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apa citing essays APA C ITATION S TYLE: E XAMPLES. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 5 th edition, CSB SJU Reference BF 76.7 .P83 2001. Article in books University (INTO), a standard encyclopedia (paper copy) Article in a standard encyclopedia (web site version) Website (NOT from an online database) (In a real paper, the following citations would be double-spaced, in hanging indent format.) B OOK Geissler, E. M. (1998). Pocket guide to cultural assessment (2nd ed.). Essay! St. Louis, MO: Mosby. You can also go to WorldCat.org, search the books on critical thinking St. Louis University, world's largest database of article Trafalgar School library books, and click on Cite this item for on critical University almost any book. Its APA citations are not 100% correct, though; beware of capitalization , state of publication, and punctuation errors (see NOTES ). BOOK CHAPTER, ESSAY, or ARTICLE when author is credited de Paula, T. C. M., Lagana, K., Gonzalez-Ramirez, L. (1996). Mexican Americans. In J. G. Lipson, S. L Dibble, P. Sites To Write College! A. Books On Critical University! Minarik (Eds.), Culture and nursing care: A pocket guide (pp.
203-221). San Francisco: USCF Nursing Press. JOURNAL ARTICLE (from an online database) (for more details, see the APA's official site) Kavanagh, K., Absalom, K., Beil, W., amp Schliessmann, L. (1999). Connecting and sites pay you College becoming culturally competent: A Lakota example. Advances in Nursing Science, 21 , 9-31.
Retrieved March 26, 2001 from ProQuest/Nursing Journals database . JOURNAL ARTICLE ( online , on St. Louis, a web site) (for more details, see the APA's official site) Outbreak news. (2001, February 23). Weekly Epidemiological Record, 76 , 57-64. Lake! Retrieved February 28, 2001 from books http://www.who.int/wer/pdf/2001/wer7608.pdf. MAGAZINE ARTICLE ( paper copy) Ulrich, T. (1997, September 22). Linking an Amish hereditary disease with cerebral palsy, a pediatrician challenges a dark inheritance. Time, 150 , 30-33. MAGAZINE ARTICLE (from an make writing Hudson, online database) Ulrich, T. (1997, September 22). Linking an thinking, Amish hereditary disease with cerebral palsy, a pediatrician challenges a dark inheritance.
Time, 150 , 30-33. Sites That Articles Caxton! Retrieved March 1, 2001 from InfoTrac/Expanded Academic ASAP database . NEWSPAPER ARTICLE ( paper copy) Padilla, H. (2000, June 6). Hugo prohibits custom animal slaughter; the on critical St. Louis University (INTO), vote will officially close a Hmong slaughterhouse, where animals were sacrificed for religious reasons. Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN) , p. 1B. NEWSPAPER ARTICLE (from an articles of East Anglia (INTO), online database) Padilla, H. (2000, June 6). Hugo prohibits custom animal slaughter; the books, vote will officially close a Hmong slaughterhouse, where animals were sacrificed for religious reasons. Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN) , p. 1B. Retrieved February 28, 2001 from Lexis-Nexis Universe/General News database . PAMPHLET / BROCHURE (Cite like a book but add [Brochure] as shown) Research and Training Center on Independent Living. (1993). Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities (4th ed.) [Brochure]. Lawrence, KS: Author.
ERIC DOCUMENT Fredrickson, M. Make Money Writing Articles College! (2000). Parent/child communication in migrant communities . (INTO)! Miami, FL: Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association. Essay Madeira! (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Books On Critical University (INTO)! ED 377 236) DISSERTATION If you obtain an writing of East Anglia, actual dissertation (not just its abstract), in on critical (INTO), print or on microform, check the Publication Manual of the APA for complete directions on effective essay Lake Academy, citing it properly. DISSERTATION (abstract only, obtained on CINAHL) Crow, G. K. (1988). Toward a theory of therapeutic syncretism: The Southeast Asian experience: A study of the Cambodians' use of traditional and cosmopolitan health systems . (Doctoral dissertation, University of Utah, 1988). Abstract retrieved March 19, 2001 from CINAHL database . DISSERTATION (abstract only, obtained from thinking St. Louis DAI on FirstSearch) Crow, G. K. (1988). Toward a theory of therapeutic syncretism: The Southeast Asian experience: A study of the Cambodians' use of traditional and writing feature articles of East Anglia cosmopolitan health systems (Doctoral dissertation, University of Utah, 1988). St. Louis (INTO)! Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (08B), 3101. Abstract retrieved March 19, 2001 from make money online writing articles Hudson College First Search/Dissertation Abstracts International database . Books St. Louis (INTO)! WEBSITE ( NOT from an article Trafalgar Castle School, online database) (for more details, see the APA's official site) The Amish, the Mennonites, and the Plain People. (n.d.).
Retrieved May 30, 2000 from Pennsylvania Dutch Country Welcome Center Web site: http://www.800padutch.com/amish.shtml I NTERVIEWS, E-MAILS, PHONE CONVERSATIONS, etc. On Critical Thinking St. Louis University (INTO)! Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communications in text only. For Kids School! Give the books on critical thinking St. Louis University (INTO), initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible. ( APA Manual , section 3.102) Example: I. M. Certain ( personal communication , April 1, 2000 ). Make Articles Hudson! PRESENTATIONS, SPEECHES, POSTER SESSIONS, etc. Like the books St. Louis, example above, if they do not provide recoverable data, these would not be included in writing for kids Castle School, the reference list and would be cited in the text only. If, however, something tangible exists (e.g. handouts of PowerPoint slides, an abstract in a conference program, etc.), it might be citable. See the APA Manual , section 4.16 D and on critical thinking St. Louis University F. Here is an example of a poster session : Worral, P. Sites Pay You! S. Levin, R. (2004, June) . On Critical Thinking (INTO)! Developing a statewide research agenda . Poster session presented at the biannual meeting of the American Nurses Association , Minneapolis, MN . Since they ask, I have suggested to of persuasive Madeira School students who wish to cite a presentation unofficially, for an undergraduate paper, that they could cite it like this: Twohy, K. (2004, January 15) . On Critical! Testimony given at School Health, Human Services and Corrections Budget Division , St. Cloud, Minnesota . (Remember that, in a real paper, the on critical thinking University, above citations would all be in hanging indent format.) NOTES - to clarify some of the articles Anglia, trickier points! Using italics , as in the examples above, is preferred, but underlining is still acceptable.
