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ap bio essay enzymes The effects of essay writing Alpinum enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on peroxidase activity. The students focused on determining the effects of schemes of work Abbey enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, temperature, and Alpinum Zuoz pH on peroxidase activity. This was tested by timing how long it took for the filter paper to rise to the top at different environments for the proxidase. The higher the enzyme concentration was, the filter paper rose faster. The higher the substrate concentration, the middle percent of substrate concentration lifted the filter paper faster. For pH, pH 8 was the fastest and the medium temperature was the fastest for temperature. Enzymes are catalysts that carry out chemical reactions in a living cell. They are made up of amino acids and often contain a prosthetic group that is important in how to for college application Sydney the actual catalysis (Nicholas). An enzyme-catalyzed reaction is when a substrate binds to the active site in an enzyme.

Then the substrate is pulled apart in a chemical reaction to medicine writing Alpinum Zuoz create two products. If the active site of the enzyme is deformed, then the activity and the efficiency of the enzyme is low. If the enzyme is so deformed that it does not act at all, it is said to be denatured (Nichols). Salt concentration, pH, temperature, and small molecules all affect enzymes. The lower the salt concentration, the enzymes will denature and form inactive precipitate. How To Write A Essay Western Sydney. The higher the salt concentration, normal interactions of charged groups will be blocked and the enzyme will precipitate. The lower the pH, the enzyme will gain H ions which will eventually disrupt the shape of the Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz enzyme. Schemes Abbey Manchester. The higher the pH, the more H ions the enzyme will lose disrupting the active shape. Lyceum. As temperature increases, enzyme reactions will tend to go faster however, after its optimum level is a biographical essay Deakin University (Navitas) reached the enzyme molecules start to medicine essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz be disrupted because the kinetic energy of enzyme and water molecules is so great.

Other substrates may interact with an enzyme. What Paper Abbey College Manchester. If it increases the medicine writing Lyceum Alpinum reaction rate, it is an activator, and if it decreases the reaction rate, it is an write essay Washington State (INTO) inhibitor. Inhibitors may me poisons that interfere with the active site of essay writing Lyceum Alpinum a critical enzyme (Nicholas). First, peroxidase was extracted. Peel and cut potatoes into small cubes.

Then weigh out 50grams of potatoes. Place them inside a blender with 50mL of distilled water and a small amount of crushed ice. Homogenize for 30 seconds at high speed. The rest of the procedure to extract proxidase should be in a water bath. Filtered the potato extract with a funnel into a flask that was on ice with a small amount of cheese cloth which takes about 5 minutes to filter properly. Discard the cheese cloth and potato pulp then pour the filtrate into a100mL graduated cylinder.

Add cold distilled water until the final volumes is 100mL. Mix it and then place the flask back in the ice. Keep it in ice throughout this whole experiment unless otherwise noted. To test the effect of enzyme concentration, get four cups and label them 100, 50, 25, and 0 units per mL. Prepare 20mL of enzyme for each of the concentration. For 20mL of write for college application Western University (Navitas) enzyme, add 0mL of cold distilled water which will be 100units/mL. For 10mL enzyme, add 10mL of cold distilled water which will be 50units/mL.

For 5mL of enzyme, add 15mL of cold distilled water for 25units/mL. And for 0mL of enzyme, add 20mL of cold distilled water which will be 0units/mL. Keep the peroxidase in an ice bath. Label identical set of cups for the peroxidase (substrate). Measure out 40mL of 105% of hydrogen peroxide in each of the medicine writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz cups. Hole punch some filter paper. Using forceps, place the hole punched filter paper into the peroxidase solution starting from 100units/mL.

Allow the filter paper to absorb the enzyme solution for about 5 seconds then remove and drain by touching it to a paper towel for 10 seconds. Drop the hole punched filter paper into the first substrate while timing it. They will sink to the bottom then slowly rise as oxygen is produced from the breakdown of the hydrogen peroxide. What Paper College Manchester. The time (in seconds), from the Lyceum Zuoz instant the squares touch the bias critical Millfield solution to the time they again reach the surface is an indirect measure of enzyme activity. Record the Alpinum Zuoz results. Repeat the steps for 50units/mL, 25units/mL, and 0units/mL. (Look at picture below for set up.) To test the effect of substrate concentration, 0% (distilled water), 1.5%, 3%, and 10% of hydrogen peroxide was tested. Divide 40mL of each peroxide solution into plastic cups label with the concentration. Then hole punch filter paper. Use only 100units/mL enzyme concentration for this part of the write for college application Sydney concentration.

Allow the hole punched filter paper to absorb the enzyme solution for 5 seconds. Then remove and drain by touching it to a paper towel for 10 seconds. Drop them into 10% peroxide solution. Then start timing. They will sink to the bottom, but then they will rise as oxygen is produced from the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by peroxidase becomes trapped in the fiber of the discs causing the discs to float to the surface. Record the medicine writing Lyceum Alpinum results. Repeat the steps for 0%, 1.5%, and 3%. (Look at the picture below for set up.) To test the effect of temperature, label 4 cups with temperature 4, 22, 97, and 60 ? . Place 40mL of 1.5% of hydrogen peroxide solution into schemes College, each of these cups and place each cup at each temperature. Medicine Essay. Place the 4 ? in an ice bucket, 22 ? on Abbey Manchester, a lab bench, 37 ? cup goes in a 37 ? water bath, and medicine essay Alpinum Zuoz 60 ? cup goes inside a 60 ? water bath. Place 5mL of the 100units/mL enzyme solution in small glass beakers and bias thinking Millfield place one in 4 ? and 22 ? . Place plastic weigh boats in either 37 ? or 60 ? . Hole punch filter paper.

Use the peroxidase and substrate at writing Lyceum Alpinum testing temperatures. Add enzyme to Washington State (INTO) the hydrogen peroxide solution in only the 4 ? . See hoe long it takes for medicine Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz the filter papers to rise to the top. Repeat for other temperatures. (Look at the picture below for set up.) To test the effects of pH, label 10 cups with pH 2, pH 6, pH 7, pH 8, and pH 10. Pour 5mL of 100units/mL enzyme preparations and 5mL of buffer solution to the appropriate pH. In the other 5 cups, place 13mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide and critical Millfield School 27mL of the appropriate buffer.

There should be one cup with an enzyme and a cup with substrate for every pH level. Hole punch filter paper. Put them inside the cups and test how long it takes for the paper to rise to the top. (Look below for set up.) Effects of Enzyme Concentration: Effects of Substrate Concentration: Effects of Temperature: Concentration of Enzyme (Units/mL) Time for Filters to Float to the Top of the Substrate Solution after Sinking to the Bottom (s) No results after 953.91. Medicine Essay Writing Lyceum. No results after 640.91. No results after 520.80. Write A Essay For College. These results show that the higher the concentration of enzyme, the faster the reaction was signifying that the substrate fit better into the active site. Never lifted off. ***The time was measured from when the writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz piece of paper with the enzyme touched the bottom of the beaker, to when it touched the surface of the solution. These results show that the medium sized substrate fit better into the active site than the small and large sized substrate.

Temperature (Degrees Celsius) 19.12 but still kept going. 8.72 but still kept going. These results showed that the colder the College temperature, the faster the reaction occurred, but it worked best in lukewarm temperature. Time to reach top. No reaction after 15 min. The time was measured from when the piece of medicine essay Lyceum paper with the enzyme touched the mixed solutions to when the reflective State paper rose from the bottom to the surface of the solution. These results show that the essay writing Lyceum Alpinum pH has to be neutral or closer to acidic to react faster.

For enzyme concentration, the higher the concentration was, the reaction was faster. This is because the enzymes denatured as the enzyme concentration got higher. Is Research Paper College Manchester. Other reactions besides the one that was supposed to occur may have occurred. For the substrate concentration, the middle concentration was the fastest at reacting. The higher the concentration was, the molecules decreased the reaction rate making it an inhibitor which ends up interfering with the active site. Medicine Writing Lyceum Zuoz. For temperature, the lukewarm temperature was the fastest at reacting. Usually, higher the temperature the faster the reaction, but if the temperature gets too high, the enzyme molecule start to disrupt and become denatured. How To A Essay Western. For pH, the lower pH levels were faster at reacting than the high levels, but the fastest was just one about neutral pH. The lower the pH, the essay Lyceum enzyme will create chains that will affect the enzymes shape causing it to be disrupted. Nichols BAD, Cholewlak LB (1991) A quantitative enzyme study using simple equipment. Is Research Paper Abbey College. In: Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching, Volume 23 (ed.

Goldman CA), pp. 89-99. Proceedings of the 12 th Workshop/Conference of the Association for essay Zuoz Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE).

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Rethinking the Last 200 Years of U.S. Zuoz? Immigration Policy. Conventional histories of U.S. immigration policy generally present the starting point as laissez-faire , or open door, an attitude that only shifted to favor increased restriction after the Civil War. The door began to close with the exclusion of Chinese in the final decades of the 19th century and the imposition of annual quotas for Abbey College Manchester, Europeans in the 1920s. While this timeline indeed highlights important aspects of U.S. immigration policy, it distorts the larger reality. As its title suggests, my book A Nation by Design argues instead that from colonial times onward, Americans actively devised policies and laws that effectively shaped the country's population and medicine essay writing Alpinum, hence its overall makeup. In this perspective, the United States is distinct from other overseas nations of European origin where immigration remained largely governed by the imperial governments or, in the case of the Abbey precociously independent South American states, hardly governed at all. Since before the Revolutionary War, in which the country successfully gained its independence from England, Americans not only set conditions for membership but decided quite literally who would inhabit the land. They drove out and ultimately eradicated most of the original dwellers. They actively recruited those considered most suitable, kept out undesirables, stimulated new immigration flows from untapped sources, imported labor, and even undertook the removal of some deemed ineligible for membership.

On the positive side, American policy initially extended well beyond laissez-faire to proactive acquisition, reflected in medicine writing Alpinum Zuoz, multiple initiatives to obtain immigrants from continental Europe by insisting on their freedom of exit at a time when population was still regarded as a scarce, valuable resource preciously guarded by territorial rulers. Such decision-making accounts in large part for the differences characterizing successive immigration waves and for the recurrent waves of nativism that punctuate U.S. immigration history. Abbey Manchester? It also illustrates the persistence of identity-related and economic concerns. From the economic perspective, immigration is viewed essentially as a source of additional labor, which reduces its price, or at least prevents it from writing Lyceum, rising; in the case of the highly skilled, it also externalizes the costs of training. Therefore, business interests have been generally supportive of immigration.

By the same token, from its inception, organized labor has tended to view immigration as a threat (although unions began to embrace immigrants in the 1970s). Most labor migration brings in a biographical essay University (Navitas), people who differ culturally from the bulk of the established population, as signified by language, religion, and ethnicity, often manifested in phenotypical characteristics. Hence, the medicine essay writing Zuoz tapping of schemes Abbey, new sources of essay Alpinum, immigration frequently triggers confrontations in what are now termed culture wars between those intent upon preserving the nation's established boundaries of identity and those more tolerant of their broadening, who include the schemes College new immigrants themselves and their descendants. The intersection of these identity and economic concerns explains why, throughout its history, immigration policy in the United States has recurrently opened the door to migrants from one part of the world while shutting the door for migrants from somewhere else. Strange bedfellow political dynamics, with alliances straddling the usual liberal/conservative divide, have also resulted from identity and economic concerns. Policies, labor-recruitment strategies, and popular sentiment from various time periods in U.S. history reflect the tensions and unexpected political alliances. This article will highlight only writing Zuoz, some of those policies and strategies. Colonial Period to 1860.

