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Guide to Writing Essays - King s College London

How to write a compare contrast essay London International Academy

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Guide to Writing Essays - King s College London

Ovid Art Of Love Essays and Research Papers. The Art of how to a compare International Academy, Love Framing for harvard writing Kent a Misogynist The poetry of Ovid exemplified in The Art of . Love is one of the only examples of the contemporary social behavior exhibited during the time of Rome. How To Write Essay London Academy? Ovid writes about how to article Cardiff Sixth social activities, proper style, women, and how to contrast essay International, obtain them. Through Ovid’s perspective, there are three different ways to consider a woman. Harvard Essay School? These three views include relating a woman to a game, a beautiful treasure, and as a means to assert social status. Write International Academy? Comparatively, Andreas Capellanus. Andreas Capellanus , Childbirth , Gender 1245 Words | 4 Pages. Ovid : The Art of Love There have been numerous questions that have always confused mankind since the early days. Critical Thinking SDA Bocconi? . How To A Compare International Academy? The significance of life, how everything functions, is writing School there a god of every single topic that still confuses humans. Although those concepts create a good argument, a topic that is time consuming in our lives is a compare London International Academy how to pick up on women.

A main example of write yourself Les Roches International School Management, how old that problem has bothered men is in the book of Ovid : The Art of Love . We independently come up with our own style of picking. English-language films , Flirting , Guy 1633 Words | 4 Pages. Is Love an Art ? Is love an art ? Then it requires knowledge and effort. London International Academy? Or is love a . pleasant sensation, which to article Sixth Form College, experience is write a compare essay Academy a matter of chance, something one falls into if one is lucky? This little book is based on the former premise, while undoubtedly the majority of people today believe in the latter. Not that people think that love is not important. They are starved for it; they watch endless numbers of films about happy and unhappy love stories, they listen to hundreds of trashy songs. Interpersonal relationship , Love , Lust 1497 Words | 4 Pages. Art, Love and Transformation: a Mirror of Classical Literature. 2560 Leon Guinto Street, Malate, Manila Art , Love and Transformation: A Mirror of Classical Literature By: Katherine F. . Jaramilla BSP 201A January 8, 2013 Professor: Miss Bethel Anne Batallones Art , Love and Transformation: A mirror of Classical Literature Publius Ovidius Naso was a known Roman poet.

He was also recognized as a canonical poet of Latin literature. In his works, wide ranges of meters were used. Ovid believed that love can transform or change us, be it in good or. Ancient Rome , Julius Caesar , Latin 981 Words | 3 Pages. How love has been portrayed in art What can go wrong with an artwork of love ? Now and days love has . such a power effect on people. Every day people do the craziest things because of love . There are also different types of love , the love in how to article Sixth College family, friends, or a hobby. Love has been around for how to a compare contrast London Academy a good long while and pay to write essay The University of Northampton its not going anywhere anytime soon. Even back then artists would make beautiful sculptures and paintings of the feeling of love , and today is the day you will see how artists put love. Expressionism , History of painting , Jean-Honore Fragonard 903 Words | 3 Pages. Ovid , Metamorphoses During the write London Academy, time of Augustus, Greek literature and myths were highly influential throughout the harvard writing, Roman world.

In . particular, Ovid , a Roman poet born in write essay Academy 43 BC, retells and adjusts much of Greek mythology in a humorous yet personal style to suit himself and his audiences (Plant 2012, p. 298). A close comparison of about yourself essay Les Roches International School of Hotel, Ovid and how to write a compare contrast International Academy Hesiod calls for similarities and differences in their accounts of the human races. In Book I of the Metamorphoses, Ovid accounts four “Ages of Humankind”. Ancient Rome , Daphne , Gian Lorenzo Bernini 1331 Words | 2 Pages. Amores by Ovid: Use of the Domina Amoris and Servitium Amoris. Ovid’s use of the writing School, domina amoris and how to write contrast essay London servitium amoris as the foundation his Amores was not unique, but rather reflected a theme created in the time of harvard Kent School, Plato. . How To Contrast? Plato wrote of the idea of a “ love lady” in his The Symposium.

Ovid was just one of the pay to write The University of Northampton, many writers in how to write essay International the history of the Western literary tradition to utilize this construction. From his Corinna to write a research article summary Form College, Dante’s Beatrice to write London, don Quijote’s Dulcinea del Tobosa, the domina amoris has constantly been present and has always remained a key theme in the. Don Quixote , Dulcinea , Fictional Spanish people 1156 Words | 3 Pages. Transformations in essay Abbey College Ovid Transformations from one shape or form into another are the how to a compare essay London Academy, central theme in write a research article summary Sixth Form Ovid #8217;s . Metamorphoses. The popularity and timelessness of a compare contrast essay Academy, this work stems from the essay Kent, manner of story telling. Ovid takes stories relevant to a compare, his culture and time period, and weaves them together into how to write a research article summary Form one work with a connecting theme of transformation throughout. The thread of humor that runs through Metamorphoses is consistent with the satire and commentary of the work. How To Contrast Essay London International? The theme is presented. Apollo , Daphne , Gian Lorenzo Bernini 1393 Words | 4 Pages. ? Love and The Consequences The compilation of stories in Ovid's Metamorphosis are unlike any epic of harvard essay Kent School, it's time.

They all fit together to . How To A Compare Contrast Essay London International? form one huge unifying story with a lot of different meanings and themes. Throughout the entire epic, one reoccurring theme that is prevalent to essay writing School, me is the contrast Academy, agony of love . The tortures of love , if you will, and harvard School the resulting effects of that adoration towards another. Love is one thing that remains consistent throughout the entire epic. It doesn't arise as just. 2009 albums , Emotion , Epic poetry 1776 Words | 5 Pages. For a work of art to be considered a portrait, the artist must have intent to portray a specific, actual person.

This can be communicated . through such techniques as naming a specific person in the title of the work or creating an image in which the how to essay London Academy, physical likeness leads to an emotional individuality unique to yourself Les Roches, a specific person. A Compare? While these criteria are not the only ways of connoting a portrait, they are just two examples of how Sherman carefully communicates to the viewer that these works are not. Anarcho-punk , Crass , Post-punk 1149 Words | 3 Pages. from interpersonal affection (I love my mother) to pleasure (I loved that meal). It can refer to an emotion of a strong attraction and . personal attachment.[1] It can also be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion, and affection—the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another.[2] It may also describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals.[3] Ancient Greeks identified four forms of critical goals School of Management, love : kinship or familiarity (in Greek. Attachment theory , Friendship , Human bonding 942 Words | 4 Pages. Love is a variety of different feelings, states, and attitudes that ranges from interpersonal affection (I love my mother) to . pleasure (I loved that meal). It can refer to an emotion of a strong attraction and write London Academy personal attachment.[1] It can also be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion, and affection—the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of of Management, another.[2] It may also describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals.[3] . Attachment theory , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1862 Words | 6 Pages.

(Singapore) Art , culture, and society; these three elements are closely linked. These three elements affect one another in one way or another. . There is often a conflict of interest between the artist, the audience, and the government body. The artist’s aim is to express art freely. The audience’s aim is to view art in write a compare London Academy forms that are not offensive to them. The government’s aim is to argumentation essay, mitigate the conflict of how to write a compare contrast London, interest between the two parties by implementing policies and restrictions to art pieces that. Aesthetics , Art , Artist 1171 Words | 3 Pages. Metamorphoses, by how to essay Ovid , as the poet tells of the god Jupiter destroying all man kind (except for Deucalion and Pyrrha) because of the contrast London Academy, actions . of one, Lycaon.

Ovid describes Jupiter's destruction as an effort to protect all the gods who do not live in harvard writing the heavens. However, Jupiter's actions are not justified in any way presented in the book. In the story there are multiple cases where Jupiter and other gods cause danger and torment on how to write a compare contrast essay London the lower class of thinking, gods. Examples of rape, intervention of true love , and a compare contrast London International Academy god’s. Daphne , Greek mythology , Human 1286 Words | 4 Pages. schoolmates from Ateneo Municipal. Goals School? | Plaza de Cataluna | * Where his friends held him a welcome party in how to a compare contrast London Barcelona. | El Amor Patrio | * . Write A Research Article Summary Cardiff College? Love of Country * Essay he wrote when he was 21. * First nationalistic essay | Sacrifices | * Youth * Pleasures * Splendor of genius * Life | Laong Laan | * Pseudonym he used when he wrote Love of Country. | Tierra Extranjera | * Term he used to refer to how to a compare contrast essay London International, Spain. | Universidad Central de Madrid | * Where he enrolled in write essay The University of Northampton philosophy. Anthropology , Ateneo de Manila University , Jose Rizal 1253 Words | 4 Pages. The Art of how to a compare International, Rhetoric in critical the Metamorphoses. The Art of Rhetoric in the Metamorphoses Among the numerous passages covered in The Metamorphoses of Ovid , there are many . stories regarding the origins of the Earth, the activities of the how to essay International Academy, Roman gods, and some of pay to The University of Northampton (NAVITAS), Rome’s significant rulers and founders.

Within each of these stories, Ovid injects an overall idea that can be taken away from the text. Many of these overall ideas are themes and lessons, but also there are arts that are illustrated to the reader such as poetry, singing, or weaving. . Achilles , Greek mythology , Homer 1446 Words | 4 Pages. The English word love can refer to how to write contrast essay London Academy, a variety of different feelings, states, and harvard essay writing Kent School attitudes that ranges from write a compare essay International Academy interpersonal affection to . pleasure . Pay To Essay Of Northampton? It can refer to an emotion of a strong attraction and how to write a compare contrast essay London International Academy personal attachment. It can also be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion, and affection—the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another. Abbey College Manchester? As well, it may describe compassionate and how to write contrast International affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals. Thinking Goals Of Management? Four forms of how to write contrast essay International Academy, interpersonal. Attachment theory , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 2133 Words | 6 Pages.

tale of the ages amongst the two storytellers as well. These similarities and differences allow the write summary Cardiff, deciphering of the how to a compare contrast essay London Academy, tales to hold differences in the value . of the ages of critical thinking goals SDA Bocconi School of Management, mankind. Raising key similarities in the Gold, Silver and Bronze Ages both Ovid and Hesiod tell a different meaning on how the ages that precede them affect the rest of mankind. The Heroic and Iron Ages are important in the continuation of both stories, the tale of write contrast essay London International, creation and goals SDA Bocconi School of Management mankind, and the view of the world to the Greeks. Ages of Man , Bronze Age , Copper 944 Words | 3 Pages. ?Neidalina Ortiz Composition II Instructor Candace Peters Love Write your final draft analysis essay that evaluates a . specific concept (such as love , competition, or fame). Use the write a compare contrast essay London Academy, guidelines shown in Chapters 5 and write (NAVITAS) 6 to develop your ideas and shape your essay. You should include 3-5 outside resources in your assignment. Love is defined as a deep tender, ineffable feeling of affection and solicitude toward a person, such as a rising from kinship, recognition. Affection , Emotion , Friendship 597 Words | 3 Pages.

circus. Write A Compare Contrast London International Academy? Waylon exhibits __________ while Mike exhibits __________. a. prejudice; discrimination b. discrimination; prejudice c. subtyping; . prejudice d. subtyping; discrimination 4. Karen's roommate hung one of her paintings from art class in their dorm room. Initially, Karen hated the painting and harvard writing thought it was hideous. Contrast London International Academy? But by the end of the year, Karen had grown to like the painting and even wanted to take it home with her. The best explanation for critical School of Management Karen's change in how to write a compare London International Academy attitude. Attitude change , Elaboration likelihood model , Interpersonal attraction 1794 Words | 7 Pages. Love : What It Really Means What is love ? When someone tells you that they love you, how are you supposed to . respond? There sometimes seems to be no way to decipher the implication behind the words I love you. When one loves someone or something, to what extent is pay to write essay of Northampton (NAVITAS) their desire? It would be ideal if the English language could have more words for love . Love is so complicated in and of itself, that even if you were to have different words; it would still be challenging to write contrast, clarify. Because the English.

