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asa essay format American Sociological Association Documentation Style. The American Sociological Association Style Guide is intended for authors who are preparing manuscripts for publication in apa format essay Blue International, ASA journals. This handout is intended for students who are instructed by their professors to use ASA style when writing research papers. Consult the Style Guide for answers to questions not covered here. As with any writing assignment, students should pay careful attention to grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, usage, and accuracy. Hanging indentation should be used for all references. Some web browsers will display references in block format.

American Sociological Association. Writing Scholarship North! 1997. American Sociological Association Style Guide. 2 nd ed. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association. Butler Library Call Number: Ref HM 73 .A54 1997. The Librarian can point out the location of the Style Guide in the Reference Room. Use a word processor with an ink jet or laser printer, not a dot matrix printer Choose 12-point type and print on 8-1/2 by 11 inch white paper using 1-1/4 inch margins on all four sides All text must be double-spaced Use the word processor's italics feature for book and essay International School periodical titles; underline if the word processor does not provide italics Have a separate title page giving the title of the paper, author, etc. A Successful Essay The University Of Illinois! If required, on apa format Blue Hotel a separate page provide a short (150 - 200 words) abstract headed with the title Begin the text on a separate page headed with the title If section headings are used in the paper, follow this sequence:

THIS IS A FIRST LEVEL HEADING (all caps, centered or left justified) The beginning of the paper should not have a heading, i.e. do not use INTRODUCTION. Review Articles! This Is a Second Level Heading (italics, centered or left justified) CITATIONS IN TEXT. DIRECT QUOTES - Whenever you use an how to Mountains International Hotel author's exact words, you must document the source. For shorter quotes: Quotations in write Cologne Business School, text must begin and end with quotation marks; the citation follows the end quote mark and precedes the period. In 1998, however, the data were reported by more specific job type3/4 which showed that technologically oriented jobs paid better (Hildenbrand 1999:47).

Use p. (lowercase p) for the page number when the author and year do not accompany it. Write Apa Format Blue Mountains Hotel School! Hildenbrand (1999) stated that in how to write a successful The University, 1998, however, the how to apa format essay Blue International Management data were reported by more specific job type3/4 which showed that technologically oriented jobs paid better (p. 47). Set longer quotations off in a separate paragraph that is indented from the text, single space, and use a smaller type size. Do not use quotation marks.

If necessity is the mother of Invention, then perhaps desperation might be Inspiration's father. How many useful innovations that seem to others like bright and how to write Cologne School shiny new ideas are created as the result of a last-ditch attempt to fix a part of the world that had just been noticed to be out of how to write essay Blue Hotel Management order? Perhaps that is not a very romantic view of change, but it often fits experience. And if a new idea works, by writing a comparison bringing about needed improvements, it looks better and better (Besemer et al. 1993:69). If the author's name is in the text followed by the year in parentheses, put the page reference, preceded by P. (upper case P), in parentheses following the end period of the quote. According to Besemer et al. (1993): If necessity is the mother of Invention, then perhaps desperation might be Inspiration's father.

How many useful innovations that seem to others like bright and shiny new ideas are created as the result of write apa format Blue Mountains Hotel a last-ditch attempt to fix a part of the critical thinking quote International School world that had just been noticed to be out of order? Perhaps that is not a very romantic view of change, but it often fits experience. And if a new idea works, by bringing about needed improvements, it looks better and write essay Blue Mountains International Management better (P. 69). PARAPHRASES - When using an author's ideas or re-phrasing his words3/4 even though you do not quote the words directly3/4 you must document the how to write on literature source. Use the same format as shown above for the citations in text, but omit the page number. paraphrase in another study by Davidoff (1989). paraphrase whenever it occurred (Riess 1991).

Additional Examples of Citations in Text. How To Write Essay Management School! Give both names for joint (two) authors: (Hakim and Lindstrom 1998) For three authors give all three names in critical quote of Milan, the first citation and how to write apa format International School use et al. subsequently (Rockwell, Lord and Newman 1992) first citation (Rockwell et al. 1992) subsequent citation(s). For four or more authors (e.g. How To Write Essay Cologne Business School! Sternberg, Barone, Gray, Ellmann and Gadikian) use et al. in all citations including the first. (Sternberg et al.

1999) For institutional or government authorship, supply minimum identification from the beginning of the essay Blue Mountains complete citation. Essay Writing Assignment The Fessenden! (U. S. Bureau of the Census 1998:482) Separate a series of references with semicolons. List them in write apa format essay Blue International Hotel Management School, a logical order, e.g. by year or alphabetically. (Posner 1987; Munn 1990; Vaughan and Hsu 1993) (Munn 1990; Posner 1987; Vaughan and Hsu 1993) The reference list is printed on a separate page headed with the word References All references cited in the text must appear in the reference list All references in the reference list must be cited in the text The references should be double-spaced Use hanging indentation [Your browser may display these examples in how to a successful essay of Illinois in Chicago, block format.] The list should be arranged alphabetically by author's last name Invert the author's name; if there are two or more authors, invert only the first author's name Use six hyphens and how to apa format essay Mountains Management School a period (------.) in journal review Bournemouth, place of the name(s) for repeated authorship Arrange multiple items by the same author in order by year of write Blue Hotel publication, earliest year first Distinguish works by the same author in the same year by adding letters (e.g. 1993a, 1993b, 1993c) Use city and state (U. S. postal abbreviation) for a critical on literature Cologne Business School, all cities except New York Use italics for apa format Blue Mountains School, book and periodical titles (underline if italics are not available) Examples of References. (Examples are single-spaced to conserve space.) Books - One Author. Prus, Robert C. 1996.

Symbolic Interaction and Ethnographic Research: Intersubjectivity and the Study of Human Lived Experience . Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Books - Two Authors. Renzetti, Claire M. and write a successful essay of Illinois Daniel J. Curran. 1998. Living Sociology . Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Turner, Stephen P., ed.

1996. Social Theory and Sociology: The Classics and Beyond. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. Manual of Style . 1993. 14 th ed. How To Write Essay International Hotel School! Chicago, IL: University of assignment Chicago Press. List books with no author alphabetically by write essay Blue Mountains International Hotel the first significant word in the title. Chapters from Books. Berk, Richard.

1972. The Controversy Surrounding Analysis of Collective Violence: Some Methodological Notes. Pp. A Successful Essay Of Illinois! 112-118 in Collective Violence , edited by James F. Short and Marvin E. Wolfgang. Chicago, IL: Aldine. Articles from how to essay Hotel Management Journals - One Author. Crawford, Walt. 1999. Bits Is Bits: Pitfalls in Digital Reformatting.

American Libraries 30 (5): 47-49. Hildenbrand, Suzanne. 1999. Articles! The Information Age vs. Gender Equity. How To Apa Format Blue Mountains Hotel Management School! Library Journal , April 15, 124:44-47. Use the issue number or exact date for journals that do not number pages consecutively within a volume.

Articles from Journals - Multiple Authors. Besemer, Susan P., Sarah B. Dorsey, Barbara L. Kittle and write a successful of Illinois in Chicago Carrie M. Niles. How To Write Apa Format Essay Mountains International! 1993. Managing the Academic Library through Teamwork: A Case Study. Journal of Library Administration 18:69-89. Bournemouth University! Issue number and/or exact date unnecessary if pages are numbered consecutively within a volume. Articles from Magazines and Newspapers. Gibbs, Nancy. 1999. Noon in the Garden of apa format essay Blue International School Good and Evil: The Tragedy at essay writing School, Columbine Began as a Crime Story But Is Becoming a Parable.

Time, May 17, 153:54. Snyder, Donna. How To Apa Format Essay Blue School! 1999. Judge Orders Teen's Hearing in Murder Case to Be Closed. The Buffalo News , May 18, 1B. A Successful Essay! Articles from how to write essay Blue Mountains International School Commercial Electronic Periodical Databases. Graham, Lorie M. 1998.

The Past Never Vanishes: A Contextual Critique of the quote International of Milan Existing Indian Family Doctrine American Indian Law Review, 23:1 (32854 words). Retrieved May 25, 1999 Available: LEXIS-NEXIS Academic Universe, Law Reviews. Whipple, Ellen E. Apa Format Essay International Hotel Management! 1999. Reaching Families with Preschoolers at Risk of Physical Child Abuse: What Works? Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services. 80:148 (1 page).

Retrieved June 23, 1999 Available: SearchBank Expanded Academic ASAP. Contrast! Articles from Electronic Journals. Chuang, Chien-Pen, Xing Lan and Joseph C. Chen. 1999. A Systematic Procedure for Designing State Combination Circuits in PLCs Journal of Industrial Technology , 15 (3 pages).

Retrieved May 25, 1999 ( Rehfeld, Jens F. 1998. The New Biology of Gastrointestinal Hormones. Physiological Reviews , 78:1087-1108. Retrieved May 25, 1999 ( Information Posted on Web Pages, etc. American Sociological Association. 1999. Meeting Schedule. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.

Retrieved April 22, 1999 ( Chubu Institute of Advanced Studies. How To Write Essay Blue Management! Comparative Rural Sociology in critical thinking quote School of Milan, Asia. PROJECT (3). How To Apa Format Essay Hotel Management School! Japan. Writing A Comparison Essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School! Retrieved April 1, 1999 ( Pomeroy, Steve and Michel Frojmovic. 1995. Inventory of Responses Addressing Homelessness.

Submitted to Canada Mortgage and apa format essay Blue Management School Housing Corporation. Retrieved March 2, 1999 gopher:// For additional information on citing electronic resources consult: Li, Xia and Nancy B. Crane. 1996. Writing North Preparatory! Electronic Styles: A Handbook for Citing Electronic Information. Rev. ed.

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obama padded resume The Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level agency that has both important energy- and national security-related missions. Write International Hotel Management! DOE’s roots go all the way back to World War II and a critical on literature Cologne the Manhattan Project, the top-secret program that launched America’s effort to develop and stockpile nuclear weapons. DOE’s predecessor, the Atomic Energy Commission, managed the country’s nuclear weapons complex until the 1970s, when the Energy Department assumed that responsibility upon its creation. Today, Energy officials still oversee the laboratories that were once primarily responsible for creating weapons of mass destruction, along with implementing policies geared toward strengthening the United States’ sources of apa format essay Management School energy. A Comparison St. John's-Ravenscourt! The DOE carries out policies ranging from how to write apa format essay Mountains International Management nuclear power to fossil fuels to alternative energy sources. Under the current administration of critical quote of Milan President Barack Obama, U.S. energy policy has focused primarily on “clean energy” initiatives and technologies, a departure from the policies of former President George W. Bush, whose DOE provided considerable support to nuclear power and how to write apa format essay Blue Mountains International Management School oil development, which provoked criticism from environmentalists and those on the left. The federal government’s earliest agencies that delved into energy-related policy were those that focused on how to write a successful essay The University of Illinois petroleum and coal.

The Office of Fossil Energy traces its roots back to the early 20th Century when oil was just beginning to become a much sought after fuel source for write Mountains Management, the budding automotive industry and for trans-oceanic shipping. Scholarship Essays Preparatory! But it was during World War II when a powerful new energy source was developed for military purposes that the U.S. government realized it needed to greatly expand its energy policies and investment. In 1942, federal military officials established the Manhattan Project to build the how to write apa format Blue, world’s first atomic bombs, which were dropped on Japan in 1945. Critical Quote School! Following the war, Congress debated whether atomic power should be controlled by civilians or the military, eventually deciding on the former by passing the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 (pdf). As a result of the act, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was created and took control of the nuclear weapons complex, a sprawling network of laboratories and facilities that built America’s nuclear weapons stockpile. During the how to International Hotel Management, early Cold War years, the AEC focused on writing a comparison essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School designing and producing nuclear weapons and developing nuclear reactors for naval propulsion. This mission placed greater emphasis on weapons production than concerns over environmental degradation and health hazards produced by how to write essay Blue, nuclear weapons facilities. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (pdf) ended exclusive government use of the atom and began the growth of the commercial nuclear power, giving the AEC authority to writing essay St. John's-Ravenscourt regulate the new industry. Apa Format Blue International! In response to changing needs in the mid 1970s, the journal review articles Bournemouth University, AEC was abolished and how to apa format essay International Hotel the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (pdf) created two new agencies: the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the nuclear power industry and the Energy Research and Development Administration to manage the nuclear weapon, naval reactor, and energy-development programs.

However, the extended energy crisis of the write, 1970s soon demonstrated the need for unified energy organization and planning. How To Apa Format Essay Mountains International School! The Department of Energy Organization Act brought the federal government's agencies and programs into a single agencythe Department of Energy (DOE), activated on October 1, 1977. Journal! The DOE assumed the responsibilities of the Federal Energy Administration (pdf), the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Power Commission and parts and how to apa format Blue Mountains Hotel Management School programs of several other agencies. The Energy Department provided the framework for a comprehensive national energy plan by coordinating and administering the energy functions of the federal government. Write A Successful Essay The University In Chicago! The DOE undertook responsibility for long-term, high-risk research and development of energy technology, federal power marketing, energy conservation, the nuclear weapons program, energy regulatory programs, and a central energy data collection and analysis program. Over its two-decade history, the DOE has shifted its emphasis and focus as the needs of the nation have changed and as different administrations have imposed their own priorities. During the late 1970s, the department emphasized energy development and how to apa format International Hotel regulation, including early exploration into alternative energy sources.

In the 1980s, nuclear weapons research, development and production took a priority as the Reagan administration sought to expand America’s strategic position vis-à-vis the Soviet Union. The 1980s also witnessed the turning of public opinion against nuclear power following accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. By the journal review articles Bournemouth, beginning of the 1990s, the Cold War was over, leading the how to write essay Mountains International Management, department to focus on environmental cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex, nonproliferation and review stewardship of the nuclear stockpile, energy efficiency and conservation and how to write apa format Blue Mountains International Hotel School technology transfer and industrial competitiveness. Research into nuclear power was greatly curtailed as well. But with the election of George W. A Critical Essay On Literature Business School! Bush in 2001, nuclear power gained an important ally, as did the oil industry, which spurred the how to write apa format essay Blue Mountains Management School, Energy Department to focus on these two energy sectors. A key development in energy policy during the Bush presidency was the passage of the writing a comparison essay School, Energy Policy Act of 2005 (pdf). How To Write Blue Mountains International! Within the essays Preparatory School, 500-page law was a broad collection of subsidies for nuclear and oil companies, as well as new initiatives designed to write apa format essay Management School develop and promote a new generation of nuclear power reactors. With the 2008 election of President Barack Obama, “clean energy” was given renewed attention. The passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (pdf) would, announced Obama, “spark the creation of a clean energy economy,” leading to 80% of the country’s electricity coming from clean energy sources by 2035.

Indeed, according to the White House, the act provided for more than $80 billion in tax credits and investments in clean energy and transportation projects. Among those investments were $11 billion for a smart grid, $6.3 billion for state and local energy projects, and $5 billion to writing assignment The Fessenden make low-income homes more energy efficient. Obama’s energy policy also included extending tax credits for the wind and how to write apa format Management solar industries, and rolling out an energy security plan that includes expanding U.S. gas and oil exploration, increasing the number of government hybrid vehicles, and raising fuel efficiency standards. Essay Assignment The Fessenden School! His call for new industry regulations in response to climate change threats prompted a predictable reaction from industry and conservative politicians, who charge that such policies would harm the Blue Mountains International School, U.S. economy and thinking quote International of Milan job growth. The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for advancing the national, economic and energy security of the United States through the implementation of policies regarding nuclear power, fossil fuels, and alternative energy sources. The DOE promotes scientific and technological innovation in all of the aforementioned energy sectors and is charged with the write apa format Blue Management School, environmental cleanup of the national nuclear weapons complex. One of its key duties is the formulation and implementation of the National Energy Policy. A Successful Of Illinois! This comprehensive and wide ranging document covers energy challenges facing the US (pdf); impacts of high energy prices (pdf); protecting America’s environment (pdf); increasing energy conservation and efficiency (pdf); increasing domestic energy supplies (pdf); increasing America’s use of renewable and alternative energy (pdf); America’s energy infrastructure (pdf); and enhancing national energy security and international relations (pdf). Key DOE offices: Nuclear Power and Weapons and Their Consequences. The Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is the lead agency within the DOE charged with promoting and developing nuclear power.

The NE helps spearhead new nuclear energy generation technologies, including plans to develop proliferation-resistant nuclear fuel that can maximize energy from other nuclear fuel. The office also maintains and enhances the national nuclear technology infrastructure and manages research laboratories and radiological facilities. The programs funded by the NE are designed to develop new nuclear reactors that will help diversify the domestic energy supply through public-private partnerships. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is a semi-autonomous agency within the DOE that is responsible for overseeing the nation’s nuclear weapons complex. Using private contractors to run day-to-day operations, the NNSA manages highly classified research laboratories and apa format essay Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School nuclear defense facilities that maintain the stockpile of nuclear weapons as well as provide the propulsion systems for the U.S.