The colonial settlers were active in the transatlantic slave trade, at least indirectly as the Puritan family farmers turned into a biographical essay Deakin University Yankee commercial entrepreneurs. Medicine Writing Zuoz? Their success was founded on the production of provisions for feeding the slaves and their supervisors in the southern continental and Caribbean colonies. On the mainland itself, the proportion of blacks rose rapidly from five percent of the population in schemes of work, 1660 to 21 percent in essay Zuoz, 1700. The settlers also sought to overcome migration barriers the British monarchy had in place. The ability of British subjects to emigrate was tightly controlled, and the British sovereign prohibited the colonies from schemes of work Abbey, recruiting foreign settlers. As formulated in the seventh grievance of the Declaration of Independence: He has endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of medicine essay Zuoz, Lands. But many American leaders, notably Benjamin Franklin and what is research Abbey College Manchester, Thomas Jefferson, were also concerned about growing immigration from the German empire, as they considered the German language to be the bearer of a culture incompatible with republican democracy. The Constitution was also written with migration in mind.

The states, in a delicate compromise to preserve slavery in the South, were allocated exclusive police powers that allowed them to control the well-being of individuals; police powers also included regulating the movement of people. This constitutional compromise made it impossible to medicine essay writing Alpinum Zuoz create a comprehensive federal immigration policy. Americans from the industrializing Northeast pursued their recruitment policy even more vigorously after independence in 1776, seeking to lift European barriers to exit that were commonplace at that time. After independence, the new republic campaigned vigorously in the name of freedom to bring about an exit revolution throughout Europe. From the 1830s on, railroad and shipping companies actively promoted emigration from northern Europe, and, in many cases, the bias Millfield multiplying US consulates functioned in effect as labor-recruiting and land-selling agencies, eventually reaching all the way to remote Norway. Simultaneously, American entrepreneurs enticed newcomers from across Western Europe by medicine essay Lyceum, way of private missions. By the 1830s, the exit revolution had been achieved, thanks also in part to a population boom in Europe that eliminated government fears of a population shortage. From this perspective, the onset of a huge immigration wave in the 1830s is how to write a essay for college Western University (Navitas), not attributable merely to push factors, including such frequently cited conditions as European population growth and the Irish potato famine. The failure of the potato crop also affected the Low Countries, northern France, and much of Germany and Scandinavia, all of which experienced demographic growth following the introduction of the potato a century earlier. Immigration of Roman Catholics from new origins — Ireland, Belgium, Luxembourg, the German Rhineland, and the southern part of the Netherlands — challenged the established boundaries of essay Lyceum Zuoz, American cultural identity, initially founded on Protestantism. These immigrants were thought to a biographical Deakin be subject to manipulation by that time period's ayatollah of Rome.

Indeed, the Pope then vehemently condemned republicanism and democracy. Hence, in the 1830s and 1840s, there were renewed attempts to enact national-level immigration restrictions, which business interests (starting with the shipping companies themselves) successfully defeated by invoking the constitutional doctrine of police powers, repeatedly reasserted by the Supreme Court. Essay Writing Lyceum? The growing preoccupation with ethnic diversity was reflected in the 1850 census, which recorded not only place of birth but the birthplace of parents of native-born Americans. Concern over the potential disloyalty of Roman Catholics became more acute in the wake of the draft riots that erupted following the imposition of military service obligation in the Civil War. Schemes Of Work Manchester? In response, Roman Catholics did Americanize but also elaborated distinct social institutions ranging from parochial schools to universities and hospitals, as well as fraternal organizations. From the medicine Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz outset, Americans also fiercely opposed the use of their territories as dumping grounds for European undesirables. For example, in a paper read before the Society for Political Enquiries at the house of Benjamin Franklin in 1787, Tench Coxe reminded his audience that [w]ith a most preposterous policy, the former masters of his country were accustomed to discharge their jails of the a biographical essay vilest part of essay Alpinum, their subjects, and to transmit ship loads of wretches, too worthless for the old world, to taint and corrupt the infancy of the Western University (Navitas) new. No longer able to continue this practice, in 1776 the British government housed those awaiting transportation in medicine writing Lyceum Alpinum, old ships on the Thames and in southern naval ports, for write, possible use as labor in public works; however, this proved highly unpopular. Hence, as peace approached, Britain attempted to resume shipping to the United States by disguising the convicts as indentured servants. When this proved impossible in the face of effective American resistance, the medicine writing Lyceum Zuoz authorities settled on remote Botany Bay, Australia, because of its suitability as a naval base, which might be built by convict labor, and of work Abbey Manchester, the first deportation fleet sailed out medicine Lyceum Zuoz three years later.

After independence, proliferating state laws and local ordinances prohibited the landing of paupers and felons. However, these were largely ineffective, as it was quite easy for writing, shippers to dump them in medicine Lyceum Alpinum, the state next door (e.g., New Jersey instead of a biographical Deakin, New York) to get around regulations and avoid fines. New Jersey did not protest as it was eager to attract the shipping industry and anticipated that the newcomers would move on to New York after landing. Although the federal government couldn't regulate the movement of people, it had the power to regulate international and interstate trade, including ships that carried people. The first major enactment of this sort was the medicine comprehensive Passenger Act of 1819. Inspired by a pre-independence British official's proposal, it was designed to attract European immigrants of all nationalities who qualified as independent settlers or free workers. The act succeeded in Sydney (Navitas), minimizing the dangers of the Lyceum Zuoz Atlantic crossing while simultaneously deterring the burdensome poor from embarking by limiting ship capacity, which raised the price of passage. This federal law, together with state regulations governing ports of entry, created a rudimentary system of remote control that allowed the United States to select immigrants by projecting its boundaries into immigrant-source countries.

In addition, a complementary market-oriented land policy made land accessible to settlers of modest means but was simultaneously designed, once again, to keep out the burdensome poor. The deterrents were reinforced in 1819 when the new nation was faced with its first recorded economic depression. Successive Republican administrations also harnessed American diplomacy to create a new African state (Liberia) that accepted freed slaves — notably from Virginia, the country's key state at the time — and provided incentives for them to do so because they were deemed unsuitable for membership in American society. Civil War to World War I. After the Civil War ended, in 1865, slavery was abolished.

The Civil War constitutional amendments also made it possible to shift immigration regulation from the state to the federal level. Within a single decade, the Washington State (INTO) federal government had decisively taken control of immigration. This shift was a major turning point, but one that has been mistakenly understood as the beginning of U.S. immigration policy. The 14th amendment, ratified in essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, 1868, defined U.S. citizenship to include all children born on U.S. soil (with some exceptions). Deakin (Navitas)? Measures that most states favored, but the Supreme Court had previously barred because they fell within the medicine writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz sphere of international trade, became national policy. Concurrently, in the 1860s, the cost of transatlantic travel underwent a dramatic drop thanks to technological improvements.

A new Atlantic fleet of steel-hulled steamships led to a tenfold increase in carrying capacity, and steam power decreased the duration of the crossing from one month to about 10 days. Write Reflective Essay State (INTO)? This revolution considerably lowered opportunity costs for potential immigrants. American and European industrialists and transporters also availed themselves of the expansion of the European railroad network eastward and southward to broaden their sphere of recruitment to include southern and Zuoz, eastern Europeans (many of the latter Jewish). One consequence of the bias transportation revolution was the possibility, even for persons of medicine essay, modest means, to temporarily return to their country of origin when not employed, even seasonally in Washington, the case of construction workers. The development of cheap newsprint, arising from parallel technological developments, led to a proliferation of newspapers in medicine essay writing Alpinum Zuoz, the immigrants' mother tongues, providing information from home and contributing to the formation of what became the typical organization of American society along lines of a biographical Deakin (Navitas), hyphenated identities. It is estimated that on the eve of World War I, one-third of European immigrants to the United States returned to medicine writing Lyceum their country of origin at a essay for college application Sydney University least once during their lifetime, and often retired there at the end of their active economic life to take advantage of lower cost of living and the assistance provided by extended families. Polish-Russian Jews were the medicine essay writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz major exception, undoubtedly because their movement was not solely economic but also represented escape from perennial persecution or at least burdensome discrimination. When the European flow ebbed in Washington State University, the second half of the 1850s because of the Crimean War, precisely at a moment when the U.S. was experiencing major westward expansion, American entrepreneurs tapped labor reserves in Europe and Asia. In keeping with this trend, President Abraham Lincoln, during the Civil War, pressed Secretary of State William H. Seward to establish in 1863 a system for the encouragement of immigration. Seward, a former senator from essay writing Alpinum, New York, secured congressional approval of a partnership between the private sector and the national government that imported European workers under conditions that reinstated elements of bondage; these conditions had been eliminated in the early decades of the paper Abbey College Manchester century because, under the essay writing Lyceum Zuoz evolving doctrine of human rights and citizenship within Europe as well as the United States, they were considered inappropriate for white people. Subsequently, Seward engineered a similar scheme to import Chinese workers for the West Coast.

An essential element for the plan was American diplomatic intervention to persuade the reluctant Chinese imperial authorities to let their people emigrate. Abbey Manchester? Although these labor policies were subsequently repealed, the networks they fostered facilitated the expansion of both transoceanic movements. In 1894, in search of an additional source of writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, workers for West Coast development, the United States persuaded Japan to let its people go by way of a treaty providing for mutual free entry. Is Research Manchester? Some 26,000 Japanese immigrated by medicine essay writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, the end of the decade and availed themselves of opportunities in is research paper College, commercial agriculture by buying farmlands. After the U.S. acquired Hawaii at the turn of the writing Lyceum Zuoz 20th century, Japanese settled in the islands as well. Despite the bias fact that it resulted from American initiatives, the expansion of the sphere of immigration to medicine essay include yellow races on the Pacific side, as well as not-so-white Europeans from the south and east on the Atlantic side, prompted a new round of negative reactions from those concerned with maintaining the for college Sydney (Navitas) established boundaries of American identity. The diversity of white immigrants led critics to equate some of the newcomers with the medicine writing despised Chinese. Critical Millfield? Also, return movement and the maintenance of essay writing Lyceum Zuoz, links with the writing a biographical essay Deakin (Navitas) country of origin raised a great deal of medicine essay writing Lyceum Alpinum, concern regarding the willingness of reflective essay University (INTO), new immigrants to medicine writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz assimilate. Hence, from the 1880s onward, the writing essay Deakin University vast increase and essay writing, growing heterogeneity of the immigrants once again precipitated a crisis.

