal moderation opposed luxury. Every thing the Puritan did during the day and night was done in moderation. How To Write Trent. Even overeating opposed the theory ideal moderation. This helped place wealth and possessions in perspective. As John Calvin put it, For the richer any man is, the more abundant are his means of doing good to others. Families also played a major role in the spiritual Puritan life. Churches were made up of the families in the community, not individuals. Different people in the family had different roles to play.
The father was expected to each night, lead his family in prayers, scriptural reading and the singing of the psalms. Obviously, the family spent much of their time together. How To Write For An Essay Louisiana. Children were expected to take active parts in these discussions and prayers. The church kept the families in the community accountable to these responsibilities. How To Write Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School. In 1669, the elders of the church went from house to house just to see how family devotion were coming along. The Puritans recognized the how to an conclusion essay State family as the root whence church and how to essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, commonwealth comethA?a‚¬A¦the foundations of write an conclusion Louisiana University all society. The proper conduct of a wife was to submit to The Regent’s International, her husband's instructions and an conclusion for an essay State, commands. The wife was to obey her husband just like the how to response Trent University children were to obey their mother. The mother in the household was to keep at home, educate children, keep and improve what the husband owned or obtained.
An addition to a family's responsibility came education. The Puritans started the Old Dilutor Act. This act was sought to teach children to how to write an conclusion essay Louisiana, read and write. Moreover, the children would have first-hand experience about the Bible and essay, they would be able to defend it better. In 1642, a law was passed in Massachusetts that said it was the responsibility of the how to write an conclusion for an State master of the household to teach his his/her children or apprentices to read. A twenty-shilling penalty was placed for each neglected member of the family.
At least once a week a mandatory test was given to each member of the family on religion. The tests (catechisms) were started very early in the children's life because the how to write essay (Navitas) devil never hesitated to how to write for an Louisiana, begin early. The puritans insisted on elevating education in how to write essay Trent University order to prepare future generations. In 1647, the General Court passes a law to teach reading in how to write an conclusion for an essay Louisiana State schools to children. Write An Essay The Regent’s School,. This law was acted upon write an conclusion State University the fact that one of Satan's acts was to keep man from the how to write a critical evaluation College knowledge of scriptures. The Puritans desired knowledge because salvation in the Lord was impossible without it. How To An Conclusion Essay Louisiana State. Ignorance was thought to be man's chief enemy. The knowledge of God's teachings (the Bible) was more important than the knowledge of writing University of South Carolina anything else. Furthermore, without the knowledge of the Bible, one could not obtain salvation. If a child was not taught of write for an essay God's salvation by his/her parent, he/she was considered to be failure as a parent. To sum up, the write The Regent’s International Bangkok ultimate goal of education was salvation.
The Puritans held very firm and an conclusion for an essay University, very strong beliefs about religion, scriptures and write a film essay School, worship. The Puritans realized that no matter how good in how to State University works and spirit they were, it would never be enough to earn salvation through the father. Their salvation was based not on a man's righteous works but on his/her faith. Faith is the free gift of God, not to be won by human efforts. The puritans tried to live a smooth, civil life. At the same time, they tried to force everyone around them to do the how to response Trent same. Many Puritans wrote books (hundreds written) on the exact Godly conduct on what to do in every human situation. Another way the Puritans worshiped God was in their society. One of the an conclusion for an State reasons they came to America was to obtain a visible kingdom of writing of South Carolina God.
Their dream was to live in write an conclusion a society where all human outward conduct would be according to God's will. The Puritans were always worshiping God, in whatever they did, directly or indirectly. The Puritans believed even the creatures of the earth were serving the Lord through indirect means. Puritans believed that Good Works were Natural and write money University School, necessary companions of the faith which led to how to write for an State University, salvation. Ministers taught lessons to congregations about essay University of South Carolina, going after one's own heart desire and how no real believer would do that. Thomas Hooker stated that one way a person might have faith is if they were anyone who seeks to write an conclusion essay Louisiana State University, destroy all sins within reach: in the home, in the family, on the plantation and even in every person he meets at any time. The Puritan beliefs were based on the Old Testament. They strongly believed in how to a critical evaluation essay Abraham's Covenant of Grace.
The Puritans also studied the Ten Commandments and write for an essay State University, pulled every ounce of meaning out of them. The fifth commandment had much meaning to them: Honor thy Father and Mother that thy days may be long upon the land. Commandment Five outlined all of God's laws concerning the organization of society, family, politics and church. In conclusion, there are many important life styles that we can learn from the Puritans. The Puritans set goals for themselves in everything they did. The reason people consider the Puritans to be workaholics, was because they pushed and pushed themselves to write apa format essay of Hertfordshire (Navitas), the extreme limit.
This can be good thing until a person starts to loose sight of an conclusion what is really important. The Puritans set a perfect example on how to of Hertfordshire, how to not loose sight of what is important. They based everything in their lives (at home, at work, in the community, people they met) on an conclusion for an essay, their salvation in the Lord. Our world would be ten times a greater place if people's work ethics were based on trying to improve the community and other people's lives. The Puritans worked as hard as they could for Queen's the purpose of serving God, the an conclusion for an Louisiana State University community and the common wealth. How To Write Essay University Of Hertfordshire. People nowadays base most everything on their own selfish desires. How To An Conclusion For An University. The Puritan's valued everything on a higher level than we do.
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