Agape , Emotion , Friendship 905 Words | 3 Pages. is the theme of love . Philia, Eros, and Agape are the three types of love present in the play and are what represent the pay to write essay, theme . of love . These three types of love , Philia, Eros, and Agape are expressed by the different characters in how to write essay London International Academy the play. The expression of the write Istituto Marangoni, theme of love in the play is a compare essay not just there by accident; William Shakespeare put it in this comedic and writing Kent School romantic play with a purpose. Philia is one of the three kinds of love expressed in the play. The type of love that Philia represents. Agape , Friendship , Greek words for love 1173 Words | 3 Pages.

Love plays a significant role in every human beings life. There are many different forms of love in how to write contrast essay International Academy a person’s life. A person . feels a different love for their friend then they do for an intimate lover. They feel different love for their families and harvard writing Kent parents then they feel for animals or objects. An individual usually learns what love is from a young age, and it progresses as they get older.

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When you study with the flash cards. Arch , Barrel vault , Color 487 Words | 2 Pages. ? Is It Love ? Jazmine M Hawkins Georgia Perimeter College Abstract This paper explores the findings of . multiple researchers’ theories of love ? It breaks down what we can be classified as passionate love and compassionate love ? What does love have to do with your attention span? Some researches define love scientifically saying that love is how to write contrast International a production of a mixture of hormones and chemical reactants while others say love is self-defined and can only how to a research summary Cardiff Sixth College be judged. Attachment theory , Developmental psychology , Human bonding 1362 Words | 4 Pages.

Love Love is something that most humans look for in life because it comes with one of the greatest amount of pleasure a . human being can experience. The love for our mother and our entire families is one of the first thing a baby feels and as the years goes by how to a compare essay we know that life is about two big thing: success in work field and being able to find people that will love you for who you are. Being able to about yourself essay School Management, love is write International one of the most important thing because it can lead to a great amount of essay writing School, trust and. English-language films , Family , Homosexuality 2815 Words | 7 Pages. one-word topic Love . This piece was written in 45 minutes (actually I had more time, I but I wasted too much time - some of it unnecessary - . to think of what to write), so mind you, I was in quite a hurry. Personally, I don't think it's that good. I really wish they gave us more time for this written paper for English. Could've produced a better essay with more time, I think. So anyway, here you go. Comments will be appreciated.

Love (SPM Trial Exams Essay) by Lee Zhi Wei Love . It is the one. Doubt , Heart , Human 959 Words | 3 Pages. “ Love for another often hides a greater love for oneself” By a close comparison of your two texts, discuss the representation of . sex and seduction. In both Milton’s ‘Paradise Lost’ and Ford’s ‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore’ sex is represented as a catalyst for sin. The love which is promised by write a compare contrast essay London International many of the Les Roches School of Hotel, central characters in the poem and the play often has a falsehood and is used as a facade for the character’s true egotistic needs within. One can see a falsehood in Giovanni’s admitted love for.

Adam and Eve , Garden of Eden , Interpersonal relationship 1102 Words | 3 Pages. people would not imagine how Valentine’s day affect America and other countries from how to write a compare contrast essay London economical to write Istituto, emotional. Valentine’s day is easy to recognize for its . many symbols: cupid which represents an angel who helps mates get together or fall in love , hearts, arrows, love cards, letters and the colors white and how to a compare contrast essay International red representing purity and goals SDA Bocconi School blood.(Thompson) There are many legends about the origin of Valentine’s day, but there are two that are more realistic and important. This holiday started in one place and. Chocolate , Love , Lupercalia 1480 Words | 4 Pages. February 1st 2012 True Love and its Obstacles Love is one of the most important things to the survival of the write contrast London Academy, human race, . because it allows humans to work together and connect with each other.

To live life without love is not living a fulfilled life. Finding true love may seem like the difficult part of write yourself essay Les Roches International School, a relationship with another human being, but the obstacle that hinders the write contrast essay London, relationship coming together is the most difficult part. My essay will explore the theme “true love ” and the obstacles that. Brothers Grimm , Cinderella , English-language films 1739 Words | 4 Pages. different attitudes towards love ; I have selected four poems that consider this issue and show the poets true thoughts on love . . Two of my texts, ‘Leaving Prince Charming Behind,’ written by write essay London Karlo Mila and ‘Advice to a discarded Lover,’ written by how to essay London Academy Fleur Adcock, both look at the theme of love and about yourself essay Les Roches International of Hotel past relationships in a negative and quite a depressing manner. Whereas, the other two texts deal with both the how to contrast essay London Academy, poets sweet, happy and more realistic attitude towards the power of true love . Critical SDA Bocconi School? ‘To the girl who stood. English-language films , Fairy , Fairy tale 1201 Words | 3 Pages. The Art of Loving “The art of loving”, written by an American psychologist Erich Fromm in 1957, mainly discusses about three . aspects: the reasons of love being an art , the how to write a compare contrast essay Academy, theory of love , and the practice of love . Critical Goals SDA Bocconi? He thoughtfully explains that an art of loving requires many effort and knowledge, comprehensively analyzes the theory of love , and specifically introduces the ways of practice the how to a compare essay International, art of harvard essay Kent School, loving. Even if the work is how to write contrast essay International done for about fifty years ago, there still have many remarkable. English-language films , Erich Fromm , Frankfurt School 1802 Words | 5 Pages. ?Grozen Benjelyn M. IV BSBA Project exam: reflection paper Ayala museum is the home of the Philippines art , history and culture.

It . is where collections of essay Les Roches School Management, iconic paintings, historic dioramas and historic costumes are displayed. Ayala museum is inspirational and to observe the vintage Filipina costumes. I visited the ayala museum with my tree classmates before our group came to museum some places in ayala are so interested so my classmates and how to contrast London International Academy me taking pictures. It is my first time. Ayala Corporation , Bank of the Philippine Islands , Jaime Augusto Zobel 1759 Words | 5 Pages. communicate and if it has improved or been detrimental to essay, the art of communication. How To Write London? In the 21st century, the human race has more ways to . communicate than ever before. Harvard Essay Kent? This includes the use of the internet, the mobile phone, television and radio, as well as written and spoken communication. Write A Compare Essay London Academy? With all these methods, why do some argue that the art of yourself essay Les Roches of Hotel, communication has been lost?

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Rizal And Fr. How To Marangoni London? SanchezFr. Sanchez was the Jesuitpriest who taught Dr. Andres Bonifacio , Ateneo de Manila University , El filibusterismo 1680 Words | 5 Pages. ? Love Everyone has felt love at one point in their life. It could have been between two people, a pet or even a non-living . How To Write A Compare Contrast Academy? object. You could have experienced it as a little crush or the real thing as a whole. Some people sometimes will go a lifetime without finding that one person for them, but then there’s other times people fall in and out of love like it’s nothing to them. You can love many things but the love between two people is priceless. Argumentation Persuasion Abbey Manchester? Different types of a compare contrast London Academy, people experience different. English-language films , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1262 Words | 4 Pages.

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work was also included in how to London International Academy the Best American Short Stories collections for essay Abbey College 1946, 1948 and contrast London International Academy 1952. Perhaps Bradbury's most unusual honor came from the Apollo . astronaut who named Dandelion Crater after Bradbury's novel, Dandelion Wine. How To Essay Istituto Marangoni London? Bradbury's lifetime love of cinema fuelled his involvement in many Hollywood productions, including The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms (a version of write a compare contrast essay Academy, his story, The Fog Horn), Something Wicked This Way Comes (based on yourself essay School of Hotel his novel,) and director John Huston's version of Moby Dick. Dandelion Wine , Fahrenheit 451 , Leigh Brackett 1683 Words | 6 Pages. ?The Magic Flute Review Kristyn Davis Dr. Eubanks November 28, 2011 Liberal Arts “ Art is one way whereby man seeks to how to essay International Academy, . How To An Descriptive Istituto Marangoni London? understand the world.”. This is a quote from contrast essay London International Academy Oscar Brockett’s book, The Essential Theater. Over the weekend the Ouachita Baptist University: School of Fine Arts , division of music put on an opera entitled The Magic Flute. Originally composed by Mozart, the students in harvard Kent the production did an how to write a compare contrast essay London excellent job of bringing his composition to life. Going into the opera, my expectations.

Art , Music , Opera 794 Words | 4 Pages. medium one chooses to use to express oneself determine whether or not it is truly art ? While digital artists’ artistic ability is how to an descriptive essay Istituto often . questioned and the credit is given to the computer being used, the art itself springs from the mind of the digital artist. I can say this with personal fervor: Digital art is truly in essence a form of write contrast essay Academy, art that merely takes advantage of the innovations of modern technology. Digital Art isn’t computer-generated. While it might involve using tools offered by write about yourself Les Roches International Management specialized. Art , Computer , Computer graphics 1392 Words | 4 Pages. ? Art Essay Draft The nude has changed dramatically throughout time in terms of its role in write a compare essay London Academy the art world. It has been used to . portray a person’s power and their weakness, the way they see themselves and argumentation Abbey Manchester the way others see them. The majority of nude artworks are of the female nude, as highlighted by John Berger, ‘men look at women, women look back at themselves being looked at.’ Vanessa Beecroft, a contemporary artist deems to challenge the way society views the nude in both high art and write a compare contrast essay London Academy everyday. Aesthetics , Art , Female 986 Words | 3 Pages.

Alexis Cota September 14, 2013 LOVE IS LOVE People live in a world where, nowadays, anyone will be judged for harvard essay School any little . thing they do. How To Write International? It may be the essay writing School, way people look, act, smell, walk, talk, dress, and even by liking the how to write essay London, same sex as them. Nothing in the world will ever please society. People are supposed to be free to love anyone they want. Yet, society makes it so hard for anyone to try, and pay to of Northampton be with the same sex. Contrast Essay International Academy? Either it will turn out to be their closest friends, or family who will end up. Bisexuality , Gay , Homosexuality 1033 Words | 3 Pages. The Art of Loving is argumentation Manchester a slim volume of only a little over a hundred pages yet it packs one hell of a punch. Written some fifty years ago, here . is a more damning indictment of modern society than anything the existential crowd of Bertrand Russell, Albert Camus or Jean Paul Sartre could cook up. The Art of Loving is a very concise and pithy read, it is written in the terse lucid style of gospel, each word in each line serving a critical function.

This is not a writer's style nor is a critic's but that. Erich Fromm , Frankfurt School , God 1588 Words | 4 Pages. Naomi McFarland Out of Class Essay #2 Final Copy Suffering through Art Art speaks and shows us the how to write London International, reality of people by . expressing human behavior, thoughts, ideas and writing emotions through a piece of work. As Google Definition’s says, “ Art is the works produced by such skill and imagination.” Art has the ability to express the painful truths that exist in the world and its reality. No matter how painful it might be to have a legitimate knowledge about the truth, I believe people need to see. Art , Earth , Emotion 1857 Words | 5 Pages. The Marketing of write a compare contrast essay, Art Part 1: Target Market and Competition When determining a target market a marketer must first research their product and . the consumers who purchase the product, then decide what type of consumer would the marketer prefer to attract to the product they are marketing (Guille, n.d.). The product that was chosen for this class was Art . To determine our particular target market we must get to know our product.

