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There is write Deakin (Navitas) without a doubt that social consequences of bushfires are indisputably greater than its impacts on the economy and environment. Alpinum Zuoz! . Economically, bushfires destroyed infrastructures and residences. Some were dilapidated and others are destroyed completely. The money spent to control and put off the fire which can be millions of dollars should also be taken to account. Concerning the environment, bushfires disturbed floras and faunas. Natural habitats of living organisms are destroyed.
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Explain the key features of the Black Death (1300s) and its impact upon Europe The Black Death (or bubonic plague) had an . enormous impact upon Europe in the 1300’s. Some of the key features of the write quickly Deakin University (Navitas), Black Death include the origins and spread of the disease around Europe, symptoms and treatments, medieval ideas about what caused it and social, economic and political effects of the Black Death. The origin of the Black Death and how it spread were key features on how to write Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz its significant impact on how write essay La Trobe University Europe. Write Descriptive Alpinum! Black Death , Bubonic plague , Middle Ages 1614 Words | 4 Pages. The Black Death was one of the University (INTO), worst pandemics in human history. In the 14th century, at least 75 million people on Alpinum three continents perished . due to the painful, highly contagious disease. Originating from fleas on rodents in how to write quickly Deakin University (Navitas), China, the “Great Pestilence” spread westward and spared few regions. How To Lyceum Alpinum! In Europe’s cities, hundreds died daily and their bodies were usually thrown into mass graves. Essay Of Exeter (INTO)! The plague devastated towns, rural communities, families, and religious institutions. Following centuries of a. Black Death , Bubonic plague , Flea 990 Words | 4 Pages.
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Internet Encyclopedia of how to Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz Philosophy. Just war theory deals with the justification of how and why wars are fought. The justification can be either theoretical or historical. The theoretical aspect is Limkokwing University concerned with ethically justifying war and descriptive Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, the forms that warfare may or may not take. The historical aspect, or the just war tradition, deals with the courswork University of Exeter, historical body of rules or agreements that have applied in various wars across the ages. For instance, international agreements such as the Geneva and Hague conventions are historical rules aimed at limiting certain kinds of warfare which lawyers may refer to write essay Lyceum Alpinum, in prosecuting transgressors, but it is the role of ethics to examine these institutional agreements for their philosophical coherence as well as to inquire into whether aspects of the conventions ought to be changed. University. The just war tradition may also consider the thoughts of various philosophers and lawyers through the ages and examine both their philosophical visions of war’s ethical limits (or absence of) and whether their thoughts have contributed to the body of descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz conventions that have evolved to guide war and how to write Deakin University (Navitas), warfare. Historically, the how to descriptive Alpinum, just war tradition--a set of mutually agreed rules of combat—may be said to commonly evolve between two culturally similar enemies. That is, when an array of values are shared between two warring peoples, we often find that they implicitly or explicitly agree upon limits to their warfare.
But when enemies differ greatly because of different religious beliefs, race, or language, and as such they see each other as “less than human”, war conventions are rarely applied. It is only when the enemy is seen to be a people, sharing a moral identity with whom one will do business in the following peace, that tacit or explicit rules are formed for how wars should be fought and who they should involve and what kind of relations should apply in the aftermath of war. In part, the motivation for forming or agreeing to certain conventions, can be seen as mutually benefiting—preferable, for instance, to the deployment of any underhand tactics or weapons that may provoke an indefinite series of vengeance acts, or the how to a successful Paul II Academy, kinds of action that have proved to write Lyceum Zuoz, be detrimental to the political or moral interests to both sides in the past. Regardless of the conventions that have historically formed, it has been the how to write essays Deakin (Navitas), concern of the majority of just war theorists that the how to write Lyceum Zuoz, lack of rules to war or any asymmetrical morality between belligerents should be denounced, and that the rules of how to write essay war should apply to all equally. That is, just war theory should be universal, binding on how to essay Zuoz, all and capable in turn of appraising the actions of all parties over and above any historically formed conventions.
The just war tradition is courswork University indeed as old as warfare itself. Early records of collective fighting indicate that some moral considerations were used by warriors to descriptive essay, limit the outbreak or to rein in the potential devastation of warfare. They may have involved consideration of thinking women and children or the treatment of prisoners (enslaving them rather than killing them, or ransoming or exchanging them). Commonly, the write descriptive Lyceum Zuoz, earlier traditions invoked considerations of honor: some acts in war have always been deemed dishonorable, whilst others have been deemed honorable. However, what is “honorable” is often highly specific to culture: for instance, a suicidal attack or defense may be deemed the honorable act for one people but ludicrous to another.
Robinson (2006) notes that honor conventions are also contextually slippery, giving way to how to write a thesis statement narrative essay International, pragmatic or military interest when required. Whereas the specifics of what is honorable differ with time and essay, place, the quickly University, very fact that one moral virtue is alluded to in the great literature (for example, Homer’s Iliad ) is how to write descriptive essay Lyceum sufficient for us to note that warfare has been infused with some moral concerns from the beginning rather than war being a mere Macbethian bloodbath. The just war theory also has a long history. Parts of the essay La Trobe (NAVITAS), Bible hint at descriptive essay Lyceum Zuoz, ethical behavior in critical Limkokwing University, war and concepts of just cause, typically announcing the justice of war by how to descriptive essay Alpinum Zuoz divine intervention; the Greeks may have paid lip service to the gods, but, as with the Romans, practical and political issues tended to overwhelm any fledgling legal conventions: that is, interests of how to write a thesis for a state or Realpolitik (the theory known as political realism would take precedence in write Zuoz, declaring and waging war. Nonetheless, this has also been the reading of political realists, who enjoy Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War as an example of why war is necessarily the extension of politics and hence permeated by hard-nosed state interest rather than “lofty” pretensions to moral behavior. Although St. Augustine provided comments on the morality of war from the Christian perspective (railing against the love of violence that war can engender) as did several Arabic commentators in the intellectual flourishing from the 9th to 12th centuries, but the most systematic exposition in the Western tradition and one that still attracts attention was outlined by Saint Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century. In the Summa Theologicae , Aquinas presents the write (Navitas), general outline of what becomes the traditional just war theory as discussed in modern universities. He discusses not only the justification of war but also the kinds of activity that are permissible (for a Christian) in war (see below).
Aquinas's thoughts become the model for later Scholastics and Jurists to expand and to how to write descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum, gradually to universalize beyond Christendom – notably, for instance, in relations with the peoples of America following European incursions into the continent. The most important of these writers are: Francisco de Vitoria (1486-1546), Francisco Suarez (1548-1617), Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), Samuel Pufendorf (1632-1704), Christian Wolff (1679-1754), and write essay II Academy, Emerich de Vattel (1714-1767). In the twentieth century, just war theory has undergone a revival mainly in response to the invention of nuclear weaponry and American involvement in the Vietnam war. The most important contemporary texts include Michael Walzer's Just and Unjust Wars (1977), Barrie Paskins and write essay Alpinum, Michael Dockrill The Ethics of War (1979), Richard Norman Ethics, Killing, and War (1995), Brian Orend War and International Justice (2001) and Michael Walzer on War and Justice (2001), as well as seminal articles by Thomas Nagel War and Massacre, Elizabeth Anscombe War and Murder, and critical thinking texas Limkokwing, a host of others, commonly found in how to write Lyceum Zuoz, the journals Ethics or The Journal of Philosophy and write Paul, Public Affairs . Since the terrorist attacks on the USA on 9/11 in 2001, academics have turned their attention to just war once again with international, national, academic, and military conferences developing and essay, consolidating the theoretical aspects of the conventions. Courswork Of Exeter. Just war theory has become a popular topic in International Relations, Political Science, Philosophy, Ethics, and Military History courses. Conference proceedings are regularly published, offering readers a breadth of issues that the Lyceum Alpinum, topic stirs: for example, Alexander Moseley and Richard Norman, eds. Human Rights and Military Intervention , Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in a Comparative Perspective , Alexsander Jokic, ed., War Crimes and Collective Wrongdoing . What has been of great interest is University of Exeter (INTO) that in the headline wars of the how to write descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum, past decade, the dynamic interplay of the how to write quickly University (Navitas), rules and conventions of Alpinum Zuoz warfare not only remain intact on the battlefield but their role and hence their explication have been awarded a higher level of scrutiny and debate. Essay Saint John Paul II Academy. In the political circles, justification of war still requires even in the most critical analysis a superficial acknowledgement of justification. On the write descriptive essay Alpinum, ground, generals have extolled their troops to adhere to the rules, soldiers are taught the just war conventions in the military academies (for example, explicitly through military ethics courses or implicitly through veterans’ experiences).
Yet despite the how to for a essay Florida University, emphasis on abiding by war’s conventions, war crimes continue - genocidal campaigns have been waged by mutually hating peoples, leaders have waged total war on ethnic groups within or without their borders, and individual soldiers or guerilla bands have committed atrocious, murderous, or humiliating acts on their enemy. But, arguably, such acts do remain atrocities by virtue of the descriptive Lyceum Zuoz, just war conventions that some things in war are deemed to be inexcusable, regardless of the righteousness of the cause or the noise and fog of battle. Yet increasingly, the rule of law - the of Exeter (INTO), need to hold violators and transgressors responsible for write Alpinum Zuoz their actions in war and therefore after the battle - is making headway onto essay (INTO) the battlefield. In chivalrous times, the how to descriptive essay Alpinum Zuoz, Christian crusader could seek priestly absolution for atrocities committed in war, a stance supported by write narrative University Augustine for example; today, the descriptive Zuoz, law courts are seemingly less forgiving: a violation of the conventions assumes that the soldier is a thesis statement essay Florida responsible and accountable and Lyceum Alpinum, should be charged for a crime. Nonetheless, the idealism of those who seek the imposition of law and responsibility on the battlefield (cf. Geoffrey Robertson's Crimes Against Humanity ), often runs ahead of the traditions and customs, or plain state interests, that demean or weaken the justum bellum that may exist between warring factions. And in some cases, no just war conventions and hence no potential for a successful essay John legal acknowledgement of malfeasance, exist at all; in such cases, the how to write essay Zuoz, ethic of war is considered, or is implicitly held to be, beyond the norms of peaceful ethics and therefore deserving a separate moral realm where fair is foul and foul is fair (Shakespeare, Macbeth I.i). In such examples (e.g, Rwanda, 1994), a people's justification of how to write essays quickly Deakin destructiveness and killing to whatever relative degree they hold to be justifiable triumphs over attempts to establish the how to write descriptive Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, laws of University of Exeter peaceful interaction into this separate bloody realm; and in some wars, people fighting for their land or nation prefer to pick up the cudgel rather than the rapier, as Leo Tolstoy notes in War and Peace (Book 4.Ch.2), to sidestep the etiquette or war in favor securing their land from occupational or invading forces. The continued brutality of war in the face of conventions and courts of international law lead some to maintain that the how to write descriptive, application of morality to war is a nonstarter: state interest or military exigency would always overwhelm moral concerns.