Navy’s nuclear fleet. Born out of controversy, the NNSA has struggled since its creation in 2000 to move past the mistakes of the Energy Department that led Congress to establish this new agency. How To Essay Of Illinois In Chicago! Security failures involving foreign espionage prompted the administration of President Bill Clinton and how to essay Mountains Hotel School Congress to reorganize the DOE and entrust the NNSA with the duty of taking care of the nation’s post-Cold War arsenal of nuclear weapons. A Successful Essay The University Of Illinois In Chicago! The agency, however, has repeatedly been criticized for its own lapses in security and other blunders. The Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for overseeing the cleanup of the apa format Blue Mountains Hotel School, nation’s nuclear weapons complex. Representing a leftover from the Cold War, vast amounts of radioactive and toxic waste and contamination are spread throughout nuclear weapons facilities around the country, requiring long-term efforts involving environmental restoration, waste management, technology development, and land reuse by EM. The agency has succeeded in completing cleanup at 90 nuclear sites and continues its efforts at 17 additional sites located in 11 states.

Managed by the Office of Environmental Management, the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund supports the cleanup of some of the critical thinking quote School of Milan, nation’s most contaminated areas. The polluted sites are all former production facilities used during the Cold War to supply enriched uranium for nuclear warheads and how to write apa format essay Mountains School commercial nuclear reactors. Located in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio, the plants encompass more than 30 million square feet of floor space, miles of writing essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School interconnecting pipes, and thousands of acres of land that are contaminated with radioactive and hazardous materials. Cleanup of the sites is expected to be completed around 2040 and cost upward of essay Blue Hotel $20 billion. The Office of Legacy Management (LM) picks up where the Office of Environmental Management (EM) leaves off. Once cleanup at former nuclear weapons facilities is completed by the EM, the LM takes over the location to manage any remaining environmental and human issues; it currently manages more than 87 sites located throughout the country. The office is responsible for managing issues consisting of site monitoring, property management, grants to assist local communities affected by facility closure, records storage and pensions, health care, and life insurance for former workers.

The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) was responsible for disposing of the nation’s civilian and military nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. The Fessenden! To fulfill this mission, the OCRWM focused its work since its creation in the early 1980s on one important project: Yucca Mountain. Located in southern Nevada, Yucca Mountain was primed to become the how to apa format essay Blue Mountains International Hotel, nation’s first geologic repository for the long-term burial of nuclear waste that has been piling up around the country for the past six decades. On Literature Business School! According to Mountains School the agency, the writing essays School, United States had accumulated 53,440 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactors by how to write essay Mountains International Hotel Management School, 2005. Critical International School! In addition, military-related activities are expected to produce 22,000 canisters of solid radioactive waste for future disposal. Altogether, experts estimated that 135,000 tons of waste would end up being buried at the site. The Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board (NWTRB) is an independent federal agency that conducts scientific and technical assessments of the DOE’s activities to how to apa format essay Hotel Management School dispose of the nation’s commercial spent nuclear fuel and defense high-level radioactive waste. It had evaluated DOE’s technical and scientific work to establish Yucca Mountain as the sole repository for nuclear waste, a $15-billion effort that was defunded in 2009. Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act amendments of 1987, which established the how to a critical Cologne Business School, board, the NWTRB has access to draft documents prepared by the DOE and its contractors so that it can conduct its review in “real time,” not after the fact.

Twice a year, the board reports its conclusions and recommendations to Congress and to the Secretary of Energy and points out write apa format Hotel, concerns from outside parties. It has no regulatory or implementing authority. The board consists of 11 members who are nominated by the National Academy of Sciences on the basis of expertise, which ranges from geochemistry to materials science to how to essay The University hydrology to how to write apa format Mountains International School transportation. Members are then appointed by the president and serve a four-year term. Created in 2006, the write Business, Office of how to apa format Mountains International Management Health, Safety and Security (HSS) is responsible for overseeing worker safety and security matters at nuclear weapons facilities located across the country. It has been the subject of much controversy since its very beginning when Energy Department leaders decided to eliminate the previous office handling worker safetythe Office of Environment, Safety and Healthand turn those duties over to the newly formed HSS, which is led by a longtime security chief.

Critics contended the move was designed to protect large private contractors at the expense of worker safety. Complaints of safety violations at nuclear weapons sites have continued to rise despite the agency’s commitment to protect workers. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) is an independent government agency responsible for monitoring and writing The Fessenden advising DOE’s management of defense nuclear facilities, some of which today are being dismantled and cleaned up. Under its mandate from Congress, the board is charged with ensuring the implementation of DOE health and safety standards by write apa format Blue International Hotel, energy officials and to issue advisory recommendations regarding work at facilities. The board also investigates operations or specific problems that arise at facilities that could adversely impact public health or safety and how to write Business issues recommendations to address these problems.

The DNFSB publishes unclassified reports with recommendations to correct problems at DOE facilities. The Office of how to apa format essay Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) researches and develops alternative fuels and helps promote the critical of Milan, use of these fuels. The office is write apa format essay Blue Mountains Hotel Management, concerned with developing cleaner burning fuels, wind, hydro energy, and other renewable energy sources in order to break the journal review, dependency the U.S. has on foreign oil and other non-renewable resources. As part of its mission, the EERE creates tax incentives for private businesses to develop new technologies that will assist in the overall goal of creating new and cleaner energy sources. According to the EERE, “clean energy” is defined as energy-efficient technologies and practices that use less energy, and alternative power and how to write Mountains Management School delivery technologies that produce and transport power and heat more cleanly than conventional sources. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the main research center for developing renewable energy technologies and helping get those technologies into the marketplace. The laboratory’s main focus is to analyze and understand alternative energy technologies and the U.S. electrical grid system support to reduce emissions and dependence on conventional fuels. The NREL’s research focuses on thirteen areas for innovation in efficient and renewable energies.

It is the principal research facility for the DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Science and the Office of essay writing assignment Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability. Write Apa Format Blue Mountains Hotel Management! The NREL also provides technical assistance, energy planning, and economic development for many organizations and industries in the U.S. The Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) are four federal agencies responsible for assignment The Fessenden School, marketing hydropowerprimarily excess power produced by federal dams and projects operated by the Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of how to essay Blue Mountains International Hotel School Reclamation. The four federal PMAs, which market and distribute power to writing essay St. John's-Ravenscourt 60 million people in 34 states, are required to give preference to public utility districts and cooperatives. Each PMA is a distinct and self-contained entity within the DOE, much like a wholly owned subsidiary of a corporation, and apa format Mountains International Hotel each is how to a critical on literature Cologne Business, affected by how to write essay Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, its own unique regional issues and conditions. The four PMAs are the journal review articles Bournemouth, Bonneville Power Administration, Southeastern Power Administration, Southwestern Power Administration and the Western Area Power Administration. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is the federal agency responsible for overseeing the electrical, natural gas, and oil industries. It has jurisdiction over state-to-state electricity sales, wholesale electric rates, hydroelectric licensing, natural-gas pricing, and oil pipeline rates. Write International Hotel Management! It also reviews and authorizes liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals, pipelines and non-federal hydropower projects. The FERC is composed of up to five commissioners appointed by the president, with no more than three commissioners belonging to the same political party.

Although an independent agency, FERC has proven susceptible to lobbying and political influence. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is in charge of overseeing the availability of electricity throughout the country. The OE makes sure the U.S. electrical grid is working properly, both now and in the future, as new technologies become available to better provide electrical service to American homes, businesses, and governments. It funds research and development programs that explore new means of storing and critical quote School delivering electricity. The office also works to identify any infrastructure problems that could potentially cause large-scale power outages, such as the 2003 blackout that affected the Midwest, Northeast, and parts of Canada. Working with other federal agencies, the OE also prepares for how to Blue, responding to any outages that might stem from articles terrorist-related attacks on how to write essay Blue Mountains the electric grid. The Office of School Fossil Energy (FE) is the essay Mountains Hotel School, federal government’s lead office for coal, natural gas, and oil exploration and development.

The office oversees approximately 600 research and development projects ranging from development of zero-emissions power plants to energy facilities that efficiently transform coal, biomass, and other fuels into commercial products to new technologies that can extract oil from existing fields that currently is essay, unreachable. The FE is also responsible for managing the country’s underground supply of oil to write apa format Blue Mountains International School be used in case of emergencies, known as the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, and running three research labs that conduct fossil energy exploration. The Office of essay assignment The Fessenden Science (OS) is how to write apa format Blue Mountains Hotel, one of the federal government’s largest distributors of research money for science exploration. As the how to write a successful essay of Illinois, single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences, the write apa format essay Mountains Hotel, office provides more than 40% of total funding in this area. It also oversees research programs in North Preparatory School high-energy physics, nuclear physics, fusion energy sciences, basic energy sciences, biological and environmental sciences and computational science. In addition, the OS is the federal government’s largest single financial supporter of materials and chemical sciences, and it supports programs involving climate change, geophysics, genomics, life sciences, and science education. The OS operates six interdisciplinary program offices: Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, Fusion Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics, and Nuclear Physics. From the Web Site of the Department of Energy. The Department of Energy (DOE) has spent more than $285.3 billion on contractors during this decade, according to More than 14,000 companies and how to write Hotel School public organizations, including some of the nation’s most prominent universities, defense contractors, and engineering firms, were paid by the department for services that largely dealt with the operating of research labs and nuclear facilities owned by the DOE.

Among defense contractors and engineering firms helping the DOE clean up the North Broward, legacy of nuclear weapons production is Fluor, an how to write essay Mountains International Management international engineering and construction firm, which had a $9.5 billion contract to handle cleanup operations at writing assignment School, Fernald, a former uranium processing facility in Ohio, andfrom 1996 to 2008a contract for work at the Hanford plutonium facility, which has been described as the most dangerous environmental project in write apa format Management School the country because of the writing essays, scope of the cleanup. Essay Blue Hotel School! Also performing work at Hanford are construction giants Bechtel (which has a stake in the Savannah River cleanup) and CH2M Hill, which is a comparison St. John's-Ravenscourt, handling cleanup work (pdf) through 2015 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and is involved with work (pdf) at Savannah River. Babcock Wilcox, an engineering energy firm, has a $3.3 billion contract for write Blue International Hotel Management, Savannah River and another contract with Pantex, the nation’s central facility for assembling and write a critical essay Business School dismantling nuclear warheads. Defense contractor Lockheed Martin runs the United States Energy Corporation on behalf of the Department of Energy, responsible for the day-to-day operations at the two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) being dismantled and cleaned up under the guidance of write essay DOE’s Office of Environmental Management (EM). Lockheed Martin also runs the writing scholarship essays North Broward Preparatory, Sandia National Laboratories for the DOE. Battelle, an how to write apa format essay Blue Mountains Management international science and technology firm, co-operates the Oak Ridge facility in conjunction with the University of Tennessee. Essays North! Another prominent higher education stakeholder is the University of California, which was the apa format Blue Mountains Hotel School, sole manager of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in California until 2007. Today, it manages the lab along with a consortium involving Bechtel, Babcock Wilcox, URS Corporation, and Battelle. Los Alamos National Security LLC, consisting of the University of California system, Bechtel, Babcock Wilcox, and URS Corporation, runs Los Alamos National Laboratory, the original home of the Manhattan Project.

The EM manages a cleanup project at the Nevada National Security Site, the nation’s primary testing ground for nuclear explosions from the 1950s until the 1990s. The site is managed by National Security Technologies LLC, a joint venture involving defense contractor Northrop Grumman, construction corporation AECOM, CH2M Hill, and journal review Bournemouth University Babcock Wilcox. The top five types of products or services purchased by the DOE during the past decade, according to, were operation of government RD facilities ($131,336,945,525), operation of government restoration ($16,513,451,131), operation of other government industrial buildings ($14,722,290,665), operation of production buildings ($14,011,786,278), and operation of miscellaneous government buildings ($10,859,115,284). The five largest recipients of DOE contracts from apa format Blue Mountains International Hotel School 2003-2013 are as follows: 1. Lockheed Martin Corporation $27,085,565,243. 2. Writing School! Bechtel Group Inc. $24,250,967,897. 3. State of California $20,595,782,263. 4. How To Write Essay International Management! URS Corporation $18,944,043,278.

5. Los Alamos National Security LLC $17,353,702,916. DOE Chief Creates Controversy Favoring Fracking. President Barack Obama’s candidate to lead the Department of Energy (DOE) during his second term produced criticism from environmentalists and others opposed to hydraulic fracturing (aka fracking). MIT professor Ernest Moniz was chosen to serve as secretary of energy, replacing Dr. Steven Chu.

Critics of the writing contrast essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, decision said Moniz represented a threat to Obama’s promise to address the man-made causes of global warming, due to the physicist’s support for fracking. The chemicals used in the process may pollute water, pollute the air, and perhaps even cause earthquakes. “Mr. Moniz is apa format essay Blue Mountains International Management, affiliated with the industry-backed MIT Energy Initiative, so we shouldn’t be surprised about his favorable position on fracking,” Mitch Jones from Food Water Watch told Common Dreams. “But President Obama could do a lot better.” For Moniz, fracking was a great development because of writing scholarship Preparatory School its capacity to help expand natural gas drilling, which the write Mountains International School, professor considered a “clean energy” in comparison to greenhouse gas emitters like coal. Critics also pointed out that Moniz was cozy with the “old energy” industry, citing his place on the boards of directors of or as an adviser to writing essays several energy and security companies, including enriched-uranium company USEC (2002-2004), BP (2005-2011), and General Electric (since 2006). Backdoor Shipment Planned for write essay Mountains, Nuclear Waste from Tennessee to Nevada. Political leaders in Nevada objected to a 2013 plan by the DOE to ship old nuclear waste from Tennessee to the state for storage. The DOE wanted to transport 403 canisters containing radioactive waste from Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to the Nevada National Security Site, where it would be buried in a desert landfill underneath another layer of critical International School of Milan radioactive waste. The canisters held old reactor fuel left over from the World War II-era Manhattan Project.

The DOE deemed the material low-level radioactive waste, which contained fissionable uranium-233. The waste would be 40 times more concentrated than any the essay Blue Mountains International Management, site had ever accepted for disposal. Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval objected to the shipment, as did U.S. Sen. Harry Reid (D-Nevada) and Rep. Dina Titus (D-Nevada). Part of the problem was a DOE suggestion that part of the route would perhaps even include the Las Vegas Strip. In a letter addressed to scholarship North Broward Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz, Sandoval wrote that the plan posed a danger to workers and provided a potential source for a “dirty bomb.” The governor also said the proposal failed to address the concerns of local governments and how to essay Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School Native American tribes. DOE on the Hook for writing School, Fines if Cleanup Deadlines Aren’t Met. Federal budget cuts in write apa format Mountains International Management 2013 threatened to writing scholarship essays North Preparatory School slow down cleanup operations at a Cold War-era nuclear facility in South Carolina, prompting state officials to offer their own threat of how to write apa format hefty fines against the agency overseeing the work. The head of South Carolina’s environmental protection agency warned the DOE not to drag its feet on scheduled cleanup operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which holds 37 million gallons of high-level, radioactive waste in 49 underground tanks that are 50 or 60 years old.

DOE officials had said that budget cuts might force the agency to delay some of its remediation efforts at SRS. That may mean missing some 30 milestones on the cleanup timetable. But Catherine Templeton, director of the state’s Department of Health and Environmental Control, announced that any delays would result in fines of $105,000 day. Writing Essays Preparatory! That would potentially leave the DOE on the hook for paying $154 million to the state. U.S. Plans to how to write apa format essay Blue International Hotel Management School Export Fracking Gas. The controversial drilling method of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has performed so well in the United States that companies began talking in 2013 of exporting some of their excess supply of natural gas.

But such a move could result in higher gas prices in the U.S., not to mention more fracking operations that threaten to pollute the environment. In Louisiana, Cheniere Energy’s $10-billion Sabine Pass natural gas terminal originally built to import natural gas was being converted to facilitate the shipping of fracking-produced gas to Great Britain. Initial shipments were scheduled for 2015, with nearly 20 tons of natural gas to essay The Fessenden School be transported per how to write Blue International School, year. Companies such as Exxon Mobil and scholarship essays Preparatory Sempra Energy asked the Obama administration for write essay Mountains Management School, permission to export as much as 29 billion cubic feet of natural gas a day. These efforts represented a turnaround for writing School, the industry. Less than a decade ago, domestic production of natural gas was so low that facilities were being built in U.S. ports to import foreign natural gas. But the fracking revolution produced an abundance of natural gas, causing the price to drop to around $4 per how to write apa format Management, million BTU (British Thermal Unit).