Britannica Encyclopedia defines art as, “the use of skill and imagination. Advertising , Art , Arts 1219 Words | 4 Pages. Upon reading Erich Fromm's The Art of harvard essay writing Kent School, Loving, I gained a better understanding of what love really is. Fromm's book puts . love into perspective. He begins with several facts with regards to the attitude in which people treat love . They are the problems of how to be loved, the object to love as well as the confusion between the initial experience of falling in a compare essay International love and harvard Kent School the permanent state of being in love , which had a great impact on me, as far as thinking about what love is. Strangers meet, they. Father , Feeling , Interpersonal relationship 1185 Words | 3 Pages. ? Art is life, it is beauty, it is emotion, it is you, it is me, it is everything. Art defines all that we are, and all that we . Write A Compare Contrast Essay London? could become. Art is of the past and of the future, of the influences of our daily lives, of our pasts combined with who we are today. Art is an indescribable joy, an expansion of the mind, body and argumentation persuasion essay College Manchester soul.

We are art , every last individual of the human race. Art comes in the form of music, dance, theater, painting, drawing, blowing, throwing, and even in contrast essay London International Academy the math equations. Aesthetics , Ancient Egypt , Art 2290 Words | 4 Pages.

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Understanding the Selection Process. So, you've found an opportunity at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) that you are interested in, perhaps on our Job Openings page, or through a search on the Public Service Commission's website. Now what? This page is designed to help you understand how the selection process works at the CFIA , especially if you are not familiar with government selection processes and the website. Some of the a compare contrast London, terminology used on job posters is technical and can be unfamiliar and confusing. To assist you, below you will find important definitions and descriptions to help you understand the persuasion essay Abbey, job poster and the staffing process. An indeterminate appointment is an appointment to a permanent position. A term appointment is employment for a specified period of time with a defined end date. Official Languages Proficiency Assessment. For every job available, the official language proficiency needed to perform the duties will be identified on the job poster.

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The minimum level of education required to pay to write The University, be screened into the selection process. You must demonstrate that you have attained this level of education on your application and you should be prepared to write contrast London Academy, show proof that you meet this requirement. Applicants submitting education credentials from a non-Canadian institution are responsible for obtaining certification that these credentials are the equivalent of the Canadian education level required for the position. This certification may be obtained from a recognized Canadian educational institution or through a credential evaluation service. Argumentation Abbey? The Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials assists individuals who wish to obtain such a certification. Failure to submit the a compare contrast International, required certification as requested may result in the application being eliminated from further consideration. Some posters may list an summary Form, occupational certification requirement. Experience, Other Merit Criteria and Conditions of Employment, and Statement of how to write a compare contrast essay London Merit Criteria.

The additional requirements for appointment are listed under three headings: Experience; Other Merit Criteria and Conditions of Employment; and Statement of Merit Criteria. The Statement of Merit Criteria section of the poster usually includes all appointment requirements (including the information found in Experience and Other Merit Criteria and Conditions of how to article summary Employment), and may include additional requirements, so be sure to read the Statement of Merit Criteria. Contrast? It is argumentation persuasion Abbey College, often organized into: Screening Requirements qualifications that will be assessed by a review of written applications and that must be met to proceed in the selection process. You must clearly demonstrate in your application that you meet all these requirements or your application will not be further considered. For instance, if one of the write contrast, screening requirements is significant and recent experience providing advice to clients, then you should make sure that your application demonstrates when and how you have acquired this experience. Assessment Qualifications skills that will be evaluated, by SDA Bocconi written tests, interviews, etc., for applicants who meet the screening requirements. If the selection process will be used to a compare Academy, establish an eligibility list, all assessment qualifications must be met in order to be found qualified.

If the selection process will be used to establish a staffing pool, the job poster will specify what qualifications are required for entry to the pool and what qualifications may be assessed after pool entry, for argumentation persuasion individuals considered for each appointment. Write A Compare Contrast London International? Non-Evaluation Criteria if the selection process will be used to establish a staffing pool, additional criteria that do not involve assessment of qualifications, such as an applicant’s membership in an employment equity group, may be considered in pay to essay of Northampton (NAVITAS) the appointment decision. Conditions of Employment conditions that must be met for an individual to be appointed to the position, such as medical or security clearance, willingness to travel, or possession of how to a compare essay London a valid driver’s license. Describes the The University, work environment of the position at the CFIA . A description of roles, responsibilities, duties and reporting relationship associated with the position(s). Additional Requirements / Comments.

Important information about the how to contrast International Academy, selection process, including whether or not assessment tests will be administered and whether the an descriptive essay Marangoni, process will be used to establish an eligibility list or staffing pool is provided in this section. Also included are statements about employment equity and special needs. Employment Equity : If you are a member of a designated group (women, visible minorities, Aboriginal peoples, or persons with a disability), you may indicate this on write contrast London International your application. Special Needs : An applicant's special needs are not used as a factor in a staffing decision but, rather, are accommodated to ensure that the individual is given adequate opportunity to demonstrate their qualifications for the position. How To Write An Descriptive Marangoni London? It is the responsibility of the individual being considered in how to write a compare contrast London Academy a selection process to advise the CFIA if accommodation is critical goals SDA Bocconi, required. The CFIA will make reasonable efforts and take appropriate steps to a compare essay London International Academy, accommodate any special needs an applicant might have when participating in a selection process. Critical Goals School Of Management? If contacted in a compare essay London International relation to a job opportunity or testing, the applicant should inform the Agency official as soon as possible of any accommodation needs before a planned interview or before any testing is essay Management, required. For example, if you require wheelchair access, and the building where your interview is to how to write a compare essay, take place does not provide it, an alternative location may be chosen.

Similarly, if you have a visual impairment, you may require a test in large print format to meet your needs. Argumentation Persuasion Essay Abbey Manchester? The accommodation will vary depending on the individual’s needs. This section indicates what must be included in your application. Please read it carefully and ensure that your application contains all of the information requested. The main section of the a compare contrast essay London International Academy, job poster will sometimes be followed by Important Messages. Applicants should review this section as it may give additional information not found elsewhere on the poster, such as how to verify the critical School, application status and/or how applicants will be notified of any results issued. If, after reading the write a compare contrast London Academy, poster, you believe that you meet the requirements for the position and you want to apply, you should read the following information to help you prepare your application. Your application should clearly demonstrate how you meet all of the screening requirements in order to how to write an descriptive essay Istituto, be considered further. How To Write London International? Read the poster carefully and double-check your application before you submit it, to ensure that you have included all the relevant information. Applications can be submitted in either official language. In addition, when participating in a selection process, you are entitled to have any examination or interview for the purpose of assessing your qualifications, other than language, in the official language of your choice.

You can also choose to communicate and receive available services and information concerning the employment opportunity in either official language. These rights apply to write The University, all selection processes, regardless of the location of the position or its official language proficiency requirements. Tips on Preparing your Résumé and a compare essay International, Cover Letter. Address the specific qualifications outlined in the poster, particularly the Abbey, screening requirements. The individuals screening your application must have evidence that you possess all of the qualifications required they cannot make assumptions, for example from the job titles or previous employers listed in your resume. Include special assignments and/or projects that have enabled you to develop skills relevant to write a compare London, the position. Argumentation Manchester? Include involvement in outside work that show you've developed the required skills.

Consider including courses taken, association memberships, awards, special skills, publications, a career goals statement, etc. (depending on the position). Don't exaggerate your skills or experiences. If you are listing references on your résumé , make sure these individuals can attest to how to a compare contrast London, your past work experience, particularly in the areas related to the personal suitability qualifications required for the position. Unless the how to write a research Cardiff Form College, job poster specifically requires it, you do not need to include a list of references with your application. A Compare Essay? Provide complete contact information, including mailing address, email address and telephone number(s).

As email may be the only form of communication, please make sure to set your email and junk mail filters accordingly and write essay London, check them regularly. Keep cover letters to one or two pages and resumes from one to three pages, if possible. Be sure to highlight how you meet the screening qualifications (i.e. How To Write A Compare London International Academy? education and persuasion essay Abbey College, experience) and identify the point(s) in your career where acquired the skill(s). These qualifications should also be reflected on your resume. How To Write A Compare Contrast London? Include start and end dates when listing your past positions. Use short, focussed sentences with action verbs and results to write essay School Management, explain your previous achievements and/or responsibilities. Use an easy-to-read font type and size, in addition to bulleted lists. Proofread for typographical, spelling and grammatical errors.

The first part of assessment is the initial screening process. Screening is a review of the applications to determine which applicants meet all of the screening requirements identified on the poster such as education and experience, the area of London Academy selection and time of application. All applications received on critical goals SDA Bocconi of Management or before the closing date are screened against Academy these requirements. Yourself School Management? Only the applications that clearly demonstrate that the individuals meet these screening requirements will be considered further. Selected applicants who meet the screening requirements may be invited to participate in one or more assessments to evaluate the write essay London, other qualifications required. Some common methods of assessment include written exams, oral interviews, situational exercises, role plays, and reference checks. Official language testing may also be required. In addition, accommodation in write essay The University (NAVITAS) selection processes will be provided to how to write a compare contrast International Academy, those applicants who have any health or physical limitations, which may adversely affect their performance during any phase of the selection process. Persuasion Essay? Depending on the number of a compare contrast applicants in the process, these steps may take some time. Please note that in some cases travel may be required during this phase.

Managers have the discretion to determine if that travel will be authorized as government business. Write The University Of Northampton? This means that travel costs associated with assessment may or may not be paid by the hiring manager. Applicants may be responsible for paying their own travel costs. This is usually stated on the job poster. If travel is authorized by management, the National Joint Council Travel Directive will apply. During the assessment phase, only the write a compare contrast essay London Academy, qualifications required for the job and selected by the manager, as outlined on the poster, will be assessed. Any other experience, knowledge, ability, etc. , that you possess and feel may be relevant to the position will not be taken into consideration. Abbey College Manchester? This ensures that all applicants are treated fairly, as they are all assessed only against the qualifications established by the hiring manager. Refer to the qualifications listed on how to write contrast International the poster to Les Roches School, help prepare for assessment. The job poster may indicate if tests will be administered and may identify what type of write a compare contrast London test(s) will be used. The CFIA uses many different tests, including:

those developed by the hiring manager for the specific position(s) being staffed; standardized tests, often those developed by the Personnel Psychology Centre (PPC) of the Public Service Commission. If the poster indicates a PPC test will be used, you may find information on writing Kent School the test, including sample questions and some practice tests, on the PPC website. Refer to the qualifications listed on the job poster that will be assessed through testing. Try to think of possible questions that could be included in a test. How would you answer them? If knowledge qualifications will be tested, consider researching relevant information, either on how to essay the CFIA website or elsewhere. Try practice tests, if they are available. During an interview, you meet with a selection board which may be comprised of the hiring manager, a Human Resources Advisor and write a research summary Sixth, one or more board members who are familiar with the requirements for the position. You are asked a series of write contrast essay London International Academy pre-set questions to assess your qualifications with respect to the knowledge, abilities and/or personal suitability requirements listed on the job poster. Write About Essay Les Roches International School Of Hotel Management? You might be asked questions on technical aspects of the work, basic knowledge essential to the job, hypothetical job situations where you describe what you would do in a given situation, examples of real situations from how to contrast Academy your past and how you handled them, role plays, etc. Tips on Preparing for harvard Kent School an Interview.

Re-read the job poster and Statement of Merit Criteria to understand the context of the job and the qualifications required. You will be assessed on only the qualifications outlined on the Statement of Merit Criteria. Consider how your knowledge and experience relates to write a compare contrast essay London International Academy, the position and (NAVITAS), the qualifications required. Anticipate questions and practice possible answers. Familiarize yourself with the how to write a compare contrast London Academy, CFIA its structure, mandate, services, etc. by reviewing the Agency website. Answer the question that was asked. Do not provide additional information that you think may be relevant, but instead provide a direct response to the question. For instance, do not answer a question on how you would handle a particular situation or scenario by stating that you have three years of harvard writing School experience handling such issues. How To A Compare Essay London? Instead, provide a detailed response as to what you would do in such a scenario or an example of what action you took when you were in persuasion Abbey College Manchester such a situation.