But there are those of a more skeptical persuasion who do not believe that morality can or should exist in war: its very nature precludes ethical concerns. But as there are several ethical viewpoints, there are also several common reasons laid against the need or the possibility of how to write John morality in war. Generally, consequentialists and act utilitarians may claim that if military victory is sought then all methods should be employed to ensure it is gained at a minimum of expense and time. Arguments from 'military necessity' are of this type; for example, to defeat Germany in World War II, it was deemed necessary to bomb civilian centers, or in the US Civil War, for General Sherman to burn Atlanta. However, intrinsicists (who claim that there are certain acts that are good or bad in themselves) may also decree that no morality can exist in essay Alpinum, the state of war: they may claim that it can only exist in critical texas Limkokwing University, a peaceful situation in which, for instance, recourse exists to conflict resolving institutions. How To Write Zuoz. Alternatively, intrinsicists may claim that possessing a just cause (the argument from righteousness) is a sufficient condition for pursuing whatever means are necessary to how to a thesis for a narrative essay Florida, gain a victory or to punish an enemy. A different skeptical argument, one advanced by write descriptive Zuoz Michael Walzer, is that the invention of courswork University nuclear weapons alters war so much that our notions of how to essay Lyceum morality—and hence just war theories—become redundant. However, against texas Walzer, it can be reasonably argued that although such weapons change the nature of warfare (for example, the timing, range, and potential devastation) they do not dissolve the need to consider their use within a moral framework: a nuclear warhead remains a weapon and weapons can be morally or immorally employed. Whilst skeptical positions may be derived from consequentialist and essay Zuoz, intrinsicist positions, they need not be.
Consequentialists can argue that there are long-term benefits to thinking texas Limkokwing University, having a war convention. For example, by fighting cleanly, both sides can be sure that the how to descriptive essay Alpinum Zuoz, war does not escalate, thus reducing the critical thinking texas Limkokwing, probability of creating an incessant war of counter-revenges. Intrinsicists, on the other hand, can argue that certain spheres of life ought never to be targeted in war; for example, hospitals and densely populated suburbs. The inherent problem with both ethical models is that they become either vague or restrictive when it comes to war. Consequentialism is an open-ended model, highly vulnerable to pressing military or political needs to adhere to any code of conduct in war: if more will be gained from breaking the rules than will be lost, the consequentialist cannot but demur to military “necessity.” On the other hand, intrinsicism can be so restrictive that it permits no flexibility in war: whether it entails a Kantian thesis of dutifully respecting others or a classical rights position, intrinsicism produces an inflexible model that would restrain warriors’ actions to write essay Zuoz, the targeting of permissible targets only. In principle such a prescription is commendable, yet the nature of how to write essay John war is how to Lyceum Zuoz not so clean cut when military targets can be hidden amongst civilian centers. Against these two ethical positions, just war theory offers a series of principles that aim to retain a plausible moral framework for war. From the just war ( justum bellum ) tradition, theorists distinguish between the rules that govern the justice of war ( jus ad bellum ) from writing University of Exeter (INTO), those that govern just and fair conduct in write descriptive Lyceum Zuoz, war ( jus In bello ) and the responsibility and accountability of essay of Exeter (INTO) warring parties after the war ( jus post bellum ). The three aspects are by no means mutually exclusive, but they offer a set of moral guidelines for essay Lyceum waging war that are neither unrestricted nor too restrictive. Critical Texas. The problem for ethics involves expounding the guidelines in particular wars or situations.
The principles of the justice of write descriptive war are commonly held to be: having just cause, being a last resort, being declared by a proper authority, possessing right intention, having a reasonable chance of success, and the end being proportional to the means used. One can immediately detect that the principles are not wholly intrinsicist nor consequentialist—they invoke the a narrative University, concerns of both models. Whilst this provides just war theory with the advantage of write essay Lyceum Zuoz flexibility, the write Deakin University, lack of a strict ethical framework means that the principles themselves are open to broad interpretations. Examining each in turn draws attention to the relevant problems. Possessing just cause is the first and arguably the most important condition of jus ad bellum . Most theorists hold that initiating acts of aggression is unjust and gives a group a just cause to defend itself. But unless aggression is defined, this proscription is rather open-ended. How To Lyceum Alpinum. For example, just cause resulting from an act of of Exeter aggression can ostensibly be a response to a physical injury (for example, a violation of territory), an insult (an aggression against how to write descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz national honor), a trade embargo (an aggression against economic activity), or even to a neighbor’s prosperity (a violation of social justice). The onus is then on critical Limkokwing, the just war theorist to provide a consistent and sound account of what is meant by just cause. Whilst not going into the reasons why the other explanations do not offer a useful condition of how to descriptive Lyceum just cause, the consensus is that an how to write essay International, initiation of physical force is wrong and how to Zuoz, may justly be resisted. Self-defense against physical aggression, therefore, is putatively the only sufficient reason for just cause.
Nonetheless, the principle of self-defense can be extrapolated to anticipate probable acts of aggression, as well as in assisting others against an oppressive government or from another external threat (interventionism). Thinking Texas Limkokwing University. Therefore, it is commonly held that aggressive war is only permissible if its purpose is to retaliate against a wrong already committed (for example, to pursue and punish an aggressor), or to pre-empt an anticipated attack. In recent years, the argument for preemption has gained supporters in the West: surely, the argument goes, it is right on consequentialist grounds to strike the first blow if a future war is to be avoided? By acting decisively against a probable aggressor, a powerful message is sent that a nation will defend itself with armed force; thus preemption may provide a deterrent and a more peaceful world. However, critics complain that preemptive strikes are based on write descriptive essay Lyceum Zuoz, conjectured rather than impending aggression and in how write a narrative La Trobe, effect denounce the moral principle that an agent is write essay Zuoz presumed innocent – posturing and the building up of armaments do not in themselves constitute aggression, just a man carrying a weapon is not a man using a weapon, Consequentialist critics may also reject preemption on the grounds that it is more likely to destabilize peace, while other realists may complain that a preemptive strike policy is the ploy of a tyrannical or bullying power that justifies other nations to write essay, act in their self-interest to neutralize either through alliances or military action – such is the principle behind the “balance of power” politics in how to write Lyceum Alpinum, which nations constantly renew their alliances and treatises to how to write a successful Saint Paul II Academy, ensure that not one of them becomes a hegemonic power. It is also feared that the policy of preemption slips easily into the machinations of “false flag operations” in which a pretext for war is created by write descriptive Lyceum Zuoz a contrived theatrical or actual stunt – of how to write a thesis essay International dressing one’s own soldiers up in the enemy’s uniforms, for instance, and having them attack a military or even civilian target so as to gain political backing for a war. Unfortunately, false flag operations tend to be quite common. Just war theory would reject them as it would reject waging war to defend a leader’s “honor” following an insult. Realists may defend them on grounds of a higher necessity but such moves are likely to fail as being smoke screens for political rather than moral interests. War should always be a last resort.
This connects intimately with presenting a just cause – all other forms of solution must have been attempted prior to the declaration of war. It has often been recognized that war unleashes forces and powers that soon get beyond the grips of the leaders and how to write essay Alpinum, generals to control – there is too much “fog” in how to for a narrative essay International University, war, as Clausewitz noted, but that fog is also a moral haze in which truth and essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, trust are early casualties. The resulting damage that war wrecks tends to be very high for most economies and how write a narrative University, so theorists have advised that war should not be lightly accepted: once unleashed, war is not like a sport that can be quickly stopped at the blow of a whistle (although the Celtic druids supposedly had the power to stop a battle by virtue of their moral standing) and its repercussions last for generations. How To Write Descriptive Lyceum Zuoz. Holding “hawks” at bay though is a complicated task – the apparent ease by which war may resolve disputes, especially in the eyes of those whose military might is apparently great and how to write statement narrative International, victory a certainty, does present war as a low cost option relative to continuing political problems and economic or moral hardship. Yet the just war theorist wishes to underline the need to attempt all other solutions but also to tie the justice of the war to essay Lyceum Alpinum, the other principles of jus ad bellum too.
The notion of proper authority seems to be resolved for most of the theorists, who claim it obviously resides in the sovereign power of the state. But the concept of sovereignty raises a plethora of help essay writing University issues to consider here. If a government is just, i.e., most theorists would accept that the government is accountable and does not rule arbitrarily, then giving the how to descriptive essay Zuoz, officers of the state the right to write a thesis statement narrative Florida University, declare war is reasonable, so the more removed from a proper and just form a government is, the more reasonable it is that its claim to descriptive essay Alpinum Zuoz, justifiable political sovereignty disintegrates. A historical example can elucidate the a successful Saint John II Academy, problem: when Nazi Germany invaded France in 1940 it set up the Vichy puppet regime. What allegiance did the people of France under its rule owe to how to Lyceum Zuoz, its precepts and rules? A Hobbesian rendition of essay writing (INTO) almost absolute allegiance to the state entails that resistance is wrong (so long as the state is not tyrannical and imposes war when it should be the guardian of peace); whereas a Lockean or instrumentalist conception of the state entails that a poorly accountable, inept, or corrupt regime possesses no sovereignty, and the right of declaring war (to defend themselves against the government or from a foreign power) is write Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz wholly justifiable. The notion of proper authority therefore requires thinking about what is meant by sovereignty, what is meant by the state, and what is the proper relationship between a people and its government. The possession of right intention is ostensibly less problematic. The general thrust of the concept being that a nation waging a just war should be doing so for the cause of justice and texas Limkokwing, not for reasons of self-interest or aggrandizement. Putatively, a just war cannot be considered to be just if reasons of national interest are paramount or overwhelm the how to descriptive Alpinum Zuoz, pretext of fighting aggression. However, “right intention” masks many philosophical problems.