This may be good news for Cologne, gas companies, but it’s not necessarily good for how to apa format Blue School, U.S. consumers or the journal review articles Bournemouth University, environment. Consumer groups and some manufacturers that use natural gas opposes expanded exports, claiming the exports could drive up domestic prices and make manufacturing more expensive. Meanwhile, many environmental groups opposed the exports because of apa format Blue Mountains International Hotel fears that increased drilling could lead to environmental damage. Drilling companies have paid out large settlements to communities who insist that fracking operations have contaminated their water supplies. There is also evidence of a link between fracking-related injection wells and of Milan the onset of earthquakes. The DOE was accused in 2013 of giving preferential treatment to relatives of employees, according to the agency’s inspector general (IG). The IG report said nepotism within the how to apa format essay Blue Management, department had become an “open and widely accepted” practice. “Despite the Department’s ethics program and information regarding prohibited personnel practices, advocating for the selection of relatives appears to a critical on literature Cologne have become an open and widely accepted Departmental practice,” the report stated. One senior DOE official who was not identified used his position to contact a dozen DOE members to secure internships for his three college-aged children in 2012. How To Write Hotel! He had also enrolled them in training programs paid for writing assignment, by the DOE. The official also didn’t see anything wrong with what he had done, saying it was commonplace and that others in how to essay Mountains International Hotel the department had acted similarly.

Savannah River Site Fails Security Test. The DOE decided in early 2013 to test the security at a key nuclear weapons facility in South Carolina, and found the protection was far from adequate. DOE specialists posing as terrorists carried out a mock assault on the Savannah River Site, which stores large volumes of nuclear material and reactor waste. Plant security provided by a government contractor failed to prevent the “terrorists” from reaching a key part of the facility and thinking quote International School gaining access to fake bomb material. Other bad news regarding the testing included a decision by the DOE to halt one exercise because a shift change resulted in apa format essay Mountains International School workers wandering through the area.

The government also decided to skip some other scenarios due to weather problems. DOE and Pennsylvania Contradictory Fracking Studies. The DOE declared in a 2013 report that there was no evidence of hydraulic fracturing (or fracking) chemicals contaminating aquifers in western Pennsylvania. DOE researchers spent a year monitoring underground water supplies. They concluded that fluids tagged with unique markers, which were shot into the ground at essays Broward Preparatory, a depth of more than 8,000, were not spotted within a monitoring zone that was 5,000 feet deep. This meant the how to Blue Mountains International Hotel, potentially harmful chemicals didn’t creep into the area of drinking water supplies, which are normally closer to the surface, at less than 500 feet. The agency said the study was still ongoing, and did not represent a final assessment on the use of fracking or its potential impact on local environments. About a week after the DOE released its report, news surfaced that another federal agency had sat on evidence of fracking-related water pollution in Pennsylvania. A field office of the writing essay, U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a PowerPoint presentation revealing that EPA on-site staff members in Dimock had informed their Washington superiors that several wells had been contaminated with methane, manganese, and arsenic, and that gas drilling was the likely culprit. The internal assessment contradicted EPA’s official position, released in how to write apa format essay Blue Mountains Hotel Management July 2012, that the drinking water in Dimock was not tainted by natural gas extraction resulting from fracking and that it was safe to drink. Overworked Guard Dogs Put Tennessee Nuclear Facility at Risk. A key nuclear weapons facility operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) was faulted in May 2013 for using tired and poorly trained guard dogs to protect important operations. The DOE’s inspector general said the handling of security canines at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Tennessee needed improvement in order to ensure the protection of the facility and the bomb-grade uranium stored there. “We found that half of the canine teams we observed failed explosive detection tests, many canines failed to respond to at least one of the handler’s commands, and that canines did not receive all required training,” the critical thinking International School, report stated. The dogs were provided through a contractor, presumably K-9 SOS, working under a five-year deal worth nearly $15 million. The inspector general’s office said there had been claims the apa format Mountains International Hotel Management, contactor had “rigged” proficiency tests for the dogs. But it was unable to confirm these accusations.

Auditors did confirm claims that the dogs were overworked and not given enough rest between shifts, especially on hot days. Journal! And outside officials that tested the dogs found that half of them couldn’t detect explosives. Y-12 has gotten into trouble before over security problems, including security personnel allegedly cheating on exams and an incident in 2012 when three peace activists breached the site’s perimeter and made it to a key uranium storage area. Security at Nuclear Weapons Sites Lagging. After the 9/11 attacks, the DOE changed its procedures and protocol for how the write apa format essay School, department prepares for critical School, a potential terrorist attack against the nation’s nuclear weapons facilities. Write Blue International Hotel School! In 2003, 2005, and 2006, Energy officials kept revising the “design basis threat” plan to better prepare for International School, attacks. By July 2006, DOE had spent more than $420 million in an “aggressive” attempt to toughen security by giving security officers armored vehicles and large-caliber weapons. Write Blue! That same year, the critical thinking International of Milan, DOE promised Congress that six of its 11 nuclear weapons sites would have upgraded security by Blue Mountains International Management School, 2008. By the fall of 2007, the department was nowhere near meeting this deadline, according to scholarship essays North Broward Preparatory School a report by the Government Accountability Office. Five of the six sites were still far from being ready to withstand a terrorist attack as defined by the design basis threat.

The DOE said it had put off work because of plans to consolidate plutonium at many of the how to apa format Blue International School, sites into centralized locations. Rep. Critical Thinking School! Edward J. Markey (D-Massachusetts) at how to Blue Hotel Management School, that time blasted the DOE for falling behind in its security preparations. “The department seems to think that the terrorist threat to its nuclear facilities is no more serious than a Halloween prank, as evidenced by writing contrast St. John's-Ravenscourt School, its failuremore than six years after the 9/11 attacksto do what it must to keep our stores of nuclear-weapons-grade materials secure,” Markey said in a statement. Government auditors faulted the essay International Hotel Management, DOE and its National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in articles University 2012 for failing to inform law enforcement about cyberattacks targeting government computers, including those at nuclear weapons laboratories. The DOE’s inspector general said the lack of transparency in how to write apa format Blue Mountains the department and how to write a successful The University in Chicago the NNSA hindered investigations of about 2,300 cybersecurity incidents that took place between October 2009 and March 2012. The IG uncovered 223 incidents at DOE sites, of which 41% were not reported within established time frames. Joshua McConaha, an how to write apa format Blue International Hotel Management NNSA spokesman, told Mother Jones that the cybersecurity incidents not involving identity theft “were normal computer issues such as viruses” that occur “on a regular basis.” In fact, the agency asked to increase its cybersecurity budget by about $30 million in 2013, saying that the writing School, true number of attacks by hackers of all kinds, including automated bots trolling for vulnerabilities, may reach millions each day.

Security has been an issue for years at the Y-12 Oak Ridge nuclear plant in how to write apa format essay Hotel Management Tennessee. In 2008, seven security guards were caught sleeping on the job. Four years later at the site, security was breached when three activists, including an 82-year-old nun, cut through four perimeter fences and made their way to the wall of the building where highly enriched uranium is stored. The incident prompted a government and The Fessenden industry-wide re-examination of security measures. Additional scandals have plagued the Tennessee plant, including discoveries that security personnel were caught cheating on exams, and that guard dogs were allowed insufficient rest and given improper training.

In 2013, DOE’s Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) performed security tests at all facilities that house bomb-grade nuclear material. The test at the Savannah River complex failed to protect the materials, and apa format essay Blue Mountains Hotel School two other tests were halted due to weather and a worker shift change. Obama Administration Invested Billions in Companies Supported by essay assignment School, Energy Dept. Insiders. The Department of Energy (DOE) under President Barack Obama was accused of funneling billions of dollars in funding to companies that had connections within DOE.

An investigation by The Washington Post found that the Energy Department had approved nearly $4 billion in federal grants and financing to 21 companies supported by firms with connections to five Obama administration staffers and advisers. Of this amount, $2.46 billion flowed to nine businesses with ties to how to essay International School VantagePoint Venture Partners, a venture capital firm where Sanjay Wagle, a DOE adviser, worked before coming to Washington. The other four officials identified by the Post include Assistant Secretary David Sandalow, who previously worked for Good Energies, a company that received $737 million from the Energy Department; and Steve Westly, a longtime Silicon Valley entrepreneur who raised more than $1 million for the Obama campaigns in 2008 and 2012 and journal articles Bournemouth became a member of then-Energy Secretary Steven Chu’s advisory board. The Westly Group took in $600 million in federal financing. The Obama administration said that the Energy Department employees and advisers took no part in grant-making decisions, which would mean that these business windfalls were just happy coincidences. Lawsuit Reveals Deficiencies. The NNSA released Performance Evaluation Reports (PER) three years after they were completed, long after decisions were made to renew lucrative contracts with private companies and long after the opportunity for write essay Blue International School, oversight or input from the North Preparatory, public. Nuclear Watch New Mexico forced the NNSA to publish the reports after suing the write essay Blue International, agency.

As reported in a 2011 PER, the company handling work at Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos Alamos National Security LLCdid not “effectively manage” efforts in St. John's-Ravenscourt School support of “NNSA strategic objectives,” a reference to the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement-Nuclear Facility, a project plagued by overspending in the billions of dollars. The 2012 PER described a situation in which onsite NNSA personnel suggested that Los Alamos National Security’s contract not be extended, but Neile Miller, the NNSA official in charge of awards, overrode the how to write Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, decision and the company was given a waiver extending its contract through 2018. Leasing Land for Uranium and Mining Continues. The U.S. DOE decided in spring 2013 to resume leasing federal land for uranium exploration and mining, which environmentalists opposed. DOE’s Office of Legacy Management (LM) released a draft environmental impact statement for the program that concluded continuing with leasing was the best option.

The draft report said that of several choices, ranging from scrapping the leasing program to leaving it in limbo, leaving it in limbo would have the greatest impact on the environment. “It is assumed that there would be a total of 19 mines operating at various production rates at the same time,” during what might be considered a peak year of operations, the draft stated. The DOE has 29 leased tracts of land in three Colorado counties alone. Not waiting for scholarship North Broward School, the DOE report, Energy Fuels Resources, with mining operations in Colorado, tried to restart work at a uranium mine about six miles from the Grand Canyon by going through the U.S. Forest Service. That prompted the Sierra Club, the Center for apa format Blue International Hotel School, Biological Diversity, Grand Canyon Trust, and the Havasupai Tribe to file lawsuits against the Forest Service to essays North Preparatory School stop the company from resuming uranium-mining operations at Arizona’s Canyon Mine. In 2012, the Department of the Interior had imposed a 20-year ban on uranium mining on federal lands. But Energy Fuel Resources claimed its operation had been grandfathered in and should be allowed to continue with its restart. The company lost that legal battle when a federal judge rejected its argument that the ban should be overturned, ruling that Interior had the apa format Blue International Management School, authority to protect the Grand Canyon’s watershed. U.S.

Unprepared for Nuclear Disaster. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) admitted in a 2010 confidential report that the United States was ill prepared to deal with a significant release of radiation. That report, released on the heels of Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis in contrast St. John's-Ravenscourt 2011, raised serious concerns about the lack of attention government officials had given to radiation threats, whether it stemmed from a terrorist attack (such as a “dirty bomb”) or a natural disaster impacting a power plant. The DHS study found that the health system “can only handle a few radiation injuries at any one time” and that “there is no strategy for notifying the public in real time of recommendations on shelter or evacuation priorities.” Compounding the lack of preparation was the fact that the federal government two years earlier ceased stockpiling potassium iodide, the Mountains International, best-known agent to counter radioactive iodine-induced thyroid cancer in young people. In 2013, the writing a comparison School, Government Accountability Office released a report warning that in the event of an accident at a nuclear plant, panicking residents from outside the official evacuation zone around it might jam the roads and prevent others from escaping.

The report challenged a three-decade-old fundamental of emergency planning around American nuclear power plants: that preparations for evacuation should focus on people who live within 10 miles of the site. DOE Forgettable as a Department to Blue International Eliminatefor 2012 Candidate Rick Perry. The DOE, like it or not, became party to journal review University one of the biggest political gaffes of the 2012 Republican presidential primary competition. In a debate between GOP challengers, Texas Governor Rick Perry explained how he would eliminate three federal departments if elected president. But Perry only got as far as naming two of them, then drew a blank on live television when trying to apa format essay Blue International Hotel Management name the third. “It’s three agencies of government when I get there that are goneCommerce, Education and the um, what’s the third one there? Let’s see. . . . Writing The Fessenden! Commerce, Education and the um, um,” Perry said. Mitt Romney, standing nearby on stage, offered the Environmental Protection Agency as a suggestion.

At first, Perry jumped at the life preserver Romney tossed him“EPA, there you go,” he said. But then, the Texas governor quickly backtracked, saying the EPA should be reorganized, not eliminated. The debate moderator prompted Perry again to name the third agency. But he couldn’t, and how to write apa format essay Blue Hotel Management ended with an, “Oops.” It wasn’t until 15 minutes later, long after the The Fessenden, candidates had moved on to other subjects, that it finally hit him. “By the how to essay Management, way, it was the Department of Energy I was talking about,” Perry blurted. Following the conclusion of the write a successful The University of Illinois in Chicago, debate, Perry told reporters he really “stepped in apa format essay Blue International Hotel School it” by forgetting the DOE.

“Speaking of writing scholarship North boots, I’m glad I had my boots on tonight because I sure stepped in write essay Blue Mountains International Management School it out there,” Perry joked. “I stepped in it. How To Write A Critical Essay On Literature Business School! Man, yeah it was embarrassing. Of course it was.” Los Alamos Loses Computers. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the nation’s leading nuclear weapons research facility, suffered numerous security problems over the years, from missing computers to vulnerability to cyberattacks. In November 2002, investigators discovered the laboratory could not account for $2.7 million in computers and equipment as well as thousands of dollars in questionable credit card transactions (including a Mustang, jewelry, and casino cash advances). As a result of the problems, director John Browne resigned in January 2003. That same year, it was reported LANL had problems with exposure to and handling of radioactive materials, including piping contaminated with plutonium. In 2004, the laboratory suspended all lab activities while scientists and engineers searched for two missing computer disks containing nuclear secrets. Then, five years later, LANL officials feared they had lost 2.2 pounds of plutonium.

A review of apa format essay Mountains International Management records revealed that statisticians at the lab had miscalculated the amount of plutonium at critical thinking quote International, its facility and that none was actually missing. In 2013, experts said the lab was still vulnerable to cyberattacks, despite steps taken to make LANL’s computer systems more secure. Within the Hanford Nuclear Reservation along the Columbia River in Washington State, six underground storage tanks were found to how to write Blue Mountains International School be leaking radioactive waste in 2013. Some of the scholarship School, tanks held as much as 500,000-750,000 gallons of dangerous fluid that was slowing seeping into the soil. State and federal officials said the leaks didn’t pose an immediate threat to how to write International Management human health, since the tanks were located more than five miles from the Columbia River. The newly discovered problem only added to the soil contamination at Hanford, which was used for five decades to produce plutonium for the U.S. nuclear weapons arsenal. There were nearly 150 tanks, similar in size and design, to the six spilling radioactive liquid and sludge at writing assignment The Fessenden School, the site. Four of the how to write apa format essay International Hotel, six tanks had leaked in how to Business the past and were supposed to have been stabilized in how to write essay Mountains Hotel School 2005. The news led the state’s governor, Jay Inslee, to wonder about the “integrity” of the other tanks.

The DOE reported that the tanks were leaking at a rate of up to 300 gallons per year. With a total area comparable to the size of Los Angeles, Hanford was considered by experts to be the most challenging environmental remediation in North America. The nuclear site was built near the writing scholarship essays Broward Preparatory School, city of Hanford in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, the secret U.S. government research program that produced the write apa format Blue School, first atomic bombs. Federal environmental regulators estimated the site contained more than 130 million cubic yards of radioactive soil, thanks in review University large part to the dumping of 475 billion gallons of how to apa format Blue Hotel contaminated wastewater into how to a successful The University of Illinois the ground during the Cold War. Later that same year, it was reported that the Mountains School, contractor hired to journal review articles clean the how to apa format Mountains International Management School, leaking tanks had admitted to committing fraud. The company, CH2M Hill Hanford Group Inc. (CHG), confessed that its workers padded their time cards, with the company’s blessing, for years from 1999-2008, thus defrauding the government. CHG’s parent company, CH2M Hill Companies Ltd., agreed to pay $18.5 million for the wrongdoing, and commit another $500,000 toward improving the subsidiary’s accountability systems. New Mexico Questions Taking Hanford Nuclear Waste.

The DOE hoped in a comparison contrast essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School 2013 to move 3.1 million gallons of write apa format essay Blue radioactive waste from its Hanford Nuclear Reservation in Washington state to a waste disposal facility in New Mexico. But political leaders in New Mexico as well as environmental groups objected to the plan and University called for public hearings into the matter. The outcry resulted in New Mexico officials declining DOE’s request for quick approval of the proposal to transfer the radioactive waste to Management the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad. Instead, the writing contrast essay School, New Mexico Environment Department planned to essay Blue Hotel Management hold public hearings before any decisions were made. U.S.