With regard to and essay the Chinese, the cultural protectionists triumphed early on, first by effectively excluding Chinese females in 1895. This was seen as a way to prevent the birth of American citizens to Chinese parents. Medicine Alpinum Zuoz? Eventually, all immigration from China was successfully banned. The fast-growing flow of Japanese immigrants quickly set off negative reactions, signaled by the formation of a Japanese and Korean Exclusion League in 1905. Tensions were exacerbated by the San Francisco earthquake of April 1906. When the schools reopened in October 1906, the Board of Education imposed Oriental segregation. Despite President Theodore Roosevelt's initial attempts at writing and essay Leighton Park School mediation, in March 1907 he availed himself of an amendment to the Immigration Act to exclude Japanese who entered the United States through a third country or territory. In what is known as the Gentleman's Agreement of 1907, Roosevelt persuaded San Francisco to end its segregation of Japanese schoolchildren and Japan promised to withhold passports from workers intending to migrate to the United States. However, far from being generated by a popular social movement, restrictionist policies were largely initiated by members of the medicine writing Lyceum political class, who drew their ideas selectively from intellectuals to Deakin University (Navitas) whom they were connected via the intimate networks of medicine essay writing Lyceum, elite education.

Elites became persuaded that, under conditions of democracy, mass armies, a free-for-all labor market, social cohesion, and social control required the write reflective essay Washington University (INTO) populace to be socialized into a well-defined and homogeneous national culture. Since culture was still believed to be largely rooted in biological inheritance (as expressed by the concept of atavism), heterogeneity of ancestry was perceived as a major political liability. Therefore, immigration came to be viewed as a necessary but problematic factor of essay, national development, subject to systematic regulation. Within this general climate, the what is research College Manchester course of policy was shaped by Zuoz, the changing structure of congressional politics, notably the formation of a conservative alliance of Republicans and Southern Democrats. This coalition sought to maintain the cultural and political hegemony of northern European, mostly Protestant whites, who, within the bias critical Millfield ideology of race founded on Social Darwinism prevailing by essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, then on both sides of the Atlantic, considered themselves Anglo-Saxons, the most evolved group. The nascent American labor movement — albeit led mostly by outsiders to this group, including some of eastern European Jewish origin — saw itself as being undermined by how to write for college application Western Sydney, immigration. Consequently, the labor movement entered a de facto alliance with the cultural restrictionists on socioeconomic grounds. Concurrently, Jewish organizations emerged as important actors in immigration politics, seeking to essay Zuoz keep the doors relatively open, or at essay Deakin University (Navitas) least minimize the likelihood that closure would severely restrict their eastern European coreligionists. The Catholic Church joined in to some extent as well. Medicine Essay Writing Lyceum Alpinum? Together, and with the support of writing a biographical Deakin University (Navitas), industrialists, they fought against nativist restrictionism. Escalating restrictive measures did little to reduce the medicine essay Alpinum Zuoz immigration flow from Europe which, just before World War I, reached a historical high as a proportion of the write a essay for college application University total U.S. Medicine? population.

Population growth, the steady expansion of the European railroad system into the less developed southern and Abbey, eastern regions of the continent, as well as the lowering costs of sea travel (fares and time loss from gainful employment) had steadily enlarged the pool of potential emigrants. As the medicine essay writing Lyceum Zuoz supply of Chinese labor dwindled, the write for college application Sydney University development of the West, and especially California's emerging vocation as a fruit and vegetable exporter, was threatened. Southwestern entrepreneurs then turned to Mexico, which had experienced rapid population growth and where it had become more difficult for peasants to essay writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz live off the land. Entrepreneurs responded to of work the concerns of cultural conservatives by writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, arguing that Mexicans were merely birds of passage with no interest in settling in the United States. In the same vein, the how to application University (Navitas) United States stimulated emigration from its new territory, the essay writing Lyceum Alpinum Philippines, as a substitute for the Japanese. In U.S. immigration history, this closing of the door for Chinese has been given considerable attention, but the consequent recruitment from Mexico has not. The outbreak of World War I extinguished transatlantic movement precisely when the increasing demand for essay University, industrial products created a labor shortage. American companies in the industrial Midwest recruited Mexican workers, creating Mexican-American communities in Nebraska, Iowa, and Illinois, among other states. Similarly, industrialists such as Henry Ford encouraged African-American migration from the medicine writing Lyceum South to northern cities such as Detroit and Chicago. How To A Essay Application? This move from South to North demonstrates how internal and medicine Alpinum, international migrations can be related. After World War I, the reflective University United States, in effect, proclaimed to the world that it would cease being a nation of immigrants.

In one of the most spectacular displays of legislative power in American history, Congress sought to make European and medicine writing, Asian immigration disappear with legislation passed in and essay Park, 1921 under the leadership of Senator Charles Dillingham and again in 1924 (usually referred to medicine writing Lyceum Zuoz as the Johnson Act). Admissions were allocated so as to severely limit the immigration of Southern and Eastern Europeans by write essay University, way of national origin quotas. Writing Lyceum? The reasoning for this limitation: their cultural distance from the traditional northwest European stock threatened American identity. Thinking? The system was devised by commissioning sympathetic social scientists to trace the medicine writing Alpinum Zuoz origins of the American populations to its alleged European roots. The researchers then collated annual entry visas in proportion to the share of each nationality in the current population. Obviously, the most ancient groups, notably British, German, and other northwest European (Dutch, Belgian, and Luxemburgers) were assured the largest representation, and the latecomers, such as Greeks, Italians, and critical thinking Millfield School, Poles, received the smallest.

In addition, Asians were totally excluded, prompting debate over whether Arabs were Asians or not. In effect, Christian Arabs were deemed non-Asian while Muslims were categorized as Asians. Thanks to the regulatory opportunities provided by the technology of medicine writing Alpinum Zuoz, transoceanic transportation, the transformation was radical. Within a decade, the flow of people was reduced to less than one-fourth of its prewar level, with the reduction from Europe most evident as Asians had already been largely excluded before the what is research College Manchester 1924 law. The new legislation imposed even more draconian restrictions on Asian immigration, especially from China.

Consequently, there were fewer Chinese in the United States in 1940 than in 1900 — one of the few immigrant groups that were, in effect, extinguished. This was also the case with the much smaller Indian community, who were not allowed to bring over wives and were denied U.S. citizenship following a 1923 Supreme Court decision ( United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind ). Ironically, Mexican immigration was encouraged in the 1920s. The national-origins quota system was not applied to any country in the Western Hemisphere, including Mexico. During the Great Depression, Mexican residents and even U.S.-born citizens of Mexican origin were massively deported to make room for essay writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, unemployed non-Latino citizens. Yet temporary labor migration from Mexico, in the form of the essay (INTO) Bracero Program (1942 to 1964), was promoted once again after the medicine essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz outbreak of writing essay Deakin University, World War II. Internal migrations of African-Americans, whites from the rural South, and Puerto Ricans to the industrial regions were stimulated on economic grounds as well. Employers' discovery of Mexicans and Southern blacks as close-at-hand labor reserves made businesses more amenable to restrictionist efforts in the 1950s. Alpinum? The 1952 McCarran-Walter Act maintained the Western Europe-biased quotas and set aside a sizeable portion of each country's quota for permanent residents' family members and highly skilled workers whose services were in short supply among the native labor force, but breached Oriental exclusion by establishing token quotas for write application Western Sydney, immigrants from Asian countries. In response to writing Alpinum Zuoz the growing Soviet threat in Europe, the McCarran-Walter Act opened a side door for displaced persons and Park, other European refugees, defined to include Italian earthquake victims subject to mobilization by the Italian Communist Party as well as Greeks caught in the midst of a civil war.

Once institutionalized, the restrictionist regime demonstrated remarkable staying power, lasting nearly half a century. It was overthrown only in the 1960s, when the descendants of groups targeted for restriction gained unusual political power in key constituencies and succeeded in shifting the boundaries of American identity so as to include them. Although President John F. Kennedy led initial efforts to reform immigration law, the Immigration and Nationality of Act passed after his assassination, thanks to the astute political maneuvering of his successor, Lyndon B. Johnson. The 1965 law maintained an annual limit on immigration but allowed 170,000 immigrants from Eastern Hemisphere countries with no more than 20,000 per writing Alpinum Zuoz, country. It even imposed, for the first time, an annual limit on immigration from how to write a essay application Sydney, countries in the Western Hemisphere. Preference was decisively given to the close relatives of U.S. citizens, including married brothers and sisters (critics called it the brothers and sisters act) with a share of annual entries from outside the Western Hemisphere reserved for persons qualifying as refugees under the medicine essay new international definition and another set aside for persons with skills certified as being in a biographical essay (Navitas), shortage. Advocates in Congress from both political parties assured that the law was in no way designed to bring about an inflationary wave of newcomers. It is impossible to establish whether they were knowingly downplaying this aspect or whether they genuinely did not anticipate the law's consequences. After a slow start, the law's preference for relatives catalyzed a chaining effect, which, within two decades, raised the Alpinum number of annual legal newcomers back to levels not seen since before World War I. Schemes Of Work? However, given the much larger U.S. population, these numbers constituted a smaller proportion of the total population.

Thanks to the elimination of Asian exclusion and the national-origins system, as well as decolonization in Africa and writing, Asia, the new wave — which includes the first flow of immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa since slavery — has been more diverse than any of its predecessors. Although the 1965 law imposed limits on immigration from the Western Hemisphere, it was evident from the start that the United States did not possess the police capacity to prevent undocumented movement across its southern border. In addition, the creation of such a capacity would have required radical actions, notably the enlistment of private employers nationwide in immigration law enforcement. Arguably, the 1986 Immigration Reform and is research paper College Manchester, Control Act (IRCA) did require employers to enforce immigration law by mandating that they hire only workers who could prove their legal status. This was the price liberals had to pay for securing their primary goal: the legalization of several million unauthorized residents, most of whom were from medicine Lyceum, Mexico.

The employer verification component was essentially abandoned after IRCA passed, with unauthorized immigrants able to submit forged documents that employers accepted. Several attempts were made in the 1990s to devise effective strategies for controlling entry through the southern border, but none of schemes of work College, those enacted to-date have succeeded in stopping unauthorized immigration; the matter remains on the national agenda. While the principal political alignment remains that of the vocal cultural conservatives, who object to the changing character of American identity, against employers eager to insure a continued supply of cheap unskilled labor, the balance seems to be leaning toward maintenance of the messy but relatively liberal status quo. This is because, beginning in the 1970s, some unions changed their position on immigration once they realized that immigrants, legal and unauthorized, provided the most fertile source of replenishment for their depleting ranks, initially in medicine essay Lyceum, the garment industry and subsequently in a variety of service occupations. Moreover, Hispanics — currently the target of writing and essay Park School, most restrictive efforts — are rapidly achieving significant political power and are therefore being courted in an unprecedented manner by both parties.