According to Kant, possessing good intent constitutes the critical texas University, only condition of moral activity, regardless of the consequences envisioned or caused, and regardless, or even in spite, of any self interest in the action the agent may have. The extreme intrinsicism of Kant can be criticized on various grounds, the most pertinent here being the value of self-interest itself. At what point does right intention separate itself from self-interest – is the moral worthiness of intent only gained by how to Alpinum acting in favor of one’s neighbor, and if so, what does that imply for moral action – that one should woo one’s neighbor’s spouse to make him/her feel good? Acting with proper intent requires us to think about what is proper and essay La Trobe University (NAVITAS), it is not certain that not acting in self interest is necessarily the proper thing to do. On the one hand, if the only method to write descriptive essay Alpinum Zuoz, secure a general peace (some thing usually held to be good in itself) is to annex a belligerent neighbor's territory, political aggrandizement becomes intimately connected with the proper intention of maintaining the essay (INTO), peace for all or the majority. On the other hand, a nation may possess just cause to defend an oppressed group, and may rightly argue that the proper intention is to secure their freedom, yet such a war may justly be deemed too expensive or too difficult to wage; i.e., it is not ultimately in write descriptive essay Alpinum Zuoz, their self-interest to how write La Trobe (NAVITAS), fight the just war. On that account, the realist may counter that national interest is paramount: only if waging war on how to write descriptive Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, behalf of freedom is statement for a essay Florida International also complemented by write descriptive essay the securing of economic or other military interests should a nation commit its troops. The issue of intention raises the concern of practicalities as well as consequences, both of which should be considered before declaring war. The next principle is that of reasonable success. Courswork Of Exeter. This is another necessary condition for how to write essay Lyceum Zuoz waging just war, but again is how to statement essay Florida University insufficient by how to write Zuoz itself.
Given just cause and right intention, the just war theory asserts that there must be a reasonable probability of success. The principle of reasonable success is consequentialist in that the costs and benefits of a campaign must be calculated. However, the concept of a narrative essay weighing benefits poses moral as well as practical problems as evinced in the following questions. Should one not go to the aid of a people or declare war if there is no conceivable chance of success? Is it right to comply with aggression because the costs of how to Alpinum Zuoz not complying are too prohibitive? Would it be right to crush a weak enemy because it would be marginally costless? Is it not sometimes morally necessary to stand up to help University (INTO), a bullying larger force, as the Finns did when Russia invaded in descriptive Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, 1940, for the sake of national self-esteem or simple interests of defending land? Historically, many nations have overcome the probability of defeat: the fight may seem hopeless, but a charismatic leader or rousing speech can sometimes be enough to stir a people into fighting with all their will.
Winston Churchill offered the British nation some of the finest of how to write a thesis statement International war's rhetoric when it was threatened with defeat and invasion by Nazi Germany in how to write descriptive essay Alpinum, 1940. How To A Successful Essay John. For example: Let us therefore brace ourselves to do our duty, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Commonwealth and its Empire lasts for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour.’“ ….And “What is Alpinum Zuoz our aim?….Victory, victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror; victory, however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival. (Speeches to Parliament, 1940). However, the thrust of the write a successful essay Saint II Academy, reasonable success principle emphasizes that human life and how to write descriptive essay Zuoz, economic resources should not be wasted in how write a narrative essay La Trobe, what would obviously be an uneven match. Write Alpinum. For a nation threatened by invasion, other forms of retaliation or defense may be available, such as civil disobedience, or even forming alliances with other small nations to equalize the odds. The final guide of jus ad bellum is that the desired end should be proportional to the means used. University. This principle overlaps into the moral guidelines of how a war should be fought, namely the principles of jus In bello . With regards to just cause, a policy of war requires a goal, and that goal must be proportional to the other principles of just cause.
Whilst this commonly entails the essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, minimizing of war's destruction, it can also invoke general balance of power considerations. For example, if nation A invades a land belonging to the people of nation B, then B has just cause to take the land back. According to the principle of proportionality, B’s counter-attack must not invoke a disproportionate response: it should aim to retrieve its land and not exact further retribution or invade the aggressor’s lands, or in graphic terms it should not retaliate with overwhelming force or nuclear weaponry to resolve a small border dispute. That goal may be tempered with attaining assurances that no further invasion will take place, but for B to invade and annex regions of a narrative essay La Trobe (NAVITAS) A is nominally a disproportionate response, unless (controversially) that is the only method for securing guarantees of no future reprisals. For B to invade and annex A and then to continue to invade neutral neighboring nations on the grounds that their territory would provide a useful defense against other threats and a putative imbalance of power is even more unsustainable. On the whole the write descriptive Alpinum Zuoz, principles offered by jus ad bellum are useful guidelines for reviewing the morality of going to war that are not tied to the intrinsicist’s absolutism or consequentialist’s open-endedness. Philosophically however they invoke a plethora of how to write essays University (Navitas) problems by either their independent vagueness or by mutually inconsistent results – a properly declared war may involve improper intention or disproportionate ambitions. How To Descriptive Lyceum. But war is a complicated issue and the principles are nonetheless a useful starting point for writing of Exeter (INTO) ethical examination and they remain a guide for essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz both statesmen and women and for those who judge political proceedings.
The rules of just conduct within war fall under the two broad principles of discrimination and proportionality. The principle of writing of Exeter (INTO) discrimination concerns who are legitimate targets in war, whilst the principle of proportionality concerns how much force is morally appropriate. A third principle can be added to the traditional two, namely the principle of responsibility, which demands an examination of where responsibility lies in war. One strong implication of the justice of warfare being a separate topic of analysis to the justice of war is how to descriptive essay Alpinum Zuoz that the theory thus permits the judging of acts within war to University, be dissociated from it cause. This allows the theorist to write essay Lyceum Zuoz, claim that a nation fighting an unjust cause may still fight justly, or a nation fighting a just cause may be said to fight unjustly. University. It is a useful division but one that does not necessarily sever all ties between the two great principles of warfare: the how to descriptive essay Zuoz, justice of a cause remains a powerful moral guide by how to write University (Navitas) which warfare is to be judged, for what does it matter, it can be asked, if a nation wages a war of Zuoz aggression but does so cleanly?
In waging war it is considered unfair and unjust to attack indiscriminately since non-combatants or innocents are deemed to stand outside the field of war proper. Immunity from war can be reasoned from the fact that their existence and activity is not part of the essence of war, which is the killing of combatants. Write Quickly Deakin University. Since killing itself is highly problematic, the just war theorist has to proffer a reason why combatants become legitimate targets in the first place, and whether their status alters if they are fighting a just or unjust war. Firstly, a theorist may hold that being trained and/or armed constitutes a sufficient threat to combatants on the other side and thereby the donning of uniform alters the person’s moral status to legitimate target; whether this extends to peaceful as well as war duties is not certain though. Voluntarists may invoke the boxing ring analogy: punching another individual is not morally supportable in a civilized community, but those who voluntarily enter the boxing ring renounce their right not to be hit. Normally, a boxer does not retain the how to write descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum, right to hit another boxer outside of the ring, yet perhaps a soldier’s training creates a wholly different expectation governing his or her status and that wearing the uniform or merely possessing the training secures their legitimacy as a target both on and off the battlefield. Such an statement Florida International University, argument would imply that it is right to attack unarmed soldiers or soldiers who have surrendered or who are enjoying the normality of civilian life, which just war theorists and historical conventions have traditionally rejected on the claim that when a soldier lays down his weapons or removes his uniform, he or she returns to write Lyceum Zuoz, civilian life and hence the status of the non-combatant even if that return is temporary. Conversely, in joining an help University of Exeter, army the individual is said to descriptive Lyceum, renounce his or her rights not to be targeted in war – the bearing of arms takes a person into an alternative moral realm in which killing is the how to Saint, expectation and possible norm: it is world removed from civilian structures and historically has evolved rites of passage and exit that underline the alteration in descriptive Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, status for cadets and essay University, veterans; all analogies to the fair play of sports fail at how to, this juncture, for war involves killing and essay of Exeter (INTO), what the British Army call “unlimited liability.” On entering the army, the civilian loses the write Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, right not to be targeted, yet does it follow that all who bear uniform are legitimate targets, or are some more so than others – those who are presently fighting compared to those bearing arms but who are involved in supplies or administration, for instance? Others, avoiding a rights analysis for it produces many problems on critical Limkokwing, delineating the boundaries of how to Lyceum Zuoz rights and the bearers, may argue that those who join the army (or who have even been pressed into conscription) come to terms with being a target, and hence their own deaths. This is argued for example by of Exeter (INTO) Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill in The Ethics of War (1979). However, since civilians can just as readily come to terms with their own deaths and it is not necessarily the case that a soldier has, their argument, although interesting, is how to essay Zuoz not sufficient to defend the principle of discrimination and why soldiers alone should be targeted legitimately in war.
In turn, rights-based analyses may be more philosophically productive in giving soldiers and critics crucial guidelines, especially those analyses that focus on the renouncing of how to a successful essay Saint II Academy rights by combatants by virtue of their war status, which would leave nominally intact a sphere of immunity for civilians. Yet what is the status of guerrilla fighters who use civilian camouflage in order to press their attacks or to hide? Similarly, soldiers on covert operations present intricate problems of identification and legitimization: is there a difference between the descriptive Lyceum Alpinum, two? Referring back to the fighters’ cause (for example, the guerrilla is a “freedom fighter” and thus carries a moral trump card) creates its own problems, which the just war theory in dividing the justice of the cause from the justice of the manner in which war is fought attempts to avoid: the courswork University of Exeter (INTO), guerrilla fighter may breach codes of conduct just as the how to descriptive Lyceum Alpinum, soldier on a politically sensitive covert operations may avoid targeting the wrong people. Walzer, in how to a thesis for a narrative essay Florida University, his Just and write essay Alpinum Zuoz, Unjust Wars (1977) claims that the lack of identification does not give a government the right to kill indiscriminately—the onus is on the government to identify the essay University (INTO), combatants, and how to descriptive essay Alpinum Zuoz, so, the implication goes, if there is any uncertainty involved then an attack must not be made. Others have argued that the nature of essay Florida University modern warfare dissolves the possibility of discrimination: civilians are just as necessary causal conditions for the war machine as are combatants, therefore, they claim, there is no moral distinction in targeting an armed combatant and a civilian involved in descriptive Lyceum Zuoz, arming or feeding the combatant.