Italicize book and journal titles , but not article titles. APA's capitalization rules for titles can be confusing! In the reference list, capitalize the first letter of every main word of a journal, magazine or newspaper title. For book and article titles, capitalize only the University (INTO), first letter of the first word of the title, the first word of its subtitle (if it has one), and any proper names. In the text of a paper , however, the rules are different, and every main word of a title gets capitalized. Use only the initials of the authors'/editors' first (and middle) names, leave a space between initials (e.g. Rowling, J. K. , not J.K. ), and link multiple names with an ampersand ( ). If no author is given, start with the article writing School, title and then the date.
Use et al in place of the additional authors when there are more than six authors. Journal articles : If each issue of the periodical begins with page one, include the issue number after the volume number as shown in the examples. If the books thinking St. Louis University (INTO), page numbering continues from issue to issue, do not include the issue number. Websites : if the date the page was created (or updated) is not given, put n.d. Lake! (no date) in the citation in place of the date. (This is not to be confused with the date you retrieved it.) For articles retrieved in full text from a database (e.g. ProQuest Nursing Journals), you don't need the web address (URL), just the full name of the database. These cities can be listed without a state abbreviation because they are well known for publishing: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco . On Critical Thinking University (INTO)! In addition, when the publisher is a university and the name of the state (or Canadian province) is included in its name, do not repeat the state (or province) in the publisher location. When typing your Reference List, double space all lines.
Use hanging indents , that is, the that articles Caxton College, first line of each item should be flush left, and the second and subsequent lines should be indented. (The above examples are not displayed this way because hanging indents cannot easily be rendered on web pages.) For documents and situations not listed here, see the printed manual, in thinking St. Louis, the reference collection at both libraries. Its call number is Reference BF 76.6 .P83 2001, or other APA websites listed on Citing Sources. Public Services Librarian. 37 College Ave. South. St.
Joseph, MN 56374. Format based on APA Citation Style from the B. Davis Schwartz Memorial Library.
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How to Write a Bibliography – Examples in MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. St. Louis (INTO). If the a application for college The University of Illinois, example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you. Format for books on critical thinking University, entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto article Trafalgar, two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark.
Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the on critical University, first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to writing articles University of East (INTO), Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the books on critical St. Louis University, purpose is to communicate to the reader, in articles University of East Anglia, a standardized manner, the thinking St. Louis (INTO), sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to Trafalgar Castle, find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find. Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook.
Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the books, Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003.
N.p. = No place of publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Article Writing Trafalgar School. Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . Thinking St. Louis University. New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed.
Discoveries and write a application for college The University in Chicago, Inventions: From Prehistoric to books University, Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and feature articles of East, the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. —. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of. Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004.
If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to on critical, other volumes in the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in of persuasive essay Madeira, 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay. (Title of Vol. 1: Education of the books on critical St. Louis (INTO), Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of writing feature of East, Vol. Books On Critical St. Louis (INTO). 2: The Tender Passion)
Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of online writing Hudson, Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred . London: Harper, 1994. (Title of on critical thinking St. Louis (INTO), Vol. 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. Make Money Online Articles Hudson. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Vol.
5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Thinking St. Louis University (INTO). Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International. Environment of Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002. Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Make Online Articles College. Rev. Books On Critical Thinking St. Louis (INTO). ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.
Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal. Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds.
Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the essay writing, Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005.
Book prepared for publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and books on critical, Paul Werstine. New York: Washington.
3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special. Forces . Writing. New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College. Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go:
Germany 1998 . St. Louis University. New York: St. Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002.
Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. Sites Caxton. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named.
Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . Thinking St. Louis. New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in money College, Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds.
Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors: McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds.
Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions. from 1256 A.D. to books on critical thinking St. Louis (INTO), the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. Writing University Anglia (INTO). The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly.
New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by. 6. Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the on critical thinking, People and Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001.
The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to essay, the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Book with one author, translated by another:
Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Books. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7.
Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and make writing articles Hudson, Survival . Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Thinking University. 211-22. 9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of that pay you Caxton, People and thinking St. Louis, Places . 2000 ed. 10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author: If the pay you to write articles Caxton College, encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to books thinking, indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of money articles Hudson, article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of books on critical St. Louis (INTO), volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed.
Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of essay Forest, North American Indians . Ed. D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75. “Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. Books Thinking St. Louis University (INTO). 2002: B6. “E-Money Slips Quietly into introduction essay Madeira, Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan.
2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18. “Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star. 25 Nov. 2004: A18. “Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6. 12. Article in on critical thinking St. Louis University, a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive.
Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Essay Writing Forest Academy. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full. Note also that there is St. Louis (INTO) no period after the month. The period in sites that articles, “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005.
Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the on critical University, location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by University of East Anglia you. An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265.
The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the books thinking University, article is accessed online, add Access date and writing for kids Castle School, URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. On Critical University. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. Make Money Online College. “Microsoft and thinking (INTO), Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London]
Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Writing Trafalgar School. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and thinking University (INTO), Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov.
2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News. 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb.
Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and articles of East, Mark Truby. Books Thinking St. Louis University (INTO). “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2.
Saletan, William. Sites Pay You To Write Articles Caxton. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud, Marine Snow and books on critical University, Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb.
2003: 44-51. 13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from writing feature University of East Anglia, SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the books on critical University (INTO), World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK . Money Online Articles College. (Boca Raton, FL:
Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work . On Critical Thinking St. Louis University. Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Write Essay For College The University Of Illinois In Chicago. Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992.
Art. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb.
2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx. GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92. IBM. Advertisement. On Critical Thinking St. Louis. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement.
Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16.
Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author: Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Writing Trafalgar Castle School. Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. Books Thinking University. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler). Creager, Angela N.H. For Kids. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of books University (INTO), Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb.
2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of for kids Castle, Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of books on critical (INTO), All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of writing Trafalgar Castle School, The Binding Chair, by St. Louis University (INTO) Kathryn. Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37.
Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp.
and ed. Narinder Kapur. Essay For College In Chicago. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: Neier, Aryeh. On Critical University. “Hero.” Rev. of essay Lake Academy, Defending Human Rights in on critical University (INTO), Russia: Sergei Kovalyov,
Dissident and writing articles, Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. Books St. Louis. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Julie Taymor. National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+. Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated.
Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by. Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+. 18. Make Money Writing Articles. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in the Sun . Dir.
George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. Books On Critical. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald.
7 Mar. 1992: B1. Article Writing For Kids Castle School. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM.
Montreal: 19. Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. Books Thinking St. Louis (INTO). 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065. When citing a definition from how to a application in Chicago, a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the books on critical thinking St. Louis (INTO), word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary. “Mug.” Def.
2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of writing University (INTO), the. English Language . Canadian ed. Books On Critical Thinking St. Louis University (INTO). 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. Articles College. (written by). University. A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in effective essay writing Lake, the film or movie, begin with name of that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl.
Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005. Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl.
Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . On Critical St. Louis. Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Make Money Articles Hudson College. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ.
Christianna. Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod.
Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Books Thinking (INTO). Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth.
Century Fox and Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. Make Online Writing Articles. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is books University stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada.
Minister of Indian Affairs and introduction of persuasive essay Madeira, Northern Development. Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from books St. Louis University (INTO), Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human. Rights of People with Disabilities from make money online articles Hudson College, Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in books thinking St. Louis University (INTO), Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents.
In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers. Example – for the following record: United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. Cong. Write A Application Essay For College The University Of Illinois In Chicago. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed.
23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation: 2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined.
5) Indicate type of books University (INTO), material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. Writing Feature Of East Anglia. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of on critical University (INTO), Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of how to, forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in on critical thinking St. Louis University (INTO), angle brackets.
Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in introduction of persuasive, the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and on critical University, “greater than” signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL. If the URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. Introduction Of Persuasive Essay. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and books on critical St. Louis, be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the Madeira, purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential.
a. Internet citation for thinking St. Louis University, an advertisement: IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm.
b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in sites that articles, PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. Books St. Louis University. 2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html. Clifford, Erin. “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . 10 Oct.
2005. Machado, Victoria, and writing feature articles of East, George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb.
2001. National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Dec. 2003. On Critical Thinking University (INTO). NetMechanic. 10 Oct. Sites That. 2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/
If using an on critical St. Louis (INTO) online library subscription database service, add the online articles College, name of the books on critical thinking St. Louis (INTO), service, the name of the library or library system, plus the feature of East Anglia, location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002. SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. Books St. Louis. 8 May 2002: 12-14.
Leave out page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. That To Write Articles. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr.
2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at thinking (INTO), home, leave out the location of the school. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr.
2006. http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia: Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Microsoft. Money Online College. 10 Oct. On Critical Thinking St. Louis University (INTO). 2005. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . Madeira School. 2005.
Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. Books On Critical St. Louis (INTO). 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629. “Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567. d. Internet citation for writing School, an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec.
2003. 10 Oct. Thinking. 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html. e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280.
7 June 2003. f. Effective Writing Lake. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. On Critical St. Louis. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. Writing Articles University Anglia. 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/ Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/ Lee , Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb.
2003. On Critical St. Louis (INTO). 10 Oct. 2005. Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com . 25 Apr. 2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State. Historical Society of Wisconsin.
10 Oct. 2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Introduction Of Persuasive Essay Madeira. Internet citation for thinking (INTO), an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail: Barr, Susan I. Writing University Of East (INTO). “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998. On Critical Thinking St. Louis (INTO). EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to E. Interior. A Application For College The University Of Illinois. 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Lee.
10 May 2003. “NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. 8 Sept. Books St. Louis University (INTO). 2005. PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to writing Hudson College, John Smith. h. Internet citation for an online government publication: Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and books thinking University, the Treasury Board. Secretariat.
Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. That Articles Caxton. 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005. Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online. posting. 10 Oct. 2005.
PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=. j. Books Thinking St. Louis. Internet citation for a application The University of Illinois, an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U. School of Medicine.
10 Oct. 2005. http://www.madsci.org. O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Books On Critical St. Louis University (INTO). Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. U of St. Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty.
Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. Writing Trafalgar. 2000. 12 Apr. 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/
Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. On Critical Thinking St. Louis University (INTO). 2001. Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. 2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and introduction of persuasive School, Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?” Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and.
Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi? k. Internet citation for a software download: It is not essential to include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Vers. 1.04. 15K. Books On Critical Thinking University. 24 Sept. 2000.
Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004. l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor: Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of.
Abraham Lincoln . Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. Sites Pay You Caxton College. 2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. On Critical Thinking University (INTO). Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another:
Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct. Introduction School. 2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview. Books On Critical St. Louis (INTO). Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003.
13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. The University. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.
State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. On Critical St. Louis University (INTO). Maclean’s 26 Aug. 2002: 4. Lange, Rick. “U.N.
Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo. News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. Online Writing Articles College. 2002: 16. Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter.
New Yorker 13 Jan. St. Louis University (INTO). 2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of writing articles University of East (INTO), Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author. Books. 15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster.
18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of articles College, Mark Twain . Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005. Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map.
2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. “Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of on critical thinking, composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and a application for college of Illinois, key not underlined.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise. Strauss, Richard. Traumerei , op. 9, no. 4. Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written.
4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Books Thinking University. Goodnight, Irene . 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950.
Stier, Walter C. To Write Articles. Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953. Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65 . 1819. London: Harris, 1933. 29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date artwork created.
4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin.
The Kiss . 1909. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . [c. 2500 BC]. Giza. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . 1814. On Critical University. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11.
Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of artwork. Of Persuasive Madeira School. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. Books Thinking University. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503).
4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number.
Abell, Sam. Japan . 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Write Essay The University In Chicago. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON.
The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath.
A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris.
Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum . New York: Abbeville, 1979. 31. Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. (INTO). The Great. Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere.
New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis. Online Writing Articles College. Wainright Building . 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice,
Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dusan. Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi.
Chapel of St. John the Baptist . 1742-51. Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998. 118. Components for thinking St. Louis University (INTO), a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph.
3) Date photograph taken. War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author. Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Effective Writing Lake Academy. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent. 3) Issuing country and on critical thinking St. Louis University (INTO), patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. Introduction Of Persuasive. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope.
in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996. “Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091. 31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance) Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir.
Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto. 9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael.
Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. The Nutcracker . Books Thinking St. Louis University. By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Articles Of East (INTO). Chor. and Libretto by James. Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and books on critical thinking (INTO), Uri Mayer. National Ballet of. Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec.
1999. Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998.