Therefore, the strange bedfellows are likely to remain at center stage for the predictable future. This article is based on Aristide Zolberg's latest book, A Nation By Design: Immigration Policy in the Fashioning of America , published in 2006 by Harvard University Press and the Russell Sage Foundation. Aristide Zolberg is Walter A. Eberstadt Professor of writing Zuoz, Political Science at the New School University in New York. 1400 16th St NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036 | ph. 202-266-1940 | fax. State? 202-266-1900. Copyright © 2001-2017 Migration Policy Institute. Writing Zuoz? All rights reserved. 1400 16th St NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036. ph. 202-266-1940 | fax.

202-266-1900. Copyright © 2001-2017 Migration Policy Institute. All rights reserved.

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A Barber’s Shop and a Beauty Queen. I live in medicine essay, a big modern building. It’s very nice. Modern fittings, cable, a fast internet connection, soft lighting options, cream sofas and big double beds, etc. There’s also a swimming pool on the roof of the building. I live here in this well-appointed flat, in this nice building, in Saigon, because I’ve got a job as a teacher in one of the language schools in the centre of the city. The economy is write reflective essay Washington University (INTO), booming, fueled by writing, the cheap labour readily available in this populous country. A Biographical University? It’s a good job.

Not even the medicine essay Lyceum Alpinum, recent rise of the spoilt brat, has tempered the schemes of work College Manchester, almost reverential respect that the Vietnamese have for teachers. Tien, a sixty year old wealthy business man and the father of the class, addresses me formally as “Teacher”, and writing Lyceum Zuoz, despite my protestation steadfastly refuses to call me Dan, even when inviting me to lunch. It is the teacher’s role I’ve been given, so it is the writing a biographical essay Deakin University, teacher’s role I shall play. Medicine Lyceum Alpinum? One has to act and, more importantly, look the part. As the school manual states stubble “designer or otherwise” is out.

Ironed shirts and ties are in. A Biographical (Navitas)? My maid looks after the shirts. With ideas of playing the teacher in my mind, I leave my apartment and medicine Lyceum Alpinum, walk down the shiny white tiled floor, past the Korean family’s permanently opened door and take the lift down seven floors, which provides me with the time to check out a spot that’s been brewing on my forehead. The air in Saigon certainly isn’t good for the skin and tends to is research paper Abbey, leave one coated in a thin layer of grime by the end of the writing Lyceum Zuoz, day, but hey, the economy’s booming. The lift doors open and I walk out into the marble lobby and onto School the Saigon streets, butchering the Vietnamese for essay Lyceum Zuoz, goodbye with the friendly receptionist as I leave. Phumm! The streets. Roar, whizz, whine, cough. I’m hit by Manchester, a wall of sound.

Hundreds of motorbikes rush down Dinh Bo Linh . The security guard who accompanied a recent take-away delivery girl up the medicine essay writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, seven flights to my door smiles at me. I’m immediately offered a ride by the one-eyed motorbike taxi-man whose patch is the pavement in front of my apartment building. I decline. I turn left and am forced onto the road by the motorbikes parked on the pavement. Abbey College Manchester? I’m careful to look behind me, because although Dinh Bo Linh is a one-way street and I’m facing the oncoming traffic, the Vietnamese traffic rules dictate that it’s kind of OK to go the medicine essay Lyceum Zuoz, wrong way down a one way street as long as you stick nice and close to, or occasionally on, the (Navitas), pavement. One metre, two metres later and I’m reunited with the pavement. The traffic continues to speed past.

Three metres, four metres. I turn left and essay Lyceum Alpinum, enter the establishment right next to my well-appointed apartment block with its cable and internet. It’s a single-storey concrete building. Leighton Park School? There is no front wall so the barber’s looks out onto the road with all its traffic. Alpinum Zuoz? There’s a small pile of rubbish on the pavement at the front. Inside there are four old barber’s chairs facing mirrors on the walls and a desk at the back of the room which has no till. There are five girls sitting inside the shop. They are all wearing tight-fitting clothing and showing a lot of flesh.

Hair cuts and critical thinking Millfield School, facials are not the only service on offer for money in this shop; this is a common Vietnamese business double up. As I enter one of the girls stands up and greets me. I realise on closer inspection that she’s a ladyboy. I point to my stubble and pointlessly mumble “I want a shave.” She laughs. One other girl laughs as well. Essay Lyceum Zuoz? They laugh when they’re happy, laugh when they’re embarrassed, laugh when they’re pissed off, laugh when they don’t know or don’t understand. I hope it’s not the latter. The other three girls just stare.

The ladyboy gestures for me to how to write for college Western Sydney University, sit down on one of the chairs. I sit. The shop is pretty grubby, though one of the girls has just finished sweeping the white, tiled floor. There is padding coming out of the side of the chair next to mine. The green paint on the walls is chipped, revealing a red undercoat. There is dirt in the corners of the mirrors and mine has a small crack in it. The ladyboy points at the top of my head.

Do I want a haircut? I decline. She calls over another girl and gently makes me lie down on writing Alpinum Zuoz the now reclined chair. I stare up at the ceiling listening to the sound of the traffic and the new girl comes over. She is beautifulreally, really beautiful. She has huge brown eyes, a small nose and perfect skin that has clearly been whitened, but surprisingly has little make-up on it.

The other girls in critical School, the shop are chattering away, and still staring. The shaving girl prepares a new cut-throat. She has long, thin fingers, and is tall by Vietnamese standards, with an Lyceum, elegant giraffe-like frame. Had she been born elsewhere she might have graced the European catwalk. As it is, she is a barber’s shop whore in Saigon. One accident of writing a biographical Deakin University, birth nullified by another. Shaving foam is dabbed on my face and then she points to my top lip.

Yes, I do want that shaved, no moustache for me thanks. And then it starts at the neck. I sit in writing, the angle-backed chair staring at and essay School, the ceiling feeling a three-inch sliver of medicine writing Lyceum Alpinum, metal scraping just above my adam’s apple. I’ve always hated things touching my neck. I imagine the pressure slowly increasing and the razor digging into my throat more and more until it is swallowed into my windpipe, blood pouring out of my neck and the girl coldly staring at me. I suppress the urge to grab her hand. I try and put it out of my mind, but all I can think of is Gareth from The Office offering advice on how best to penetrate the is research, wind pipe. I’m in my head now, I’ve got nothing but my imagination and the feeling of the razor against my neck, then off my neck, then back on my neck.

I try and concentrate on medicine essay the noises of the bikes going past. She’s still shaving my neck. I want it to stop, but I dare not move. My hand grips my t-shirt at the neck. The girl notices my unease, pats my hand, says something in Vietnamese to her friend and they both giggle.

One of the girls approaches me and what is research paper Manchester, pulls on my arm hair, laughing. Essay Writing? Yes, it is real thank you very much. Eventually it’s over. The shave is rough, particularly around the neck. It comes to ten-thousand Dong, about 30 pence, which is twice as much as it should be.

All the schemes, girls are very sweet and they say goodbye in English. I have a stab at thank you in Vietnamese. Apparently this is very funny. I leave and medicine writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, take the lift up the seven floors. Write Reflective Essay Washington State (INTO)? I enter my apartment, which is essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, very cool.

I forgot to turn the air-conditioning off.

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columbus essay title Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and full of wonder, emerged from their villages onto the island's beaches and swam out to get a closer look at the strange big boat. When Columbus and his sailors came ashore, carrying swords, speaking oddly, the Arawaks ran to greet them, brought them food, water, gifts. He later wrote of this in his log: They . brought us parrots and balls of medicine essay writing Zuoz cotton and of work Abbey Manchester spears and writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz many other things, which they exchanged for a biographical (Navitas), the glass beads and essay Zuoz hawks' bells. They willingly traded everything they owned. . They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features. They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance. They have no iron. Their spears are made of cane. . They would make fine servants. With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want. These Arawaks of the of work Abbey College Manchester Bahama Islands were much like Indians on the mainland, who were remarkable (European observers were to say again and again) for their hospitality, their belief in sharing.

These traits did not stand out in essay writing Alpinum Zuoz, the Europe of the Renaissance, dominated as it was by the religion of writing Deakin University (Navitas) popes, the writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz government of kings, the frenzy for money that marked Western civilization and its first messenger to the Americas, Christopher Columbus. As soon as I arrived in the Indies, on the first Island which I found, I took some of the natives by force in order that they might learn and might give me information of whatever there is in these parts. The information that Columbus wanted most was: Where is the gold? He had persuaded the king and queen of Spain to finance an expedition to the lands, the wealth, he expected would be on the other side of the writing Atlantic-the Indies and medicine writing Zuoz Asia, gold and spices. For, like other informed people of his time, he knew the world was round and he could sail west in order to and essay Leighton, get to the Far East. Spain was recently unified, one of the medicine essay Zuoz new modern nation-states, like France, England, and Portugal. Its population, mostly poor peasants, worked for writing essay, the nobility, who were 2 percent of the population and owned 95 percent of the land. Medicine Zuoz. Spain had tied itself to the Catholic Church, expelled all the Jews, driven out the Moors. Like other states of the modern world, Spain sought gold, which was becoming the new mark of wealth, more useful than land because it could buy anything. There was gold in Asia, it was thought, and certainly silks and spices, for Marco Polo and others had brought back marvelous things from their overland expeditions centuries before. Now that the Turks had conquered Constantinople and paper Abbey Manchester the eastern Mediterranean, and controlled the land routes to Asia, a sea route was needed.

Portuguese sailors were working their way around the southern tip of Africa. Spain decided to gamble on a long sail across an unknown ocean. In return for bringing back gold and medicine essay writing Zuoz spices, they promised Columbus 10 percent of the profits, governorship over new-found lands, and the fame that would go with a new title: Admiral of the Ocean Sea. He was a merchant's clerk from the bias Italian city of medicine essay writing Lyceum Zuoz Genoa, part-time weaver (the son of how to a essay application Western (Navitas) a skilled weaver), and expert sailor. Medicine Essay Writing. He set out with three sailing ships, the largest of which was the Santa Maria , perhaps 100 feet long, and thirty-nine crew members. Columbus would never have made it to Asia, which was thousands of what Manchester miles farther away than he had calculated, imagining a smaller world. He would have been doomed by that great expanse of sea. But he was lucky. One-fourth of the way there he came upon an unknown, uncharted land that lay between Europe and Asia-the Americas. It was early October 1492, and thirty-three days since he and his crew had left the Canary Islands, off the Atlantic coast of medicine Alpinum Africa. Now they saw branches and sticks floating in the water.

They saw flocks of a essay for college Sydney University (Navitas) birds. These were signs of land. Then, on October 12, a sailor called Rodrigo saw the early morning moon shining on white sands, and cried out. It was an island in medicine writing Zuoz, the Bahamas, the Caribbean sea. Reflective Essay State University. The first man to essay writing Alpinum Zuoz, sight land was supposed to get a yearly pension of write a essay application Western Sydney 10,000 maravedis for life, but Rodrigo never got it. Columbus claimed he had seen a light the evening before. He got the reward. So, approaching land, they were met by the Arawak Indians, who swam out to greet them.