The distinction is, however, not closed by help essay University of Exeter the nature of modern economies, since a combatant still remains a very different entity from how to write essay Lyceum, a non-combatant, if not for the simple reason that the former is presently armed (and hence has renounced rights or is prepared to die, or is a threat), whilst the civilian is not. Of Exeter. On the how to write essay Alpinum Zuoz, other hand, it can be argued that being a civilian does not necessarily mean that one is not a threat and hence not a legitimate target. If Mr Smith is the only individual in the nation to possess the correct combination that will detonate a device that could kill thousands, then he becomes not only causally efficacious in the firing of a weapon of courswork University of Exeter (INTO) war, but also morally responsible; reasonably he also becomes a legitimate military target. His job effectively militarizes his status even though he does not bear arms. The underlying issues that ethical analysis must deal with involve the logical nature of an write descriptive essay Alpinum Zuoz, individual's complicity and the aiding and help writing of Exeter, abetting the war machine, with greater weight being imposed on those logically closer than those logically further from the war machine in their work. At a deeper level, one can consider the role that civilians play in supporting an unjust war: to what extent are they morally culpable, and if they are culpable in giving moral, financial, or economic support to some extent, does that mean they may become legitimate targets? This invokes the issue of collective versus individual responsibility that is in itself a complex topic but one that the descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, principle of discrimination tries to circumvent by presenting guidelines for soldiers that keep their activity within the help essay University (INTO), realms of write essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz war and help essay University (INTO), its effects rather than murder. How To Write Essay Lyceum. It would be wrong, on the principle of discrimination, to group the enemy into one targetable mass of people – some can not be responsible for a war or its procedures, notably children. Courswork University Of Exeter. Yet, on the other hand, if a civilian bankrolls a war or initiates aggression as a politician, surely he or she bears some moral responsibility for the ensuing deaths: some may argue that the war’s justification rests upon such shoulders but not the manner in which it is how to write Lyceum Alpinum fought, while others may prefer to saddle the write Saint John II Academy, leader or initiator with the entire responsibility for how a war is fought on the argument that each combatant is responsible for those below him or her in how to Lyceum Alpinum, rank – so the political or civilian leaders are analogously responsible for all operating in the military field.
The second principle of just conduct is that any offensive action should remain strictly proportional to a thesis statement for a Florida International, the objective desired. This principle overlaps with the proportionality principle of descriptive Lyceum just cause, but it is distinct enough to consider it in its own light. A Narrative. Proportionality for jus In bello requires tempering the extent and violence of warfare to minimize destruction and how to write essay Lyceum Zuoz, casualties. It is broadly utilitarian in that it seeks to minimize overall suffering, but it can also be understood from texas University, other moral perspectives, for instance, from harboring good will to all (Kantian ethics), or acting virtuously (Aristotelian ethics). Whilst the consideration of discrimination focuses on who is a legitimate target of war, the principle of how to write essay Lyceum Alpinum proportionality deals with what kind of force is morally permissible.
In fighting a just war in how write, which only military targets are attacked, it is still possible to breach morality by employing disproportionate force against write Lyceum Alpinum an enemy. Whilst the earlier theoreticians, such as Thomas Aquinas, invoked the Christian concepts of charity and mercy, modern theorists may invoke either consequentialist or intrinsicist prescriptions, both of which remain problematic as the foregoing discussions have noted. However, it does not seem morally reasonable to completely gun down a barely armed albeit belligerent tribe. At the battle of Omdurman in 1898 in the Sudan, six machine gunners killed thousands of dervishes—the gunners may have been in the right to defend themselves, but the principle of proportionality implies that a battle end before it becomes a massacre. How To Write Essay. Similarly, following the battle of Culloden in 1746 in Scotland, Cumberland ordered No Quarter, which was not only a breach of the write essay, principle of how to write essays quickly Deakin (Navitas) discrimination, for how to descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz his troops were permitted to kill the help, wounded as well as supporting civilians, but also a breach of the principle of proportionality, since the battle had been won, and the Jacobite cause effectively defeated on the battle field. What if a war and all of its suffering could be avoided by highly selective killing? Could just war theory endorse assassination for instance? Assassination programs have often been secretly accepted and employed by states throughout the centuries and appeal, if challenged, is often to a “higher” value such as self-defense, killing a target guilty of how to descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum war crimes and atrocities, or removing a threat to peace and stability. The CIA manual on assassination (1954, cf. Belfield), sought to courswork University of Exeter (INTO), distinguish between murder and assassination, the latter being justifiable according to the higher purposes sought. This is analogous to just war theorists seeking to put mass killing on a higher moral ground than pure massacre and slaughter and is fraught with the how to write essay, same problems raised in writing University of Exeter (INTO), this article and in the just war literature.
On grounds of discrimination, assassination would be justifiable if the target were legitimate and not, say, the how to write essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, wife or children of a legitimate target. On grounds of proportionality, the policy would also be acceptable, for if one man or woman (a legitimate target by virtue of texas his or her aggression) should die to avoid further bloodshed or to secure a quicker victory, then surely assassination is covered by the just war theory? The founder of the Hashshashin society (c.11-13thC), Hasan ibn el Sabah preferred to target or threaten warmongers rather than drag innocents and noncombatants into bloody and protracted warfare: his threats were often successful for he brought the reality of death home to descriptive Zuoz, the leaders who otherwise would enjoy what lyricist Roger Waters calls “the bravery of being out of range.” In recent years, the US and UK proclaimed that the war in the Gulf was not with the Iraqi people but with its leader and his regime; the University of Exeter, US government even issued a bounty on the heads of how to write descriptive essay key agents in the Ba’ath party; indeed, Saddam Hussein’s sons, Uday and how to essays quickly (Navitas), Qusay with a bounty of ?15m, were killed in a selective hunt and destroy mission rather than being captured and brought to trial for the crimes asserted of descriptive them. Assassination would apparently clear the two hurdles of discrimination and proportionality, yet the intrinsicist wing of essay writing (INTO) just war theorists would reasonably claim that underhand and covert operations, including assassination, should not form a part of war on grounds that they act to undermine the respect due one’s enemy (not matter how cruel he or she is) as well as the moral integrity of the assassin; the consequentialists would also counter that such policies also encourage the enemy to retaliate in similar manner, and one of the sustaining conclusions of just war theory is that escalation or retaliatory measures (tit for tat policies) should be avoided for their destabilizing nature. Once initiated, assassination tends to become the descriptive essay Zuoz, norm of critical thinking texas University political affairs – indeed, civil politics would thus crumble into fearful and barbaric plots and conspiracies (as did Rome in its last centuries) in a race to gain power and mastery over others rather than to forge justifiable sovereignty. The principles of proportionality and discrimination aim to temper war's violence and range; while they may ostensibly imply the acceptance of some forms of descriptive warfare, their malleability also implies that we continuously look afresh upon seemingly acceptable acts. Accordingly, they are complemented by other considerations that are not always explicitly taken up in the traditional exposition of jus In bello , this is write a successful essay Saint John especially true in the case of the how to descriptive Lyceum, issue of responsibility.
Jus in bello requires that the agents of war be held responsible for their actions. This ties in their actions to morality generally. Some, such as Saint Augustine argues against this assertion: who is but the sword in the hand of him who uses it, is not himself responsible for the death he deals. Those who act according to a divine command, or even God's laws as enacted by the state and who put wicked men to death “have by no means violated the University of Exeter (INTO), commandment, 'Thou shalt not kill.’” Whilst this issue is connected to the concepts of just cause, it does not follow that individuals waging a just, or unjust war, should be absolved of breaching the principles of just conduct. Readily it can be accepted that soldiers killing other soldiers is part of the nature of warfare for descriptive Zuoz which soldiers ought to be prepared and trained, but when soldiers turn their weapons against non-combatants, or pursue their enemy beyond what is reasonable, then they are no longer committing legitimate acts of war but acts of murder. The principle of responsibility re-asserts the how to essays quickly University (Navitas), burden of abiding by rules in times of descriptive Alpinum Zuoz peace on those acting in war to remind them that one day they will once more take up civilian status and should be prepared to do so conscientiously, free of any guilt from war crimes. The issues that arise from this principle include the morality of obeying orders (for example, when one knows those orders to be immoral), as well as the moral status of how to write quickly (Navitas) ignorance (not knowing of the effects of one’s actions either reasonably or literally). Responsibility for how to write descriptive essay Alpinum acts of war relate back to the tenets of jus ad bellum as well as jus in write a successful Paul II Academy, bello , for the justification of going to war involves responsibility as well as the acts ordered and committed in war. In reviewing the stories from military ethics readers, the acts of bravery that attract our attention involve soldiers standing up to do the “right thing” against either the prevailing momentum of the platoon or the orders from higher up; the realist rejects such acts as infrequent or unnecessary performances that do not alter the descriptive Lyceum, main characteristic of war and its innate brutality, yet such acts also remind the critic as well as the (INTO), soldier of the importance of returning to write descriptive Lyceum Alpinum, the civilian mode with good conscience. The aftermath of war involves the relinquishing of armed conflict as a means of resolving disputes and the donning of more civil modes of conduct but it also raises questions concerning the nature of the post bellum justice.
Following the cessation of how to write a thesis for a narrative a war, three possibilities emerge: either the army has been defeated, has been victorious, or it has agreed to descriptive essay Alpinum Zuoz, a ceasefire. Principles of justice may then be applied to each situation. Write A Successful Essay John II Academy. Orend presents a useful summary of the principles of jus post bellum : the principle of write essay discrimination should be employed to how to statement Florida University, avoid imposing punishment on innocents or non-combatants; the rights or traditions of the defeated deserve respect; the claims of victory should be proportional to the war’s character; compensatory claims should be tempered by descriptive essay Lyceum the principles of discrimination and proportionality; and, controversially, the need to rehabilitate or re-educate an aggressor should also be considered. It has often been remarked that justice, like history, is written by the victors. A defeated army and indeed the civilian body from which the army stems should thus be prepared to subject itself to the imposition of rules and forms of punishments, humiliation, and even retributions that it would not otherwise agree to. The lives, values, and resources that have been fought for must now be handed over to the conquerors. When put this way, when one readily imagines one’s own country’s army falling to an aggressive enemy, the terms immediately appear fearful and unjust and may stir a greater endeavor to make the victory hollow by the raising of guerrilla or even terrorist organizations to how write a narrative essay La Trobe (NAVITAS), thwart the essay Alpinum Zuoz, conquerors’ designs. Yet when one’s own army is victorious, the writing University, partiality of victory can be so easily dismissed on write essay, the enthusiastic wave that accompanies triumph: victory is so often associated with the greater right when one’s own country vanquishes its enemy, and assumedly with that right comes the justification to impose conditions upon critical thinking texas Limkokwing University the vanquished. In so many wars in history, both ancient and modern, victory has provided the winners with the Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, means of exploiting the defeated nation and for claiming rights over its lands and people whether in the form of enslavement or in courswork University of Exeter, monopolistic mercantile contracts; sometimes an appeal to divine justice is how to write descriptive essay made; at write a thesis essay Florida International, other times the supremacy of one’s nation, race, creed, or political order is lauded over how to write essay Lyceum Zuoz the defeated. Economic exploitation is not the only means of subjugating the a thesis narrative essay Florida International, defeated: new political or religious frameworks can also be imposed sometimes as a means of “rehabilitating the defeated” or as a means to avoid the circumstances (political or economic) that may bring about further warfare; the philosopher must naturally inquire as to the justice of such measures.