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If paper has been provided for how to London you, take advantage of it and write down some key points to keep you on topic. Silence while you compose a response is acceptable. Write Les Roches International School Of Hotel Management? If you do not understand a question, ask for clarification. If you do not know the answer, be honest and say so. It may also be possible to return to a question later in a compare essay Academy the interview to yourself essay of Hotel, answer the question or to how to write contrast International, include additional points. When the interview is finished, be sure to follow up promptly with anything asked of you (e.g. references). How To Summary Cardiff Sixth College? Do not be afraid to ask questions, such as when a decision may be made, when references will be contacted or what the next steps are in how to a compare contrast essay International Academy the selection process. What Happens After the Selection Process?

At the end of a selection process, an eligibility list or a staffing pool may be established by the hiring manager. Critical? However, being included on a list or in a pool does not automatically guarantee that you will be hired. How To Write A Compare Contrast International Academy? Having your name on an eligibility list or a staffing pool means that you have been found qualified, not that you will be offered a job. If you are included in a staffing pool, further assessment may be needed for some or all of the positions to be staffed. Other non-assessment criteria may also be applied to determine who is most appropriate for The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) each position. If You Are Offered an contrast London Academy, Appointment.

If you receive an offer of employment, the manager may initially discuss this with you verbally to determine your level of interest and a proposed start date. To proceed with your appointment, the manager will then send you a letter of offer. It is write yourself essay International School, wise not to take irreversible actions, like giving notice to your current job, until you have received the written offer and have read, understood and agreed to the conditions outlined within it. A letter of offer outlines all of the details of the offer, including the occupational group and level, the salary range on appointment, the proposed effective date of your appointment, the end date (if the offer is for a term appointment or student placement), official language training requirements (if applicable), and any conditions of a compare essay Academy employment. Pay To Write Essay The University? The letter of offer will also inform you if your appointment will be subject to probation and, if so, the length of the probation period. Delegated managers have the discretion to waive probation or reduce the duration of probation when it is in the best interest of the CFIA to do so and the delegated manager is confident of the competence of the individual and his/her suitability for continued employment at the CFIA . The waiving of a compare essay Academy probation or the reduction of the probation period must be reflected in the written offer of an descriptive essay Istituto London employment. Delegated managers also have the discretion to reduce the how to a compare Academy, duration of probation at how to write essay Marangoni London, any time after the initial offer of employment has been made. A Compare Essay Academy? The delegated manager will advise the employee of this decision, in writing, indicating the date on write yourself essay Les Roches International School Management which the probation period will end. If accepting the offer would require you to relocate you should also review the Relocation Directive. Successful candidates from how to essay International inside or outside the public service are entitled to relocation assistance in accordance with the Relocation Directive if they meet the persuasion essay College Manchester, 40 kilometre rule, as defined in the said directive.

Please read the how to write contrast essay London, directive to determine exactly what the entitlements would be in your particular case. The letter of essay Kent School offer is your employment contract, so review it carefully and follow the instructions in the letter with respect to accepting or rejecting the offer. If anything is unclear or you would like more information, the hiring manager or HR Advisor can provide you with answers.

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Emilio Jacinto#8217;s Trading Cooperative. A1457 Cooperatives: Principles and how to contrast London International practices in the 21st century Kimberly A. Essay Marangoni? Zeuli and Robert Cropp ABOUT THE COVER IMAGE: The “twin pines” is a familiar symbol for cooperatives in the United States. The Cooperative League of the USA, which eventually became the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA), adopted it as their logo in 1922. The pine tree is an ancient symbol of endurance and immortality. The two pines represent mutual cooperation—people helping people. COOPERATIVES: ii Chapter 1 An introduction to cooperatives 1 Chapter 2 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the how to write a compare contrast essay Academy world 5. Chapter 3 Cooperative history, trends, and how to write article summary Form College laws in how to Academy, the United States 59 Chapter 8 Procedures for organizing a cooperative 69 Chapter 9 A summary of cooperative benefits and limitations 77 Notes 81 Glossary 85 Cooperative resources IN 49 Chapter 7 Cooperative financial management PRACTICES 39 Chapter 6 Cooperative roles, responsibilities, and communication #038; 27 Chapter 5 Alternative business models in argumentation persuasion essay, the United States PRINCIPLES 15 Chapter 4 Cooperative classification Contents Publication notes ? 89 THE 21ST CENTURY i Publication notes This publication is the fourth and most extensive revision of the Marvin A. Schaars’ text, Cooperatives, Principles and Practices, University of Wisconsin Extension—Madison, Publication A1457, July 1980. What has come to how to write essay London International Academy, be known simply as “the Schaars book,” was originally written in 1936 by Chris L. Christensen, Asher Hobson, Henry Bakken, R. K. Froker, and Marvin Schaars, all faculty in the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison. Since its first publication, the College Manchester Schaars book has served as a basic reference for cooperative members and leaders, cooperative instructors and development specialists, and students of cooperatives throughout the United.

Although we focus on cooperative businesses in the United States, and draw most of our references from the agricultural sector, most of the book’s content is pertinent to cooperatives anywhere, in any sector. Readers are encouraged to seek out other publications that deal more extensively with cooperative laws in their own states and write a compare contrast essay Academy countries, and provide more detailed information on consumer, service and worker-owned cooperatives and essay of Northampton (NAVITAS) credit unions. ii Kimberly Zeuli and how to write a compare International Academy Robert Cropp, Assistant Professor and write yourself School of Hotel Management Professor Emeritus in the Department of Agricultural and write contrast London International Academy Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison, re responsible for all of the editing and most of the revised text. The following individuals also contributed to various chapters: David Erickson, Director of write essay Istituto London Member Relations, Wisconsin Federation of Cooperatives E. G. Nadeau, Director of Research, Planning and Development, Cooperative Development Services David Trechter, Professor, University of Wisconsin— River Falls Richard Vilstrup, Professor Emeritus, Department of Animal Science and Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison This revision would not have been possible without generous funding from contrast essay International Academy The Cooperative. Foundation, Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. Harvard Kent School? COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER 1 ? An introduction to write contrast Academy, cooperatives According to the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA): a cooperative is an pay to write essay autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and essay London International Academy aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. Cooperative leaders around the world recognize the write essay Les Roches of Hotel Management ICA, a non-governmental organization with over 230 member organAlthough the word “cooperaizations from over 100 countries, as a leading tive” can be applied to many uthority on cooperative definition and values. 2 different types of how to write a compare essay International Academy group activities, in this publication The ICA definition recognizes the essential the term is used to reference element of cooperatives: membership is voluntary. Argumentation Essay College? Coercion is the antithesis of cooperation. Persons a formal business model, compelled to act contrary to their wishes are not which has relatively recent origins. The earliest coopera- truly cooperating. True cooperation with others arises from a belief in mutual help; it can’t be tive associations were created in Europe and North dictated.

In authentic cooperatives, persons join The first signs of. America during the 17th and voluntarily and have the freedom to quit the how to essay London International cooporganized hunting 18th centuries. These associ- erative at any time. 3 The forced collectives prevaactivity based around lent in the former Soviet Union, for harvard essay writing Kent example, were ations were precursors to communities are associated with not true cooperatives. cooperatives. The pioneers Homo erectus, of the Rochdale Society in Another widely accepted cooperative definition is modern human 19th-century England are ancestors who lived the one adopted by the United States Department between 500,000 and celebrated for launching the f Agriculture (USDA) in 1987: A cooperative is how to essay London International Academy, a 1. 5 million years ago modern cooperative user-owned, user-controlled business that distributes in Africa. movement.

The unique conbenefits on the basis of use. This definition captures tribution of early cooperative organizers in what are generally considered the three primary England was codifying a guiding set of principles cooperative principles: user ownership, user and instigating the creation of new laws that control, and proportional distribution of benefits. helped foster cooperative business development. How To A Research Cardiff Form? The “user-owner” principle implies that the people. Today, cooperatives are found in nearly all countries. Essay London? Chapters 2 and 3 trace the remarkable history who use the co-op (members) help finance the essay coof cooperative development internationally and in International, op and therefore, own the co-op. Write A Research Article Summary Sixth Form College? Members are responsible for a compare contrast essay providing at least some of the the United States. cooperative’s capital. The equity capital contribution of each member should be in persuasion Abbey College, equal proportion to that member’s use (patronage) of the write coop. This shared financing creates joint ownership The cooperative model has been adapted to (part of the ICA cooperative definition). numerous and varied businesses. In 1942 Ivan G roups of individuals around the world and throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. Critical School Of Management? Examples of cooperation, or collective action, can be traced back to our prehistoric predecessors who recognized the advantages of write a compare contrast essay London Academy hunting, gathering, and pay to The University living in groups rather than on their own. What is a cooperative?

Emelianoff, a respected cooperative scholar, remarked that “the diversity of cooperatives is kaleidoscopic and their variability is literally infinite. ”1 As a consequence of this diversity, no universally accepted definition of a cooperative exists. Two definitions, however, are commonly used. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The “user-control” concept means that members of the co-op govern the business directly by voting on significant and a compare contrast London long-term business decisions and indirectly through their representatives on how to write an descriptive essay London the board of how to contrast essay London directors. Cooperative statutes and bylaws usually dictate that only active co-op members (those who use the co-op) can become voting directors, although non-members sometimes serve on write a research College boards in a non-voting, advisory THE 21ST CENTURY 1 capacity. Advisory directors are becoming more common in large agricultural cooperatives in the. United States, where complex financial and business operations require the expertise of financial and industry experts. Only co-op members can vote to elect their board of how to contrast essay London International directors and on other cooperative actions. Voting rights are generally tied to harvard writing Kent School, membership status—usually one-member, one-vote—and not to the level of investment in essay International Academy, or patronage of the write yourself of Hotel Management cooperative. Cooperative law in a number of states in the United States and in other countries, however, also permits proportional voting. Instead of one vote per member, voting rights are based on the volume of business the member transacted he previous year with the how to write a compare essay cooperative. Generally, however, there is also a maximum number of votes any member may cast to how to write essay, prevent control by a minority of members.

For example, a grain cooperative might permit one vote to be cast for each 1,000 bushels of grain marketed the year before, but any single member would be limited to a maximum of ten votes. Democratic control is maintained by tying voting rights to patronage. Equitable voting rights, or democratic control (as written in the ICA definition), are a hallmark of cooperatives. “Distribution of benefits on the basis of use,” escribes the how to a compare contrast essay London International Academy principle of proportionality, another key foundation for cooperatives. Members should share the benefits, costs, and risks of doing business in equal proportion to their patronage. The proportional basis is fair, easily explained (transparent), and how to essay Marangoni entirely feasible from an operational standpoint. To do otherwise distorts the individual contributions of how to a compare contrast essay London Academy members and diminishes their incentives to write about yourself essay of Hotel, join and patronize the cooperative. 2 Co-op benefits may include better prices for goods and services, improved services, and dependable sources of how to a compare essay London International inputs and markets for outputs. Most ooperatives also realize annual net profits, all or part of which are returned to write essay Marangoni London, members in proportion to their patronage (thus, they are aptly called patronage refunds).

Cooperatives can also return a portion of their profits as dividends on investment. In the United States, however, federal and most state statutes set an 8 percent maximum on annual dividend payments. The purpose of these limits is to write a compare Academy, assure that the benefits of a cooperative accrue to those who use it most rather than to those who may have the pay to write most invested; the how to contrast essay London International Academy importance of capital is subordinated. Today, some co-op leaders and scholars consider his dividend restriction arbitrary and harmful to cooperatives. From their perspective, the 8 percent maximum makes investing in cooperatives less attractive than investing in other forms of business. It makes cooperatives less competitive as well, especially in the agricultural processing sector, which requires a lot of capital for start-up and growth.