The Arawaks lived in village communes, had a developed agriculture of corn, yams, cassava. They could spin and weave, but they had no horses or work animals. They had no iron, but they wore tiny gold ornaments in their ears. This was to have enormous consequences: it led Columbus to essay writing Alpinum, take some of them aboard ship as prisoners because he insisted that they guide him to the source of the and essay School gold. He then sailed to what is now Cuba, then to Hispaniola (the island which today consists of Haiti and the Dominican Republic). There, bits of medicine essay Lyceum Alpinum visible gold in the rivers, and a gold mask presented to Columbus by a local Indian chief, led to wild visions of gold fields. On Hispaniola, out of timbers from the Santa Maria , which had run aground, Columbus built a fort, the first European military base in bias thinking, the Western Hemisphere. He called it Navidad (Christmas) and left thirty-nine crewmembers there, with instructions to Lyceum Alpinum, find and store the gold. He took more Indian prisoners and put them aboard his two remaining ships. At one part of the island he got into a fight with Indians who refused to trade as many bows and arrows as he and his men wanted.

Two were run through with swords and bled to death. Then the Nina and the Pinta set sail for bias critical Millfield, the Azores and Spain. When the weather turned cold, the Indian prisoners began to essay writing Alpinum, die. Columbus's report to the Court in Madrid was extravagant. He insisted he had reached Asia (it was Cuba) and an island off the coast of schemes College Manchester China (Hispaniola). His descriptions were part fact, part fiction: Hispaniola is a miracle. Mountains and hills, plains and pastures, are both fertile and beautiful . the harbors are unbelievably good and there are many wide rivers of medicine writing Alpinum which the majority contain gold. . . . There are many spices, and great mines of gold and other metals. The Indians, Columbus reported, are so naive and so free with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it. When you ask for what paper Manchester, something they have, they never say no. To the contrary, they offer to share with anyone.

He concluded his report by asking for a little help from their Majesties, and in return he would bring them from his next voyage as much gold as they need . and as many slaves as they ask. He was full of Lyceum Zuoz religious talk: Thus the eternal God, our Lord, gives victory to those who follow His way over apparent impossibilities. Because of bias Millfield School Columbus's exaggerated report and writing promises, his second expedition was given seventeen ships and more than twelve hundred men. The aim was clear: slaves and gold. Reflective Washington University (INTO). They went from island to island in the Caribbean, taking Indians as captives. But as word spread of the Europeans' intent they found more and more empty villages. On Haiti, they found that the sailors left behind at Fort Navidad had been killed in medicine essay writing Lyceum Zuoz, a battle with the Indians, after they had roamed the island in gangs looking for gold, taking women and children as slaves for sex and labor. Now, from his base on Haiti, Columbus sent expedition after expedition into the interior. They found no gold fields, but had to of work Abbey, fill up the ships returning to Spain with some kind of dividend. In the year 1495, they went on a great slave raid, rounded up fifteen hundred Arawak men, women, and children, put them in pens guarded by Spaniards and dogs, then picked the five hundred best specimens to load onto ships.

Of those five hundred, two hundred died en route. The rest arrived alive in Spain and medicine essay writing Lyceum Alpinum were put up for sale by the archdeacon of the town, who reported that, although the slaves were naked as the day they were born, they showed no more embarrassment than animals. Columbus later wrote: Let us in the name of the Holy Trinity go on sending all the slaves that can be sold. But too many of the slaves died in captivity. And so Columbus, desperate to pay back dividends to those who had invested, had to Washington University (INTO), make good his promise to fill the ships with gold. In the province of Cicao on Haiti, where he and his men imagined huge gold fields to exist, they ordered all persons fourteen years or older to collect a certain quantity of Lyceum Zuoz gold every three months.

When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to write Washington University, hang around their necks. Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to death. The Indians had been given an impossible task. The only gold around was bits of dust garnered from the streams. Medicine Essay Writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz. So they fled, were hunted down with dogs, and write essay (INTO) were killed. Trying to put together an army of resistance, the Arawaks faced Spaniards who had armor, muskets, swords, horses.

When the Spaniards took prisoners they hanged them or burned them to death. Among the Arawaks, mass suicides began, with cassava poison. Infants were killed to save them from the Spaniards. In two years, through murder, mutilation, or suicide, half of the 250,000 Indians on Haiti were dead. When it became clear that there was no gold left, the Indians were taken as slave labor on huge estates, known later as encomiendas. They were worked at a ferocious pace, and died by the thousands.

By the year 1515, there were perhaps fifty thousand Indians left. Writing. By 1550, there were five hundred. A report of the year 1650 shows none of the original Arawaks or their descendants left on the island. The chief source-and, on many matters the only source-of information about what happened on the islands after Columbus came is Bartolome de las Casas, who, as a young priest, participated in the conquest of Cuba. How To A Essay For College Application Sydney. For a time he owned a plantation on which Indian slaves worked, but he gave that up and became a vehement critic of Spanish cruelty. Las Casas transcribed Columbus's journal and, in his fifties, began a multivolume History of the Indies. In it, he describes the Indians. They are agile, he says, and can swim long distances, especially the women. They are not completely peaceful, because they do battle from time to time with other tribes, but their casualties seem small, and medicine essay they fight when they are individually moved to do so because of some grievance, not on the orders of captains or kings.

Women in Indian society were treated so well as to startle the Spaniards. Las Casas describes sex relations: Marriage laws are non-existent men and women alike choose their mates and leave them as they please, without offense, jealousy or anger. They multiply in great abundance; pregnant women work to the last minute and writing and essay Leighton Park School give birth almost painlessly; up the medicine writing Zuoz next day, they bathe in the river and are as clean and healthy as before giving birth. And Essay Leighton School. If they tire of their men, they give themselves abortions with herbs that force stillbirths, covering their shameful parts with leaves or cotton cloth; although on the whole, Indian men and women look upon total nakedness with as much casualness as we look upon a man's head or at his hands. The Indians, Las Casas says, have no religion, at essay writing Lyceum, least no temples. They live in. large communal bell-shaped buildings, housing up to 600 people at one time . made of very strong wood and roofed with palm leaves. They prize bird feathers of various colors, beads made of write Western Sydney University fishbones, and green and white stones with which they adorn their ears and lips, but they put no value on writing Alpinum gold and other precious things.

They lack all manner of commerce, neither buying nor selling, and rely exclusively on their natural environment for maintenance. They are extremely generous with their possessions and by the same token covet the possessions of write reflective Washington University their friends and expect the same degree of liberality. Medicine Alpinum Zuoz. . In Book Two of his History of the Indies , Las Casas (who at College Manchester, first urged replacing Indians by medicine Alpinum Zuoz, black slaves, thinking they were stronger and would survive, but later relented when he saw the writing and essay Leighton Park School effects on blacks) tells about the treatment of the Indians by the Spaniards. It is a unique account and deserves to medicine Alpinum Zuoz, be quoted at length: Endless testimonies . .. prove the mild and bias critical thinking Millfield School pacific temperament of the essay writing Zuoz natives. Is Research Abbey. But our work was to exasperate, ravage, kill, mangle and destroy; small wonder, then, if they tried to essay writing Lyceum, kill one of us now and bias critical Millfield then. The admiral, it is true, was blind as those who came after him, and he was so anxious to medicine essay writing Lyceum, please the King that he committed irreparable crimes against the Indians. Las Casas tells how the Spaniards grew more conceited every day and after a while refused to Abbey College Manchester, walk any distance. They rode the backs of Indians if they were in a hurry or were carried on hammocks by Indians running in relays. In this case they also had Indians carry large leaves to shade them from the sun and others to medicine Lyceum Zuoz, fan them with goose wings. Total control led to total cruelty. The Spaniards thought nothing of knifing Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to essay State (INTO), test the sharpness of their blades.

Las Casas tells how two of these so-called Christians met two Indian boys one day, each carrying a parrot; they took the parrots and for fun beheaded the boys. The Indians' attempts to defend themselves failed. And when they ran off into the hills they were found and killed. So, Las Casas reports, they suffered and died in the mines and other labors in desperate silence, knowing not a soul in the world to whom they could turn for help. He describes their work in essay Lyceum, the mines: . mountains are stripped from top to bottom and bottom to top a thousand times; they dig, split rocks, move stones, and carry dirt on write for college Western Sydney their backs to wash it in the rivers, while those who wash gold stay in the water all the time with their backs bent so constantly it breaks them; and when water invades the mines, the most arduous task of essay all is to dry the mines by critical thinking Millfield School, scooping up pansful of water and essay Zuoz throwing it up outside. After each six or eight months' work in the mines, which was the time required of each crew to dig enough gold for melting, up to College Manchester, a third of the men died. While the men were sent many miles away to the mines, the wives remained to work the soil, forced into the excruciating job of digging and writing Lyceum Zuoz making thousands of hills for write a essay for college Western, cassava plants. Thus husbands and wives were together only once every eight or ten months and when they met they were so exhausted and depressed on both sides . they ceased to procreate.

As for the newly born, they died early because their mothers, overworked and Zuoz famished, had no milk to nurse them, and for this reason, while I was in Cuba, 7000 children died in three months. Schemes Abbey. Some mothers even drowned their babies from sheer desperation. in this way, husbands died in the mines, wives died at writing Alpinum Zuoz, work, and children died from lack of how to write for college Sydney University (Navitas) milk . .. and in a short time this land which was so great, so powerful and fertile . Essay Writing Alpinum Zuoz. was depopulated. What Paper. . My eyes have seen these acts so foreign to human nature, and now I tremble as I write. . When he arrived on Hispaniola in 1508, Las Casas says, there were 60,000 people living on medicine essay writing Alpinum Zuoz this island, including the Indians; so that from 1494 to 1508, over three million people had perished from war, slavery, and the mines. Who in future generations will believe this? I myself writing it as a knowledgeable eyewitness can hardly believe it. Park. Thus began the medicine essay Zuoz history, five hundred years ago, of the European invasion of the Indian settlements in the Americas.

That beginning, when you read Las Casas-even if his figures are exaggerations (were there 3 million Indians to begin with, as he says, or less than a million, as some historians have calculated, or 8 million as others now believe?)-is conquest, slavery, death. Millfield. When we read the history books given to children in the United States, it all starts with heroic adventure-there is no bloodshed-and Columbus Day is a celebration. Past the elementary and high schools, there are only occasional hints of something else. Essay Zuoz. Samuel Eliot Morison, the a biographical essay University (Navitas) Harvard historian, was the most distinguished writer on Columbus, the Alpinum Zuoz author of a multivolume biography, and write application Western Sydney (Navitas) was himself a sailor who retraced Columbus's route across the Atlantic. In his popular book Christopher Columbus, Mariner, written in 1954, he tells about the enslavement and the killing: The cruel policy initiated by medicine writing Alpinum Zuoz, Columbus and and essay Leighton Park pursued by his successors resulted in complete genocide. That is on one page, buried halfway into the telling of a grand romance. In the book's last paragraph, Morison sums up his view of Columbus: He had his faults and his defects, but they were largely the defects of the qualities that made him great-his indomitable will, his superb faith in God and in his own mission as the Christ-bearer to Lyceum Alpinum, lands beyond the seas, his stubborn persistence despite neglect, poverty and discouragement. But there was no flaw, no dark side to of work Manchester, the most outstanding and medicine writing Lyceum essential of all his qualities-his seamanship. One can lie outright about the past.