The just war theorist is keen to remind warriors and politicians alike that the principles of justice following war should be universalizable and write Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, morally ordered and that victory should not provide a license for imposing unduly harsh or punitive measures or that state or commercial interests should not dictate the form of the new peace. Similarly, imposing an alternative political or religious is not likely to be conducive to peace, as Edmund Burke prophetically warned about courswork (INTO) decreeing for the “rights of how to descriptive essay man” in an unprepared culture; re-educating a defeated military or bureaucracy may seem reasonable and arguably was successful in post-war Germany (1945), yet such a program may also be so superficial or condescending as to have only essay, short term and illusory benefits or act to further humiliate the defeated into seething desire for revenge. In post-war Iraq (2003-date), the rehabilitation programs have met with mixed success and have often been criticized for favoring some ethnic groups over others, i.e., affecting political and cultural nuances that an outsider would not be aware of. Criticism may stem from how to essay Alpinum, either intrinsicist reasons (that the defeated should still be viewed as a people deserving moral respect and their traditions held as sacrosanct) or consequentialist reasons (that punitive impositions are likely to (INTO), produce a backlash); but again it is worth reminding that just war theory tends to merge the two to avoid awkward implications derived from descriptive Alpinum Zuoz, either position singly. At this point, the attraction for jus post bellum thinkers is to return to the initial justice of the war. Consider a war of self-defense: this is considered by most, except absolute pacifists, to be the most justifiable of all wars.
If the how to a successful essay Saint John, people are defeated but their cause remains just, should they then continue the fight to rid their country of all the vestiges of occupation? What if fighting is impossible? Should they bow their heads in honorable defeat and accept the victor’s terms graciously? Locke believed that an unjustly defeated people should bide their time until their conquerors leave: “if God has taken away all means of seeking remedy, there is nothing left but patience.” ( Second Treatises , §177); however, the right always remains with those who fought against an unjust war but they do not gain any moral right to how to Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, attack indiscriminately or disproportionately (such as terrorizing the invader’s own civilians or soldiers at rest), although they may carry on their claim for freedom over the generations. A realist, however, may ask how a people are to regain their freedom if they do not raise arms against their sea of troubles? Nonetheless, if the how write a narrative essay La Trobe (NAVITAS), “good fight” is to continue, most theorists follow Locke and prohibit breaches of the how to descriptive Lyceum Zuoz, jus in bello principles: while it would be wrong to bow to a tyrant or conquering army, it would be immoral to target their families in order to encourage the occupying army to leave. Others may counsel civil disobedience and other forms of intransigence to signal displeasure.
If, on the other hand, the victors have won a just war against critical thinking texas Limkokwing an aggressor, Locke argues that the victor’s right does not extend to the aggressive nation’s civilian population, but that it does extend to all those engaged in the aggression and that it extends absolutely: that is, the just conqueror has absolute rights of life and death over the defeated aggressors. The aggressor, one who initiates war, puts the individual or the community into a state of war, he argues, and so the essay Zuoz, defender has an absolute prerogative to use whatever force necessary to secure freedom and peace: accordingly, in victory, the victors may enslave or kill the aggressors. Locke’s is an extreme although not logically incoherent position and his exhortations may be compared to other moral positions (often emerging from religious thinking) to temper the how to statement narrative essay Florida International, justice in favor of other virtues such as charity, liberality, and justice. Indeed, King Alfred the write essay, Great of write a thesis statement for a narrative essay University Wessex (c.878AD) defeated the Viking invader Guthrum in battle and rather than executing him as the Vikings would have done Alfred, he ordered them to join the Christian religion and then, and probably more importantly, offered them a stake in the land: toleration merged with prudence and self-interest ensured Guthrum was no longer a threat. Indeed, Machiavelli warned that killing an opponent’s family is likely to how to write descriptive essay Lyceum Zuoz, raise their ire but taking away their land is guaranteed to continue the fight over generations. It may be reasonably held that the aggressors deserve punishment of some sort, although Alfred’s example highlights an alternative view of dealing with an enemy, one that reminds the theorist that peace not further war remains the goal. How To Write Essays Quickly Deakin. But what if the defeated aggressors are guilty of atrocities, surely they should be made to stand trial to send a signal to other “war criminals” as well as to punish them for their own misdeeds? Here we enter the debates regarding punishment: does punishing a violator make any sense except to exact either retribution, revenge, or to promote a deterrence?
Can the victors be sure of their claim to punish the aggressors and what good could possibly flow from bringing more violence or enslavement to how to descriptive essay Lyceum Zuoz, the world? In asserting the write a successful essay John, need to find universalisable principles, the write descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, just war theorist is usually keen to insist that any war crimes trials are held in La Trobe (NAVITAS), neutral states and presided over by neutral parties, rather than the descriptive essay Zuoz, victors whose partiality in proceedings must be presumed: after all, in how write essay, the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials, no allied generals or politicians were held accountable for the atrocities created by bombing civilian centers in how to write descriptive Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, Germany and courswork University of Exeter, Japan and the dropping of nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The end game and hence the jus post bellum certainly merit attention before the battles are lost or won: what should be the ruling affairs once the peace is proclaimed? Should the how to write descriptive Zuoz, terms of essay writing of Exeter war’s end be elaborated and publicly pronounced as to ensure all parties are aware of the costs of how to essay Lyceum defeat? Is it right that an army should demand unconditional surrender, for how to write statement instance, when such a policy may entail a protracted war for no incentive is given to the other side to how to descriptive Lyceum, surrender; on write a thesis Florida International, the other hand, unconditional surrender implies a derogatory view of the enemy as one not to be respected either in or after war. Yet if an write essay, unconditional surrender policy does suitably raise the stakes of fighting war it may act as a sufficient deterrent against how to University (Navitas) possible aggressors or act as a useful diplomatic tool to bring a worried enemy back to write Lyceum Zuoz, peaceful overtures. Similarly, is write (Navitas) it right that an army should demand reparations in advance rather than leave them undisclosed and thereby risk the uncertainty of write descriptive Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz punishment creating a backlash from the defeated, who may not wish to be so subjected? To keep the expected conditions of war’s end secretive does not seem a wise move in a narrative La Trobe University (NAVITAS), that uncertainty generates fear, and how to write descriptive essay Alpinum Zuoz, fear can generate a harder campaign than otherwise would be necessary; but if the publicized conditions appear onerous to the enemy, then they have good reasons to prolong and/or intensify their own fight. Of course, if promises of an how write a narrative University (NAVITAS), amnesty or fair treatment of prisoners is reneged on by the victor, then all trust for future arrangements is lost and the consequences imply embedding hatreds and how to write Lyceum Alpinum, mistrust for generations. Assume that victory is given, that the help essay writing University (INTO), army has defeated its enemy on the battlefield so attention turns to essay Alpinum Zuoz, the nature of the writing (INTO), post bellum justice of dealing with the defeated regardless of its intentions beforehand.
Arguably, the very nature of the warring participants’ vision of Alpinum Zuoz each other and of themselves will color the proceedings both politically and morally. A victorious side, for instance, that sees itself as rightfully triumphant is more likely to impose its will and exactions upon the defeated in write University, a more stringent manner in which a victorious side that sees itself as its enemy’s equal; but universality demands seeing one’s enemy as oneself and understanding not just the Realpolitik of state interests and state gains in victory but also the conventions of how to write descriptive essay Alpinum Zuoz magnanimity and honor in victory (or defeat). Consider the critical thinking texas Limkokwing University, demands for reparations. A defeated aggressor may just be asked to pay for the damage incurred by how to descriptive Alpinum the war (as justice demands of criminals that they pay for their crimes). But to what extent should the reparations extend? Should there be demands for retribution and deterrence added in, so that those deemed responsible for how to a successful essay John Paul II Academy their aggression should be put on trial and suitably punished (and what would “suitable” mean in this instance – that Saddam Hussein stand trial for write descriptive his invasion of Kuwait implies that George W Bush similarly stand trial for his invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq?).
In forming the conditions of defeat, should neutral third parties be turned to so as to avoid later accusations of “victor’s justice” and the partiality that such justice can invoke or imply, or does victory present the how to essay John Paul II Academy, victor with the ultimate moral wreath to justify whatever demands seen appropriate or fitting? Should a war be indecisive though, the character of the peace would presumably be formed by the character of the ceasefire – namely, the how to descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum, cessation of fighting would imply a mere hiatus in which the writing of Exeter (INTO), belligerents regain the write descriptive Alpinum, time and resources to stock their defenses and prepare for further fighting. As such, a ceasefire would be merely a respite for the military to regain its strengths. However, just war theory also acts to remind contenders that war is a last resort and that its essential aim is always peace, so if peace is courswork University forthcoming in any guise, it is morally critical for all parties to seek a return to descriptive Lyceum, a permanent peace rather than a momentary lapse of critical thinking Limkokwing war. This article has described the main tenets of the just war theory, as well as some of the problems that it entails. The theory bridges theoretical and applied ethics, since it demands an adherence, or at least a consideration of meta-ethical conditions and models, as well as prompting concern for the practicalities of war. A few of how to descriptive essay those practicalities have been mentioned here.
Other areas of interest are: hostages, innocent threats, international blockades, sieges, the use of weapons of essay (NAVITAS) mass destruction or of anti-personnel weapons (for example, land mines), and how to descriptive essay Lyceum Zuoz, the morality and practicalities of interventionism.
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Abortion Pro-Choice Persuasive Paper. By: July • Research Paper • 3,404 Words • March 26, 2010 • 1,671 Views. Abortion Pro-Choice Persuasive Paper. Write Essay Lyceum Zuoz. Mrs. Lane Honors English 3. Mrs. Lane Honors English 3. Abortion Pro-Choice Persuasive Paper. In the a narrative University (NAVITAS), last few decades, abortion has become a much-discussed subject. It has been a central point in many political affairs as in; selecting justices for the Supreme Court, it has also become an issue for candidates for descriptive Alpinum, state and local offices as well as for the U.S. Presidency. What exactly is abortion anyway? Depending on who you ask one will always get different answers, but the dictionary defines abortion as the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus.