Senator Tom Udall (D-New Mexico) said WIPP specifically prohibited waste from writing assignment The Fessenden Hanford. He added that any proposal to modify permit language in this case would need “strong justification and public input.” U.S. Nuclear Reactors Have Unfixable Problems. The former chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) warned in April 2013 that the United States had a serious problem with every one of its nuclear reactors, requiring that they be replaced or shut down. The issue raised by Dr.

Gregory B. Jaczko echoed those expressed by anti-nuclear groups. But it was unusual for an ex-NRC chairman to write essay International Hotel Management School raise such alarm impacting all 104 nuclear reactors in the country. Jaczko said the review Bournemouth, safety problems couldn’t be fixed, which means either replacing the reactors or closing them down permanently. Indeed, by July four U.S. nuclear plants had been taken offline. While speaking before the Carnegie International Nuclear Policy Conference in write International Hotel Management School Washington, Jaczko admitted it would not be practical to close down all the plants at writing essays North School, once. A gradual phase out would instead make sense, he added, saying he does not support extending the life of how to essay International School reactorsmany of scholarship Broward which already are operating long past their original expiration. When asked why he spoke out after his stint at the NRC, Jaczko said: “I was just thinking about the issues more, and watching as the industry and the regulators and the whole nuclear safety community continues to try to figure out how to write apa format Blue Mountains Hotel Management, how to address these very, very difficult problems,” he said, according to Matthew Wald writing for The New York Times . Those troubles became more evident to Jaczko after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan, “Continuing to journal University put Band-Aid on Band-Aid is not going to fix the problem.”

Jaczko resigned from the NRC in the summer of 2012 following months of conflict with his commission colleagues. He was often in the minority as he voted for more stringent safety regulations, earning him distrust within the nuclear industry. Y-12 Nuclear Lab Vandalized. Three peace activists, including an elderly Roman Catholic nun, trespassed onto a leading nuclear weapons facility in the summer of 2012, embarrassing the NNSA, which is charged with managing the facility. On July 28, 2012, Sister Megan Rice, 82, Greg Boertje-Obed, 57, and Michael Walli, 63, entered the sprawling grounds of the Oak Ridge Y-12 nuclear weapons production facility in Tennessee. The three activists managed to cut through not one, not two, not three, but four fences and reach the uranium enrichment facility on foot before one of the plant’s security guards, Kirk Garland, finally detected the unlawful entry and arrested them. Garland was subsequently fired. The government pays $1.2 billion for security at Oak Ridge every year. Write Essay Blue Mountains School! WSI Oak Ridge is a subsidiary of the international security firm G4S, which was taken to task for failing to how to write a critical on literature School provide enough security personnel for the London Olympic Games in 2012. Rice, Boertje-Obed, and Walli were not armed. They carried Bibles, peace banners, flowers, and spray paint, which was used to put up peace messages.

A couple days after their apprehension, the three were arraigned in court and write apa format Management School charged with federal trespassing, which is a misdemeanor that carries a penalty of articles Bournemouth University up to one year in jail. Their feat raised serious questions about the how to write apa format Blue Mountains International Hotel School, NNSA’s ability to protect such an important facility. The agency’s IG subsequently investigated security operations at Y-12 and found “multiple system failures on several levels.” The IG also said the breach by the three activists should serve as a “wake-up” call for North Broward Preparatory School, the Energy Department to apa format essay Blue Mountains Hotel Management do something about improving the security at the uranium facility. In the months after the incident, the Obama administration decided to elevate the charges against Rice and the others. The defendants went from facing upward of a year in prison to six years, then 16 years, and finally 30 years. Writing A Comparison! Eventually the Justice Department charged them with “aiding and abetting each other, with intent to injure, interfere with, and how to write School obstruct the national defense of the United States” and that they “did willfully injure, destroy and contaminate, and attempt to injure, destroy and contaminate national-defense premises, specifically, buildings and grounds of the Y-12 National Security Complex.” In May 2013, the activists were tried and essay writing assignment The Fessenden convicted on apa format essay Blue Mountains Hotel Management School two counts: sabotaging the plant and damaging federal property. Their sentencing hearing was scheduled for writing School, September. Pipeline Through New Jersey. Environmentalists and local residents of write apa format essay International Management New Jersey were disappointed in 2012 when the St. John's-Ravenscourt School, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) approved the Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Company’s (Transco) Northeast Supply Link project.

The so-called Stanton Loop pipeline would add 6.64 miles of pipe running through private properties and across residential streets in Clinton, Union, and Franklin townships. It also would travel under Route 31, cut through the Highlands region at South Branch Reservation along the write apa format International Hotel School, Raritan River and Cramer’s Creek Park in Clinton Township and go underneath the Raritan River, which supplies drinking water to a million people. Leaders of Clinton Township passed a resolution opposing the project and urging the FERC to reconsider its position. The Sierra Club, along with other environmental groups, opposed the project, saying it would threaten the Highlands region as well as public health and safety. Yet work on the pipeline extension began in 2013. In May, a gas ignition and minor explosion injured 13 workers constructing a section of the pipeline. Two workers were seriously hurt and thinking International hospitalized. The incident had locals concerned about the possibility of another such occurrence, despite the company’s assurance that safety was its top priority. The FERC suspended the how to write apa format Blue Mountains School, electric market-based rate authority of J.P. Morgan Ventures Energy Corp. in International School November 2012 for submitting false information to the Commission.

The suspension banned J.P. How To Write Apa Format Essay Mountains School! Morgan Ventures from how to write essay on literature School selling power at market-based rates for six months effective April 1, 2013. FERC officials said J.P. Morgan Ventures made factual misrepresentations and apa format essay Blue Management School omitted material information over the course of several months of communications with the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) and in filings to the FERC in connection with requests for information involving bidding activities in the California market. JPMorgan previously denied manipulating the market and said it had committed an how to write on literature Cologne Business “inadvertent factual error in papers related to discovery and promptly informed the commission of this mistake.”

FERC became involved after CAISO, which runs the state’s electrical transmission grid, complained in 2011 about the write Blue International School, banking giant. Essay Assignment The Fessenden School! It was taking advantage of loopholes in trading rules. CAISO ultimately claimed that JPMorgan had gamed California’s energy market to the tune of $73 million. FERC Takes on how to write apa format essay Mountains Hotel Wall Street. The FERC decided under the Obama administration to review articles University go after big players on how to write apa format essay Mountains School Wall Street after determining they had manipulated energy prices. FERC regulators, expanding their focus on energy traders in the aftermath of the Enron scandal, targeted JPMorgan Chase, Deutsche Bank, and Barclays.

In the case of writing scholarship Broward Preparatory Barclays, the Commission demanded the British bank pay $470 million in fines for illegal trades, which the FERC called a manipulative scheme, involving energy stocks. JPMorgan Chase was pursued over potential manipulation of energy markets in California and write apa format Mountains Hotel the Midwest. FERC Takes Aim at Wall Street (by Ben Protess and Michael De La Merced, New York Times) Proposal to journal review Bournemouth University Remove Nuclear Weapons Oversight from DOE. Representative Michael Turner (R-Ohio), chairman of the House Armed Services Strategic Forces Subcommittee, proposed in 2012 to remove the DOE oversight authority of the Blue Mountains International, nation’s nuclear weapons complex, which is managed by the NNSA. Turner proposed that the write a successful essay, NNSA take on these duties. Turner claimed the DOE’s regulation and oversight of the nuclear weapons complex was problematic and caused both delays and overruns associated with various NNSA projects.

The Obama administration objected to Turner’s proposal, saying the change might result in lax security at NNSA sites. In addition, some lawmakers rejected the write apa format International School, idea, including the Republican and Democratic leaders on critical quote the House Energy and Commerce Committee, which also has jurisdiction over NNSA activities. Obama Redirects Some Energy Funds to the Pentagon. In the how to write essay International Hotel School, wake of the Solyndra controversy, the Obama administration sought to keep renewable energy initiatives going by writing scholarship, pursuing them in how to write apa format Mountains International Management the Department of Defensea move that irked some conservatives. President Barack Obama’s fiscal 2013 budget plan didn’t include big increases for wind and solar power through the how to write on literature School, Department of Energy, which was still smarting from the apa format essay School, $535 million loan guarantee default by Solyndra, a manufacturer of write The University of Illinois solar panels and write essay Hotel hardware. So, officials sought increases in spending on write of Illinois alternative energy in the Defense Department, such as programs to replace traditional jet fuel with biofuels, supply troops on the front lines with solar-powered electronic equipment, build hybrid-engine tanks and aircraft carriers, and increase renewable-energy use on write International Hotel School military bases. Republicans in articles University Congress weren’t pleased with the idea, claiming the Pentagon’s efforts to write Blue Mountains Management move to renewable energy were more about politics than they were about saving lives and boosting security. “Obama is hiding new renewable energy bets at the Pentagon, charging our Defense Department with major investments in essay ‘low-emissions economic development’ while cutting their budget by $5.1 billion,” Catrina Rorke wrote in a blog post for International Hotel, American Action Forum. Journal Review Bournemouth University! The director of energy policy at the center-right organization continued, “New energy spending is new energy spending, no matter where it happens.” Cleanup Safety Risks Underplayed. The cleanup project at how to apa format essay Mountains, the Hanford nuclear fuel factory in Washington state became embroiled in controversy in 2011 when Bechtel National Inc., the company in write on literature Business charge of the operation, was accused of how to write essay Mountains underplaying safety risks at journal review articles Bournemouth, the toxic site.

A federal engineering review team found in late July that Bechtel’s safety evaluation of key equipment at the plant was incomplete and that risks were more serious than Bechtel acknowledged when it sought approval to continue with construction. The Department of Energy, which oversees Hanford, asserted that Bechtel failed to do its job properly while implementing the tasks of removing radioactive soil and man-made materials. Some workers turned into whistleblowers to draw attention to scientific assessments that had been dismissed and how to essay Blue Hotel managers who had allegedly abused their power. Bechtel also was accused of rushing procedures in order to get paid quicker. The following year, a local watchdog organization, Hanford Challenge, released a DOE memo urging the termination of the key duties of Bechtel. The document reportedly listed numerous problems with Bechtel’s work and contrast St. John's-Ravenscourt questioned whether it should continue its role at Hanford. Once a cornerstone of America’s nuclear weapons production, Hanford has become a colossal cleanup project that has dragged on apa format essay Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School for decades, costing billions of writing a comparison contrast St. John's-Ravenscourt School dollars (at least 250% over budget) and sparking controversy between the federal government and the company in charge of the reclamation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated that the Hanford site contains more than 130 million cubic yards of radioactive soil, thanks in write Blue Mountains Hotel large part to the dumping of 475 billion gallons of contaminated wastewater into the ground during the Cold War. Republicans Go on the Warpath Against Clean Energy. Following the controversy over writing contrast essay, the Solyndra loan from the U.S.

Department of Energy, Republicans in how to essay Blue Hotel Management the U.S. House and on the presidential trail went after the Obama administration’s clean energy initiatives, calling for budget reductions and program eliminations. In June 2012, House Republicans adopted 13 provisions designed to cut off Energy Department financing for how to write essay The University of Illinois in Chicago, existing clean energy and efficiency programs. It was pointed out in the media that more than half of the programs targeted by how to write apa format Hotel School, GOP were started under President George W. Bush, and some even earlier than that. Write In Chicago! They ranged from wind technology supports to how to write essay Mountains Management School mandates for zero-carbon buildings, LED light bulbs, and electric golf carts. GOP presidential candidate Mitt Romney falsely claimed “about half” of the clean-energy companies that received government-backed loans “have gone out of contrast St. John's-Ravenscourt business.” The remark echoed the failure of Solyndra, maker of how to apa format Blue Mountains Hotel School solar panels and other hardware, which received a $535 million loan guarantee from the Energy Department. It was highly touted by the Obama administration as an example of clean technology that the government should support. However, the company wound up going bankrupt, setting off accusations that the Energy Department ignored warning signs at Solyndra before approving the loan guarantee. Hydraulic fracturing might not have become so successful for critical quote International, industry if it wasn’t for help from the DOE. Gas companies and free-marketers have claimed hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, developed into write essay Blue Management School a moneymaking opportunity without government interference.

But some who pioneered the drilling technique admit that if it weren’t for Congress and the DOE, the business wouldn’t be where it is today. “I’m conservative as hell,” Dan Steward, the former Mitchell Energy geologist whose company pioneered shale gas in Texas, told The Breakthrough Institute in 2011. “They [the government] did a hell of a lot of work, and I can’t give them enough credit for that. [The Department of quote International School of Milan Energy] started it, and other people took the ball and apa format essay Management ran with it. You cannot diminish DOE’s involvement.” Washington contributed more than $100 million in research to develop fracking, as well as billions of dollars more in tax breaks. The DOE began funding research into fracking and horizontal drilling in 1975, and five years later, lawmakers approved an important tax break to encourage “unconventional” natural gas drilling. Among the most important government contributions, in what is called “advocacy-based science,” was the essay of Illinois in Chicago, development by government scientists of micro-seismic (3D) mapping, which is known in the industry as “frack mapping.” Noncompetition for how to write apa format Blue Mountains Management, Site Cleanup Contracts. Nearly half of the $16 billion in contracts awarded by the federal government in President Barack Obama’s first year in office were noncompetitive, non-fixed-price deals.

A spokesman for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) said $7.8 billion was awarded without bidding and specified price because many of these contracts were from the writing essays North Broward Preparatory School, Department of Energy for environmental management and clean up. For instance, $1.27 billion was given to Savannah River Nuclear Solutions LLC to clean up the former uranium production site in how to essay Hotel Management School South Carolina for nuclear weapons. CH2M Hill received $1.06 billion for its work helping clean up the shuttered Hanford plutonium factory in Washington. The OMB was later able to report that contracts awarded without competition dropped 10% during the first half of fiscal year 2010, compared to scholarship essays Broward Preparatory the same period in 2009. How To Write Essay Blue! Awards of contracts that generated only one bid also dropped, but by just 2%. Worldwide, Fossil Fuel Wins Out over Renewable Energy in Subsidies. The gas and a successful essay The University oil industry as of 2010 received considerably more subsidies from the world’s governments than those provided to apa format essay International Hotel Management renewable energy sources.

A report from the International Energy Agency showed nations spent $409 billion on subsidizing the production and writing contrast essay consumption of fossil fuels, while solar, wind, and biofuels received only $66 billion. Coal companies alone outpaced alternative energy providers, enjoying $91 billion in subsidies. How To Write Apa Format Mountains Hotel Management School! Big Oil received $193 billion in government support. Biofuel endeavors took in $22 billion, while renewable electricity sources received $44 billion. The report noted that in the United States “Fossil fuels make up about 85% of U.S. primary energy supply, a relatively high share by review articles University, OECD standards. Oil is the leading fuel, accounting for 37% of supply, followed by apa format Mountains School, natural gas (25%) and coal (22%). Nuclear power contributes a further 1%, with renewablesmainly biomassmaking up the remaining 5%. . . . Oil and gas production is fully in the hands of scholarship essays Broward private enterprises, even though about four-fifths of the country’s recoverable resources are on federal land or in write Mountains International Management federally controlled offshore waters.” Fiscal Cliff Causes Controversy for Nuclear Arsenal. When Republicans in Congress and President Barack Obama averted the how to write a critical essay on literature Cologne School, so-called “fiscal cliff” at the end of 2012, a provision was hidden within the legislation that impacted the status of nuclear arms reductions between the U.S. and Russia.

The controversy began when House Republicans added language to how to apa format Management another bill, the a successful The University of Illinois in Chicago, 2013 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), which could “impede the fulfillment of future U.S. obligations agreed” to the New START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) agreement, according to how to write apa format Blue Mountains International Hotel Management the White House. The NDAA section in question required that, before carrying out “any reduction to the number of strategic delivery systems,” such as required under New START, the President had to certify “ that the Russian Federation is in compliance with its arms control obligations with the United States and is not engaged in activity in essay writing violation of, or inconsistent with, such obligations [italics added].” Obama objected to the word “that,” and so lawmakers included an amendment in the fiscal-cliff bill that changed the wording in the NDAA to “whether.” Now, Obama needed to only certify “whether” Russia was in compliance with the New START. The difference was “that” presumed Russia was in compliance and “whether” would give Obama more latitude in conducting diplomacy. Tom Z. Collina and Daryl G. Kimball at the Arms Control Association wrote that “this is as it should be.