Or one can omit facts which might lead to Western (Navitas), unacceptable conclusions. Morison does neither. He refuses to lie about Columbus. Lyceum Zuoz. He does not omit the story of mass murder; indeed he describes it with the harshest word one can use: genocide. But he does something else-he mentions the truth quickly and goes on to other things more important to him. Schemes Abbey. Outright lying or quiet omission takes the risk of discovery which, when made, might arouse the reader to rebel against medicine writing Lyceum Alpinum the writer. To state the facts, however, and then to bury them in a mass of other information is to say to the reader with a certain infectious calm: yes, mass murder took place, but it's not that important-it should weigh very little in write essay Washington University (INTO), our final judgments; it should affect very little what we do in writing Lyceum, the world. It is not that the historian can avoid emphasis of some facts and schemes of work Abbey College Manchester not of others. This is as natural to him as to the mapmaker, who, in order to produce a usable drawing for practical purposes, must first flatten and distort the shape of the earth, then choose out of the bewildering mass of geographic information those things needed for the purpose of this or that particular map. My argument cannot be against selection, simplification, emphasis, which are inevitable for both cartographers and historians. But the map-maker's distortion is a technical necessity for Zuoz, a common purpose shared by all people who need maps.

The historian's distortion is more than technical, it is ideological; it is released into a world of contending interests, where any chosen emphasis supports (whether the historian means to or not) some kind of interest, whether economic or political or racial or national or sexual. Furthermore, this ideological interest is not openly expressed in the way a mapmaker's technical interest is obvious (This is a Mercator projection for long-range navigation-for short-range, you'd better use a different projection). No, it is presented as if all readers of history had a common interest which historians serve to the best of their ability. This is not intentional deception; the historian has been trained in a society in which education and knowledge are put forward as technical problems of excellence and how to a essay for college application Western Sydney not as tools for contending social classes, races, nations. To emphasize the heroism of Columbus and his successors as navigators and discoverers, and to de-emphasize their genocide, is essay not a technical necessity but an ideological choice. It serves- unwittingly-to justify what was done. My point is not that we must, in telling history, accuse, judge, condemn Columbus in absentia . It is too late for that; it would be a useless scholarly exercise in morality. But the easy acceptance of how to write for college application Sydney (Navitas) atrocities as a deplorable but necessary price to Lyceum Alpinum, pay for writing Leighton, progress (Hiroshima and Vietnam, to save Western civilization; Kronstadt and Hungary, to save socialism; nuclear proliferation, to save us all)-that is still with us. One reason these atrocities are still with us is that we have learned to bury them in a mass of other facts, as radioactive wastes are buried in containers in the earth. We have learned to give them exactly the medicine essay writing Alpinum Zuoz same proportion of attention that teachers and writers often give them in the most respectable of classrooms and textbooks. This learned sense of moral proportion, coming from the application Sydney University apparent objectivity of the scholar, is accepted more easily than when it comes from medicine writing Zuoz, politicians at press conferences.

It is therefore more deadly. The treatment of heroes (Columbus) and their victims (the Arawaks)-the quiet acceptance of conquest and how to write a essay for college application University (Navitas) murder in the name of progress-is only one aspect of a certain approach to history, in which the medicine essay writing Alpinum past is told from the what is research Abbey College Manchester point of view of Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz governments, conquerors, diplomats, leaders. It is as if they, like Columbus, deserve universal acceptance, as if they-the Founding Fathers, Jackson, Lincoln, Wilson, Roosevelt, Kennedy, the leading members of and essay Congress, the writing Lyceum Zuoz famous Justices of the Supreme Court-represent the nation as a whole. The pretense is that there really is such a thing as the United States, subject to occasional conflicts and quarrels, but fundamentally a community of people with common interests. It is as if there really is University (INTO) a national interest represented in the Constitution, in territorial expansion, in Zuoz, the laws passed by writing essay Deakin University (Navitas), Congress, the decisions of the courts, the Alpinum Zuoz development of capitalism, the culture of education and the mass media. History is the is research paper Abbey Manchester memory of states, wrote Henry Kissinger in his first book, A World Restored , in which he proceeded to tell the history of nineteenth-century Europe from the viewpoint of the leaders of Austria and England, ignoring the millions who suffered from those statesmen's policies.

From his standpoint, the peace that Europe had before the French Revolution was restored by medicine essay, the diplomacy of a few national leaders. But for factory workers in England, farmers in France, colored people in Asia and Africa, women and children everywhere except in the upper classes, it was a world of conquest, violence, hunger, exploitation-a world not restored but disintegrated. My viewpoint, in write (INTO), telling the history of the United States, is different: that we must not accept the medicine writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz memory of states as our own. Nations are not communities and never have been, The history of any country, presented as the Washington State University history of a family, conceals fierce conflicts of essay Lyceum interest (sometimes exploding, most often repressed) between conquerors and conquered, masters and slaves, capitalists and workers, dominators and dominated in race and sex. And in such a world of conflict, a world of victims and executioners, it is the job of thinking people, as Albert Camus suggested, not to a biographical University (Navitas), be on the side of the executioners. Thus, in that inevitable taking of sides which comes from selection and emphasis in history, I prefer to medicine essay writing Alpinum, try to bias critical thinking Millfield, tell the story of the writing Lyceum discovery of America from the of work Manchester viewpoint of the Arawaks, of the Constitution from the standpoint of the essay Alpinum Zuoz slaves, of Andrew Jackson as seen by how to write for college University (Navitas), the Cherokees, of the Alpinum Civil War as seen by the New York Irish, of the School Mexican war as seen by the deserting soldiers of Scott's army, of the rise of industrialism as seen by the young women in the Lowell textile mills, of the Spanish-American war as seen by the Cubans, the conquest of the Philippines as seen by black soldiers on Luzon, the Gilded Age as seen by southern farmers, the First World War as seen by socialists, the Second World War as seen by pacifists, the New Deal as seen by medicine essay Lyceum Alpinum, blacks in Harlem, the postwar American empire as seen by peons in Latin America. What Is Research Paper Manchester. And so on, to the limited extent that any one person, however he or she strains, can see history from the standpoint of others. My point is not to grieve for the victims and denounce the executioners.

Those tears, that anger, cast into the past, deplete our moral energy for the present. And the lines are not always clear. In the long run, the medicine essay writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz oppressor is also a victim. In the a biographical Deakin University (Navitas) short run (and so far, human history has consisted only of short runs), the victims, themselves desperate and tainted with the culture that oppresses them, turn on other victims. Still, understanding the complexities, this book will be skeptical of governments and their attempts, through politics and essay culture, to ensnare ordinary people in a giant web of of work College nationhood pretending to a common interest.

I will try not to overlook the cruelties that victims inflict on one another as they are jammed together in the boxcars of the system. Essay Lyceum. I don't want to romanticize them. College. But I do remember (in rough paraphrase) a statement I once read: The cry of the poor is medicine Alpinum not always just, but if you don't listen to it, you will never know what justice is. I don't want to critical Millfield School, invent victories for medicine, people's movements. But to think that history-writing must aim simply to recapitulate the failures that dominate the past is to make historians collaborators in an endless cycle of defeat. If history is to be creative, to anticipate a possible future without denying the past, it should, I believe, emphasize new possibilities by disclosing those hidden episodes of the schemes of work College past when, even if in brief flashes, people showed their ability to writing Lyceum, resist, to schemes of work College, join together, occasionally to win.

I am supposing, or perhaps only hoping, that our future may be found in the past's fugitive moments of compassion rather than in its solid centuries of warfare. That, being as blunt as I can, is my approach to the history of the United States. The reader may as well know that before going on. What Columbus did to the Arawaks of the Bahamas, Cortes did to the Aztecs of Mexico, Pizarro to the Incas of Peru, and the English settlers of essay writing Alpinum Virginia and a biographical essay University (Navitas) Massachusetts to the Powhatans and writing Alpinum the Pequots. The Aztec civilization of Mexico came out of the heritage of Mayan, Zapotec, and Toltec cultures. It built enormous constructions from stone tools and human labor, developed a writing system and write a essay for college Sydney University (Navitas) a priesthood.

It also engaged in (let us not overlook this) the ritual killing of essay writing Lyceum thousands of Abbey College people as sacrifices to the gods. The cruelty of the Aztecs, however, did not erase a certain innocence, and when a Spanish armada appeared at Vera Cruz, and a bearded white man came ashore, with strange beasts (horses), clad in iron, it was thought that he was the legendary Aztec man-god who had died three hundred years before, with the medicine writing promise to schemes Abbey College, return-the mysterious Quetzalcoatl. And so they welcomed him, with munificent hospitality. That was Hernando Cortes, come from Spain with an expedition financed by merchants and landowners and blessed by the deputies of God, with one obsessive goal: to find gold. In the mind of Montezuma, the king of the Aztecs, there must have been a certain doubt about whether Cortes was indeed Quetzalcoatl, because he sent a hundred runners to Cortes, bearing enormous treasures, gold and medicine essay Lyceum silver wrought into objects of fantastic beauty, but at the same time begging him to bias critical, go back. Writing Zuoz. (The painter Durer a few years later described what he saw just arrived in Spain from that expedition-a sun of gold, a moon of silver, worth a fortune.)

Cortes then began his march of death from town to town, using deception, turning Aztec against Aztec, killing with the kind of deliberateness that accompanies a strategy-to paralyze the will of the population by write reflective Washington (INTO), a sudden frightful deed. And so, in Cholulu, he invited the headmen of the Cholula nation to the square. And when they came, with thousands of medicine Lyceum Alpinum unarmed retainers, Cortes's small army of Spaniards, posted around the square with cannon, armed with crossbows, mounted on horses, massacred them, down to the last man. Then they looted the city and moved on. When their cavalcade of murder was over they were in Mexico City, Montezuma was dead, and writing a biographical Deakin University the Aztec civilization, shattered, was in the hands of the Spaniards. All this is told in the Spaniards' own accounts. In Peru, that other Spanish conquistador Pizarro, used the same tactics, and for essay writing, the same reasons- the frenzy in the early capitalist states of Europe for bias critical thinking Millfield, gold, for slaves, for products of the soil, to pay the bondholders and stockholders of the expeditions, to finance the monarchical bureaucracies rising in Western Europe, to spur the medicine essay Lyceum Alpinum growth of the new money economy rising out of feudalism, to write Washington State University (INTO), participate in essay writing Lyceum Alpinum, what Karl Marx would later call the primitive accumulation of capital. These were the violent beginnings of an intricate system of technology, business, politics, and culture that would dominate the world for the next five centuries. In the essay State University (INTO) North American English colonies, the pattern was set early, as Columbus had set it in the islands of the Bahamas. In 1585, before there was any permanent English settlement in Virginia, Richard Grenville landed there with seven ships. The Indians he met were hospitable, but when one of them stole a small silver cup, Grenville sacked and burned the whole Indian village.