The moral question has always been whether or not it should be a woman’s decision to get an abortion. The other side of help writing of Exeter (INTO) that question is whether the government should have control over a woman’s body and forbid her to get an abortion. Pro-Choice, though it does take the side of legalizing abortion, it does not mean Pro-abortion. How To Write Descriptive Essay Alpinum Zuoz. Pro-choice is the right in choosing whether to reproduce, adopt, or abort. I believe a woman should have the right to courswork University choose whether to keep the baby if she knows that she is willing to take up such a huge responsibility. The fundamental issue that Pro-choice focuses on is whether anyone-including the government, the church, and pro-life protesters- can tell a woman what to do with their bodies. Pregnancy carries many obligations, and one will lose many privileges. Zuoz. One of help of Exeter those privileges is the right to pursue happiness. Descriptive Lyceum. A baby can sometimes disrupt a woman's pursuit of happiness.
Having the option to perform an abortion can solve that obstacle. Most of the time the mother of the courswork University of Exeter, unwanted child is very young and inexperienced or too poor to take care of the child. The child is write descriptive Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz usually malnourished, has no medical care, and gets very little attention or love. When talking about how to statement for a narrative essay abortion, there are many different ethical questions involved. Ethics is what one uses to distinguish what is right from wrong, good from bad, etc. Since people come from different backgrounds, they have a different code of ethics, therefore answering the question of right and wrong can not be easily answered, and how to descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, who knows if it can ever be answered? There is no correct ethical or moral code for one specific time period, or group of people, so one must decide what they believe on the issue of critical abortion, by examining there own code of ethics. Without a woman's right to do what she chooses with her body, her freedom and liberty are taken away. If for personal reasons, a woman wants an how to Lyceum Zuoz abortion, as is, currently, her constitutional right, she has the freedom to do so.
A child needs to be loved and how to write Deakin (Navitas), wanted. A baby, whose mother resents his birth, will not receive the proper care and nurturing he deserves. Perhaps, he would be better off not to have been born. For these reasons, I support the Pro-Choice movement. Descriptive Zuoz. A fetus is tissue growing inside the body of a woman. Since a fetus has no right to courswork (INTO) life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, it has no right to be inside the body of another human being that does not want it. However, the fetus needs to how to essay Lyceum Alpinum be inside a woman's body to exist. To give the fetus the right to exist in a woman’s body would make the woman a slave.
Slavery is not a right. It is not morally or legally a right. In fact slavery is University a horrible act that was outlawed due to descriptive Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz the Civil War. Abortion is a moral right--which should be left to the sole discretion of the woman involved; morally, nothing other than her wish in the matter is to be considered. Pro-choice is the sole belief in the right to chose an alternative, whether is be adoption or abortion. It is not the belief in murder, since abortion does not take the life of University a human being. Asking a woman to descriptive essay give up her life for something that is not even a human being, is La Trobe University (NAVITAS) asking her to make herself a slave. Essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz. Abortion is an how write (NAVITAS) issue of women, and so it should be the woman's right to choose. She has the free will to write consider others views and morals such but it is her ultimate decision. In 1973 the American Supreme Court ruled that Americans’ right to privacy included: “the right of a woman to decide whether to how to write John II Academy have children, and how to Alpinum, the right of a woman and her doctor to make that decision without state interference” (“abortion”).
The Constitution says we have a right to privacy; so taking away a woman’s chance to make decisions about her own body violates that right. The closure of abortion clinics will be done with the purpose to reduce the number of abortions. This raises the question whether this. An abortion is the critical thinking University, procedure taken to end a pregnancy either medically or surgically. Like many topics of great controversy, abortion has its positive. In the argument of abortion , there are many sides to be seen. There's the pro -life side, which is the side that is against abortion . The.
Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy. Since 1973 abortion has been an important controversial issue within the write descriptive, United States. 1973 marks the a successful essay Saint John Paul, year that. Abortion - Pro Life and Pro Choice. There are many controversies about abortion . Many people in the world feel differently about this topic. Some are pro -life, the others are pro -chioce. Pro life. Pros Cons Differentiated Instruction.
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essays on how to descriptive, asem Shem? A Name, Title or Office? Zulu groom in Shem Leopard Skin. We always have to University (INTO), go back to the name of a thing. “A name expresses the intrinsic value [of the Creator of Created]”.
Ecclesiastes 6:10 Whatever one is, he has been named already, For it is known that he is man; And he cannot contend with Him who is how to write descriptive essay Lyceum mightier than he. Name: a word or phrase that constitutes the distinctive designation of how write a narrative La Trobe (NAVITAS) a person or thing b : a word or symbol used in logic to designate an entity. Title: Designation, name, call, label, entitlement. Office: Responsibility, position, task, agency, department. What made the biblical Noa[h] name his child name which is the how to descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum, Hebrew word Shem? The Bible is layered like an onion. There are allegories, idioms, and write a successful John II Academy illusions and because the how to essay, writes were trying to hide something. There are the surface, middle and deeper part of the thinking texas, word but for essay the most part the average reader like you and I will be satisfied with the surface reading. We may do a little word study and find out the meaning to the names and writing University (INTO) places we read about we may even get some insight on the manner and how to write Zuoz customs of the people we read about.
In our reading we came prepared to sit at critical thinking texas Limkokwing University, a table and eat a meal previously digested. We were babes in the arms of a larger mother church and that other trained us in-utero. Judaism did not grow up in a vacuum and neither did Christianity or Islam. They had a root and that root was originally Africa. In under to understand the fruit we must go to how to Lyceum Zuoz, the root, the thinking texas Limkokwing University, root is where the nutrients flow and Zuoz from there it goes through the limbs then the branches and on to the shoot and of Exeter (INTO) finally the leaves and how to essay Lyceum Zuoz bears fruit. The lesson is in how to write Deakin University understanding the growth. So when the tree beings for the bad fruit you must see what is attacking the root. You do not spray the fruit you look at the root for the cause of the problem. What is at the root of this scripture? We were told the elemental or pedagogical meaning of these and other verses surrounding Noah. We believed for years that the 3 races came from the sons of how to essay Noah and we did so without question.
We did so without scientific facts because we were told science and a narrative La Trobe (NAVITAS) religion were in opposition, but that was never true in the Mystery or Religious/Spiritual system of Africa all disciplines flowed out of the whole and the whole was knowledge and communication with the Creator and understanding his creation on how to write descriptive Lyceum Alpinum, every level. This encompassed all manner of science. Spirituality or religion went part and parcel with this full education. It was in every phase of daily life. Our people understood there was no real spiritual growth, without first understanding the Creator and the process of creation. Kindergarten Level: The first people who inhabited the earth were black Africans. From us all races sprang. How To Write A Successful Paul II Academy. So if there were a Noah his sons would have been black like him. There are many photographic and write descriptive written proofs that every race has black roots and culture, from Europe to America, from China to Russia and all the islands of the seas.
Take a look at this site for courswork definitive proof: The truth is 'hidden in how to essay Lyceum plain sight' and it is thinking Limkokwing University because it is the safest place to hide the truth. We stumble over how to essay it everyday and we don’t see it, because we were taught to essay University of Exeter, ‘self police’. How To Descriptive Essay Alpinum. What is self policing? Carter G' Woodson from his book the Mis-Education of the Negro expresses it best. When you control a man's thinking you do not have to worry about his actions. You do not have to tell him not to stand her or go yonder. He will find is 'proper place and texas Limkokwing will stay in it. You do not need to send him to the back door. He will go without being told.
In fact, if there is no back door, he will cut one for his special benefit. How To Write Descriptive Essay Alpinum. His education makes it necessary. When you have been trained to limit your own right to think and investigate, my husband calls it the invisible fence, you self-police. Live wires have been placed in our educational and intellectual way and at different phases in how write essay La Trobe University our [seeming] growth we are given an electrical shock when we come to close to the truth. We are given the same shock when we come close to error [in the mind of the shocker] so we are then afraid of the descriptive, lie and how to a thesis Florida International the truth and soon we can not tell the difference. We are afraid to venture out too far for fear of the electrical current. So, when we see passages like the one below we look at it in a benign manner. How To Write Essay Lyceum. We pass over it to find the meat that is given to of Exeter (INTO), very captive person that will not venture past the stock understanding.
We sit in our assigned seats and save them for our children and our children’s children and then we wonder why the world is getting so bad. Proverbs 29:18 says : “Where there is how to write essay Lyceum Zuoz no vision, the people perish: but he that keepeth the law, happy is he.” Hosea 4:6 says: “My people are destroyed for of Exeter lack of knowledge: because thou hast rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no priest to me: seeing thou hast forgotten the law of thy God, I will also forget thy children.” Did you know that the descriptive essay, Proverb sited was not written by the Hebrew Solomon or David? This simple picture of the social context of Proverbs has been challenged from every side and thinking University I am not about to promote it! In the critical period, the how to descriptive Alpinum, Solomonic attribution has been questioned. There is no doubt that Solomon was famed for his wisdom and that he may have had an interest in collecting proverbs and even promoting the how to statement for a narrative essay Florida International, exercise. He may have even coined one or two proverbs himself. But, the write descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, consensus of opinion is that the attribution is both [Alt ( 1976) stresses the role of Solomon as portrayed in the Deuteronomistic history as collector of wisdom traditions, regarding the influence from the ancient Near East and also the distinctiveness of the Israelite version of wisdom as promoted by him.] has recently. stressed afresh the importance of Solomon as a figure of legitimization for how to wisdom.
The name of a great king renowned for wisdom gives authority to a mass of material that may well have had a much more diverse origin. Solomon is write Alpinum Zuoz also attributed with Ecclesiastes and write the Wisdom of Solomon, both books that he is unlikely to have written and that represent different periods of thought and of the development of ideas. Proverbs is the most likely book to which Solomon might have had a historical link, but this link was probably of a limited character. Once scholars in the critical period, which effectively began at write descriptive essay Lyceum, the end of the nineteenth century, started to look at essay University (INTO), the literary, historical and theological features of the text, the conclusion was drawn that Proverbs was unlikely to be the work of one author Solomon or otherwise and that it is in fact a collection of collections, in that different parts of the book of Proverbs were probably composed separately. A further area of scholarly interest is the book’s relationship with the Alpinum, ‘wisdom’ of other nations, particularly that of Egypt. The close relationship of part of the book with an Egyptian ‘Instruction’ Ameneopes has made this particularly fertile ground when addressing the courswork (INTO), question of the origins of ideas and literary genres.” Katherine J. Dell Cambridge University –The Book of Proverbs. This is an example of the exchanging of how to write essay Zuoz ideas in how to write a successful the African world Judaism did not grow in how to write essay Alpinum Zuoz a vacuum and Solomon was not the wisest man in the world. Now let’s look at help (INTO), the scripture below and try and find out write essay Lyceum Alpinum what it is all about shall we? I said this is my understanding and my study.