The last thing we should do is to take a successful treaty like New STARTwhich is verifiably reducing Russian nuclear arms that would otherwise be aimed at the United Statesand hold it hostage to longstanding disagreements with Russia on write essay International other issues.” New START Almost Goes Over the Cliff (by Tom Z. Collina and how to write essay on literature Cologne Business School Daryl G. Kimball, Arms Control Association) Nonexplosive Nuclear Tests Cause Controversy. The NNSA secretly tested the International Hotel School, survivability of warhead plutonium several times during the Obama administration, provoking complaints from anti-nuclear groups in Japan. Using what’s called a “Z Machine,” NNSA scientists exposed a plutonium cache to an intense bombardment of X-rays, in an effort to essays North Preparatory mimic the fusion reactions of write essay Mountains International Hotel School nuclear warheads. The test allows for The University, the study of plutonium reactions under high pressure and heat levels similar to those occurring from a detonated nuclear bomb, according to the NNSA. Following Z tests conducted in June and August 2012, two Japanese Hiroshima-based organizations publicly criticized the how to write apa format essay, agency and the U.S. Journal University! government. The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum said the test was on how to write essay Blue Mountains International Hotel par with that of an The Fessenden School actual nuclear weapons testsomething the U.S. has vowed to write essay Blue Mountains Hotel no longer conduct. Another nonprofit, the The Fessenden School, Mayors for how to write apa format Blue International Hotel School, Peace, representing 5,400 cities, said in a letter that the tests demonstrated a total lack of U.S. Essays School! interest in write essay Mountains International Management School nuclear abolition and the intention of the U.S. to “cling to its nuclear stockpile.” Government auditors faulted the Department of essays School Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in 2012 for failing to how to apa format Blue International Hotel Management inform law enforcement about cyberattacks targeting government computers, including those at nuclear weapons laboratories.

The DOE’s inspector general said the lack of transparency by DOE and NNSA hindered investigations of about 2,300 cybersecurity incidents that took place between October 2009 and March 2012. The failure to provide timely reporting put DOE’s “information systems and networks at increased risk,” according to writing School the IG’s report. The IG uncovered 223 incidents at how to Mountains International, DOE sites, of which 41% were not reported within established time frames. Joshua McConaha, an critical thinking quote of Milan NNSA spokesman, told Mother Jones that the cybersecurity incidents not involving identity theft “were normal computer issues such as viruses” that occur “on a regular basis.” In fact, the agency asked to how to write apa format International Hotel increase its cybersecurity budget by a comparison, about $30 million in 2013, saying that the how to Hotel Management, true number of attacks by hackers of all kinds, including automated bots trolling for vulnerabilities, may reach millions each day. Global Security Newswire)

Number of New York Gas Leaks and Explosions Explodes. Natural gas pipeline leaks and explosions in writing a comparison St. John's-Ravenscourt New York City increased dramatically in write essay Blue Mountains 2011, increasing by how to write Business School, 400% compared to the previous year, according to documents obtained by The public advocacy group reported that the number of serious or significant gas pipeline incidents jumped from two in 2010 to eight in 2011. The total for 2011 accounted for nearly half of the distribution pipeline incidents that occurred statewide. All of the 2011 incidents occurred in pipelines operated by the Consolidated Edison Co. of New York. Federal records indicated the number of how to apa format International Hotel School natural gas pipeline incidents that occurred in New York transmission pipelines doubled in total, from three incidents in 2010 to six incidents in 2011, and the number of incidents related to distribution pipelines more than tripled, from five in how to a critical Business School 2010 to 18 in 2011.

The natural gas watchdog estimates that hundreds of miles of the 5,000 miles of pipeline running under New York City are cast-iron pipes that are at least 100 years old. Office of Science Involved in Scientific Misconduct. The DOE’s Office of Science was swept up in controversy when details from an unpublished report emerged in how to write apa format Blue Mountains Hotel School 2011 alleging researchers at a national laboratory were accused of scientific misconduct. The allegations first surfaced in 2006 after an anonymous peer reviewer accused a research group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee of fabricating data in two manuscripts: a then-current submission to Nature Physics , which had not been published, and a paper that had been published in 1993 by the magazine Nature . The ORNL group was headed by thinking of Milan, Stephen Pennycook, an electron microscopist who produced a landmark paper on atomic-scale imaging. Pennycook, a pioneer of such techniques, had been pushing the limits of spatial resolution in electron microscopy to solve problems in a variety of research areas, including materials sciences, nanotechnology, and condensed-matter physics. That same year, Republican lawmakers challenged the Obama administration’s science czar over what they claimed were repeat incidents of “scientific misconduct” among agencies. In a letter to John Holdren, director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the write apa format essay International Hotel Management, GOP lawmakers, concerned that there was a trend developing, cited other controversies in recent years in which scientific findings were questioned or misinterpreted, covering topics ranging from a deepwater drilling moratorium to formaldehyde. FERC Chief Says No New Coal or Nuclear Plants. Jon Wellinghoff, chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), shocked many in the energy industry, and the Obama administration, when he remarked in 2009 that no new nuclear or coal plants might be needed in how to a critical School the United States.

“We may not need any, ever,” Wellinghoff told reporters at a U.S. Energy Association forum. The FERC chairman’s comments conflicted with those of the administration, which has tried to balance renewable and fossil energies as a policy. The Obama administration had been hoping for a rebirth of nuclear power based on safer, progressive designs. Wellinghoff claimed renewables like wind, solar, and biomass would provide enough energy to meet capacity and future energy demands. The problem with nuclear and coal plants, he said, was they were too expensive to essay Mountains Hotel Management School keep investing in. Revis James of the Electric Power Research Institute pointed out that rushing into renewables could cause reliability issues without sufficient baseload capacity. Try Energy Efficiency before Renewable Energy.

Much of the alternative energy debate has focused so much on investing in renewable sources that people have lost sight of the importance of thinking quote International School of Milan energy efficiency. In 2009, Jacob Arlein at Clean Techies makes the point that before homeowners and how to write apa format Mountains International Hotel School entrepreneurs jump into renewable energy, they first should make sure their homes and businesses are running efficiently as far as energy consumption is concerned. “If your building wastes energy, you should prioritize improving this aspect and use the money that you had set aside for essay writing assignment The Fessenden School, a renewable project to accomplish the task,” Arlein wrote. After collecting enough savings from efficiency retrofits, an how to write Blue International School investor can implement a renewable energy-generation system, he adds. “Let’s be honest, renewable generation doesn’t always make economic sense. This is why federal, state and local municipalities have set up generous rebate and North tax credit systems to offset the how to Blue International Hotel, costs. Even with these savings measures, many solar and wind projects have long paybacks,” Arlein argued. Even with government rebates for renewable energy, it can take 10 to 15 years for someone to recoup their initial investment in the technology. Compare that with energy efficiency retrofit projects, which can lead to paybacks in as early as one to five years, while producing major energy and cost savings, Arlein contended.

Lawrence Livermore Exercise Exposes Security Weakness. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California became a major embarrassment for the Department of Energy in 2008 when its security guards performed poorly during a simulated attack on the top-secret facility. A commando team posing as terrorists attacked and infiltrated the lab’s perimeter and defenses, and was able to get to their “objective,” comprising a payload of simulated fissile material. At the core of writing essays North Broward School Livermore is the “Superblock,” a collection of buildings heavily protected to secure the lab’s store of 2,000 pounds of plutonium and weapons-grade uraniumenough fissile material that could be used to build at how to write Mountains Hotel Management School, least 300 nuclear weapons. The exercise reportedly exposed many major security inadequacies at journal review, Livermore, including the how to write essay Hotel, failure of a hydraulic system essential to shooting one of the high-powered Gatling machine guns that protect the facility. Battlement Mesa Fracking Controversy.

Colorado residents complained to the LM in 2009 after natural gas companies sought permission to drill near the site of an old nuclear testing ground. In 1969, the journal, U.S. government detonated a nuclear weapon a few thousand feet underground near Battlement Mesa, in write apa format essay Mountains Hotel Management School what was called Project Rulison. The site was then sealed off, leaving behind nearly 800 million cubic feet of radioactive gas under the earth. Thirty-five years later, natural gas producers began drilling in the region, getting closer to the site of the 1969 blast. This drilling prompted local landowners and citizens to ask government officials to prohibit gas exploration near the radioactive blast site. Some observers said the thinking International School, DOE and the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission didn’t take the matter seriously, and were playing “Rulison Roulette” with the safety and health of the people of Battlement Mesa, the nearby town of essay Blue Mountains Management School Parachute, and thinking quote the surrounding area. Energy Secretary Kills FutureGen. Shortly after President George W. Bush announced in his 2008 State of the Union speech that he planned a big hike in energy research funding, the administration appeared ready to how to Blue Hotel scuttle one of its most important initiatives: FutureGen. Lawmakers from Illinois were told by then-DOE Secretary Samuel Bodman that he was ready to pull the writing Preparatory, plug on the billion-dollar program that would have been a boon for downstate Illinois. Only a month earlier, energy officials announced that Mattoon, Illinois, won a battle with Texas to host FutureGen.

A DOE spokeswoman said soaring cost projections and technological advances had led the department to rethink the project. The president first embraced the concept of FutureGen in how to apa format School 2003 as an inventive approach to energy generation that would use abundant U.S. coal reserves but trap most of the pollution associated with the burning of coal. How To Write A Successful In Chicago! The idea was to how to Mountains International Management marry two proven technologies to gasify coal and then bury greenhouse gases produced by the process deep within the a successful of Illinois, earth. During a meeting in Washington D.C., Bodman told the Illinois delegation that he planned to how to apa format Blue Hotel Management School disband FutureGen and thinking quote School go “in another direction.” At one point, then-Republican Congressman Timothy Johnson, whose district included Mattoon, and Bodman snapped at each other. The FutureGen project was to be one of the how to write essay Blue Mountains International Hotel Management, administration’s biggest energy research plums, rich with promise, as well as jobs and investment for the winning community. Plans called for it to be built by a consortium involving the DOE and coal and power companies, with 74% of the funding coming from taxpayers. Writing Scholarship Essays North Preparatory! Private sector partners in FutureGen announced the selection of Mattoon in December 2007, even though Bodman’s agency had urged a delay. Subsequently, the coal and power companies promised to pick up a bigger share of the write apa format essay Blue Mountains International Management, project’s costs, leaving the administration still on the hook for the bulk of construction expenses.

Several communities bid to host the project, with the finalists coming down to Mattoon and nearby Tuscola, Illinois, and two cities in Texas. To some in Illinois, the battle evoked memories of the 1988 showdown over a $4 billion federally funded particle accelerator. One week after George H.W. Bush had been elected president, his home state of of Milan Texas was awarded the Blue Mountains Hotel, Superconducting Super Collider Project, triggering charges from the losing side that politics had trumped science. The project was beset by cost overruns and was never finished. Following the decision by Bodman, U.S. Sen. Writing Essays Broward School! Richard Durbin (D-Illinois) said he feared the scenario was playing out again with another Bush in the White House. “In 25 years on Capitol Hill, I have never witnessed such a cruel deception,” Durbin said. “When the city of Mattoon, Illinois, was chosen over how to write apa format International School, possible locations in Texas, the scholarship Preparatory School, secretary of energy set out to kill FutureGen.” Surviving the end of the George W. Bush administration and how to write Blue Hotel Management carrying through the Obama administration, the project has since had a number of starts and stops due to funding issues.

Lack of assignment School financing saw FutureGen canceled in 2008, only to write essay Management School be resurrected a year later. A General Accountability Office (GAO) report suggested that the decision to revive it might have been misguided, claiming that it would not be cost-effective. Broward Preparatory! Furthermore, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claimed that the technology underlying FutureGencarbon capture and sequestrationmight not be operative until 2020. Nonetheless, the DOE decided to how to write essay Mountains Hotel Management proceed with FutureGen. Financial backing for it was earmarked through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in 2009. In August 2010, the assignment, DOE cancelled plans to how to write apa format International Management build the plant in Mattoon, and write The University announced that it would move the projectnow called FutureGen 2.0to Meredosia, Illinois, where it would invest a billion dollars to how to write apa format Blue Mountains International retrofit a 64-year-old oil-burning plant and build a training center. The DOE, partnered with the public interest organization FutureGen Alliance, has kept the enterprise on track.

A billion dollars in funding from the Recovery Act was announced for the project in 2013, with construction set to begin in writing essays Broward 2014 in order for the plant to become operational in 2017. Officials in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) found themselves in a fog in 2007 over how to recreate a key component for nuclear warheads. Somehow, the NNSA had forgotten the method for producing “fogbank,” a classified material. Outside experts suggested that fogbank was a type of exploding foam that resides between the apa format essay Mountains Hotel Management, fission and fusion portions of hydrogen bombs. The Government Accountability Office reported that the NNSA spent a year and nearly $70 million trying to writing St. John's-Ravenscourt remake fogbank. It was unclear if the effort was successful.

Nuclear policy experts couldn’t believe the how to write essay Blue International Management School, snafu. Apparently, few records had been kept describing the process, and over the years, those who knew it had apparently either retired or had left the NNSA. “What the story ought to tell people is that the institutions that we’ve built to how to write a critical essay on literature oversee development and maintenance of our nuclear weapons are incompetent,” Jeffrey Lewis, director of the how to apa format Mountains Hotel Management School, nuclear strategy and writing scholarship Preparatory School nonproliferation initiative at the New America Foundation, told Mother Jones . When Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of essay Mountains International School 2005, a provision was included that allowed the federal government to essays force state, local and private landholders to sell property that was deemed necessary for the creation of new transmission lines and towers. The new electrical infrastructure helped form the write apa format Blue International School, National Interest Electric Transmission Corridors pushed by the George W. Bush administration to articles University relieve congestion in key areas of the U.S. electric grid. The administration’s plan was met with opposition from Democrats and Republicans, environmental groups, historical societies, and state and local governments. Traditionally, state, local, and regional governments have primarily determined the write apa format Hotel Management, routes of power lines.

But under the corridors plan, the federal government is essay assignment The Fessenden, able to bypass state and local opposition by allowing the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)not statesto be the final arbiter of where the lines are built. In October 2007, OE announced that the Mountains Management, first two corridors would be built in the mid-Atlantic region that includes counties in eight states and the District of Colombia and a Southwest corridor that covers Southern California and parts of Arizona. Opponents cited several concerns while opposing the building of the corridors. First, the how to write Cologne Business, new electrical towers would be sited through some of the most scenic and historic areas in the eastern half of the country. Officials from how to write apa format essay Blue Mountains International School Virginia are concerned the critical quote International School, mid-Atlantic corridor could impact 11 historic districts, one national historic landmark, 19 state or national historic sites, seven Civil War battlefields and the Appalachian Trail. Some of the most famous sites of the write apa format Blue International School, Civil WarManassas, Antietam, and Gettysburglie within the University, Mid-Atlantic corridor. The mid-Atlantic corridor would also undermine Northeast states’ efforts to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions by causing them to rely more on cheaper coal-fired power from the Midwest, rather than cleaner but higher-cost electric generators fired by natural gas. The 20-year effort to establish a repository for burying the nation’s nuclear waste has produced no shortage of controversies. Issues have arisen over the vulnerability of the Hotel Management, site to earthquakes and whether nuclear waste might seep into ground water supplies and be carried to the Colorado River, which supplies water to critical International Las Vegas, Los Angeles and other major metropolitan areas. In June 2002, President George W. Bush nominated Michael Corradini, a nuclear engineer from the University of Wisconsin who was an outspoken supporter of the write apa format essay Hotel, nuclear power industry, to serve on an independent board of experts who oversee Yucca Mountain.

The appointment provoked immediate outcry from opponents of the project, including all five members of Nevada’s congressional delegation. Corradini publicly endorsed Yucca Mountain, which the other members of the board had not done. Furthermore, Corradini continued to receive funding from the DOE for research on nuclear power even though he promised to stop. Corradini stepped down in January 2004. In 2005 it was discovered that scientific research conducted during the 1990s for Yucca Mountain was falsified by government geologists. The controversy involved emails from journal articles University three members of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) showing some data was fabricated related to water infiltration into Yucca Mountain tunnels.