An overview of the federal laws that govern cooperatives in the United States is included in chapter 3. Why cooperate? People who organize and belong to cooperatives do so for a variety of economic, social, and even political reasons. Cooperating with others has often proven to be a satisfactory way of thinking SDA Bocconi School of Management achieving one’s own objectives while at the same time assisting others in achieving theirs. Farmers create farm supply and marketing cooperatives to help them maximize their net profits. This requires both effective marketing of their products for better prices as well as keeping input costs as low as possible. The farmers recognize that they are usually more efficient and knowledgeable as producers than as marketers or purchasers. Write A Compare Academy? By selling and buying in persuasion Abbey, larger volumes they can also usually achieve better prices. How To Write Contrast Essay Academy? COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER. Employees organize bargaining associations and labor unions to negotiate collectively with management and owners.

In some cases, employees form worker-owned cooperatives. As the name suggests, a worker-owned cooperative is owned and controlled by its employees. 4 Employees establish bargaining units and cooperatives in essay Abbey, the hopes of increasing their wages and contrast International Academy fringe benefits, improving their general working conditions, and an descriptive essay ensuring job security. Cooperatives do not, as is sometimes assumed, contradict the goals of capitalism. If that were the case, cooperatives would not play such an important role in how to a compare contrast essay International Academy, the American economy. About 48,000 cooperatives, operating in nearly every business sector imaginable, serve 120 million members, or roughly 4 out of 10 Americans. 5 The top 100 cooperatives in the United States, ranked by revenue, individually generated at least $346 million in revenue during 2002 and in Abbey College, the aggregate, $119 billion. 6 They represent agriculture, finance, grocery, hardware, healthcare, recreation, and energy industries (figure 1. A Compare Essay International? 1). An introduction to cooperatives Consumer cooperatives are established to sell the products a group of consumers want but cannot find elsewhere at affordable prices. The consumer embers are primarily interested in improving their purchasing power—the quantity of goods and services they can buy with their income.

They naturally wish to get as much as possible for harvard their money in terms of quantity and a compare contrast London Academy quality. As owners, the members have a say in what products their stores carry. 1 ? Cooperatives are especially important to agriculture. In 2002, 3,140 agricultural cooperatives provided roughly 3. 1 million farmers (many farmers are members of more than one cooperative) with agricultural marketing, farm supplies, and other farm-related services. They captured 28 percent of the market share. Pay To The University (NAVITAS)? Figure 1. 1. Top 100 revenue generating cooperatives in the U. S. by sector, 2002 PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 3 In terms of non-agricultural cooperatives, 84 million Americans are members of 9,569 credit unions, 865 electric co-ops serve 37 million people in 47 states, over 1. 5 million families live in housing cooperatives, and over 3 million people are members of how to write a compare essay 5,000 food cooperatives.

8 The involvement of so many people in cooperatives in write essay Marangoni, such a highly competitive economy reflects the general satisfaction of members toward their companies and the apparent efficiency and solid inancial performance of how to write International Academy these businesses. An Descriptive Essay Marangoni London? Chapter 4 provides a more comprehensive discussion of the various types of cooperatives and the extent of their economic success in the United States. In short, cooperatives are organized to serve member needs and are focused on generating member benefits rather than returns to investors. This member-driven orientation makes them fundamentally different from other corporations. Additional cooperative structural characteristics and guiding principles further distinguish them from other business models. In most countries, the cooperative model represents only one of several ifferent ways a business can choose to legally organize. Chapter 5 presents a comparison of the six major alternative business models in the United States. Cooperative management and development To prosper, cooperatives must be well organized, well financed, well managed, and how to a compare contrast essay London International governed well by a committed membership. They must be progressive, adapting to changing business climates, and responsive to thinking goals of Management, their members’ changing needs. Members, the board of directors, and management each have responsibilities within the cooperative. Strong, viable cooperatives require all three groups to do their share.

Chapter 6 describes each group’s unique and important role. 4 Although capital, employees, business volume, and good management practices are all very important for successful operations, a co-op’s members are its most important asset. Essay London International Academy? Cooperative success also hinges on effective member education and communication. Indeed, providing education, training, and critical goals School information to members is one of the seven cooperative principles adopted by the ICA. The unique education needs of cooperatives and the essential elements for a successful education and contrast essay London International Academy communication program are also discussed in chapter 6. Cooperative financing is also critical and in how to write article Cardiff Form College, today’s complex cooperative organizations it can be quite complicated. How To Write A Compare Essay International? Adequate capital is one of the fundamental principles of thinking goals SDA Bocconi of Management sound business operation and at the same time one of the biggest challenges facing cooperatives today. Financing options must be consistent with principles of cooperation as well as with federal and state laws.

Chapter 7 lays out the main concepts behind cooperative financing, including alternative sources of capital and equity redemption plans. As with other business forms, cooperatives should be established only to meet a well-defined need in he market. Before cooperatives are created, advance research should be done by how to write essay, a steering committee to ensure sufficient support by other potential members in argumentation Abbey Manchester, the community. Chapter 8 discusses in how to a compare essay London Academy, greater detail the procedure for College Manchester organizing cooperatives. A good feasibility study, strong membership drives, and a comprehensive business plan are essential ingredients. A final analysis of the write a compare contrast cooperative model’s benefits and limitations, to members and the broader community, is presented in chapter 9. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Revolutionary roots in England The first cooperative businesses created in Europe rose during periods of write an descriptive essay Istituto Marangoni great social upheaval and distress caused by dramatic shifts in agricultural and industrial production practices. Prior to write contrast International Academy, the Industrial Revolution (about 1750-1850), most families in England and other parts of Europe were largely self-sufficient, creating enough food and goods for their subsistence and small amounts for trading. The Industrial Revolution introduced the factory system of production and was marked by essay The University of Northampton, a rapid succession of remarkable inventions that accelerated the write a compare contrast Academy industrialization of business. Examples of inventions during this period include smelting iron with coal instead of charcoal, the otton gin and power loom, and the steam engine.

The writings of Adam Smith at the time, especially his advocacy of the laissez faire principle (no government intervention in the economy), further spurred the revolution. The industrial system gradually replaced cottage industries and home-based production. Workers were required to move into cities to find work. Away from land, their families were increasingly integrated into a market economy; instead of pro- PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN ducing most of harvard their household requirements, especially food, they had no other choice but to purchase them. Write A Compare Contrast International? Advances in production were not, nfortunately, accompanied by fair labor standards. How To A Research Sixth Form? Workers were typically paid very low wages and were subjected to harsh working conditions. 10 People remaining in how to write a compare essay London, rural areas were not much better off. An agricultural revolution was already well underway in critical thinking of Management, the 18th century. The introduction of new cultivation methods and crop varieties supported a dramatic change in land tenure patterns. Scattered, small plots of farmland were aggregated into large, enclosed estates, primarily for how to write International Academy the purpose of grazing sheep and other live- The historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the harvard essay writing School social and conomic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and social upheaval.

9 stock. Between 1760 and how to contrast 1843, nearly seven million acres of agricultural land in England were enclosed in estates. As a result, large numbers of small farmers were driven from how to write a research summary Form College their land into neighboring towns and villages with few remaining jobs. A movement towards greater freedom of expression was another hallmark of this revolutionary period. The citizens of England began to publicly dissent with government policies, taking issue with the status quo and demanding more personal ights. Therefore, the how to write contrast widespread poverty, unemployment, and general social deterioration that were left in the wake of the industrial and agricultural revolutions were met with a public outcry to the government for improved working and living conditions.

THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world T he historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and economic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and write a research article Sixth Form places of economic stress and social upheaval. 9 Ancient records and archeological discoveries oint to the existence of cooperative organizations created by early civilizations in diverse parts of the world (China, Greece, Egypt, etc. ). But it is the founders of the Rochdale Society in 19th century England who are celebrated for launching the modern cooperative movement. The Rochdale pioneers, and the early European cooperative thinkers and organizers who laid the foundation for their success, are responsible for codifying a guiding set of principles that helped guide the development of cooperatives across the world. 2 ? 5 Early cooperative societies Robert Owen and In the how to write contrast London absence of public assistance, the people of. Charles Fourier— Europe established various types of self-help organizations. Mutual fire insurance companies Cooperative visionaries existed in London and Paris as early as 1530, although the first highly successful and argumentation essay Abbey College wellknown example was organized in England in 1696, the Amicable Contributionship. 11 The people of England also created Mutual Aid Societies (they eventually became known as Friendly Societies) that offered financial payments and essay International Academy assistance to members in times of sickness, unemployment, or death. 12 By the write yourself essay Les Roches School mid-18th century many well-established societies were already in operation. They were legalized with the passing of the first Friendly Society Act (also called the Rose Act) in 1793.

A number of how to contrast London Academy bills were introduced in the 19th century to encourage Friendly Societies since they lessened the writing public burden. 13 Workers organized labor unions to bargain with employers for more favorable working conditions and to lobby the write essay London International government for improved labor legislation. Cooperative or quasi-cooperative industrial businesses were in operation in England by 1760. Most were consumer-controlled organizations focused on flour milling and baking industries. Cooperative orn mills for essay writing Kent School grinding flour appeared in how to write London Academy, a number of cities shortly after the turn of the 19th century to cut the Kent School cost of flour and prevent tampering by greedy millers.

Purchasing cooperatives already existed in most Western European countries by the 18th century. The Weaver’s Society in Fenwick, Scotland (often referred to as “penny capitalists”) began to purchase supplies as a group in 1769. 14 The precursors to how to contrast essay London International Academy, mutuals and unions were guilds, the associations of essay writing Kent School merchants, artisans, and craftsmen that date back to Medieval times. Guilds had binding rules for production and business practices. Although guilds were created partially in an attempt to establish local trade monopolies, they incorporated socialist practices: member control, equitable treatment of all members, and financial support of contrast essay members who were ill or faced family crises. 6 “Often men wish to escape the realities of about essay International School Management life, and how to write a compare essay London International when they do, they dream of Utopias. ” 15 The first cooperative movement, that is, the establishment of a coherent argument for the cooperative form of organization, gained momentum in the early 19th century with the writings and advocacy efforts of Robert Robert Owen (1771- Owen and William King in how to write an descriptive Marangoni London, 858):“The Father England and Charles Fourier in of Cooperation. ” France. Robert Owen and Charles Fourier were both well-known Utopian Socialists; not only did they envision ideal societies, they tried to create them in Europe and the United States. 16 Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a prominent industrialist who began to advocate the establishment of a new type of community to contrast essay International Academy, alleviate the poverty and suffering caused by the Industrial Revolution. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was a bourgeois, famous French social philosopher whose plans for how to write a research Sixth Form College self-reliant communities were motivated by contrast London Academy, the French Revolution and write about yourself School of Hotel his view hat the London Academy working class was being dehumanized and repressed.

They both envisioned rural villages composed of farms and small-scale industry, all operated cooperatively by essay College, the citizens who would also live together communally. Owen originally conceived of these communities as a solution for unemployment, but later believed (like Fourier) that they were a better alternative to private capitalism and competition, providing self-employment opportunities and other conditions that would provide universal happiness. Fourier called his planned communal cities “phalanxes. Essay London International Academy? ” COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Fourier never found philanthropists willing to fund he creation of a phalanx. After his death, several were attempted in France and more than thirty organized in write about essay Les Roches International School Management, the United States. 18 The most notable in the United States were Brook Farm, near Cambridge, Massachusetts (1842-1846), and one in Fond du Lac County (now the city of how to a compare contrast London International Academy Ripon), Wisconsin (1845-1850). The phalanxes suffered from write an descriptive essay Marangoni a conflict between treating everyone equally and rewarding those who provided more capital and labor. The phalanx model, however, influenced the successful kibbutzim in Israel (discussed later). How To? Owen was a visionary idealist, not a realistic cooperative developer. He was not at all interested, therefore, in helping the early consumer cooperatives in England:“Joint stock retailing is not the Social System which we contemplate…and will not form any part of the essay arrangements in the New Moral World. ”19 In 1839 he did not even bother to respond to an urgent request by Charles Howarth to visit Rochdale, England to discuss organizational plans for a new retail cooperative.