You must study to help essay writing, show yourself approved. All those who want to stay with the old understanding are welcome to do so, but the highest form of praise is not to sing or say Hallelujah but it is to sit down and STUDY. “These are the descendants of Noah's sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, to whom sons were born after the how to write Lyceum, flood.” Gen. 10:1. Above shows differing types of men as chronicle by the Egyptian. The original number of men were 16, each representing the race divisions of the world but it was later condensed to critical texas Limkokwing University, four as we see above. Here two are the same and two different. The Semite, in how to write descriptive Lyceum Alpinum this case did not ethnically relate to write a successful, the Egyptian or any other Black in Africa. How To Write Lyceum Zuoz. This begs the question: Was there a difference between and Semite, Egyptian and Shem the Biblical brother of Ham and Japheth? When tracing the biblical root of the name Shem we find:
Shem ( #1513;#1461;#1473;#1501; renown; prosperity; Name, Standard Hebrew Љem , Tiberian Hebrew Љ#275;m ; Greek ???, S#275;m; Arabic #1587;#1575;#1605; ) was one of the writing of Exeter (INTO), sons of Noah in Alpinum Zuoz the Bible. Why would Noah name his child NAME? It seems redundant on the surface. According to Strong's Exhaustive Concordance each name for the sons of Noah seem to be unique and have no history outside of the Biblical context, but is that true? Shem means: Name [mark, sign] 1) the eldest son of Noah and progenitor of the Semitic tribes. 1) 2nd son of Noah, father of Canaan and of various peoples which were inhabitants of southern lands of the known earth [Africa]. 2) in late usage, a collective name for Egyptians.
Japheth means: Opened [to be persuaded or deceived] 1) the 3rd son of Noah whose descendants after the flood settled on the coastal lands of the Mediterranean spreading north into Europe and parts of Asia. What was their near kinsman’s definition of S[h]em? Biblically, he is most popularly regarded as the eldest son, though some traditions regard him as the second son. Genesis 10:21 refers to relative ages of how write a narrative La Trobe University Shem and his brother Japheth, but with sufficient ambiguity in each to have yielded different translations. The verse is translated in the KJV as Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber the how to descriptive Lyceum Alpinum, brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born. Sem priest of Egypt and of Exeter Zimbabwe.
“The higher ranks were favored with special robes such as the descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum, leopard-skins worn over how to write essays (Navitas) the shoulders by write essay Lyceum Zuoz the Sem priests…” The name Shem is interesting, according the Catholic Encyclopedia: His reward was a blessing of Saint great import (cf. Ecclus., xlix, 19). Noe's prophetic words (according to Massor. Text), Blessed be Yahweh, the God of how to Lyceum Zuoz Sem (for the glory of a nation is its God), designate, in a special manner, Yahweh as the God of Sem and, consequently, Sem as the bearer of the Messianic promises. “Blessed be Yahweh [I am or I will be ] the God of [the]Names.” Who were the Sem priests in Egyptian Eschatology? *Eschatology is the writing having to do with the culmination of an age or the courswork (INTO), last day and times and/or the next life. Did this bear [support] a Hebrew messianic copy story? Yes, it did.
Sem-Priests bearing [supporting] the descriptive essay, Ark [Barque] of Amun/Amen. The Sem priest were the ones who acted as the eldest son in how to for a narrative International University the mummification rituals as well as other priestly duties in how to write descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum Egypt. They conducted the Ritual of giving back the life [promise of life] to the god [man]. “The priest stretches out a hand to 'give the god back his soul' and reassert his earthly shape, while he recites a prescribed prayer four times over.” In the how to narrative essay University, scenes for the Opening of the Mouth ceremony, the write descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum, deceased's mummy is usually shown propped up before a representation of the tomb chapel.
The sem priest, distinguished by the wearing of a panther or leopard skin, prepares to use the how to statement essay Florida University, ritual implements set out how to write descriptive Zuoz nearby. Genesis 50 says: 1And Joseph fell upon his father's face, and wept upon him, and kissed him. 2And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father: and the physicians embalmed Israel. [which physicians…Egyptian Priests of the Sem Priests] 3And forty days were fulfilled for him; for so are fulfilled the days of embalming: and the Egyptians wept for him three-score and ten days. [Total of 70 days] 4And when the days of weeping for him were past, Joseph spake unto the house of Pharaoh, saying, If now I have found favor in a narrative University (NAVITAS) your eyes, speak, I pray you, in the ears of Pharaoh, saying, 5My father made me swear, saying, Lo, I die: in my grave which I have digged for me in the land of how to write descriptive essay Zuoz Canaan, there shalt thou bury me. Now therefore let me go up, I pray thee, and bury my father, and University I will come again. 6And Pharaoh said, Go up, and bury thy father, according as he made thee swear.
7And Joseph went up to write essay Alpinum, bury his father; and with him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and all the elders of the land of Egypt, 8and all the house of Joseph, and his brethren, and his father's house: only their little ones, and their flocks, and their herds, they left in the land of Goshen. 9And there went up with him both chariots and horsemen: and it was a very great company. 10And they came to the threshing-floor of Atad, which is beyond the Jordan, and there they lamented with a very great and sore lamentation: and he made a mourning for his father seven days . 11And when the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning in the floor of Atad, they said, This is a grievous mourning to the Egyptians: wherefore the name of it was called Abel-mizraim,[spirit or vapor of Mizraim] which is University beyond the Jordan. 12And his sons did unto him according as he commanded them: 13for his sons carried him into the land of Canaan, and buried him in the cave of the field of Alpinum Zuoz Machpelah, which Abraham bought with the field, for a possession of a burying-place, of Ephron the Hittite, before Mamre. 14And Joseph returned into Egypt, he, and his brethren, and all that went up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father. Sometimes the Sem priest takes on the role of the deceased's son , although often the ceremony was performed by the deceased's [eldest] son and heir as a final act of write essay International piety. [See Joseph and Jacob's funeral]
The biblical Joseph was the 11 th son of Jacob. He was born to Jacob’s favorite wife, Rachel, in Paddan-Aram after she had been barren for seven years. Joseph fathered two of the how to write Lyceum, 12 tribes of Israel: Ephraim and Manasseh b his wife or Egyptian heritage Asenath Information about Joseph is found in Genesis chapters 37-50. Although Joseph was not Israel/Jacobs actual 'First son' he was the first-born of the one Jacob loved which was Rachel his favorite wife. Thinking Texas Limkokwing. Joseph understood and was schooled in the mummification rites and oversaw [as the priest] his father 'Egyptian Funeral' service. How and what was Joseph a Priest of? Ho did he get his credentials where did he learn the rituals? We see a synopsis of his life in Egypt from slavery to a 3rd ruler of the lands and how to Lyceum 'Father to Pharaoh'. Joseph, like Moses learned the ways from the how to Deakin University (Navitas), priests of On or Anu. The name Joseph means: The boy's name Jo-seph j(o)-se-ph is pronounced JOH-sef. It is of Hebrew origin, and its meaning is Jehovah increases.
But, the name Jehovah was not known to the people until the time of Moses according to Exodus. So, what would the YOH or JOH mean? Was it Yahweh or Yah since there was not J in Hebrew, but still the name Yahweh was not known to the Children of Israel. Was Joseph a Shem[Sem]Priest? 4 Sons of Horus, similar to the picture of Noah with Shem Ham Japheth and Canaan. What is the name Joseph an in a pre-Yahweh or Jehovah context? Yo/Ya/Io: Io was further said to have been at Joppa and in Aethiopia, together with Perseus and Medusa (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 835, c.); but it was more especially the Greeks residing in Egypt, who maintained that Io had been in how to Alpinum Egypt, where she was said to have given birth to Epaphus, and to have introduced the worship of Isis, while Epaphus became the founder of a family from which sprang Danaus, who subsequently returned to Argos. This part of the story seems to have arisen from a narrative essay certain resemblances of religious notions, which subsequently even gave rise to the identification of Io and Isis. Herodotus (i. l, c., ii. Descriptive Essay Lyceum Alpinum. 41) tells us that Isis was represented like the Greek Io, in the form of thinking Limkokwing University a woman, with cows' horns.
That Io is identical with the moon cannot be doubted (comp. Eurip. Phoen, 1123; Macrob. Sat. i. 19), and how to Lyceum Zuoz the various things related of her refer to the phases and help essay writing University (INTO) phenomena of the moon, and are intimately connected with the worship of Zeus and Hera at how to write descriptive Lyceum Alpinum, Argos. Her connection with Egypt seems to be an invention of later times, and was probably suggested by how write a narrative essay La Trobe the resemblance which was found to exist between the Argive Io and the Egyptian Isis.
Encyclopedia. Horned Isis with Horus. Saph: A container or vessel for water and blood. T he name IO or YOseph can mean Isis the container or vessel. Can the name Joseph in Hebrew related back to his service for Isis or Auset? He married Aseneth/Anu-Set a priestess of On or Anu, was Isis worshipped there? Together the name the so Jo-speh who performed the ritual of the Sem [Shem] priest in his father funeral service could mean 'The blood of Isis' In the Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead is found a Chapter (No. clvi.) which was composed for the purpose of bestowing upon the deceased some of the magical power of the goddess. The Chapter was intended to be recited over an amulet called thet, made of carnelian, which had to how to descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, be steeped in water of ankhami flowers, and set in a sycamore plinth, and if this were laid on the neck of a dead person it would place him under the protection of the words of power of Isis, and he would be able to go wheresoever he pleased in how to write a successful Saint Paul II Academy the Underworld.
The words of the Chapter were: -- Let the blood of isis, and how to write Lyceum Alpinum the magical powers (or spirits) of Isis, and the words of how to John power of Isis, be mighty to protect and keep safely this great god (i.e., the deceased), and to guard him from him that would do unto him anything which he abominateth. The exact origin of this symbol is unknown. In many respects it resembles an ankh except that its arms curve down. Its meaning is descriptive essay Lyceum Zuoz also reminiscent of the ankh , it is often translated to mean welfare or life. As early as the Third Dynasty we find the tyet being used as decoration when it appears with both the ankh and the djed column , and later with the was scepter . The tiet is associated with Isis and is often called the knot of Isis or the blood of Isis . It seems to be called the knot of essays Deakin (Navitas) Isis because it resembles a knot used to secure the garments that the gods wore. The meaning of the blood of Isis is more obscured but it was often used as a funerary amulet made of a red stone or glass.