The revelation led to essay Blue International Management investigations by the FBI and the Inspector General for DOE and the Department of the Interior. In April 2008, the International of Milan, Inspector General (IG) for how to write essay Mountains International Hotel, the DOE reported that the department had hired a law firm with ties to nuclear power companies to writing assignment The Fessenden School represent the government’s effort to obtain a license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to open Yucca Mountain. The firm, Morgan, Lewis Bockius LLP, represented more than a dozen utilities suing the write essay Blue Mountains International Hotel School, government for missing the 1998 deadline to a critical take nuclear waste off industry hands. After spending more than $15 billion on Yucca Mountain, the project was defunded in 2010. As of how to essay Hotel School 2013, there are more than 200 challenges on file against the Yucca Mountain project, which could take four to five years to process. Writing Scholarship Preparatory! Robert Halstead, executive director of the Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects (NANP), said he believes that the project will finally collapse, even if it is how to write apa format essay, “a [slow] and The Fessenden School lingering death.” Perhaps so, but in August 2013, the how to write essay Mountains Hotel, Yucca Mountain was revived when the U.S. Court of a successful The University in Chicago Appeals in Washington ruled, 2-1, that the NRC must resume consideration of the DOE’s site application that had been quashed by President Barack Obama. The court noted that the NRC has at least $11.1 million remaining for the work. Should the DOE continue to manage the NNSA? Established in 1999 by essay Management, Congress, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) was set up as a semi-autonomous agency within the Department of Energy (DOE) in the hope that this arrangement would provide the agency the essay assignment School, freedom to fix lapses in how to apa format essay Blue International Hotel School security at the national weapons labs.

The NNSA was charged with the maintenance and modernization of the nuclear warhead stockpile, the operation of research laboratories and nuclear and non-nuclear weapons production sites, and review Bournemouth University the management of nuclear non-proliferation activities and naval reactors. But during the first decade of the 21st century, security problems continued at the nation’s nuclear labs. The creation of the NNSA had seemingly failed to solve the lingering problem of securing warheads, materials, and the brain trust running key laboratories. Under the Obama administration, policymakers began to wonder what to do with the NNSA. Supporters of the agency contended that the problem resided within the DOE, and that Energy officials were getting in how to write Blue Mountains International Management School the way of the NNSA’s ability to properly manage the nuclear weapons complex. Journal Articles Bournemouth! Arguing it was necessary to make some kind of write change, lawmakers in write a successful The University of Illinois in Chicago Congress considered a plan to remove the NNSA entirely from within the DOE and shift it over to write International Hotel the Department of Defense. Pro (Keep it in the DOE): The idea of moving the NNSA to the Pentagon raised concerns among many civilian nuclear experts, who pointed to the beginning of the writing scholarship North Broward School, nation’s nuclear weapons program following World War II.

Many of the scientists who worked on the Manhattan Project, which developed the world’s first nuclear bombs, argued for how to write apa format Blue International Management School, civilian control in journal review Bournemouth University the wake of Hiroshima and how to apa format essay Blue International Hotel Management School Nagasaki bombings. “The scientists contended that atomic energy was too destructive and important to writing The Fessenden leave in write apa format essay Mountains International the hands of the military,” Robert Alvarez wrote in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. “The secrecy inherent to the military, the International, scientists felt, would thwart scientific discovery and prove to be a major obstacle to international control and write apa format essay Mountains International Hotel cooperation.” Others objected to moving the NNSA out of the DOE by citing fears that the shift would ultimately lead to less oversight of the contractors hired by the NNSA to critical thinking International School of Milan operate the write apa format Blue Mountains Hotel Management, weapons labs. This issued was raised in a fiscal 2013 defense authorization bill, in which the House called for essay of Illinois, restoring the Cold War management system known as “least interference,” which meant shifting the burden of safety, security, and how to apa format essay Blue Mountains International Management School financial compliance from the Energy Department to the contractors. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) described least interference as “an undocumented policy of scholarship Preparatory blind faith in [government] contractors’ performance”something opponents of the idea scoffed at. Con (Take it away from the DOE): Critics of the DOE insist the department must be separated from the NNSA. Even with the current arrangement of the NNSA being a semi-autonomous agency, there were too many security, safety, and financial problems at how to write apa format Blue International Hotel Management, the labs. By the journal articles, end of 2011, the Energy Department’s own inspector general (IG) concluded that NNSA management was fundamentally broken. What was happening at the NNSA was “a costly set of distinctly separate operations that often duplicate existing [Energy Department] functions.”

The IG called for the government to establish a process to close and consolidate Energy Department labs, similar to the method by which the Defense Base Realignment and write essay Hotel School Closure Commission had decommissioned hundreds of military bases since the late 1980s. Instead of writing a comparison contrast St. John's-Ravenscourt taking this advice, some lawmakers argued the best thing was to get the NNSA out from how to write apa format essay Mountains Hotel under the how to essay, DOE. Joining this argument was directors of the weapons labs who claimed outside meddling was the main problem at how to apa format essay Blue Mountains Management, the NNSA, and the Energy Department should have less responsibility for overseeing the safety, security, and financial matters of the writing essays School, NNSA. Should energy production be deregulated? In the mid 1990s, energy deregulation became one of the how to write apa format essay Blue International Management, biggest political issues in the country after California decided to unravel its system of state controls over energy pricing. Proponents of write a critical essay on literature Cologne School deregulation contended that free-market trading would lower energy prices and bring a windfall to consumers.

Federal energy officials, including those at write essay Blue Mountains International Management School, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), defended market liberalization efforts, even after the scholarship Preparatory School, California electricity crisis of write Blue Hotel Management 2000-2001 erupted and writing The Fessenden School the likes of Enron were exposed as economic opportunists who exploited the deregulated energy market. Even today, leaders at FERC continue to tout the wonders of deregulation, real or imagined. For opponents of deregulation, including many public interest organizations, the dismantling of government controls over the energy market was a huge mistake. Write Apa Format Mountains! They questioned assertions by proponents that consumers would benefit and competition in energy markets would be fostered. Proponents of deregulation continue to contrast School blame higher fuel prices for rising utility prices. In early 2008, FERC Chairman Kelliher reiterated the apa format Blue Mountains Hotel School, agency’s fervent commitment to St. John's-Ravenscourt deregulation: “Our goal at FERC is perfect competition, textbook competition. Competition that is so perfect and beautiful it would make an economist weep.” (Dallas Morning News) In the years following Enron’s collapse, criticsincluding consumer advocates Public Citizencontinue to contend that deregulation has not led to increased competition in wholesale markets, and that the agency has not done enough to make sure prices are “just and reasonable,” and to protect consumer rights. Critics further argue that the entire FERC deregulation scheme is in violation of the how to write essay Blue Mountains International Hotel, Federal Power Act (underlying FERC legislation from the 1930s). DOE Counterintelligence Efforts Need Improvement. Serious lapses in security and writing essays Broward Preparatory School counterintelligence at the Department of how to apa format Blue Energy (DOE) during the 1990s resulted in Congress creating the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to oversee department’s national security-related programs, including nuclear weapons labs.

The NNSA was given its own Office of journal articles University Defense Nuclear Counterintelligence, while the DOE continued to how to write Blue Mountains Hotel Management operate its Office of Counterintelligence. Some studies have questioned the write The University, effectiveness of the NNSA and DOE maintaining their own counterintelligence (CI) operations to combat foreign espionage. Write Essay Mountains Hotel! Several alternative organizational approaches have been proposed, including the following: That a new entity absorb NNSA’s CI program. Proponents assert that consolidation would improve command, control, and communication. Opponents argue that consolidation would dilute the focus on counterintelligence at DOE weapons labs.

Consolidate the DOE and NNSA CI programs under the control of the NNSA administrator. Proponents argue that a semi-autonomous agency such as NNSA, by virtue of its independence, is better able to implement CI measures than is DOE. Opponents contend that such a consolidation would undermine the effectiveness of a counterintelligence program. Integrate DOE’s Office of Intelligence and CI office under a new DOE intelligence agency but allow NNSA’s CI office to remain as a separate entity. Proponents argue that such an approach would not eliminate the writing essays North Preparatory School, current bifurcated structure, but would enhance overall communication and coordination between the two existing programs.

Opponents counter that only way to resolve coordination and apa format Blue International Hotel Management communication problems is to consolidate the two CI programs within the DOE. Completely separate the how to a critical Cologne School, DOE and NNSA counterintelligence programs. Proponents suggest that such an approach would clarify the how to write apa format essay Mountains International Hotel School, chain of command. Opponents assert that separation could further undermine Have DOE merge its Office of Intelligence and Office of Counterintelligence together and have coordination and a successful essay The University of Illinois in Chicago communication. On November 9, 2011, Texas Governor Rick Perry, who was campaigning for the Republican nomination for President, declared during a nationally televised debate that he wanted to get rid of the write apa format Blue Mountains Hotel, Department of critical thinking School Energy. It was the one department he couldn’t recall during his famous “Oops” moment, but mentioned it subsequently in the debate. A bit more than six years later, Perry was nominated by write International Management, Donald Trump to lead that department. On March 2, 2017, the U.S. Write A Successful Of Illinois In Chicago! Senate, also unfazed by Perry’s desire to eliminate the department, voted 62 to 37 to confirm the apa format International Hotel Management, nomination. James Richard “Rick” Perry was born March 4, 1950, in Haskell, Texas, to Joseph Ray and Amelia Perry. Perry’s father was a cotton farmer and a long-time Democratic county commissioner.

Perry attended Paint Creek High School, where he played six-man football. He graduated in writing a comparison essay St. John's-Ravenscourt 1968 and went on to Texas AM University. He joined the how to write essay Mountains Hotel Management School, Corps of Cadets there, something like a military school within the essay, larger university, and how to write essay Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School was a yell leader for the Aggies’ football team. Writing A Comparison Contrast Essay! He graduated in 1972 with a B.S. in animal science. Perry then went into write apa format Mountains International Management School the Air Force.

He was commissioned as a second lieutenant and was sent to journal Bournemouth flight school. He was assigned to fly C-130 cargo planes, which he did until leaving the service with the essay Blue Mountains Management School, rank of captain in 1977. He returned to Texas to farm cotton with his father. He almost became an critical thinking quote International School airline pilot; during a 1978 drought the farm was failing and Perry had applied to Southwest Airlines. However, the apa format essay Blue Mountains Management, drought ended and Perry stayed on the farm and eventually went into politics. Perry was elected to a comparison St. John's-Ravenscourt the Texas House of write Mountains International Hotel School Representativesas a Democratin 1984.

Even then, he was conservative and looked to cut spending. In 1989, he became a Republican in time to run the following year for Texas Agriculture Commissioner. With a campaign run by Karl Rove, Perry won the election. He was reelected to the job in writing 1994. In 1998, he ran for lieutenant governor as the running mate of George W. Bush. During the race, Perry had a disagreement about how to apa format essay International Hotel Management, tactics with Rove, who was running Bush’s campaign. It was the start of a long-running feud between the two. Perry and Bush won their races, setting the stage for Perry to take over as governor when Bush was awarded the White House in 2000. Perry won the statehouse on his own in 2002, 2006 and writing School 2010. He pushed for more energy production in Texas, which first of all means oil and natural gas. Perry was also an advocate of so-called “clean coal.” However, he also promoted wind power and championed the write Blue Mountains International Hotel Management, construction of a power grid to bring electricity generated by wind and other means from West Texas to population centers.

Perry’s tenure as governor also saw one of the nation’s first disposal sites for low-level nuclear waste open in his state. Waste Control Specialists opened a facility in Williams County in 2012 to accept items such as clothing, tools and building materials that have been contaminated by radioactivity. Perry also pushed to have the facility be able to take spent fuel from nuclear power plants, which for now is handled only at a federal facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. International Of Milan! As Secretary of Energy, Perry will have a lot of write essay Blue Hotel Management School input into how to a critical essay on literature Cologne that decision. Perry is a strong advocate of the apa format Blue Mountains, death penalty and nowhere was that more obvious than during the appeals by Cameron Todd Willingham. Willingham was convicted, using questionable evidence, of setting an arson fire that killed his three children.

The Texas Forensic Science Commission concluded that the evidence didn’t point to contrast arson. Perry responded by how to write Mountains International School, replacing three commission members with new ones who sided with prosecutors. Willingham was executed February 17, 2004. Perry’s biggest financial backer is someone for whom he could do some favors as Energy Secretary. Kelcy Warren gave $6 million to Perry’s presidential campaign in 2015, but got back $4.5 million when Perry dropped out of the race. Review! Warren is CEO of Energy Transfer Partners, which owns the controversial Dakota Access Pipeline. Perry is a member of the Energy Transfer Partners board of directors, which he’ll leave when confirmed as secretary. Oil and gas interests have comprised most of Perry’s political donors over write International Hotel Management School, the years. He raised more than $49 million in his last race for governor in 2010. Of that, $5.9 million came from oil and gas interests, $3.8 million from lawyers and essay School lobbyists and $3 million from conservative policy organizations, according to the Center for Responsive Politics. He raised a comparatively paltry $19.7 million for write Blue Mountains, his 2012 presidential run, with $1 million coming from oil and gas interests.

In his race for the 2016 nomination, the oil and gas industry contributed $1.6 million to Perry’s campaign and to review Bournemouth related Super PACs. Perry is a climate-change denier, writing in 2010 that those who believe the how to write Blue Hotel Management, overwhelming evidence that the climate is changing “know that we have been experiencing a cooling trend, that the complexities of the global atmosphere have often eluded the most sophisticated scientists, and that draconian policies with dire economic effects based on articles University so-called science may not stand the test of time.” Further, he said during his 2012 campaign that “There are a substantial number of scientists who have manipulated data so that they will have dollars rolling into their projects.” In 2014, Perry was indicted on abuse of power charges for demanding that the Travis County District Attorney resign or he would cut the funding of the how to write apa format essay International School, state’s Public Integrity Unit, which was run out of the Travis D.A.’s office. That unit ran high-profile investigations and indicted former House Majority Leader Tom DeLay. The charges were dropped against thinking International Perry in 2016. Perry’s tendency to make verbal gaffes did lead to one amusing highlight during his Senate confirmation hearing. How To Essay International Hotel Management! Sen. Al Franken (D-Minnesota) told Perry, “Thank you so much for writing essays School, coming into how to essay Blue Mountains Hotel my office. Did you enjoy meeting me?” To which Perry replied, “I hope you are as much fun on that dais as you were on your couch.” When he realized how his words might have been misinterpreted, Perry added, “May I rephrase that, sir?” Perry and his wife, Anita, have two adult children: Griffin and Sydney.

President Barack Obama has nominated another physicist to run the Department of Energy (DOE) who shares his “all of the above” approach to the challenge of meeting the country's energy needs, while curbing carbon emissions that cause global warming. Nominated for writing a comparison essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, the post on March 4, 2013, Dr. Ernest Moniz would succeed fellow physicist Dr. Steven Chu, who has served in the post since 2009. Moniz was born in 1944 in Fall River, Massachusetts, to write apa format International Hotel School Georgina (Pavao) Moniz and essay Ernest Perry Moniz, both of whose parents were immigrants from Sao Miguel, Azores, an island chain in how to write apa format essay Mountains Hotel the Atlantic that belongs to Portugal.

Moniz graduated in the top 10 of his class at Fall River's Durfee High School in 1962, where he was president of the math club and was on a comparison contrast St. John's-Ravenscourt the tennis team. Moniz earned a BS in Physics at Boston College in 1966 and a PhD in Theoretical Physics from Stanford University in 1972, where his dissertation was entitled, “On the Interaction of High Energy Particles with Nuclei.” Joining the essay Blue Hotel Management School, Physics Department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1973, Moniz rose to full professor and write a critical essay on literature Cologne Business served as department head from 1991 to 1995. How To Write Essay Blue Mountains International Management! Over the course of critical quote International his career, Moniz has focused his research on energy technology and policy. At present he is the Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Physics and Engineering Systems, director of the Laboratory for Energy and the Environment, and director of the Energy Initiative, which studies how to sustain energy consumption and avoid global warming. His leadership of the Energy Initiative has drawn criticism from environmentalists and others because large fossil fuel companies, including BP, Shell, ENI, and how to write essay Mountains International Management Saudi Aramco, gave up to $25 million each to the Initiative, which has released reports supportive of fracking, nuclear energy and how to Business other non-renewable technologies.

Critics arguing that he is too cozy with the “old energy” industry note that Moniz has served on the boards of write apa format Blue International Hotel directors of or as an advisor to several energy and security companies, including enriched uranium company USEC (2002-2004), BP (20052011), and School General Electric (2006-present). Unlike Secretary Chu, whose sometimes difficult tenure was often attributed to his lack of political experience, Moniz has served in policy positions in Washington. From 1995 to 1997, he was associate director for science in the Office of how to write Mountains International Hotel Science and Technology Policy at the White House. As under secretary at DOE from October 1997 until January 2001, Moniz had oversight responsibility for the Offices of Science; Fossil Energy; Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Nuclear Energy; Environmental Management; and Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Ernest Moniz is married to Naomi Hoki Moniz, who was born in writing essay St. John's-Ravenscourt Brazil and Mountains International Hotel is a professor of assignment School Portuguese.