Owen’s attack upon individualism, the family, competition, private property, the write a compare essay International Academy market economy, and organized religion, alienated many people from cooperation and persuasion Abbey College Manchester provoked condemnation of cooperatives from various religious groups. Even so, Owen is often called the “father of cooperation. ” Despite his failures, Owen continued preaching that cooperative production and living were the a compare contrast International Academy best medicines for the ills of society. His advocacy stimulated the creation of cooperative societies, labor exchanges (where handicrafts were traded based on the amount of labor involved in their making), and trade unions. SDA Bocconi Of Management? Although most of the organizations he started lasted only a compare contrast London International a short time, PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN they provided the groundwork for another generation of cooperative development in Europe and North America. William King— A cooperative developer and pragmatist Dr. William King (1786-1865), another social reformer in England, was in many respects more responsible than Robert Owen for spreading the cooperative idea and for the actual organization of cooperatives.

Although he accepted much of Owen’s social philosophy, he disagreed on how to reach those goals. King was more realistic about cooperatives, advocating and inspiring the development of consumer cooperatives across England. As a physician, King became interested in improving the write an descriptive Istituto Marangoni welfare of the working people of Brighton, England. He was involved in organizing numerous ocial and how to London educational institutions, including an infants’ school, a mechanics’ institute, and a library. Between 1828 and argumentation Abbey College Manchester 1830, King published (at his own expense) a small magazine called “The Cooperator” that was widely distributed throughout England. Its 28 issues were a source of inspiration, information, and instruction on cooperation in theory as well as in practice. The magazine advocated a more realistic type of cooperation within reach of the working class. King believed that cooperatives should start small with the original capital supplied by members, a significant deviation from Owen and Fourier’s arge-scale operations funded by wealthy investors.

King did not necessarily object to Owen’s self-sustaining cooperative communities, as long as they were funded with the members’ own capital and were restricted to Christians. King was a religious fundamentalist who believed that biblical scripture should guide the ethics and operations of cooperatives. He also taught that cooperatives should not pay patronage refunds, but instead reinvest all net profits to increase the scope of their activities and to contrast International, employ as many members as possible. King also proposed the following guidelines for consumer cooperatives: THE 1ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Owen and Fourier were not abstract thinkers; they laid out Les Roches of Hotel Management very specific details for their communities. For instance, they believed that the communities should contain 1,000-1,800 people living on a relatively small tract of land. Academy? Fourier was more explicit: the area should be three square miles. 17 Wealthy supporters of Owen’s ideas were willing to finance the creation of such communities. How To Write Article Summary Form College? Four were eventually created: New Harmony, Indiana (USA); Orbiston, Scotland; Ralahine, Ireland; and Queenswood, England. All ultimately failed. 2 ? 7 1) members should pay cash for all merchandise purchased at the cooperative; (2) the write contrast essay London co-op should adopt democratic principles of critical goals School of Management governance; and (3) it should publicize the cooperative movement. In addition to the advocacy of Owen and King, the cooperative movement in England was supported by a number of short-lived cooperative journals, which were circulated between 1825 and 1830.

Cooperative congresses also advocated and promoted cooperation; the first took place in 1830 in how to contrast essay London, Manchester, the second in 1831 in thinking goals of Management, Birmingham, and the third in 1832 in London. Owen’s influence and rhetoric were exhibited in these and how to write a compare essay International Academy later congresses. For instance, the Third Congress stated that “the grand ultimate object of all cooperative societies is community on land. ” What began with a few cooperative societies in 1826 quickly grew to about 300 consumer cooperatives by 1830, many patterned after King’s Brighton Cooperative Trading Association. King’s ideas may have also influenced early American cooperatives. A treasurer of a cooperative in Brighton, England, William Bryan, helped organize a consumer cooperative in New York City in 1830. King was compelled to discontinue his active role in the cooperative movement in how to essay, the late 1830s for essay International wo reasons: his medical practice was suffering and essay poor management and internal discontent plagued individual co-op stores. A Compare London International Academy? By 1840, the cooperative movement in harvard writing Kent, England was basically at a standstill and King’s ideas were forgotten, ignored in the cooperative literature for several decades. The Rochdale Pioneers In the first wave of consumer cooperatives, a shortlived society was created in write essay London Academy, Rochdale, England in 1833. James Smithies, one of the original organizers, was inspired by King’s cooperative magazine and shared it with his co-founders. Persuasion Abbey College Manchester? Their ultimate cooperative goals, however, echoed Owen’s teachings.

Although their first co-op effort failed after only two years, a core group of 28 continued to work actively for social reform and eventually created the prototype cooperative model for a modest shop on Toad Lane in 1844. The so-called Rochdale Pioneers were ambitious and had lofty goals for their co-op: (1) to sell provisions at the store; (2) to purchase homes for their members; (3) to manufacture goods their members needed; and (4) to provide employment for write contrast essay London International Academy their members who were either out of work or poorly paid. In sum, they wanted to “establish a self-supporting home colony of united interests” nd to “arrange the powers of production, distribution, education, and government” in the interests of write essay of Northampton (NAVITAS) its members. In addition, they hoped to open a “temperance hotel” in one of the a compare contrast essay International Academy cooperative houses to promote sobriety. The foundation for the Rochdale cooperative was built upon the intelligent combination of write essay of Northampton various ideas that had been tried by previous cooperatives. How To Write A Compare Contrast London International? The Pioneers learned from the essay writing School co-op failures of the write London International past. How To A Research Cardiff? For example, the business practices they adopted for their small store, later called the how to a compare essay London International Rochdale Principles (sidebar), were novel primarily in their combination; many had been borrowed rom other cooperatives.

The original Rochdale Cooperative shop on Toad Lane. It is now preserved as a museum. 8 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The Industrial and Provident Societies Act, authorized in England in 1852, was a major development in the cooperative movement. Prior to the enactment of this law, the Friendly Societies Acts of 1834 and 1846 regulated the registration of cooperatives, even though these acts were designed for pay to write of Northampton (NAVITAS) mutual-aid groups and write Academy not for businesses engaged in trade. Therefore, the consumer cooperatives did not have the write of Northampton proper legal protection essential for their business operations. The acts further prevented them from write International selling to people other than their members. 1. Voting is by members on how to a research summary Cardiff Sixth College a democratic (one-member, one-vote) basis. 2. Membership is open. 3. Equity is provided by members. How To Write International Academy? 4. Equity ownership share of individual members is limited. 5. Argumentation Essay Abbey College Manchester? Net income is a compare contrast, distributed to argumentation persuasion essay Abbey College, members as patronage refunds on a cost basis.

6. Dividends on equity capital are limited. 7. Exchange of goods and services at market prices. 8. Duty to how to London, educate. 9. Cash trading only. 10. No unusual risk assumption. 11. Political and religious neutrality. 12.

Equality in membership (no discrimination y gender). Adapted from David Barton,“Principles,” in David Cobia (ed. ), Cooperatives in Agriculture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. Some of the Rochdale Principles, such as democratic control (one-member, one-vote) and limited dividends on equity capital, are still followed by most cooperatives around the thinking goals SDA Bocconi School of Management world. Other principles, such as cash trading, are clearly outdated in how to a compare, most countries where credit cards and (in agricultural co-ops) seasonal loans are the norm. As a set of guiding principles, they are not necessarily appropriate for all types of cooperatives in all locations. They are after all a product of a historical period and a research Cardiff Form economy and were meant to govern a small retail store (see chapter 4 for further discussion of how to contrast essay London International cooperative principles). The phenomenal success of the Rochdale cooperative, which is still in operation today, was just the boost that the cooperative movement in persuasion essay Abbey College Manchester, England needed. Rochdale became the cooperative beacon for write essay London International others to follow.

It provided the organizational pattern that became the prototype for other cooperatives and an descriptive essay Istituto Marangoni London spurred on the cooperative movement in Europe and North America. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The Industrial and Provident Societies Act rovided both important legal protections for the cooperatives while also imposing some operating restrictions. It protected the how to write a compare contrast International property of the societies, gave binding legal authority for their rules, safeguarded the savings of their investors, allowed them to write The University, sell to non-members, and provided legal status so that an how to Academy association could sue fraudulent officials. Critical Thinking SDA Bocconi Of Management? It allowed cooperatives to how to write a compare contrast essay Academy, pay patronage refunds on purchases but limited dividends on shares of stock to five percent. Although members still faced unlimited liability for cooperative debts, share limits of ? 100 per member were enforced. The passage of the Industrial and Provident Societies Act of 1862 loosened some of the restrictions and write The University (NAVITAS) provided limited liability for write a compare contrast London International members, meaning they would be liable only for co-op debts less than or equal to the value of their stock. Share limits were increased to essay Abbey College Manchester, ? 200 per member and cooperatives were permitted to invest in other cooperatives.

As a result of write contrast essay Academy these changes, the organization of the North of write Istituto Marangoni London England Co-operative Society became possible. Established in 1863 to create cost savings for members by purchasing a variety of goods in bulk, today the Co-operative Group comprises a family of contrast International businesses employed n a wide range of activities (food, finance, farms, funerals, etc. ). It is a unique consumer-owned business that is the largest of how to a research article summary Cardiff Sixth Form its kind in the world. THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of write contrast Academy cooperatives throughout the world The first cooperative law Rochdale cooperative principles 2 ? 9 The beginnings of cooperative credit During the 1840s, later called “the Hungry Forties,” famine and extreme hardship spread throughout Europe. A blight ruined potato crops in many European countries, although Ireland was the most severely hit, during 1845-47. Argumentation Persuasion Abbey College? The shortage of how to a compare contrast essay potatoes drove up other food prices. Low fishing yields further exacerbated the food shortage, which caused millions of deaths and led to Kent School, severe economic depression, high unemployment, and political unrest in how to a compare contrast essay International, the region.

The Communist Manifesto was published in argumentation Abbey, 1848. During this same year, F. W. A Compare Contrast International? Raiffeisen, a mayor of a group of villages in Northern Germany, created a cooperative society to alleviate some of the suffering in his community. The cooperative gave potatoes and bread to SDA Bocconi School, the poor. He soon realized, however, that charity alone could not solve the problems of poor farmers; they needed to how to write a compare Academy, become self-sufficient and earn more money. Raiffeisen hen started to organize loan societies, which embraced various cooperative features. Although Raiffeisen continued to Cardiff College, advocate self-help, his first societies were mainly efforts to transfer money from the rich to the poor. A Compare Contrast International Academy? In 1862, he helped the rural farmers of the little town of Anhausen organize a truly cooperative loan society. Early agricultural marketing and farm supply cooperatives in Europe Denmark is generally regarded as the most outstanding example of early and successful cooperative farm marketing and farm supply organizations. 20 The first cooperative creamery in Denmark was established in how to Cardiff College, 1875 at Kaslunde. The early ooperative creameries incorporated some significant improvements in the butter-making process, including a standardized grading system.

The high quality butter was marketed under a government brand to reflect their supervision of the grading. The first cooperative creameries were very successful. News of their success and popularity spread to other rural areas of Denmark; many others were soon organized throughout the write a compare contrast essay London country. These developments took place without government assistance or subsidies. The early and striking success of write yourself Les Roches of Hotel Management cooperatives in Denmark can be primarily attributed to the role of the Folk High School. An institution unique to the country, this school educated young adults in rural areas. The schools were inspired by how to write a compare contrast essay London International, the philosopher and clergyman, Bishop Nikolai (N. S. Write About Les Roches International Of Hotel? F. ) Grundtvig (1783-1873), and popularized by Kristen Meanwhile, Herman Schulze had created a somewhat similar credit institution among artisans Kold, an educator. Write Essay International Academy? Grundtvig established the first in Eilenburg in essay College, 1850. He further refined this model Folk High School in how to contrast essay Academy, 1844; the one created by Kold in 1851, however, was more successful and widely to fit the credit needs of artisans and harvard essay writing other smallscale industries and how to write a compare contrast essay London International Academy developed other credit organi- replicated. The mission of the schools was to enlighten Danish citizens (beyond what they were zations.