In the Late Period the sign was associated with the goddesses Nephthys , Hathor , and Nut as well as with Isis. In all these cases it seems to represent the ideas of resurrection and eternal life. [see Essay on Menses] What does all this have to do with Shem? To be continued. Detail from the scene of the Opening of the Mouth ceremony, from the papyrus of Hunefer. The centerpiece of the upper scene is the mummy of Hunefer, shown supported by the god Anubis. How To Write Descriptive. Hunefer's wife and daughter mourn, and three priests perform rituals. Those wearing the white sashes are carrying out the how to write essays University, Opening of the Mouth ritual. How To Write Zuoz. The white building at the right is a representation of the write Saint Paul, tomb, complete with portal doorway and small pyramid.
At the right of the lower scene is a table bearing the various implements needed for the Opening of the Mouth ritual. How To. At the left is shown a ritual, where the thinking texas Limkokwing University, foreleg of a calf is offered, representing the mother-neteru.
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It is essay La Trobe University (NAVITAS), a problem without frontiers. Not only is the problem. widely dispersed geographically, but its incidence is also extensive, making it. a typical and write descriptive Lyceum accepted behavior. Only recently, within the past twenty-five. years, has the issue been brought into the open as a field of concern and. study (Violence Against Women in the Family, page 38). Domestic violence is not an isolated, individual event but rather a.
pattern of how to write Deakin University repeated behaviors that the how to essay Alpinum Zuoz, abuser uses to gain power and control. over the victim. How Write A Narrative University? Unlike stranger-to-stranger violence, in write Zuoz domestic violence. situations the same perpetrator repeatedly assaults the same victim. These. assaults are often in the form of essay University (INTO) physical injury, but may also be in the form. of sexual assault.
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Domestic violence tends to become more frequent. and severe over time. Oftentimes the abuser is help University of Exeter, physically violent sporadically, but uses other controlling tactics on a daily basis. All tactics have profound. effects on the victim. Perpetrators of domestic violence can be found in all age, racial, ethnic, cultural, socio-economic, linguistic, educational, occupational and. religious groups. Domestic violence is found in all types of intimate.
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Battering is a widespread. societal problem with consequences reaching far beyond individual families. It. is conduct that has devastating effects for individual victims, their children. and their communities.
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Thumb (The Living Family, 201). Culturally, men have been conditioned to. repress their feelings of emotion--always acting like the tough guy, the. linebacker, the descriptive Zuoz, cowboy. But, when confronted with an emotionally difficult. conflict, one which is impossible to shove down deep, they irrupt in volcanic. proportions, often taking out years of a narrative essay University (NAVITAS) repressed rage on those closest to them, in particular their own family.
However, what seems to be the most significant cause of the how to write essay Alpinum, male tactic. of violent conflict resolution is violence within the family of orientation. Statistics show that 73% of Saint John male abusers had grown up in how to write descriptive essay Lyceum a family where they. saw their mother beaten, or experienced abuse themselves (MTCAWA e-mail. interview). Using the (relatively accepted) Freudian model, which claims that.
all mental illness stems from traumatic childhood trauma, one can see how there. is a direct correlation between violence in the family of orientation and. violence within the family of procreation. And, indeed, abusers are mentally. ill, though the illness tends to be more subtle than others: many abusers. display a JekyllHyde personality, where they are nothing like their domestic. selves outside the home. In most cases the cycle of help essay writing University violence starts slowly; it usually consists. of a slap in the face or a hard shove.
But the frequency and degree of violence. escalates with time. The abuser will justify the abuse by pointing out his. wife's inadequacies and descriptive Zuoz faults. But, no matter how wrong the wife is, there is.
little, if no, justification for spousel abuse within a civil society. The real issue at hand is the neurosis within the male psyche. Just as. in rape, the how to write quickly Deakin University, key issue is control. Male abusers are laden with fear about. losing power. How To Write Descriptive Lyceum Zuoz? They inflict physical abuse on their spouse to University (Navitas) prove that they. have, still have, and will have control over their spouses (and/or children.) They won't stop there either.
The pattern of abuse involves severe mental. torture and essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz humiliation--blaming, threatening, ignoring, isolating, forcing sex, monitoring phone calls, and restricting any form of social life. University? It is a. vicious cycle of abuse, where the wife is almost literally chained to the. husband. Her self-esteem has been obliterated. She is financially, emotionally,
and functionally helpless. She is how to essay Alpinum, incapable of reaching out for help for. herself or for University (INTO) her children. At this point the abuse gets more routine; the. abuser sites his partner's pathetic state as more reason to beat her. And the. victim sinks deeper, and more beatings ensue. How To Alpinum? She has been infected with. psychological-AIDS; she has no defense (immune system) to combat the disease.
For women, escaping an abusive relationship is VERY difficult. And the. abuse usually doesn't stop at the discretion of the male. An in-depth study of. all one-on-one murder and non-negligent manslaughter cases in how to write Canada from write descriptive Lyceum 1980. to 1984 found that 62% of female victims were killed by a male partner (Violence.
Against Women Homepage). It is painfully clear that victims have little but two. choices: leave or die. Sadly, the latter is the easier one. physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or. infirmity (In the Health of Women: A Global Perspective, 78). Critical Thinking Limkokwing? Based on descriptive essay Lyceum Zuoz, this, domestic violence against women is thinking texas Limkokwing University, clearly a health problem. In 1984, the U.S. Surgeon General declared domestic violence against women as the number ONE. health problem (Violence Against Women Homepage).
Physical violence is the most basic form of domestic violence, leading. to extensive injury, unsuccessful pregnancies and descriptive essay Alpinum Zuoz even murder. As mentioned. above, in Canada 62% of women murdered were killed by an intimate male partner. These are deaths caused by a preventable social problem. Actual or threatened physical violence, psychological violence and the. denial of physical and how to essays quickly University economic resources all have an enormous impact on women's. mental health.
A history of victimization is seen as a strong risk factor for. the development of mental health problems (MTCAWA e-mail interview). These. problems take many forms, all affecting women's ability to write descriptive Alpinum attain a basic. quality of life for herself and essay writing University her family. Abuse is strongly associated with. alcoholism and write Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz drug use in critical Limkokwing women (Facts About Domestic Violence). It also can.
lead to fatigue and passivity coupled with an extreme sense of worthlessness (Violence Against Women in the Family, 78 ). Write Alpinum? These symptoms together remove any. initiative and decision making ability from the victim. Courswork University? This lethargy, coupled. with economic barriers, makes escape from the situation very difficult. The lack. of initiative also thwarts women's abilities to how to descriptive Lyceum Zuoz participate in activities. outside of the home. A Successful John Paul II Academy? High levels of stress and depression are also extremely. common mental health problems for victims of family violence, often leading to. suicide (Facts About Domestic Violence).
In the United States, one quarter of. suicide attempts by white women and one half of attempts by African American. women are preceded by abuse (In the Health of Women: A Global Perspective, 128). The World Bank's analysis found domestic violence to be a major cause of. disability and death among women; the how to descriptive essay Lyceum Zuoz, burden of family violence is comparable. to that of HIV, tuberculosis, cardiovascular disease or cancer (Domestic. Violence Against Women: A Global Issue, 29). In industrialized nations one in. five healthy days of how to write statement for a narrative Florida International life are lost to how to write essay women age 15 to 44 due to domestic.
violence (Fact Sheet About Domestic Violence) Domestic violence diverts the scarce resources of national health care. systems to the treatment of a preventable social ill (Violence Against Women. in the Family, 87). Medical costs for the treatment of abused women total at. least 3 to 5 billion dollars annually in the United States. Battered women in. the United States are four to quickly five times more likely than non-battered women to. require psychiatric treatment, and over one million women in how to write the U.S. use. emergency medical services for injuries related to battering each year. Finally,
families in the United States in which domestic violence occurs use doctors. eight times more often, visit the statement for a narrative essay, emergency room six times more often and use. six times more prescription drugs than the general population (Facts About. It is an descriptive essay Alpinum, important social issue. Using the Systems Theory as a theoretical.
framework helps show the resonating effect of such violence. The family unit. is one of many sub-systems. Together, all these different sub-systems make up. the one big system (i.e., society). The human body serves as a good example: when one organ (sub-system) is malfunctioning, all other organs are effected. (other sub-systems). This will have an University (INTO), effect on the whole body itself.
(society). Although the family unit is only one among the many sub-systems, it. is considered to be the most important of them all--the heart, if you will. Since the essay, family unit is responsible for the socialization of how to write statement narrative essay International children who will. later go on to participate in other sub-systems, than it is essay, logical to assume. that a deterioration in the crucial family unit can result in a deterioration. within other sub-systems, and of course, the entire system itself. As mentioned above, the essay writing of Exeter, sub-system of health care is write Lyceum, feeling the. pressure. Something as preventable as domestic violence against women is.
diverting funds from an already under-funded health care system. Write Saint II Academy? There are. people out there who need serious medical treatment, but will never, or at the. very most, will get insufficient treatment. In the U.S., domestic violence. against women ranks as one of the most expensive health problems (Facts About. Domestic Violence). Monies allocated to the medical treatment of abused women (3.
to 5 billion dollars annually) diverts much needed funds from such already. under-funded institutions as education, law enforcement, social services etc. Therefore the possibility exists that adults of the future will be sparsely. educated delinquents; crime will be on the increase; and important social. services won't be able to look out for the welfare of the write descriptive essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, people--such as. shelters for abused women. The result is courswork of Exeter, long term decay within the entire. system, which will add further to the decay within the family, which will cause. the entire vicious cycle to continue. As previously mentioned, 73% of male abusers were abused, or saw abuse. as children.
Thus an epidemic of violence within the family of orientation is a. primary cause of psychological disfunction--in specific, violent conflict. resolution--which is responsible for the breakdown of the entire social order. U.S. Justice Department statistics show that at least 80% of men in prison grew.
up in violent homes (Facts About Domestic Violence.) And in at least half of. the wife abusing families, the write Zuoz, children were battered as well. And 63% of boys. ages 11 to how write a narrative University 20 who commit homicide, murder the man who was abusing their mother. breeding ground for other social problems such as substance abuse, juvenile. delinquency, and violent crimes of all types. The all important family unit is. the centre of social universe. All other institutions revolve around it. If. the sun were to blow up the entire galaxy would go with it.
problem rather than a private issue imbedded within family -- a domestic issue. which can be easily ignored. It must receive appropriate attention from the. various institutions within our society as an issue affecting the overall. standard of living.
It is not only a women's issue, but also a problem that.