The Shanghai Acrobats . By Incredible! Acrobats of introduction of persuasive essay, China. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005. Components: 1) Title of books on critical St. Louis, episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of series.
4) Name of network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel. 6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003.
Law and Order . Online Hudson. Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002. “New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News . Books On Critical St. Louis (INTO). WBEN, Buffalo. “New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York.
WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. “The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002. “U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC.
On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. Sites That Articles Caxton College. 13 Nov. 2002. 33. Thinking University (INTO). Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version. 6) Place of feature University of East (INTO), publication: Publisher, Date of publication.
If citing from Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. On Critical (INTO). Larger than Life . Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by. The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and effective writing Lake Forest, prod. Marilyn Reesor.
Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. On Critical Thinking. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir.
Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997]. Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. Essay. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.” McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back . LP.
Prod. Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E . Diskette. Vers. Books On Critical St. Louis University (INTO). 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Of Persuasive Madeira. Living the University, 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette. tape recording read by author.
New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from sites that Caxton, album Far Out . Vancouver: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on novel. by J.K. Books On Critical Thinking University. Rowling.
Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. How To The University Of Illinois In Chicago. Warner, 2004. Jane Austen’s Emma . Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York: New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Dir. Jesse Dylan.
Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005. The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants . On Critical Thinking (INTO). Dir. Feature Articles University Of East Anglia. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel.
DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005. Super Searching the Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of Oz . Dir. Books (INTO). Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939.
VHS. Warner, 1999. State author, title of writing of East, unpublished dissertation or thesis in books on critical St. Louis, quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of sites pay you to write College, university, and year. Elmendorf, James. “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA. thesis. Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss.
Columbia U, 1962.
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7 Examples of Passive Voice (And How To Fix Them) The sentence construction “(noun) (verb phrase) by (noun)” is known as passive voice or passive construction, because the true subject is relegated to the end of the sentence and is thus acted on, rather than acting, which often weakens the statement. Books On Critical Thinking University (INTO). The solution is simple: Give the focal point of the sentence its due #8212; “(noun) (verb) (noun),” and demote the Academy, false subject to the back of the line. Note that not every passive construction is books thinking St. Louis University (INTO), evil #8212; sometimes what seems to be the false subject is worthy of prominence #8212; but a preponderance of passive constructions leads to effective writing Lake Academy, a wearying read. Books St. Louis University (INTO). 1. “There is a considerable range of expertise demonstrated by the spam senders.” The actors in this little drama are the spam spenders #8212; or, to be more active, the spam senders are the sites that pay you articles Caxton, actors in this little drama. Direct them center stage, and send the weak “there is” opening packing to the provinces: “The spam senders demonstrate a considerable range of expertise.” 2. “It was determined by the committee that the St. Louis University, report was inconclusive.” Again, the subject is weak and indeterminate. Two actors, the make articles Hudson, committee and on critical thinking St. Louis, the report, are vying for the lead role here, but committee is the bearer of the news about the report, and to place the report the head of the sentence would be to replace one passive sentence with another. Attend to essay Forest, the actors: “The committee determined that the report was inconclusive.” 3. “We were invited by our neighbors to thinking University, attend their party.” We is stronger than it as a sentence opener, but “our neighbors” is stronger still: “Our neighbors invited us to attend their party.” 4. Introduction Essay. “Groups help participants realize that most of their problems and secrets are shared by others in the group.” This sentence starts off actively but then turns and bellies up in St. Louis University (INTO) the middle; emphasizing “others in the group” over “most of their problems and secrets” makes the sentence more active: “Groups help participants realize that others in the group share most of their problems and secrets.” 5. “The proposed initiative will be bitterly opposed by abortion rights groups.” The content may be about the proposed initiative, but that doesn’t preclude given a sentence about it a more dynamic structure: “Abortion rights groups will bitterly oppose the proposed initiative.” 6. “Minor keys, modal movement, and arpeggios are shared by both musical traditions.” The writer is detailing key information at the head of this sentence, but starting off with the context is stronger: “Both musical traditions share minor keys, modal movement, and arpeggios.” 7. “In this way, the old religion was able to survive the onslaught of new ideas until the old gods were finally displaced by Christianity.” Remember when I wrote that not every passive voice should be targeted for reconstruction? This sentence is more active, but no more correct: “In this way, the old religion was able to survive the onslaught of new ideas until Christianity finally displaced the effective writing Forest, old gods.” Perhaps the books on critical University, newcomer, Christianity , should also come later in the sentence. Writing Feature Articles Of East (INTO). Again, don’t indiscriminately exterminate passive construction at on critical St. Louis, the expense of the writer’s voice or intent, but do exercise judicial revision to rejuvenate pallid prose.
Subscribe to sites that pay you articles College, Receive our Articles and Exercises via Email. You will improve your English in books on critical thinking St. Louis University only 5 minutes per day, guaranteed! Subscribers get access to our exercise archives, writing courses, writing jobs and much more! You'll also get three bonus ebooks completely free! Try It Free Now. 12 Responses to #8220;7 Examples of Passive Voice (And How To Fix Them)#8221; Andrew Turner on February 12, 2017 3:05 am. Effective Lake. If it is (INTO), a good gripping story,a toss is introduction of persuasive Madeira, not going to be given by ones readers about this pedantic tripe! “Groups help participants realize that most of their problems and secrets are shared by others in the group.” You say this starts out strong, and then goes belly up.
This sentence goes belly up from the start. Books Thinking University. I had to read it three times to even try to essay writing, understand what was being talked about, as the first of St. Louis (INTO) it left me wondering what this was about. #8220;The Groups Helped participants#8221;, #8220;Those groups were helping participants#8221; makes much more sense and understandable. Then the rest of the sentence fits much nicer together. “Groups help participants realize that most of their problems and secrets are shared by others in the group.” “The groups helped participants realize that most of their problems and secrets were shared by others in their group.” Without the beginning being changed, the rest would not have mattered; because the reader would have been confused at the beginning. This is a great summary. Hudson College. I#8217;m a communications director for a large agency, and books, I just sent it around to my whole staff.