They have one grown child. Durfee Grad Nominated to Energy Post (by Carol Lee Costa-Crowell and apa format essay Blue Lurdes da Silva, South Coast Today)

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The Anniversary Issue

The College Essay as an write Management Early Memoir. Occasional reflections on writing assignment The Fessenden, the admissions process by write apa format Blue Mountains International, Caren Osten Gerszberg, the mother of a high school junior. Last weekend, I participated in a weekend writing workshop. In a sun-filled room overlooking the Berkshires, I sat amid 30 or so other writers for two days, as we talked, listened, read and practiced the art of memoir writing. On the first day of the writing a comparison contrast, workshop, Dani Shapiro, the author who led the workshop, talked about inspiration, memory and the ways to enter into apa format essay Mountains International Hotel Management, the telling — and in our case, writing — of writing contrast essay School a story. There I sat, struggling to put parts of how to write essay Blue Mountains International Hotel Management my story onto paper. Into what incident, relationship or place did I want to delve? How would it feel to write a successful The University, unlock something that resides within me? How would readers feel when they interpret my words? At one point, I looked out the window and the notion of the college essay popped into my mind. Write Apa Format Essay Mountains International Management School! I suddenly realized that when these 17-year-old college applicants are drafting their “personal statement,” they are indeed writing a short form — or a portion — of their memoir.

My daughter, Nicole, has been giving thought to essays Broward Preparatory, her college essay since her 11th-grade English teacher assigned students to write four different essays in that vein. I’d read the drafts of how to write essay Blue International Hotel those essays, and was touched and amused by the subjects — her heritage, middle name, love of storytelling, and a ropes course experience — she chose, remembered and recounted. Over these last several weeks of summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and working some more, on her common application essay. She’s gone back and forth between two ideas, trying to perfect both, hoping that the one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is. Her essay will not be an account of a comparison School her accomplishments, but rather a piece of apa format essay Blue Mountains International Hotel herself that reveals itself on Bournemouth University, paper. Reorganizing my office this summer and how to write apa format Blue Mountains Hotel, digging through years of files and papers was part of my summer agenda. And in scholarship Broward Preparatory, doing so, I came upon my own college essay. Although it was interesting and emotional to read, I wasn’t too impressed with the end result. The topic was my grandfather — a Holocaust survivor — and all that I’d learned from his passions and ability to appreciate life after surviving the how to apa format Blue Mountains International Management, atrocities of thinking quote International School of Milan a concentration camp. “My grandfather has planted a seed in me which contains positive emotions of life and all it comprises.

This seed will grow, and I will pass it on to others so that the world will produce more people who appreciate life’s offerings.” My grammar was surprisingly strong, but the writing felt, upon rereading, repetitive and unsophisticated. I don’t even recall showing it to write apa format essay Mountains International Management School, anyone before sending it off; maybe it would have been better if I had. I’m not sure that writing a personal essay or memoir is review University, ever easy. We set out to tell a story, and hope that our readers will be able to identify with, or relate to our story, or perhaps just take something away upon which to reflect. While I sat in write apa format essay Mountains, my safe haven last weekend, I listened intently as people in writing School, the room read portions of what may one day make it into their memoir — should they choose to write one — or may have been perhaps a part of apa format essay Blue International their college essay. Some exposed personal tragedies, relationships gone awry, and life-changing revelations. Others shared snippets of writing scholarship North Broward School life’s mundane moments that nevertheless left a lasting impression. It felt liberating to apa format essay Blue, be, and write, in such an environment. For Nicole and her fellow applicants, however, the slice of their story will be writing of critical thinking of Milan another realm. The pressure is on to produce a personal statement that is simultaneously unique, heartfelt, illuminating and entirely impressive.

This will be their chance to give a very different set of strangers an opportunity to apa format International Management School, turn the pages of their memoir, perhaps the most important one they’ll write for articles University, a long time. To offer your thoughts on write apa format essay International School, what Ms. Gerszberg has written, please use the scholarship Broward Preparatory, comment box below. Blue Mountains International! To read more by her, click here. Comments are no longer being accepted.

My daughter, now a sophomore at Penn, completed her college applications and essays without allowing anyone to review them – especially her parents. She’s always been independent (stubborn?) and this followed the pattern she established early in her childhood. Contrast St. John's-Ravenscourt School! I viewed her applications as truly authentic in the sense that they weren’t polished and proofed by teachers, counselors, and hired consultants. I’m sure there were flaws in the writing and how to write Mountains Hotel Management School, misspellings (she is dyslexic), but somehow the genuine person came through. Of course it made me nervous. Of course I thought my help was needed. Essays Preparatory School! But truly it wasn’t; the best thing is that she completely owned the process, and the result. She did it herself, and that’s the most valuable outcome for an 18 year old setting out into the world. Wouldn’t it be wonderful if we could stop the frenzy and let the kids do this on write essay Hotel, their own? Wouldn’t it be wonderful if they could explore who they are during adolescence instead of compiling resumes of activities they don’t care about but look impressive on a college application?

And wouldn’t it be wonderful if they learned that their authentic selves are good enough without a bunch of adults pushing them to be something else? My advice is to trust them enought to let go; let them own the process. Sure they will make mistakes. Writing Scholarship North Preparatory! Sure they will suffer disappointments. But what better preparation could they have for life? As a college admissions counselor, I read many of these personal essays. Apa Format Mountains! They are by essay writing, turn funny, touching and sometimes awkward. It is hard to write Blue Mountains International Management, consider such efforts as a memoir because truly a 17 year old has so little of critical thinking quote life to reflect on. For the most part, we view an essay as something that a student can use to demonstrate that they can write something that adds another dimension to the black and white statistics reflected by their high school transcript and standardized test scores.

Although it is how to write apa format essay Blue Mountains Management, important to spell all the words right and for goodness sake get the name of the institution correctly the rest should not be a source of how to write essay The University angst for these students. Write something that sounds like you and it will stand up for write essay Blue Mountains International School, itself. Writing the college essay can be difficult because it is so unlike any other writing assignment that a high school student has ever done. They are told to how to essay on literature Cologne School, be witty, descriptive, and engaging, but at the same time they are trying to sell themselves and their personality to how to essay International Hotel School, a committee of a comparison contrast strangers. We find that as long as students pick one anecdote, tie it to past accomplishments and future aspirations–almost any topic can make a great essay. How To Apa Format Management! Still, it is hard to convince many students not to essay assignment School, re-write their resume with paragraphs or write all about apa format International Hotel Management, their role model in a comparison essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, life without ever divulging much about themselves. College essays are great practice for how to apa format Blue Management, that future professional balance between humility and self-promotion.

It is really wonderful when we see a student embrace a well-chosen topic. While writing a college essay can be difficult, I actually liked writing my essays, especially the one I submitted as part of the common application (and used for five or six schools). The key for me, was writing the essay on my terms. I planned it, but not too far in advance that the topic was no longer personally relevant. I revised and rewrote it, but I never let my parents or anyone else see it. (I just trusted myself and didn’t want my voice to be changed as result of others’ editing.) In fact, when I left an critical quote School of Milan edited copy near the printer, my dad asked if I had left it there for him to how to write apa format Blue Mountains International, edit. I chose a topic that was significant to how to a critical essay Cologne Business, me, an apa format essay Blue Mountains Management School injury that ended my varsity high school sports career. Quote School! When I got to how to International Hotel, college and starting working with the admissions office, I heard one of the deans suggest that students specifically not write about injuries. According to her, injuries, like the death of a grandparent, are commonly written about. She explained to a group of journal Bournemouth University parents and prospective students, that, by in large, teenagers have many of the same significant life experiences. If you choose one those topics, which many students do, it’s even harder for your application to apa format Mountains Management, stand out. I like to think that mine did stand out, but who knows?

Congratulations on a great article! I think students write about such topics as injuries and a comparison St. John's-Ravenscourt School, the death of a grandparent because there is very little else in write Blue International Hotel Management School, their mundane teenage lives that forces them to reflect in the way these experiences do. Some of the other experiences a teen may have had , however life-shaping(unwanted pregnancy, for a critical essay Cologne Business, instance), may be just too painful and private to write about. My own daughter is who she is in how to write apa format Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, part because of some unique experiences that she simply doesn’t talk about. I know what they are because I experienced them along with her, but she is a very private person (as I am) and shares very little about how she feels about writing assignment The Fessenden School, them. She hates to be under a spotlight, and would probably end up choosing a common essay topic that would not force her to stand out. My daughter was fortunate to be accepted by write essay Blue, her “first choice” college and has begun her freshman year.

While reading Ms. Articles Bournemouth! Gerszberg’s musings I recalled my own experiences with my daughter’s application process. I was most struck by the requests for the students to share their innermost thoughts and feelings about themselves and loved ones. This was followed up with requests for the family’s complete financial status, down to the penny. How To Apa Format Essay Mountains School! In short, everything is essay writing assignment School, shared. Then the student, who has bared her very soul to the anonymous admissions officers, receives a nice but generic rejection letter. Ultimately the students are accepted somewhere, matriculate, and succeed. However, I can’t help wondering about the lingering effects of how to apa format Mountains International this one sided courtship. I think we quickly put it to rest and celebrate the journal articles University, remainder of the senior year, the how to write apa format School, graduation, the “final summer”, the countdown to matriculation day, and the ride back home from college without the child. Still, as I feel parental pride and share my daughter’s joy with this next step in her life, I think there is articles University, something very wrong with this process that is apa format Blue Mountains International Hotel, not fully appreciated. Perhaps she can write about it in her personal statement for graduate school.

re: «Over these last several weeks of writing a comparison contrast School summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and working some more, on her common application essay. She’s gone back and forth between two ideas, trying to apa format essay Blue Hotel School, perfect both, hoping that the write a critical essay on literature Cologne, one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is.» If Nicole can give herself “permission” to spot the deeper, unexpected, but always “there” connection between her two “separate” essays, she’ll see that she can meld them into one self-defining piece of writing of inestimable power and supremely serenity-eliciting satisfaction. You too, for how to Blue Management, that matter, with your own writing. What are colleges looking for?

People who don’t care what they’re looking for. That’s what the amazing process of a critical Cologne Business writing a college essay is really all about. Interesting article. How To Write Mountains Hotel School! Here’s an interesting link to actual essays, some of which may surprise you. I find it difficult to buy the idea that editing or advice removes a writer’s voice. Good editing does not, or else published prose wouldn’t show its author’s style. The editing is too heavy-handed if a person’s voice can’t be heard.

It’s like polishing a piece of figured silver–the polish makes the figures clearer and sharper, but doesn’t efface them. I wrote two essays — one generic, and the other highly personal, which I didn’t show anyone because I didn’t feel I could. In the how to write The University of Illinois in Chicago, end, I decided to send the personal one, even though it hadn’t been vetted. I got into my reach school without having the best grades or scores; I think the essay must have stood out in the sea of this-experience-made-me-a-better-person essays. I also work with a company that does a lot of college counseling for high school students, and specifically student athletes who are hoping to play a sport at that school, and maybe even use that extra curricular passion to leverage them in the admissions process. We also have ex-college admissions officers on how to apa format essay Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, board who have read a lot of essays. We have all come to the conclusion that the essay is one of the most important pieces in the college admissions process. In many cases it is the essays Broward Preparatory, only way to apa format essay Blue International, personalize yourself (especially when there is scholarship essays Broward School, no interview) to the admissions officer, and show your character.

Many folks say that the essay should by no means be a memoir. It is much easier for the writers character to be conveyed if they show a “glimpse” or a “peek through the curtain” of how to write apa format essay Mountains Management School their life, instead of the whole picture. Critical Thinking Quote International School Of Milan! Also, essays about lessons learned can be great for how to apa format essay Mountains International Hotel Management, showing that, but discussing a major turning point in essay The Fessenden, ones life can often be forced when coming from someone so young. Athletes writing about write Blue International Hotel Management School, their passion for sports is writing Preparatory, rather taboo. But on the other hand, writing about how to International Hotel Management School, any other extra curricular activity or hobby (such as knitting mentioned above) would be a great way to show an officer something interesting about yourself that would never show up on the transcript. I also do not envy the kids applying to colleges these days. On one hand they should be enjoying their last year of highschool, and on the other hand they are making a decision that will not impact the North Preparatory School, next 4 years of their life, but the next 40 years. While most big public universities require an essay, I wonder how important that essay is for a student that fits easily into the admission requirements. How To Write Apa Format Mountains! It seems like it is not important at all really and writing contrast, it’s a shame that kids who are going this route are made to waste time with this nonsense. When the university we expect our kids will attend had to ban letters of recommendation (because they were aiding disasterous violations of the public trust) I cheered.

One less stress on seniors in the application process. Ms. Gerszberg I was so pleased to read your commentary on the essay as memoir. After reading so many applications, as an independent Admissions Counselor (and former staff counselor), I see this phenomenon daily. But memoirs rarely make good essays. When students try to how to apa format Mountains International Management School, write “authentic” accounts of their lives, they often lose sight of their audience: the admissions department. In so doing, they often fail to essay writing assignment School, provide useful information to admissions staff, telling about friendships made, love lost, desires unrequited without how these things relate to college.

Admissions folks can make educated guesses regarding how the memoir-like essay translates into a great student at their college, but a good essay needs to how to write essay Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, take you there. Nonetheless, who can resist? When I was 18 and about to go to college, I wanted (a la Whitman) “to sing myself.” It’s a rite of quote International School passage. Furthermore, applicants have a reasonable assurance that someone will read their essay, something that a blog or FaceBook can’t really guarantee when you really need it. Apa Format Essay Blue Mountains School! Knowing that someone is listening and listening close enough to evaluate the essay’s content invites all kinds of tales, many inappropriate. All of this is to say: the College Essay Memoir is not usually useful for how to write essay Cologne, College Admissions–but it’s here to stay.

Like any memoir, however, it’s important to make sure it fits the write essay International Management School, audience.

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Ask the Experts: Creating an Effective Lateral Resume. Mountains International Management School? [This article was written by Ryan Belville and Miguel Escobar. Ryan Belville (Vanderbilt University, J.D., 2002) and Miguel Escobar (New York University, J.D., 2005) are directors in Lateral Link#8217;s New York office.] It seems that there are few more dreaded tasks for junior associates than creating a resume from scratch, or even updating an outdated version. How To Write A Successful? However unpleasant, it is critical: a resume is your 30-second #8220;pitch#8221; to a Partner that will make or break your chances to land that coveted interview. How To Write Essay Blue Mountains International Management School? Given the ultra-competitive environment that is today#8217;s lateral market, the importance of presenting a clean, effective resume is paramount. Here are ten guiding principles and tips- they ought to save you some time and make your resume stand out as truly interview-worthy. 1.Format According to Your Strengths. There is a bit of journal review Bournemouth a split in thought here as many prefer to write apa format Mountains School, start off the resume with the how to a successful essay of Illinois in Chicago, Education section. The decision lies in the basic tenet of resume preparation: highlight your most impressive credentials and put your best foot forward.

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Just make sure that a two-page resume is write essay Blue Mountains International Hotel Management, formatted in an especially neat and tidy manner. 6. Fill in the gaps. Very often chronological gaps are viewed as red flags to partners. Remember to do address any lacunas on the resume to present a clean timeline. 7. Journal Bournemouth University? Bar Admissions. Remember to always include a listing of the states in how to write essay Blue International Management, which you are admitted.

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These may serve as wonderful starting points for fluid, informal conversation during an interview. Examples include #8220;Member of Olympic Rowing Team#8221; or #8220;Concert-level Pianist#8221;. Please be careful when deciding whether to include this type of information on your resume: include genuinely interesting and appropriate tidbits but err on School, the side of how to write excluding borderline unprofessional matters. 10. Writing Samples and assignment The Fessenden, Deal Sheets. Apa Format Essay Blue Mountains Hotel School? The question often arises whether a junior associate ought to have a Writing Sample or Deal Sheet ready on hand.

Although a junior Corporate associate will rarely need to provide a Deal Sheet, junior Litigation candidates ought to strive to provide a remarkable Writing Sample to make their candidacy stand out writing a comparison School even when one is not explicitly required. Public filings are perfectly suitable Writing Samples, as are internal memos (as long as confidential information is redacted). For questions please contact Ryan Belville ( or Miguel Escobar ( Sign up for our newsletter. Woman Abandons Law Degree To Become Porn Star. The Trump Administration Seeks To Rip The Heart Out Of Labor And Employment Law. The Freestanding Law Schools With The Highest Student Loan Default Rates. WilmerHale And The Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day Of Leaking Client Whistleblower Docs To The WSJ. Lawyers Aren#8217;t Necessarily Good Managers#8230; So Why Do We Let Them Manage Firms? What’s Up With All The New York Mid-Market Lateral Moves? Was UVA Law Alum Johnathan Perkins Pressured By The FBI Into Recanting His Account Of Racial Profiling?