Raiffeisen may have been familiar with learning in primary schools) so they could particithese organizations and used them to inform his pate in the governance of the kingdom. They were own co-op development efforts. Both the not meant to be vocational or cooperative training Raiffeisen and Schulze cooperative bank models schools but rather designed to expose students to rapidly spread across Europe. Features of both new ideas and experiences. Today, we would call models were used to form credit unions in North them liberal arts schools. Numerous such schools America.

Incidentally, the Credit Union National still thrive in Denmark. Although supported finanAssociation’s headquarters in an descriptive essay Marangoni London, Madison, Wisconsin was called “Raiffeisen House” for contrast Academy a number of years. cially by write about yourself essay School, the state, they are free to set their own curricula and are required to be nonvocational and without examinations. 10 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Cooperatives around the world The cooperative movement gradually spread around the world in the 19th century (table 2. 1). Another notable cooperative advocate is Sir Horace Plunkett (1854-1932), an Irishman (who spent 10 years as a cattle rancher in the United. States in the 1800s) famous for advocating the benefits of agricultural cooperatives in Ireland and beyond. 21 He was instrumental in creating an international cooperative movement and promoting the cooperative principle of political neutrality. The Irish Cooperative Organization Society (formerly the Irish Agricultural Organization Society), originally founded by how to a compare contrast essay Academy, Plunkett in 1894, is located in The Plunkett House in Dublin. Today, cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and North America. Northern Europe, where the cooperative movement took hold very early, still contains a strong cooperative presence, especially in how to an descriptive essay Istituto, agriculture.

Many of the how to cooperatives in these countries have long histories and are extremely successful. However, as is the case in the United States (see chapter 3), economic pressures have been met with cooperative mergers and consolidations. As a result, cooperative numbers in these countries appear quite low (tables 2. 2 and 2. 3). Cooperative numbers in India, even on a per capita basis, are by comparison astounding. Thinking Goals SDA Bocconi School? In the case of how to write London International Academy India and other countries with relatively high ooperative numbers, this situation typically reflects the existence of numerous, local cooperatives.

More cooperatives do not imply necessarily that the cooperative sector as a whole is stronger or more competitive, however. The spread of the cooperative business model from 18th century England to such diverse countries as India, Korea and Uganda, points to the universal adaptability and diversity of the cooperative model. Cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and North America. PRINCIPLES PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Folk High Schools created trained, rural leadership. They also established bonds of trust among those who came to live and study at the schools.

The students developed a willingness to think together, work together, and argumentation essay Manchester play together—in short, to cooperate. Although not an intended outcome, the spirit of cooperation produced in these schools has been, without doubt, an how to write a compare essay London important factor in the growth of thinking SDA Bocconi School Denmark’s cooperative movement. 2 ? 11 Table 2. 1. Historical cooperative statistics for selected countries Country. First co-op First co-op law Membership (% of how to a compare essay Academy population) Albania 1946 NA NA Austria 1794 1873 47. Harvard School? 4 Belgium 1848 1873 35. 4 Czech Republic 1852 1873 13. 4 Denmark 1851 NA 34. 2 Finland 1870 1901 45. 8 France 1750 1887 30. 1 Germany 1845 1867 27. 9 Greece 1780 1914 9. 9 Iceland 1844 1937 20.

0 Ireland 1859 1893 59. Write London Academy? 5 Italy 1806 1886 13. 3 Lithuania 1869 1917 6. Essay Abbey College Manchester? 8 Luxembourg 1808 1884 4. 8 Netherlands 1860 1855 41. Contrast Academy? 1 Norway 1851 1935 36. 4 Poland 1816 1920 NA Portugal 1871 1867 21. Write An Descriptive Istituto London? 9 Romania 1852 1903 28. 5 Russia 1825 1907 9. 5 Spain 1838 1885 11.

1 Sweden 1850 1895 53. How To Write A Compare Contrast Essay London International? 7 Switzerland 1816 1881 50. 1 Turkey 1863 867 12. 9 United Kingdom 1750 1852 16. How To Write Marangoni? 6 United States 1752 1865 56. 7 Yugoslavia 1870 1925 6. 5 NA = not available Source: Adapted from Shaffer, J. (1999). Historical dictionary of the cooperative movement.

London: Scarecrow Press, Inc. (pp. 437-39). 12 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Region Number of countries Organizations Individual members Societies Africa 12 19 27,214 9,561,443 Americas 18 61 43,945 182,486,437 Asia 28 64 480,648 414,383,079 Europe 35 88 197,293 118,473,862 Total 93 232 749,100 724,904,821 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. html (July 1,1998). Table 2. 3. Agriculture cooperative statistics from select countries Number of co-ops Country Membership (millions) Brazil 4,744 3. 74 Canada 7,880 14. 52 Columbia 1,936 4. 82 Denmark 1,446 1. 39 Egypt 6,992 4. How To International? 28 46 1. 07 23,573 17.

49 Finland France Germany 9,112 21. 64 India 446,784 182. 92 Israel 256 0. 03 Japan 3,860 42. 84 NA 0. 63 Morocco 9,635 0. 68 Norway 4,259 1. Essay Writing School? 59 Repub. Korea 7,669 17. 07 15,106 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Table 2. 2. Cooperatives and membership by how to write a compare contrast Academy, international region 2 ? 4. 78 Mexico Sweden Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States Zambia 16 1. Write About Management? 51 3,131 0. 4 42 9. 04 27,076 156. 19 2,174 0. 57 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. html (April 26, 2002). PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 14 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The driving forces behind cooperative development in the United States include the following five interrelated dynamics: 1. Market failure (monopoly power, excess supply, missing markets, etc. ). 2. Economic crises (depressions and recessions). 3. New technology. 4. Farm organizations and cooperative advocates.

5. Favorable public policy (presidential interest, legislative initiatives at both state and federal evels, and judicial interpretation). The relative importance of these forces at different periods will become apparent as we trace the path of cooperative development. Since some of the most significant contributions Americans have made to the cooperative model and movement have been in the agricultural sector, farm cooperatives will dominate this discussion. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The first American cooperatives The first recognized cooperative business in the United States (a mutual insurance company) was founded in 1752, almost a quarter-century before the birth of the country (America achieved independence in write contrast essay London, 1776). Benjamin Franklin, one of the a research article Cardiff Form College signers of the Declaration of Independence, worked with other members of fire fighting associations to create the first successful fire insurance company in the colonies: The Philadelphia Contributionship for how to essay London International the Insurance of Houses from pay to write Loss by Fire. 24 Franklin had already formed the Union Fire Company in 1736, which became the model for volunteer fire fighting companies. Franklin had witnessed the success and importance of mutual societies when he was living in England. The Philadelphia Contributionship was based on a similar London association created in 1696.

25 Although European models and European immigrant cultures remained influential, it was in write a compare International, agriculture that co-ops began to take root in new and distinctive North American forms. ” 26 Cooperative history, trends, Cooperative history, trends, and pay to essay The University (NAVITAS) laws in the United States and laws in the United States C ooperatives are neither indigenous to the United States, nor are they an American invention. As Fairbairn reminds us,“The idea of the co-op was both imported by the colonists from how to essay London Europe and also independently developed and adapted by settlers of European origin under North American conditions. ”22 Pilgrims coming to essay Kent, he new world on the Mayflower in 1620 signed the Mayflower Compact, which described the operations of an how to a compare Academy organization, or constitution, with cooperative characteristics. Argumentation Persuasion Essay Manchester? Once they arrived, the how to contrast essay International early settlers worked together collectively to clear the land, build homes and communities, start farming, and provide protection for their families. 23 The overview of cooperative development in the United States provided here supports the idea that cooperatives in the United States are both an artifact of early settlers’ European heritage and a collective response to harsh living conditions in rural areas. ? American farmers first attempted to organize in 1785 with the harvard essay Kent School establishment of the Philadelphia Society for Promotion of Agriculture. The first formal farmer cooperatives were created in a compare contrast London International, 1810: a dairy cooperative in Goshen, Connecticut, and a cheese manufacturing cooperative in South Trenton, New Jersey. On the persuasion Abbey Manchester heels of these organizations, other cooperatives involving different commodities were formed in many parts of the country (table 3. 1). There was no identified coordinated leadership and most cooperatives restricted their operations to their local community.

Most of how to essay London he early agricultural cooperatives were ultimately unsuccessful. THE 21ST CENTURY 15 Table 3. 1. How To Write A Research Article Cardiff? Selected early cooperatives and mutuals in how to contrast International, the United States Year Cooperative 1752 Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 1810 Dairy cooperative (Goshen, Conneticut) and cheese cooperative (South Trenton, New Jersey) 1820 Hog marketing, slaughtering, and packing cooperative (Granville, Ohio) 1853 Irrigation cooperative (Tulare County, California) 1857 Grain elevator (Madison, Wisconsin) 1862 Tobacco marketing cooperative (Connecticut) 1863. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?

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The History of Cyber Crimes essay. The processes of how to contrast London globalization, including the globalization of essay The University of Northampton information technology, provide unlimited opportunities to influence at individual and society. One of the negative consequences of the how to a compare International Academy development of information technology is the emergence and development of new forms of crime Ђ“ the crime in the sphere of high technologies, when computers or computer networks serve as the object of harvard writing School criminal attacks, and as well as means or method of how to a compare essay London International Academy committing crimes. The emergence of an descriptive London crime in the sphere of computer information and telecommunications associated with the advent of computer networks and the creation of information enviroment. As computer technology in various fields of activity become more and how to a compare International more using and increased, sonumber of crimes and results from damage to their commission rise too. Cybercrime cause damage to the world economy amounting to 445 billion dollars a year, according to a new report by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). The authors point out that cybercrime Ђ“ is a growing industry that harms trade, competitiveness and innovations. According to counting, the conservative counting the damage is estimated at 375 million dollars, and pay to the most daring – at 575 million. “Cybercrime Ђ“ in fact, is a tax on innovation, which slows down global development, reducing the level of inventors and investors profit, – said Jim Lewis from the Center of Strategic and international Studies. – For developed countries, cybercrime has serious consequences for the labor market” (Edwards, 2014). The largest losses bear the largest economics in the world, and the leaders among them are the United States, China, Japan and Germany, losing $ 200 million annually. Losses associated with the leakage of personal information, such as the how to write a compare contrast essay London theft of the credit card is 150 million.

In the USA, about 40 million people, about writing Kent 15% of the total population, faced with theft personal information by hackers. How To Write Contrast Essay Academy? In Turkey, this kind of crime affected 54 million people, in Germany – 16 million, in China – more than 20 million people (Thompson, 2014). The history of harvard essay writing Kent School cybercrime. Appearing in contrast essay International the mid 60-ies of 20th century, computer networks, since the mid ’70s had been growing until the end of the century it was not entangled the half planet by the web of World Wide Web. Packet communication technology (splitting files into pieces and their delivery to the recipient in different ways) was developed in 1961 by a MITsЂ™ student D. Klyaynrokom. Then George Licklider advanced the concept of “Galactic Network”, describing it as a network of write an descriptive essay interconnected computers with which anyone can access data and programs located on any computer (Bresiger, 2013). The prototype of the Internet is the a compare essay International Academy first high-speed continental computer network ARPANet, established in DARPA – Army Advanced Research Projects Agency commissioned by write article summary Cardiff Sixth Form College the Department of how to contrast London Defenseof USA. The idea of creating such a network was born in 1964 in Larry Roberts and was consistes in creation of decentralized system, consisting of separate independent segments, where there wouldnЂ™t be the main computer, that can be destroyed in the event of College Manchester nuclear war. Such a network was originally designed as a sustainable communication systems, capable to continue working even after a nuclear attack. In the write a compare contrast London event of failure of one computer, the transfer was carried out on the bypass channels. Experiments about connecting computers and combining them into a network carried out writing School since 1965.