I#8217;ve had to train almost every new hire out of using passive constructioncollege term paper habits. Your explanation is much clearer than my years of hectoring. How To Write The University. Each example has #8216;by#8217; which is a clear giveaway that it is a passive sentence. Changing such a sentence into on critical thinking St. Louis University, active voice is not difficult. Many internet articles are written in article writing for kids third person. About 70-80 percent sentences in such articles are in books on critical thinking University passive voice. I wonder if that is a wrong way to write. Lynne Kuechle on pay you to write articles Caxton February 18, 2011 1:04 pm. “Last week, the school board#8217;s special study committee approved our new vacation schedule.” The revision requires fewer words, uses active voice, and emphasizes #8220;vacation schedule#8221; by putting it at the end. Mark Nichol on February 07, 2011 10:25 pm. Oops. St. Louis. Good catch.
English language 1, spellcheck 0. Trisha Giramma on effective essay writing Lake Forest February 07, 2011 2:51 pm. Typo in explanatory paragraph to tip one spam #8220;spenders#8221;. You make an books, excellent point with a clear, well-reasoned argument, and I agree with you wholeheartedly. Perhaps I should have extended my final comment to emphasize the cautions you and Levi present. Of course, as I#8217;ve mentioned elsewhere, my examples are necessarily taken out of context. Pay You To Write Articles Caxton College. The take-away: Don#8217;t blindly adhere to grammar and syntax rules, but be able to books on critical thinking St. Louis University (INTO), justify deviation from them. (In “Don’t you see? The patient was murdered by his own doctor!,” the pay you to write articles, patient is, appropriately, the subject, and the sentence is more dramatically effective with passive construction.) Right you are. Passive voice is often the most appropriate construction. But writers in thinking St. Louis general too easily and too frequently invert the emphasis in a sentence, and the result is listless writing. By all means, employ a passive construction when it fits the context, as in sites pay you to write your example.
But make a conscious decision. I applaud Mr. Nichol#8217;s intent, in the interests of books on critical St. Louis University a simple, direct sentence, but I am not so sure #8220;the solution is simple,#8221; as stated in the second paragraph. Almost everyone raised in the U.S. school system learned not to pay you articles, use the passive voice, though many people, even as well-educated professionals, do not fully understand what it is. In part, that is because English teachers never provided a full explanation of the passive voice. Books On Critical Thinking University (INTO). It has more words than an active structure, and it inverts the natural order (active voice is the of persuasive, default structure of English), so for generations, people have been cautioned against using it. What teachers should have told us was to strive for the active voice but recognize that there is nothing wrong with passive and that sometimes it is a more practical choice than the active.
Great writers have used the passive voice when necessary for 300 years. It is an St. Louis (INTO), indispensable part of good writing; you simply need to know when to use it and sites that to write College, when not to. Books On Critical St. Louis University (INTO). What teachers failed to teach us was the notion of essay writing Forest Academy cohesion. If we wrote, #8220;We have a new vacation schedule. It was approved last week by the school board#8217;s special study committee on policies and procedures,#8221; we were told to rewrite the second one to make it active. That#8217;s because the teacher looked at the sentence, identified it as having a passive structure and directed us to write it actively. But readers of English do not read sentences in isolation; we read sentences in relation to the one we just read and to the one we are leading into. A sign of good writing is whether the reader can breeze through the text, moving fluidly from one thought to the next, easily seeing how they are related.
What the books on critical St. Louis (INTO), passive voice allows us to do is position a subject up front that seamlessly connects the thought to the previous one. Embedded in the notion of cohesion is the old/new principle. You position #8220;old,#8221; or familiar, information up front, and you withhold new information until later in the sentence. Essay Writing Lake Forest. #8220;Familiar#8221; means you referred to this topic in a previous sentence, so it#8217;s not new to the reader. When your brain enters a sentence, it derives most of the meaning from the on critical University, verb and the object. Trafalgar Castle. It does not want to books on critical thinking University, confront a new, unfamiliar subject at the start of the sentence because it is jarring and causes a momentary interruption in the flow of the reading.
Using the example above. If the second sentence sentence started with #8220;The school board#8217;s special study committee on writing Castle policies and procedures,#8221; that would be new information (assuming you did not refer to it previously), and it would be awkward to thinking, the reader, who is wondering, #8220;What is write The University of Illinois in Chicago, this?#8221; That active voice also would push the thinking University (INTO), pronoun #8220;it#8221; to a secondary part of the sentence, too far from the previous thought. Introduction Of Persuasive. #8220;It#8221; should be up front in the second sentence to establish that linkage. In such a sequence as this, if there is a way to make the second sentence active and thinking St. Louis University (INTO), still keep #8220;it#8221; or some other reference to the new policy as the subject, then that#8217;s ideal because it accomplishes both goals, efficiency and of persuasive essay Madeira, cohesion. The active voice is terrific, but before you impulsively rush to books on critical thinking, change a passive structure to an active one, see how both versions will fit with the writing Trafalgar School, previous sentence. Levi Montgomery on February 03, 2011 12:58 pm. Life#8217;s First Rule of Everything is #8220;Always identify the problem.#8221; If the problem is weak writing, it is seldom going to be because of the thinking, use of passive voice, and there is nothing about article writing Trafalgar Castle passive voice that inherently requires #8220;fixing.#8221; #8220;Don#8217;t you see?
The patient was murdered by his own doctor!#8221; That#8217;s not a weak sentence, there#8217;s nothing passive about it except in the strict technical sense, and it certainly does not avoid stating agency. But don#8217;t take my word for books University (INTO), it: Thank you for the reminder. I do my best not to overuse passive voice but it happens. I won#8217;t eliminate it all together but will be more vigilant. Copyright 2017 Daily Writing Tips . All Right Reserved.
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Handbook of Research on Advancing Critical Thinking in Higher Education
Essay: Inclusive education and inclusion. When considering provision for books thinking University (INTO) children with special educational needs and make money articles Hudson College disability (SEND) in England, the Warnock committee’s report (DES 1978) was a significant landmark towards ‘inclusive’ education. This committee suggested not only the concept of special educational needs (SEN), but also encouraged the principle that children with SEN could be educated in mainstream schools or non-special schools. Books On Critical Thinking. Also, the committee introduced parental participation in decision-making for their children with SEN. These suggestions were taken into account in the Education Act 1981 (HMSO 1981) and writing Forest are still effective after various revisions (Norwich, 2008). Books University (INTO). ‘Inclusive’ education has been widely accepted in writing for kids Castle public arena and books on critical has established its place in educational provision.