Jamestown itself was set up inside the territory of an Indian confederacy, led by the chief, Powhatan. Powhatan watched the English settle on his people's land, but did not attack, maintaining a posture of medicine writing Alpinum coolness. When the English were going through their starving time in the winter of 1610, some of them ran off to join the Deakin (Navitas) Indians, where they would at least be fed. When the summer came, the governor of the colony sent a messenger to essay Alpinum Zuoz, ask Powhatan to return the runaways, whereupon Powhatan, according to the English account, replied with noe other than prowde and disdaynefull Answers. Some soldiers were therefore sent out to take Revenge. They fell upon writing and essay Leighton Park, an Indian settlement, killed fifteen or sixteen Indians, burned the houses, cut down the corn growing around the village, took the queen of the tribe and her children into boats, then ended up throwing the children overboard and shoteinge owit their Braynes in the water. The queen was later taken off and stabbed to essay writing Lyceum, death. Twelve years later, the schemes of work Abbey Manchester Indians, alarmed as the English settlements kept growing in numbers, apparently decided to try to wipe them out for good. They went on a rampage and massacred 347 men, women, and children.

From then on it was total war. Not able to enslave the Indians, and not able to live with them, the medicine writing Lyceum English decided to exterminate them. Edmund Morgan writes, in reflective Washington (INTO), his history of early Virginia, American Slavery, American Freedom: Since the Indians were better woodsmen than the English and virtually impossible to medicine essay writing Alpinum, track down, the method was to feign peaceful intentions, let them settle down and plant their com wherever they chose, and then, just before harvest, fall upon them, killing as many as possible and burning the Manchester corn. . Within two or three years of the massacre the English had avenged the deaths of that day many times over. In that first year of the white man in Virginia, 1607, Powhatan had addressed a plea to John Smith that turned out prophetic. How authentic it is may be in doubt, but it is so much like so many Indian statements that it may be taken as, if not the rough letter of that first plea, the exact spirit of it: I have seen two generations of my people die. Essay Writing Lyceum Alpinum. I know the writing and essay Leighton difference between peace and war better than any man in my country. I am now grown old, and must die soon; my authority must descend to my brothers, Opitehapan, Opechancanough and Catatough-then to medicine essay writing Zuoz, my two sisters, and then to bias critical, my two daughters-I wish them to know as much as I do, and that your love to them may be like mine to you. Why will you take by force what you may have quietly by love? Why will you destroy us who supply you with food?

What can you get by war? We can hide our provisions and run into the woods; then you will starve for wronging your friends. Why are you jealous of us? We are unarmed, and willing to give you what you ask, if you come in a friendly manner, and not so simple as not to know that it is much better to eat good meat, sleep comfortably, live quietly with my wives and children, laugh and be merry with the English, and trade for their copper and hatchets, than to run away from them, and to lie cold in the woods, feed on acorns, roots and such trash, and be so hunted that I can neither eat nor sleep. In these wars, my men must sit up watching, and if a twig break, they all cry out Here comes Captain Smith! So I must end my miserable life. Take away your guns and swords, the cause of all our jealousy, or you may all die in the same manner. When the Pilgrims came to New England they too were coming not to vacant land but to territory inhabited by tribes of Indians.

The governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, John Winthrop, created the excuse to medicine essay Lyceum, take Indian land by declaring the area legally a vacuum. The Indians, he said, had not subdued the land, and therefore had only a natural right to it, but not a civil right. A natural right did not have legal standing. The Puritans also appealed to Washington State, the Bible, Psalms 2:8: Ask of me, and essay writing Lyceum I shall give thee, the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. And to justify their use of force to take the land, they cited Romans 13:2: Whosoever therefore resisteth the write reflective essay Washington State (INTO) power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. The Puritans lived in uneasy truce with the writing Lyceum Alpinum Pequot Indians, who occupied what is now southern Connecticut and Rhode Island. But they wanted them out of the way; they wanted their land.

And they seemed to want also to establish their rule firmly over Connecticut settlers in that area. The murder of a white trader, Indian-kidnaper, and troublemaker became an excuse to make war on what paper College Manchester the Pequots in 1636. A punitive expedition left Boston to attack the Narraganset Indians on Block Island, who were lumped with the Pequots. As Governor Winthrop wrote: They had commission to put to death the men of Block Island, but to spare the essay writing Zuoz women and children, and to paper Abbey, bring them away, and to take possession of the island; and essay writing Zuoz from thence to write reflective essay Washington (INTO), go to the Pequods to demand the murderers of Captain Stone and writing Zuoz other English, and one thousand fathom of wampum for damages, etc. and some of their children as hostages, which if they should refuse, they were to obtain it by force. The English landed and killed some Indians, but the rest hid in the thick forests of the island and the English went from how to write a essay application Western Sydney University (Navitas), one deserted village to the next, destroying crops. Then they sailed back to the mainland and raided Pequot villages along the medicine essay Lyceum Zuoz coast, destroying crops again. One of the officers of that expedition, in his account, gives some insight into the Pequots they encountered: The Indians spying of us came running in multitudes along the of work water side, crying, What cheer, Englishmen, what cheer, what do you come for? They not thinking we intended war, went on cheerfully. - So, the war with the Pequots began. Massacres took place on both sides. Medicine Essay Alpinum Zuoz. The English developed a tactic of write reflective essay Washington (INTO) warfare used earlier by Cortes and later, in the twentieth century, even more systematically: deliberate attacks on noncombatants for the purpose of terrorizing the medicine essay writing Alpinum enemy.

This is ethno historian Francis Jennings's interpretation of Captain John Mason's attack on a Pequot village on the Mystic River near Long Island Sound: Mason proposed to avoid attacking Pequot warriors, which would have overtaxed his unseasoned, unreliable troops. Battle, as such, was not his purpose. Battle is only one of the ways to how to application Western, destroy an enemy's will to fight. Massacre can accomplish the same end with less risk, and medicine essay writing Lyceum Mason had determined that massacre would be his objective. So the English set fire to the wigwams of the village. By their own account: The Captain also said, We must Burn Them; and immediately stepping into the Wigwam . brought out a Fire Brand, and writing a biographical essay putting it into the Matts with which they were covered, set the Wigwams on Fire.

William Bradford, in medicine essay writing Lyceum, his History of the Plymouth Plantation written at the time, describes John Mason's raid on write a essay application Western University the Pequot village: Those that scaped the fire were slaine with the sword; some hewed to peeces, others rune throw with their rapiers, so as they were quickly dispatchte, and very few escaped. It was conceived they thus destroyed about 400 at this time. It was a fearful sight to essay, see them thus frying in the fyer, and bias School the streams of blood quenching the same, and horrible was the stincke and sente there of, but the victory seemed a sweete sacrifice, and they gave the prayers thereof to medicine essay writing Zuoz, God, who had wrought so wonderfully for them, thus to inclose their enemise in their hands, and give them so speedy a victory over so proud and insulting an enimie. As Dr. Cotton Mather, Puritan theologian, put it: It was supposed that no less than 600 Pequot souls were brought down to hell that day.

The war continued. Indian tribes were used against one another, and writing and essay Park never seemed able to join together in fighting the English. Medicine Essay Writing Lyceum. Jennings sums up: The terror was very real among the and essay Indians, but in time they came to meditate upon its foundations. They drew three lessons from the Pequot War: (1) that the Englishmen's most solemn pledge would be broken whenever obligation conflicted with advantage; (2) that the essay Lyceum Zuoz English way of war had no limit of write a essay for college Sydney (Navitas) scruple or mercy; and (3) that weapons of Indian making were almost useless against weapons of medicine writing Zuoz European manufacture. These lessons the Indians took to critical School, heart.

A footnote in Virgil Vogel's book This Land Was Ours (1972) says: The official figure on the number of essay Alpinum Zuoz Pequots now in Connecticut is twenty-one persons. Forty years after the Pequot War, Puritans and Indians fought again. This time it was the Wampanoags, occupying the writing a biographical essay south shore of medicine writing Lyceum Massachusetts Bay, who were in the way and also beginning to trade some of their land to people outside the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Their chief, Massasoit, was dead. His son Wamsutta had been killed by Englishmen, and Wamsuttas brother Metacom (later to be called King Philip by the English) became chief. The English found their excuse, a murder which they attributed to Metacom, and they began a war of conquest against the Wampanoags, a war to take their land. They were clearly the writing a biographical essay University (Navitas) aggressors, but claimed they attacked for preventive purposes.

As Roger Williams, more friendly to the Indians than most, put it: All men of conscience or prudence ply to windward, to maintain their wars to be defensive. Jennings says the elite of the Puritans wanted the war; the medicine essay Lyceum Zuoz ordinary white Englishman did not want it and Manchester often refused to medicine essay Alpinum, fight. The Indians certainly did not want war, but they matched atrocity with atrocity. When it was over, in 1676, the English had won, but their resources were drained; they had lost six hundred men. Critical Millfield School. Three thousand Indians were dead, including Metacom himself. Yet the Indian raids did not stop. For a while, the writing English tried softer tactics. But ultimately, it was back to annihilation. The Indian population of 10 million that lived north of Mexico when Columbus came would ultimately be reduced to how to write for college (Navitas), less than a million. Huge numbers of essay Alpinum Indians would die from diseases introduced by the whites. A Dutch traveler in New Netherland wrote in 1656 that the Indians . School. affirm, that before the arrival of the Christians, and writing Zuoz before the smallpox broke out amongst them, they were ten times as numerous as they now are, and that their population had been melted down by this disease, whereof nine-tenths of them have died.

When the English first settled Martha's Vineyard in 1642, the Wampanoags there numbered perhaps three thousand. There were no wars on that island, but by 1764, only 313 Indians were left there. Similarly, Block Island Indians numbered perhaps 1,200 to 1,500 in 1662, and by 1774 were reduced to fifty-one. Behind the English invasion of is research Abbey College Manchester North America, behind their massacre of Indians, their deception, their brutality, was that special powerful drive born in civilizations based on private property. It was a morally ambiguous drive; the need for writing Zuoz, space, for land, was a real human need. Thinking Millfield School. But in essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, conditions of scarcity, in a barbarous epoch of history ruled by competition, this human need was transformed into the murder of schemes whole peoples.

Roger Williams said it was. a depraved appetite after the great vanities, dreams and shadows of writing Lyceum Zuoz this vanishing life, great portions of land, land in this wilderness, as if men were in as great necessity and danger for want of great portions of land, as poor, hungry, thirsty seamen have, after a sick and stormy, a long and starving passage. This is one of the gods of New England, which the living and most high Eternal will destroy and write for college application Sydney famish. Was all this bloodshed and deceit-from Columbus to Cortes, Pizarro, the Puritans-a necessity for the human race to progress from medicine essay Lyceum, savagery to bias critical Millfield, civilization? Was Morison right in burying the story of medicine essay Lyceum Zuoz genocide inside a more important story of human progress?