September 2, 1969 two computers were successfully connected to each other, result was a successful exchange of information. On October 20 of that year, a similar experiment was conducted between computers located in different cities. From that moment ARPANet began its work. This network was connected more and more computers military and scientific institutions (Robertson, 2010). After the development of R. Tomlinson in 1971 e-mail system, began a rapid expansion of the network, connected the growing number of new users. In 1976, R. Metkalif created the first local computer network Intranet (Ethernet).

Further growth of users exhausted the how to a compare contrast International Academy possibilities used in ARPANet Protocol NCP, and in January 1, 1983, all computers switched to the protocol TCP / IP. ARPANet network continued to expand, and in 1986 on the basis of its National Science Foundation of the pay to write essay The University (NAVITAS) United States created NSFNet, covering about 10,000 computers in the United States and abroad. Minutes of a compare contrast essay London Academy WWW (World Wide Web) was established in early 1991, by the European physics laboratory. In May 17, was launched the first Web-server. Network development has gone exponentially. In the mid 90-ies of 20 th century to the Internet was connected more than 13 million users. The rapid development of computer networks and their penetration into various spheres of human activity, as has been said, changed the nature of criminal attacks and gave rise to new forms of them. So in which areas of argumentation Abbey College activity penetrated the network was depended most pressing threat to the current time. How To Write Contrast International Academy? Thus, in the 60s, when computer networks were used mostly in military and scientific institutions, the main danger was considered the essay loss of sensitive information, as well as unauthorized access to it.

In the write a compare essay 70s to the fore came the pay to write essay The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) problem of economic crime in the field of computer technology – breaking the bank computer networks, industrial espionage. In the 80’s crimes became widespread hacking and illegal distribution of computer programs. With the advent and development in the 90 years of the Internet, a whole range of issues related to criminal encroachments on a compare contrast London privacy of personal information appeared, f.e. How To Essay Istituto London? distribution of child pornography at networks, operation extremist virtual network communities. In addition, in the last few years the new problem bringings the spread of viruses and that more and more concerned about western researchers, the use of the Internet for terrorist purposes. Computers as a weapon to commit a crime have been used before widespread computer networks. On the first “computer crime” opinions of researchers are different. Some believe the first officially registered cases of the use of write a compare essay London computer technology to commit crimes, when it marked the advent of pay to (NAVITAS) high-tech crime, stealing from the how to write a compare London bank Minnessoty (USA) committed using a computer in 1966. Others as the first offense of this kind is called perfect with a computer crime in the amount of tax 620 thousand dollars, for essay writing School which in how to London International 1969 Alphonse Confessori was brought before a USA court. The subsequent history of how to essay crimes committed using a computer, is noted the following most notable cases:

In 1973, the cashier of the write contrast New York Citibank transferred into his account 2 million dollars, using the office computer. the end of the ’70s Ђ“ ЂњrobberyЂќ of ЂњSecurity Pacific BankЂќ (10,2 Mill. USD); 1984 – the message of the first in the world computer viruses; 1985 – disabling using the “virus” of electronic voting systems in the USA Congress; 1987-1988 gg. – The appearance of the first computer virus in the USSR; 1987 – the invasion of 17-year-old hacker in the US computer systems. This invasion is still considered the most dangerous because the offender was able to walk to the file management system and how to a research article summary Sixth Form College missiles the US Air Force Base ЂњRobbinsЂќ. His presence was detected only how to write essay London International after he took copies of the software, estimated at 1.2 million. Harvard Writing School? Dollars, including top-secret program of artificial intelligence; 1989 – American student lock computer 6000 Pentagon; International Congress of the computer “pirates” in the Netherlands with a demonstration of the write a compare contrast essay London Academy possibility of unlimited introduction of computer systems; 1990 – disabling NASA, work for 24 hours, a group of about yourself essay Les Roches School of Hotel Management Australian hackers. 1991 – theft in Outeconombank a 125.5 thousand dollars; 1992 – the a compare London Academy deliberate disruption of the Ignalina nuclear power plant reactors ACS; 1993 – Some electronic fraud in the Central Bank of Russia (in the amount of 68 billion rub.); 1995 – an attempt to steal a Russian engineer of the City – Bank 2.8 million dollars (Bain, 2010). Currently, no one is surprised intrusion into computer systems, computer viruses, fraud committed using Internet technologies. The history of computer crime turns into a story of growth statistics on criminal assault on global information networks.

The history of essay The University (NAVITAS) cybercrime is inextricably linked with the history of legislation to combat abuse in the sphere of high technologies. In the future, we will analyze this relationship. As cyber crime is not in place, continuing to evolve, creating new forms of criminal attacks, and, in addition, the problem of how to write contrast International Academy cybercrime is relatively recent, the international community is still in search of not only effective criminal law and other methods to combat this problem, but in the process of developing a common policy on this issue. The development of cyberspace and used its technology of global communication occurs quite rapidly, so the problem for lawmakers is that it is necessary to take into account these trends and opportunities “to keep up” in the new legislative regulation of relations arising in the information space. In addition, it is necessary to take into account factors transborder cyberspace allows you to write essay Les Roches International Management, make illegal under national law actions from the territory of another state, in which there are other legal norms. An important feature of cyberspace is the fact that it is difficult to determine the exact location of the criminals and the commission of one or other unlawful acts. This restriction of the rights is most evident in the failure to adequately respond to the threats posed by how to essay virtual teams – organizations, individual online communities, political institutions, states as subjects of law in cyberspace. A comprehensive description of this phenomenon is how to write an descriptive essay London, difficult by two reasons. How To Contrast Essay London International Academy? Firstly, there is no currently generally accepted definition of cybercrime. Secondly, because of differences in the legal systems of different countries and novelty problem of delinquent behavior, cybercrime as a legal term is not used in all countries of the world (Woodburn, 2011).

Types of cybercrimes. The rapid growth of IT-sector has not only positive but also negative side, manifesting itself in yourself essay Les Roches of Hotel Management an unprecedented expansion of cybercrime market. Computer crime is becoming more sophisticated, global, capturing new market segments and ahead the reaction of how to write lawmakers. Today is quite acute problem of tax-free financial transactions laundering “dirty” money through bank electronic systems. The list of crimes committed using information theft can be continued. Mention may be made a cyber attacks on military and Abbey Manchester space computer networks, systems, industrial espionage and the use of compromising in politics. Especially active criminals began to apply a world network possibilities. The feature of the global network is no borders.

For organizations such as the write contrast essay London International Academy arms trade or drug is enough to create the appropriate site and about yourself School of Hotel wait for the receipt of proposals. Physical server that is hosting the information will be in any of the countries of the world (Collins, 2013). For criminal purposes worldwide network used of professionals and applying knowledge for the purposes of industrial espionage, terrorism or political goals. How To A Compare Academy? They are able to spread their actions financial panic and provoke a military catastrophe, damage important information on the most dangerous objects – because the activity and harvard essay School energy complex, transport, banks largely depends on contrast London reliable storage, analysis and transmission of information. The annual assessment of the state of cybercrime makes worrying laymen and professionals. The laymen is most concerned about a marked reduction in the level of protection of the citizen of the thinking goals SDA Bocconi School modern information society, and at the same range of sensitive issues is quite wide – from a technical vulnerability vulnerability to PD support systems with electronic cash. The professionals is waved about how to London all aspects of the problem: technical, legal and write summary Cardiff institutional. Investigate cybercrime is extremely difficult. Every crime is unique, but there are a number of write a compare contrast essay London Academy universal steps investigation of a crime in the information field: – The first step – it is always assessment the situation by law enforcement officers and trying to understand what is technically happened to any legally protected information unauthorized access occurred, what elements of a crime, legally speaking, are contained in known and objective facts.

If technically correct and legally correct to harvard essay Kent School, gather sufficient information, the next step may be decided to institute criminal proceedings, which will be investigated by other qualified – investigators with the support staff operational units and experts in the field of computer and essay Academy technical research. The court delivered its verdict in harvard writing accordance with the criminal and criminal procedural law, the following basic steps of the competent authorities: prove that the event itself was a crime, why it happened, define and document the time, place, method and other circumstances of the offense; to prove the how to write a compare contrast Academy guilt of persuasion College Manchester certain persons in the commission of a crime; investigate the circumstances that characterize the identity of the accused; document the harm caused by the crime; identify the circumstances that contributed to the commission of the crime. The purposes of computer and technical expertise are to find digital traces that are related to a person or group of people, to assess compliance of these tracks of a particular situation and identify those that are forensically significant, that can and should form the basis of the investigation. An important issue – presentation of research results in such a way that they are understandable to write London Academy, those of a purely legal knowledge are not familiar with the intricacies of IT, – judges, prosecutors, lawyers and other participants in the proceedings (Anderlini McGregor, 2014). The most famous cybercrimes. One of the first high-profile hacking attacks committed in 1983, by write a research article Sixth Form an American student and one of the most famous in the future hacker Kevin Mitnick.

Using one of the how to a compare International Academy university computers, he entered into a global network ARPANet, an Internet precursor, and get into essay Kent School the Pentagon computers. He had access to all the files of the Ministry of how to London International Academy Defense. Mitnick was arrested right on campus. He was convicted and served his first real sentence after spending six months in write yourself essay School Management a correctional center for young people. Losing banks of almost $ 25 million dollars made two hackers from Russia. In November 2000, in the US, the FBI caught hackers from Chelyabinsk: 20-year-old Alexey Ivanov and 25-year-old Vasily Gorshkov.

Russians managed to hack the computer systems of several companies and steal credit card numbers, in particular, they stole 15.7 thousand card numbers from Western Union. In 2002, Gorshkov was sentenced to three years in prison, and how to London International Academy Ivanov was sentenced to four years (Walker-Osborne Price, 2011). $ 12 million tried to argumentation persuasion Manchester, kidnap Vladimir Levin. In March 1995, he was arrested in write essay Academy London. The Security Service of the American “Citybank” accused Levin that in argumentation persuasion College June and October 1994, he hacked into a central server and tried to rob a bank customer accounts.

New York court sentenced Levin to 36 months in a compare essay International Academy prison and deported to argumentation persuasion essay Abbey College, Russia. Another hacker attack on write London Academy NASA undertook in College Manchester 2001-2002 from the UK hacker Gary McKinnon. He managed to get into computers belonging to the Army, NASA, Navy, Department of Defense, Air Force and Pentagon. In total, McKinnon gained unauthorized access to 97 computers, each time he found information about flying saucers. He was arrested in 2002, but for lack of evidence was released.

Loud attack carried out in 2002, a hacker Adrian Lamo. He was able to gain access to the internal network of the newspaper New York Times, where he began to modify important files. Lamo changed confidential databases, one of which contains a list of cooperating with the newspaper experts, he added his own name. How To Write A Compare Essay International? In August 2003, Adrian Lamo was arrested, sentenced to two years probation and was appointed to pay Times 65 thousand dollars as compensation (Stevenson, 2013). Currently, computer and telecommunication technologies cover virtually every sector of society.

Not foreseeing the opportunities for abuse, it has put these technologies into their service, which gave rise to a new kind of crime – computer-related crime. The problem of cybercrime has developed into essay The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) a global community. Write A Compare Contrast Essay International? In order to develop a scientific approach to solving this problem it is how to write Istituto London, necessary formalization: isolation and identification of the main objects of the fundamental properties of the phenomenon. The results of the analysis of the characteristics of computer crime can be predictive of complication struggle with it because the ways of committing computer crimes each year are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to define the character. To solve this problem scientist need to integrated approach.