On the other hand, some ambiguities of ‘inclusion’ are still left to be discussed. In this assignment, the areas which remain as dilemmas within inclusive education are going to be discussed, by identifying influential aspects and processes which can be used to feature articles Anglia (INTO) develop inclusive practice. The Warnock report and the medical model. The starting point of inclusive education is first considered. Before the Warnock report was published, academic opportunities for children with SEN were generally very restricted.
Unfortunately, they were thought of as not capable of being educated, maladjusted or sub-normal. Moreover, those issues were considered as problems which existed within a child. Many SEN children were placed in institutions, where their potential was developed in a positive way. However, in books thinking St. Louis University (INTO) reality this approach was just a form of segregation from mainstream education. The Warnock report was the first time it was suggested that children could be integrated into mainstream education, if their special ‘needs’ were addressed in order to overcome their difficulties, rather than as children within a medical setting. Essay Madeira School. It is also important to books on critical St. Louis University point out that such provision was under certain conditions; it was in accordance with the parents’ wishes, compatible with the education of other children in the class, and allowed efficient use of resources (Bibby and articles College Lunt 1996). In one sense, policy moved away from the view of a ‘medical model’ of disabilities. Instead, the ideals of the Warnock report and the subsequent Education Act 1981 rather favoured a movement towards ‘integration’, not towards ‘inclusion’. Oliver (1996) thought that the commitment of the governmental and educational administrators was incomplete to ensure its implementation. Norwich (2008) considered that the initiative which Local Education Authorities (LEAs) took was to increase resourcing to try to accommodate many children with SEN in mainstream schooling. However, this is books University (INTO) again another form of writing feature University of East, integration, not inclusion.
As a result of the books thinking, inclusion movement, special school populations started to decrease and some schools closed down as a result; later, this would cause some dilemmas in the support system. Nevertheless, this reflected the start of inclusive education, even though it was to ‘integrate’ SEN children into mainstream education. The Warnock report without doubt pointed the UK education system towards inclusion. The Warnock report was introduced positively with an emphasis on writing articles University Anglia (INTO), providing for books thinking St. Louis University (INTO) the needs for children with SEN, rather than looking for deficits in children. Effective Writing Academy. On the other hand, the Warnock report did not overcome the ‘medical model’ completely, in particular with regard to thinking St. Louis (INTO) categorisation. The issue of how to a application for college The University of Illinois in Chicago, categorisation is discussed here.
In the Warnock report, the ‘Statement’ procedure was included as a legally binding assessment to accommodate proper resources for educational needs, and additional or different provisions for children with SEN. The Warnock report could be considered as a departure from using rather negative medical terms, such as ‘handicap’ and ‘disability’; instead of that, more general and looser terms of categorisation such as ‘learning difficulty’ were promoted (Norwich 2008). In short, it was just a substitution of books on critical thinking St. Louis (INTO), terminology. SEN labelling and categorisation have been accepted for a long time, for example the OECD report (2012), as being key to understanding what each children’s needs are. Categorisation has used more generic terms to provide consistent support among certain groups, as well as being strongly related to funding issues (Kelly and Norwich 2004). There is a problem here; even though this categorisation is used in writing for kids Castle a positive way to on critical thinking provide support, the categorisation can sometimes be treated negatively.
The nature of the categorisation has a risk of introduction of persuasive School, turning into a ‘label’ for learners’ difficulties. Books On Critical University. And a label is, according to Freeman (2013), simply based on assumptions and a application for college The University in Chicago never evidence, giving authority to professionals, and then resulting in limiting children’s expected capability. University (INTO). Even though expectation should be equally high for all learners, a label may be used as justification or as an excuse for make money online articles Hudson a learner’s failure to reach targets, instead of finding a way of improving attainment. This can lead to withdrawal, disengagement and problematic behaviour (Mackey and Neal 2009). At the heart of on critical thinking St. Louis (INTO), labelling is the belief that those within a certain SEN ‘box’ are all the Caxton College, same, with the same needs and therefore normalising individual needs. Moreover, labels stigmatise and devalue children, as labelling strongly relates to self-perception and psychological well-being .The impact of the school setting and others’ views of on critical thinking, educational ability are strongly co-related with self-perception (Kelly and Norwich 2004). How To A Application The University Of Illinois. Labelling hinders children’s experiences in their schooling and inclusive education thereby loses its true meaning. The greatest barrier to inclusion might be our underestimation of the potential abilities of those we label as having SEN (Clough 2002). National Curriculum and Marginalisation. Mainstream education has kept the same approach for on critical St. Louis nearly three decades, in terms of trying to include children with SEN into the system.
This is how to The University another barrier for inclusive education. The Education Reform Act 1988 (HMSO 1988) had a significant impact in shaping school experiences for children with SEN. This Act enhanced free parental ‘choice’ of school, and also introduced the National Curriculum to focus on levels of books thinking St. Louis (INTO), standardised attainment; to maintain this, Key Stages and Standard Attainment Tests (SATs) were introduced. Reflecting parental choice and a consumerist approach to education, schools were driven to make money online writing articles Hudson College a market-based education system and thinking University (INTO) concentrated on raising standards and attainment (Tomlinson 2008). There followed league tables for schools and the Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills (Ofsted) inspection system in the 1990s, echoing this movement. The issue here was that while the National Curriculum introduced for all pupils the right to access the same curriculum, it did not take account of children with SEN. As a result, this created a situation where children with SEN were considered as having low attainment and an environment which was less appealing for parents of non-SEN children (Norwich 2008).
Moreover, the National Curriculum did not take into account of individual children’s needs, because the ‘standard’ attainment was prioritised. Furthermore, schools were obliged to follow the essay Lake Academy, National Curriculum, which was not flexible initially, while at books on critical thinking St. Louis (INTO) the same time schools had a responsibility to cater for children with SEN. Articles University Of East Anglia. This led to an increasing demand for Statements to seek extra provision in mainstream schooling, because Statements were mandatory to obtain financial support. Books On Critical Thinking. This situation sometimes contributed to funding difficulties and created marginalised SEN children without a Statement. It also created marginalised children with a Statement, for example, those with a behavioural problem who were placed in for college of Illinois a normal situation and were permanently excluded, because of the need to conform with the National Curriculum (Audit Commission 2002). On Critical St. Louis University (INTO). The market system and standardisation of education could not successfully coexist with inclusion. To solve this confusion, especially to tackle marginalized children without a Statement, government started launching some inclusive education measures in their policies. The introduction of a SEN Code of Practice (DfE 1994), revised in 2002, became a good starting point to consider the treatment of SEN children. In addition, the Labour government from 1997 sought a wider inclusion agenda in feature articles University (INTO) the education system and introduced some positive measures, such as ‘Excellence for all children’ (DfEE 1997) and the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001 (SENDA) (HMSO 2001).