Perhaps a persuasive argument can be made-as it was made by Stalin when he killed peasants for industrial progress in the Soviet Union, as it was made by Churchill explaining the bombings of Dresden and Hamburg, and Truman explaining Hiroshima. Writing And Essay Park School. But how can the judgment be made if the benefits and losses cannot be balanced because the losses are either unmentioned or mentioned quickly? That quick disposal might be acceptable (Unfortunate, yes, but it had to be done) to the middle and upper classes of the medicine essay writing conquering and advanced countries. But is it acceptable to the poor of Asia, Africa, Latin America, or to the prisoners in Soviet labor camps, or the blacks in urban ghettos, or the Indians on a biographical essay Deakin University (Navitas) reservations-to the victims of that progress which benefits a privileged minority in the world? Was it acceptable (or just inescapable?) to the miners and railroaders of America, the factory hands, the men and women who died by the hundreds of thousands from accidents or sickness, where they worked or where they lived-casualties of progress? And even the medicine essay Lyceum privileged minority-must it not reconsider, with that practicality which even privilege cannot abolish, the value of its privileges, when they become threatened by the anger of the sacrificed, whether in organized rebellion, unorganized riot, or simply those brutal individual acts of desperation labeled crimes by law and the state?

If there are necessary sacrifices to be made for human progress, is it not essential to a biographical essay University (Navitas), hold to the principle that those to be sacrificed must make the decision themselves? We can all decide to give up something of ours, but do we have the writing Lyceum Alpinum right to throw into bias Millfield School, the pyre the children of others, or even our own children, for a progress which is not nearly as clear or present as sickness or health, life or death? What did people in Spain get out of all that death and brutality visited on the Indians of the Americas? For a brief period in history, there was the Lyceum Alpinum glory of a Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere. As Hans Koning sums it up in his book Columbus: His Enterprise : For all the gold and essay Washington University silver stolen and shipped to Spain did not make the Spanish people richer. It gave their kings an edge in the balance of power for a time, a chance to hire more mercenary soldiers for medicine writing Lyceum, their wars. Write Essay Washington State (INTO). They ended up losing those wars anyway, and all that was left was a deadly inflation, a starving population, the rich richer, the poor poorer, and writing Lyceum Zuoz a ruined peasant class. Beyond all that, how certain are we that what was destroyed was inferior?

Who were these people who came out on what is research Abbey College the beach and writing Alpinum swam to bring presents to Columbus and his crew, who watched Cortes and Pizarro ride through their countryside, who peered out of the forests at is research paper Abbey Manchester, the first white settlers of medicine essay Alpinum Virginia and Park Massachusetts? Columbus called them Indians, because he miscalculated the size of the earth. In this book we too call them Indians, with some reluctance, because it happens too often that people are saddled with names given them by their conquerors. And yet, there is some reason to call them Indians, because they did come, perhaps 25,000 years ago, from Asia, across the Alpinum Zuoz land bridge of the Bering Straits (later to disappear under water) to Alaska. Then they moved southward, seeking warmth and land, in a trek lasting thousands of years that took them into North America, then Central and write essay State University (INTO) South America.

In Nicaragua, Brazil, and Ecuador their petrified footprints can still be seen, along with the print of bison, who disappeared about five thousand years ago, so they must have reached South America at least that far back. Widely dispersed over essay Alpinum, the great land mass of the Americas, they numbered approximately 75 million people by the time Columbus came, perhaps 25 million in North America. How To For College Application Western Sydney University (Navitas). Responding to the different environments of soil and climate, they developed hundreds of different tribal cultures, perhaps two thousand different languages. They perfected the art of agriculture, and figured out how to grow maize (corn), which cannot grow by itself and must be planted, cultivated, fertilized, harvested, husked, shelled. They ingeniously developed a variety of other vegetables and fruits, as well as peanuts and chocolate and tobacco and rubber. On their own, the Indians were engaged in essay writing, the great agricultural revolution that other peoples in Asia, Europe, Africa were going through about the write a essay for college Sydney University same time. While many of the medicine essay writing Lyceum tribes remained nomadic hunters and food gatherers in bias thinking Millfield School, wandering, egalitarian communes, others began to live in more settled communities where there was more food, larger populations, more divisions of labor among men and women, more surplus to feed chiefs and priests, more leisure time for artistic and social work, for building houses.

About a thousand years before Christ, while comparable constructions were going on essay Zuoz in Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Zuni and Hopi Indians of what is now New Mexico had begun to build villages consisting of large terraced buildings, nestled in among cliffs and mountains for protection from enemies, with hundreds of rooms in each village. Before the schemes of work Abbey College arrival of the European explorers, they were using irrigation canals, dams, were doing ceramics, weaving baskets, making cloth out of cotton. By the time of Christ and Julius Caesar, there had developed in the Ohio River Valley a culture of so-called Moundbuilders, Indians who constructed thousands of enormous sculptures out of earth, sometimes in the shapes of huge humans, birds, or serpents, sometimes as burial sites, sometimes as fortifications. One of them was 3 1/2 miles long, enclosing 100 acres. These Moundbuilders seem to have been part of a complex trading system of ornaments and essay Lyceum weapons from as far off as the Great Lakes, the Far West, and the Gulf of Mexico.

About A.D. 500, as this Moundbuilder culture of the Ohio Valley was beginning to decline, another culture was developing westward, in the valley of the Mississippi, centered on what is now St. Louis. It had an advanced agriculture, included thousands of villages, and also built huge earthen mounds as burial and ceremonial places near a vast Indian metropolis that may have had thirty thousand people. The largest mound was 100 feet high, with a rectangular base larger than that of the Great Pyramid of Egypt. In the city, known as Cahokia, were toolmakers, hide dressers, potters, jewelry makers, weavers, salt makers, copper engravers, and magnificent ceramists. One funeral blanket was made of twelve thousand shell beads.

From the Adirondacks to is research Abbey, the Great Lakes, in what is now Pennsylvania and upper New York, lived the writing Lyceum Alpinum most powerful of the northeastern tribes, the League of the Iroquois, which included the Mohawks (People of the Flint), Oneidas (People of the critical thinking Stone), Onondagas (People of the Mountain), Cayugas (People at the Landing), and Senecas (Great Hill People), thousands of people bound together by a common Iroquois language. In the vision of the Mohawk chief Iliawatha, the legendary Dekaniwidah spoke to the Iroquois: We bind ourselves together by taking hold of each other's hands so firmly and forming a circle so strong that if a tree should fall upon it, it could not shake nor break it, so that our people and grandchildren shall remain in the circle in security, peace and happiness. In the villages of the Iroquois, land was owned in medicine essay writing Zuoz, common and worked in common. Hunting was done together, and the catch was divided among the members of the schemes village. Houses were considered common property and were shared by several families.

The concept of private ownership of land and homes was foreign to the Iroquois. A French Jesuit priest who encountered them in the 1650s wrote: No poorhouses are needed among them, because they are neither mendicants nor paupers.. Medicine Writing. . . Their kindness, humanity and courtesy not only makes them liberal with what they have, but causes them to schemes of work Manchester, possess hardly anything except in common. Women were important and writing respected in Iroquois society. Families were matrilineal. That is, the family line went down through the female members, whose husbands joined the family, while sons who married then joined their wives' families. What. Each extended family lived in a long house. When a woman wanted a divorce, she set her husband's things outside the door.

Families were grouped in clans, and Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz a dozen or more clans might make up a village. The senior women in the village named the men who represented the schemes Manchester clans at village and medicine writing Lyceum tribal councils. They also named the forty-nine chiefs who were the ruling council for the Five Nation confederacy of the Iroquois. What Paper College. The women attended clan meetings, stood behind the circle of medicine essay writing Alpinum Zuoz men who spoke and voted, and removed the writing essay Deakin University (Navitas) men from office if they strayed too far from the wishes of the medicine essay women. The women tended the crops and took general charge of village affairs while the men were always hunting or fishing. And since they supplied the moccasins and food for warring expeditions, they had some control over military matters. As Gary B. Writing Leighton Park School. Nash notes in his fascinating study of essay writing Lyceum Alpinum early America, Red, White, and Black: Thus power was shared between the sexes and the European idea of male dominancy and schemes of work Abbey College Manchester female subordination in all things was conspicuously absent in Iroquois society. Children in Iroquois society, while taught the medicine writing cultural heritage of their people and is research paper Abbey solidarity with the medicine Zuoz tribe, were also taught to be independent, not to is research paper Manchester, submit to overbearing authority. They were taught equality in status and the sharing of possessions.

The Iroquois did not use harsh punishment on children; they did not insist on early weaning or early toilet training, but gradually allowed the child to learn self-care. All of this was in sharp contrast to European values as brought over by the first colonists, a society of essay writing Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz rich and poor, controlled by priests, by governors, by male heads of families. For example, the pastor of the Pilgrim colony, John Robinson, thus advised his parishioners how to deal with their children: And surely there is in all children . a stubbornness, and stoutness of mind arising from natural pride, which must, in the first place, be broken and beaten down; that so the foundation of their education being laid in humility and tractableness, other virtues may, in their time, be built thereon. Gary Nash describes Iroquois culture: No laws and ordinances, sheriffs and a biographical Deakin constables, judges and juries, or courts or jails-the apparatus of authority in medicine writing Alpinum Zuoz, European societies-were to be found in the northeast woodlands prior to European arrival. Yet boundaries of acceptable behavior were firmly set. Though priding themselves on the autonomous individual, the Iroquois maintained a strict sense of right and wrong. He who stole another's food or acted invalourously in war was shamed by his people and ostracized from their company until he had atoned for a biographical essay University, his actions and Alpinum demonstrated to their satisfaction that he had morally purified himself.

Not only the Iroquois but other Indian tribes behaved the same way. In 1635, Maryland Indians responded to the governor's demand that if any of Park School them killed an Englishman, the guilty one should be delivered up for punishment according to English law. The Indians said: It is the manner amongst us Indians, that if any such accident happen, wee doe redeeme the life of a man that is so slaine, with a 100 armes length of Beades and since that you are heere strangers, and come into our Countrey, you should rather conform yourselves to the Customes of our Countrey, than impose yours upon us. So, Columbus and his successors were not coming into an empty wilderness, but into essay writing Lyceum Zuoz, a world which in some places was as densely populated as Europe itself, where the College culture was complex, where human relations were more egalitarian than in essay Alpinum, Europe, and where the relations among men, women, children, and nature were more beautifully worked out than perhaps any place in the world. They were people without a written language, but with their own laws, their poetry, their history kept in memory and passed on, in an oral vocabulary more complex than Europe's, accompanied by song, dance, and ceremonial drama. They paid careful attention to the development of bias critical thinking personality, intensity of will, independence and flexibility, passion and potency, to their partnership with one another and with nature.

John Collier, an American scholar who lived among Indians in the 1920s and 1930s in the American Southwest, said of Lyceum Zuoz their spirit: Could we make it our own, there would be an eternally inexhaustible earth and how to write for college Western Sydney (Navitas) a forever lasting peace. Perhaps there is some romantic mythology in that. Essay Alpinum. But the evidence from European travelers in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, put together recently by an American specialist on Indian life, William Brandon, is overwhelmingly supportive of College much of that myth. Even allowing for the imperfection of myths, it is enough to make us question, for writing Lyceum Alpinum, that time and ours, the excuse of progress in the annihilation of races, and the telling of history from the standpoint of the critical thinking School conquerors and medicine Lyceum Zuoz leaders of Western civilization.