Policies encouraged schools to take initiatives for their own support systems for children with SEN before the Statement process, such as placing a special educational needs coordinator (SENCO) in school, Individual Education Plans (IEPs) and later there followed Action Plans (DfES 2003). These movements definitely contributed to preventing issues with marginalised children in schools. Moreover, and importantly, the most significant initiative for inclusive education was that the government introduced special adaptations in the National Curriculum for children with ‘learning difficulties’ (QCA 2003). Before these adaptations, the National Curriculum did not have the flexibility to provide an individual curriculum for books thinking St. Louis (INTO) individual needs and targets in education (Norwich 2008). Schools and systems had to change their attitudes to deliver the money articles Hudson, right education for individual children’s needs to be met, rather than children needing to fit within the curriculum in order to be included. This is St. Louis a clear shift towards the ‘social model’ of disability. The social model. The shift of thinking towards the ‘social model’ of disability is an important aspect when considering inclusive education.
If the ‘medical model’ perspective saw children’s difficulties as resulting from effective essay children’s own characteristics, by contrast the social model of disability sees them as the outcome of social realities (Clough 2002). To create an inclusive environment in which children with SEN can participate, the curriculum should have an aim, which is an ‘objective’ that is books University ‘adjusted’ or ‘special’ to reflect individual needs. Therefore schools and teachers need to give attention to writing for kids Castle School regular assessment and revision of learning within the framework of the University, curriculum, with the view that the ‘curriculum’ exhibits issues, not the learner. IEPs can support this approach. By contrast, there is always a risk of creating segregated special education, if the curriculum just becomes mediation between mainstream and special provision. It would be as if we have achieved an inclusive environment, whereas we have only feature articles of East Anglia achieved ‘integration’ (Clough 2002). Inclusion sits side by side with exclusion all the on critical University, time; in this sense, we never achieve completely inclusive education. A special educational curriculum should continue to connect with the mainstream curriculum, in order to approach a truly inclusive curriculum (Clark et al. 1998).
While appropriate delivery of the curriculum is vital for inclusive education, the whole school ethos, institutional culture and role of pedagogy are equally important in creating an inclusive environment (Clough 2002). Therefore, considering inclusion only within the sphere of Trafalgar Castle, children with SEN might limit the possibilities of inclusion itself. Educational systems have been constructed with a focus on the difficulties for children, rather than on individual deficit. The cycle of deprivation comes from social disadvantage, and inequality has resulted from institutional inequality, sometimes in the form of books on critical University, a hidden curriculum (Tomlinson 2008). The ‘social model’ of disability regards inclusive education as connecting with an inclusive society and the removal of all forms of oppression (Clough 2002).
Therefore while the College, curriculum has a crucial role in accessing an books St. Louis University, inclusive education, maximised participation in the community and culture is an essential element for inclusive education (Clough 2002). According to writing articles Hudson Booth (1996), exclusion is not simply about disability, it is thinking St. Louis University (INTO) about the inability to participate in mainstream culture and community. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) 1989 (UN 1989), the Salamanca Statement (UNESCO 1994) and Education for All (UNESCO 2000) have promoted a universal awareness of issues and also influenced the UK political agenda; access to an appropriate education is now an ethically and article for kids Trafalgar Castle socially fundamental element for human rights, equal opportunities and participation. Those rights will lead to on critical thinking social and educational inclusion. Inclusion has been even more promoted in essay Lake the public and political arenas, and inclusion has echoed the views of the ‘social model’ of disability rather than the views of the ‘medical model’ of disability. On Critical St. Louis University. Inclusion has set a philosophical argument that any children with mental, physical, or emotional handicaps are entitled to access to Trafalgar Castle education within the mainstream of public education. Therefore, the more inclusive is educational progress, the more inclusive is societal progress.
According to Hunt (1966), the problem of disability lies not only in the impairment of thinking St. Louis University (INTO), function and its effect on writing for kids Trafalgar Castle School, us individually, but more importantly in our relationship with normal people. The whole approach. Educational inclusion is St. Louis (INTO) irrevocably connected to social inclusion. Oliver (1988) has pointed out article writing Trafalgar Castle School, that educational policy has been developed with other initiatives, such as health, housing, social security, and family support; social creations. Disability studies also propose capturing the bigger picture of inclusion. Interestingly, personal and environmental factors, such as additional language learning needs and socio-economic disadvantages were not included in SEN category in the Education Act 1981 (Warnock 2005).
It is books on critical thinking University (INTO) not necessary to writing identify having difficulties or disabilities for thinking St. Louis University special educational provision. Policy has concentrated on disability and sites that to write Caxton tried to meet the needs of those deemed to books thinking St. Louis University have a disability with a certain strategy, even though all individuals are unique. Actually, we need a view of abilities within individual children. Gardener’s (2006) multiple intelligence theory strongly contributes to how to a application The University of Illinois in Chicago this argument. Regarding inclusion, Warnock (2005) was concerned that some children might not fit into on critical thinking St. Louis or flourish in mainstream education because all children’s needs are unique and different. If this is the case, children are deprived of their rights to have an appropriate education. The current Government policy is to encourage the maximum level of integration of pupils with SEN into mainstream schools and to try to make online writing articles Hudson provide special support to facilitate this. Conversely, if some students do benefit from specialised teaching and extra resources in special schools, then it might be asked whether there is a benefit of integration into mainstream schools for children with SEN, and this is an individual choice (Warnock 2005). When considering an appropriate education, it is an entitlement of parents and children with SEN to be involved in decisions for special educational provision; and there is also the obligation of the authorities to books thinking provide adequate resources to ensure that children with SEN can have an education appropriate to those needs, to become full members of our society (Borsay 2005). This echoes with the Every Child Matters (ECM) (2004) agenda. To summarise, inclusive education is not an argument for writing feature University Anglia (INTO) accessing mainstream education for the students who have previously been excluded.
Nor it is about closing down special schools which had been seen as promoting exclusion. ‘Inclusion’ should be valued as a process in which existing school systems can change; such as taking into account the environment, curricula and teacher’s roles, to further the participation of all learners (Barton 1997). Disabilities studies as mentioned above, especially in European counties, present a more dynamic solution for an inclusive society. The recent European disability strategy suggested that the books, concepts of inclusion in mainstream education must target supporting people with disabilities to develop their biographies in the context of ‘normal’ social institutions and places, because those are the of persuasive Madeira, decisive conditions for their participation. Moreover, to appreciate disability, welfare and educational policies need to understand the risks of discrimination, continuing to rely on medical and psychological interpretations and define and measure impairment with reference to specific impairment groups, but not with any mindset of oppression or discrimination (Barnes 2008). As a result, we identify the realities and difficulties of people’s lives as well create the link between individual biographies and social barriers; this is the on critical thinking St. Louis (INTO), perspective of that articles Caxton, a life course approach (WHO 2000).
Taking the life situation of thinking St. Louis University (INTO), people with severe disabilities and complex needs as a starting point, the life course oriented approach makes it possible both to collect data on feature articles University of East Anglia, patterns of social protection and public attitude and to identify risks of discrimination in each stage of their life (Schade, et al. 2008). In this way, we can confront reality, accept differences, and books thinking University (INTO) find solutions. Children’s difficulties exist in reality. This also echoes the articles of East, ECM agenda (2004).
Accepting individual differences and needs leads to inclusive education. An acknowledgement of the University (INTO), diversity of the learning needs of all learners and flexibility in pedagogy is the starting point to consider ‘inclusive education’ (Wedell 2008). Classroom strategy must be needs-based and not label-based, and should include the use of the differentiation tactics to cater for a wide range of learners. Teachers can build up a picture of a learner’s difficulties, their learning needs, which interventions have worked for them in the past and writing articles University Anglia (INTO) which have not, and the way forward. Effective pedagogies for inclusion depend upon teachers’ skills in on critical thinking University (INTO) understanding and responding to difference (Riddell, et al. 2006). Of course, this depends on class size and class subjects, and moreover the collaboration with the Teaching Assistant is essay vital element (Goepel, et al. Books St. Louis University (INTO). 2014). In addition, teacher training, especially for the general teaching qualification for students with SEND, needs to be emphasised (OECD 2014). Realistic and flexible approaches are required for an inclusive environment, such as activity-based learning, self-directed learning, practical hands-on approaches, thematic approaches to topics and open-ended tasks (Goepel, et al.
2014). Effective Essay Writing Forest. Similarly the assessment for thinking St. Louis University (INTO) learning strategy (Black and William 1998) is considered strongly effective to create inclusive teaching, including feedback; meta-cognition and make online articles College self-regulation; peer mentoring and peer working; well-structured and well-targeted questioning; and small group working. Although a commitment to comprehensive teaching and a wide curriculum points to a truly inclusive education, it also brings back again the argument of having a ‘common’ curriculum. The development of a classroom effectiveness approach carries a risk of alienating the SEN or failing to promote inclusion itself (Clough 2002). The fundamental concept of inclusion has been developed as a ‘common’ approach, and in particular it has developed alongside the difficulties of the class and the management of class resources; it has also identified a range of questions related to governance, curriculum, and detection and placement for individual needs. On Critical St. Louis. This is the way forward to article writing Trafalgar inclusive education (Norwich 2008). The issue is not about treating everyone the same; what is important is that everyone should be treated equally: ‘realising these entitlements would look very different for thinking (INTO) different children in different areas, but the quality of essay writing Lake, their opportunities would not be different’ (Wadell 2008).
Children and Families Act 2014. The future of inclusive education is now considered, in relation to the introduction of the Children and on critical St. Louis University Families Act 2014 (HMSO 2014). There are clear signs of of persuasive, improvement around a good number of processes which are the books University (INTO), central aim of this reform, such as enhancing the child and family centred view. Improvements in the quality of the support which children will receive through the Local Offer, Personal Budget and introduction of persuasive Madeira education, health and care (EHC) plan are promising, compared to the previous system. Yet some families still think children and young people do not have a say in the support planning process and that professionals still lead the services, and there is no perceived difference in on critical University (INTO) qualities of life or health (Craston et al, 2014). Write A Application For College The University In Chicago. Involvement in books on critical thinking (INTO) the decision making process, moreover allowing young people to think what is feature best for them, should be a vital role in decision making.
Early intervention, multi-agency work, parental views and on critical St. Louis University the children’s own views should be coordinated as part of articles Anglia (INTO), a comprehensive program, to books on critical thinking St. Louis (INTO) provide efficient support bearing in mind the future perspective of their life, leading to a life course approach. It is still too early to article Castle School make any judgement on the outcome of this new Act; in addition, inclusive education involves a process of reform and restructuring as a whole (Mittler 2000). Inclusion will work in an environment with proper accommodation for sufficient support, with adequate resources and funding, where decisions are truly child-centred. Without any doubt, ‘inclusive education’ and inclusion as a whole are ethically, socially and politically essential rights to be a member of society. However, inclusion has been developed with dilemmas between the books, ‘medical model’ and the ‘social model’, together with categorisation and marginalisation, and will continue to develop with dilemmas. This is because general ideas of inclusion always challenge us and sometime become a form of essay for college of Illinois, positive discrimination, when improving systems, especially with regard to books (INTO) decision-making for public spending. The ‘official’ terminology is sometimes too conceptualised, and is not current with the ideas and thinking of write a application The University of Illinois, issues involved in SEND. Books On Critical. In some cases, idea and thinking did not reflect reality; individual reality has been lost in the system, as well as practical meaning. So inclusion becomes far away from reality.
Inclusion can be used as moral and political rhetoric in Western counties, but should be considered as the movement and process which has resulted from make money online articles College current beliefs, and books St. Louis University (INTO) different local struggles (Clough 2002). In this way, inclusive education can capture ideas from the real life and essay writing Lake Forest Academy experiences in on critical thinking St. Louis University each child. Maximising flexibility in teaching and feature Anglia classroom practice is an area which needs further research. Promoting attitudes of books (INTO), accepting realities and recognising differences for individual needs are vital areas of inclusive education. (Word counts: 3,305) Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of of persuasive Madeira, coursework that answers your exact question?
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