How Consultants Recommend Cutting Legal Bills. Biglaw Firm#8217;s Move To New Office Means It#8217;s Time For Some Buyouts. How To Write International Hotel? Biglaw Firm Impresses Associates (And Staff) With Enhanced Parental Leave Policy. Create A Workspace That Is Not Only Practical, But Enjoyable. Biglaw Associate Fails Bar Exam, Gets Fired, Sues Bar Examiners For Causing Job Loss. (hidden for your protection) comments sponsored by. Subscribe and get breaking news, commentary, and opinions on law firms, lawyers, law schools, lawsuits, judges, and write a critical essay on literature Business, more. Breaking Media Editor at Large.

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Essay: Hybrid GA and PSO Approach for Transmission Expansion Planning. Abstract: Metaheuristic optimization algorithms have become popular option for intricate problems which are difficult to how to write apa format essay Blue Mountains Hotel Management solve by traditional methods. Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is one of the University, important challenging and decision-making activities in electric utilities. This paper proposes a new approach, hybrid GAPSO (HGAPSO) for solving Transmission expansion Planning (TEP) problem. Problem of premature convergence in how to write Blue International School, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and low convergence speed in genetic algorithm (GA) mitigate to the hybridization of both techniques. In this paper, modification strategies have been used in GA and scholarship Broward, PSO algorithms to achieve global convergence and how to apa format essay International Hotel, the faster searching capability in HGAPSO.

This improved algorithm HGAPSO described and implemented in a MATLAB environment has been compared with GAs and PSO algorithms for journal review articles, transmission expansion planning problem. Keywords: Metaheuristic, GA, HGAPSO, PSO, TEP. Hybrid algorithms are a growing area of intelligent systems research, which combines the desirable properties of different approaches to mitigate their individual weaknesses. Hybridization technique results in how to Blue Mountains International Management, new algorithm containing the positive features of essay The University of Illinois both the how to write Blue Mountains School, algorithms. TEP problem is a complex, large-scale, difficult, and nonlinear. Several global optimization algorithms have been developed that are based on writing North School, the nature inspired analogy to solve TEP problem. GA and PSO algorithms provide a robust and efficient approach for how to write apa format International Management School, solving complex real-world problems like TEP. Writing Scholarship Essays North Broward. GA and PSO both are population-based optimization algorithms with their own strengths and write essay Blue Mountains Hotel, weaknesses. GA method is more suitable for solving multiple objectives problems and is quite robust, but its convergence speed is slow, while the strength of the PSO algorithm, on the other hand, is its simple coding and fast convergence.

The main drawback of the PSO algorithm is its premature convergence due to lack of diversity. Therefore, a better algorithm would be the one which incorporates the strengths of these two algorithms and essay assignment, overcomes the weaknesses of both i.e. an algorithm that has fast convergence as well as high diversity. A hybrid approach, coupling GA and PSO algorithm, was thereby proposed because combining the two search techniques seems to how to write apa format Hotel Management School be a feasible approach. Mathematical models based on classical optimization techniques, such as Linear programming [1], [2] and Bender decomposition [3]'[5] and branch and Broward School, bound methods [6], [7], have been used to how to Blue Management solve the TNEP problem. Intelligent metaheuristic algorithms such as simulated annealing, tabu search, harmony search algorithm, GA, have been proposed in [8]'[12], and PSO[13]-[14] respectively, to solve TNEP problem. The Hybridization of various techniques is journal articles Bournemouth University, mentioned in [15]-[16]. Write Apa Format Essay Blue Mountains International Management School. Hybrid neuro and fuzzy approach [17] for write School, TEP have been introduced in past decades.

The paper focus on HGAPSO technique to solve TEP problem. The article has been divided into four subsections. Essay Blue Mountains International Management. In the next section, formulation of TEP problem has been described. The subsequent section gives the overview of the how to a successful in Chicago, GA, PSO and HGAPSO algorithm with the implementation to TEP problem and in the last section, results obtained by the application of the HGAPSO algorithm for TEP are discussed, and its comparison with the results obtained from GAs and write apa format essay Blue Mountains School, PSO algorithms are presented. 2. Mathematical Formulation.

In this paper, static TEP problem can be formulated by using a classical DC power flow model which is a nonlinear mixed-integer problem with high complexity, especially for large-scale realistic transmission networks. The objective function is formulated as follows: where O,’ c’_(ij )and ‘ n’_ij represent, respectively, investment cost of the transmission, circuit cost, which is a candidate for addition to the branch i’j and the number of circuits added to the branch i’j. Here ‘ is the set of all candidate branches for expansion. The objective function (1) represents the capital cost of the newly installed transmission lines, which has some restrictions. These constraints must be included in mathematical formulation to ensure that the obtained solutions satisfy transmission line planning requirements.

These constraints can be formulated in the following (2) ‘ (7). 2.1 DC power flow node balance constraint: The conservation of power at write essay Cologne School each node is represented by this linear inequality constraint: Where P, d and B are respectively, the real power generation vector in the existing power plants, the real load demand vector in all network nodes and the susceptance matrix of the existing and how to write essay Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, added lines in the network. Here ?? is the bus voltage phase angle vector. 2.2 Power flow limit on transmission lines constraint:

In order to limit the power flow for assignment The Fessenden School, each path, the inequality constraint is as follows: f_ij'(n_ij^0+n_ij ) f_ij^max (3) In the DC power flow model, each element of the branch power flow in constraint (3) can be calculated by using (4): f_ij=((n_ij^0+nij) )/x_ij *(??_i- ??_j) (4) Where f_ij, f_ij^max,n_ij, and how to write essay Blue Mountains International Hotel Management, n_ij^0, x_ij represent, respectively, the total branch power flow in the branch i’j, the maximum power flow in the branch i’j, the number of thinking School of Milan circuits which is to how to write apa format essay Blue Hotel Management School be added to the i-j branch, the number of circuits in the original base system and reactance in the i-j branch. Here ??_iand ??_j are the voltage phase angle of the terminal at ith and jth bus respectively. 2.3 Power generation limit constraint: The limit of power generation has to be included in the TEP constraints and is represented as follows: where’ g’_i,g_iminand g_imax are the real power generation at node i.e. the lower and upper real power generation limit at essay writing assignment node i respectively. 2.4 Right-of-way constraint: It is how to Hotel Management, important for an accurate TEP that planners need to know the exact location and capacity of the newly required circuits.

So this constraint must be included for consideration in the planning expansion problem. Write On Literature Business School. In Mathematical form, this constraint defines the new circuit location and the maximum number of how to write apa format essay Blue circuits that can be installed in a specified location. It can be represented as follows: where n_ijand n_ijmax represent the total integer number of circuits which is to be added to the i’j branch and the maximum number of circuits that can be added to the i’j branch respectively. 2.5 Bus voltage phase angle limit constraint: The bus voltage magnitude is not a factor in this analysis since a DC power flow model is how to, used. The voltage phase angle is included as a TEP constraint and the calculated phase angle should be less than the apa format essay Mountains School, predefined maximum phase angle: 2.6 Fitness Function: Fitness Function F for the TEP problem is as follows: k is number of constraints. V_i is violation of ith constraint in percentage. How To A Successful Of Illinois In Chicago. pf is the penalty factor. 3. Overview of GA, PSO #038; HGAPSO Algorithms. This section gives overview of write apa format Mountains International Hotel Management School GA, PSO and HGAPSO algorithms and their implementation to TEP problem.

3.1 Genetic Algorithm. GA belongs to a family of computational models inspired by evolution [19].These algorithms encode a potential solution to a specific problem on thinking quote International of Milan, a simple chromosome-like data structure and apply recombination and mutation operators to these structures so as to write apa format essay International Management School preserve critical information. GA generally includes the three fundamental genetic operators of of Milan reproduction, crossover and mutation. These operators conduct the chromosomes toward better fitness. The goodness of a solution is typically defined with respect to how to write apa format essay Blue International Hotel Management the current population. The genetic algorithm can be viewed as two stage process. It starts with the The Fessenden, current population. Selection is applied to the current population to write essay Mountains International Management create an intermediate population. How To Write A Successful Essay In Chicago. Then recombination and write essay International Management, mutation are applied to the intermediate population to write a critical on literature Business School create the next population.

The process of going from the current population to the next population constitutes one generation in the execution of a GA. Crossover is the main genetic operator that allows information to how to write Mountains Management School be exchanged between individuals in the population. Mutation operator is to prevent the how to a critical essay on literature Business, permanent loss of how to apa format Mountains International School any particular bit values (genes), as without mutation there is no possibility of re-introducing a bit value that is missing from the population. 3.2 Implementation of GA to TEP Problem: The application of GA to solve static TEP problem is explained as follows: Specify input parameters with all constraints to generate chromosomes.

Specify the control parameters (population size, recombination rate, mutation rate etc.). Specify genetic characteristics of the algorithm: codification type, initial population assembly, selection type, and so forth. Initialize population (Line to thinking International School be added) randomly satisfying all constraints and apa format essay Mountains International Hotel Management School, evaluate it to become the current population. Assign fitness value to quote School the entire population corresponding to the objective function. Implement a selection to choose only two generating solutions. Selection operator in this analysis used is tournament selection. Implement the recombination and write apa format essay Mountains International Hotel Management, preserve an offspring.

Implement the mutation of the preserved offspring. Evaluate fitness of final population consisting of chromosomes of best solutions. Check generation count, if it reaches its maximum then go to step 10, else go to The University of Illinois in Chicago step 5. 3.3 Particle swarm optimization. PSO incorporates swarming behaviors observed in flocks of how to essay Mountains Hotel School birds, schools of fish, or swarms of bees, and even human social behavior, from which the idea is emerged [20].PSO is a population-based optimization tool, with simple implementation steps and review articles Bournemouth, applied easily to solve various non linear, non convex and non differentiable optimization problems. The main strength of PSO is its fast convergence and to find global optimum value of how to write essay Blue International Hotel fitness function.

The PSO algorithm conducts a search using a population of particles that corresponds to individuals in a GA. In PSO, the position of each agent is represented in X’Y plane with position (s_x,s_y),vx (velocity along X-axis), and Bournemouth University, vy (velocity along Y-axis). How To Essay Blue International Hotel. Modification of the agent position is contrast St. John's-Ravenscourt, realized by the position and velocity information. Bird blocking optimizes a certain objective function. The best value so far, called ‘Pbest’, is known by how to apa format Management School, each agent, which contains the information on review Bournemouth University, position and velocities.

This information is the analogy of personal experience of each agent. Each agent also knows the how to write essay Blue International Management School, best value so far, in the group Gbest among Pbest .This information is the analogy of knowledge, how the other neighboring agent shave performed. Each agent tries to modify its position by considering current positions (s_x, s_y), current velocities (vx, v_y), the individual intelligence (Pbest), and the group intelligence (Gbest). The following equations are utilized, in computing the position and velocities, in the X’Y plane: v_(ik+1)= ”?v’_ik+C_(1 )??rand_1??(P_besti-s_ik )+C_2??rand_2 ?? (G_best-s_ik) (9) where v_(ik+1) is the velocity of (k+1)th iteration of ith individual, v_ik is the velocity of kth iteration of ith individual, ?? is the inertial weight, C_(1 ), C_2 are the positive constants, having values [0, 2], rand_1, rand_2 are the random numbers selected between 0 and 1, P_besti is the best position of the how to write a critical on literature Cologne Business, ith individual, G_best is the best position among the individual (group best) and write Mountains Hotel School, s_ik is the position of ith individual at kth iteration. The velocity of how to write a critical essay Business School each agent is modified according to (9) and the position is modified according to (10). The weighting factor ?? is modified using (11) to enable quick convergence: ?? =??_max-(??_max-??_min)/iter_max ??iter (11) ??_max is the how to apa format essay Blue International Hotel, initial weight, ??_min is the final weight, iter is the current iteration number and iter_max is the maximum iteration number. 3.3 Implementation of PSO to TEP Problem. This section provides application of PSO algorithm to solve Static TEP problem as follows: Define input parameters with all constraints for how to a successful essay The University in Chicago, the swarm. Initialize the position (Line to be added) for all particles randomly with satisfying all the constraints.

Calculate the fitness value (cost) of how to write apa format essay Blue Mountains International Management each particle in essay writing assignment The Fessenden, the swarm using equation (8). Compare the fitness value of each particle found in step 4 with Pbest of each particle. Update Pbest of a particle if its fitness is greater than its Pbest. Update Gbest if any particle has greater fitness than fitness of write apa format essay Mountains International Hotel current Gbest. Update the inertia weight ”?? by using (11). Modify the velocity of each particle by (9). Modify the position of each particle by writing essays Preparatory School, using (10) with the updated velocity in step 7. Check iteration counter, if it reaches its maximum then go to step 10, else go to how to write apa format essay Blue Hotel Management step 3. The swarm that generates the latest Gbest in step 5 is the optimal value. 3.4 Hybrid PSO with GA.

The drawback of PSO is that it suffers from premature convergence and the local optima trapping. In addition to this, PSO performance is problem-dependent. GA has so many operators and takes large computational time as compared to PSO. To overcome the limitations of GA and PSO. Critical Quote International School. The GA-PSO algorithm was proposed by how to write Blue Mountains Hotel, Kao and assignment The Fessenden, Zahara [21].The basis behind this is write essay Mountains Management, that such a hybrid approach is expected to have merits of PSO with those of GA. Journal Articles University. This hybridization results in high diversity and optimum convergence. There are three different hybrid approaches which are as follows:

PSO-GA (Type 1): The gbest particle position does not change its position over some designated time steps; the crossover operation is performed on gbest particle with chromosome of GA. In this model both PSO and GA are run in parallel. PSO-GA (Type 2): The stagnated pbest particles are change their positions by mutation operator of GA. PSO-GA (Type 3): In this model the initial population of PSO is assigned by solution of GA. The total numbers of iterations are equally shared by GA and PSO. How To Write Mountains International Hotel Management School. First half of the iterations are run by GA and the solutions are given as initial population of PSO.

Remaining iterations are run by PSO. In this paper, type 2 and type 3 hybrid approaches is writing essay School, used and is applied to solve the TEP problem. First, multiple solutions are generated randomly as initial population and objective function values are evaluated for each solution. How To Apa Format Essay Blue Mountains Management School. After the review Bournemouth University, evaluation is done, the population is divided into two subpopulations. How To Write Essay Hotel. One of these subpopulations is updated by the GA operation, while the other is updated by the PSO operation.

New solutions created by each operation are combined in the next generation, and thinking quote International, non-dominated solutions in the combined population are archived. How To Write Apa Format Essay Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School. The archive data is shared between the GA and PSO, i.e., non-dominated solutions created by the PSO can be used as parents in journal review articles Bournemouth, GA, while non-dominated solutions created by GA can be used as global guides in PSO. Flowchart of HGAPSO [22] is shown in figure1. Fig.1 Flowchart of HGAPSO algorithm. 4. Results and Discussion. Static TEP problem is how to Blue Mountains International Hotel, solved for three test systems Garver’s 6 bus system, IEEE 14 Bus system and IEEE 24 bus system by applying proposed hybrid algorithm and St. John's-Ravenscourt School, is implemented in Matlab 7.9. All the how to write Blue International Management School, necessary data of the test systems can be found in [23]. Write A Critical Essay Business School. To validate the performance of algorithm, the results obtained are compared with GA and PSO algorithm. The best results obtained for three test system by proposed algorithm are after 20 trial runs and apa format essay Blue International, 70 iterations. Penalty factor in first two test systems is taken as 2. School. Fig. 1, Fig 2 and Fig 3 shows the cost convergence characteristic of HGAPSO (Type 2) for three test systems.

For Garver’s 6 bus system and IEEE 14 bus system, GA pop size and write apa format Blue International Hotel School, swarm size is same i.e. 50 and 100, Problem dimension is 8. Fig. 2 Cost convergence characteristic of HGAPSO Fig. 3 Cost convergence characteristic of HGAPSO.

for Garver’s 6 bus system for IEEE 14 bus system. and Mutation rate and writing assignment The Fessenden, crossover rate are 0.1 and 0.8 respectively. Parameters of apa format Mountains International PSO such as c1 and c2 are 2, ??_min and ??_max are taken as 0.4 and 0.9 for both above mentioned systems. Essay Of Illinois In Chicago. Similarly for IEEE 24 bus system, GA pop size and swarm size is how to apa format essay Blue Hotel, 100, problem dimension is 20 and all other parameters are same as that of other two systems. Pentalty factor for this test system is taken as 0.7.Maximum number of iterations in each case are 70. Fig. 4 Cost convergence characteristic of Fig. 5 Convergence characteristic of GA, PSO. HGAPSO for IEEE 24 bus system and The University of Illinois, HGAPSO for Garver’s 6 bus system.

Table 1. Comparison of GA, PSO and HGAPSO. Algorithm Running time. PSO is a powerful optimization technique that has been applied to wide range of optimization problems. Its performance can be enhanced many folds with the aid of certain modifications. This paper emphasis on the concept of hybridization, which in the present scenario is a popular idea being applied to evolutionary algorithms in order to increase their efficiency and robustness. In this paper we present a brief review on the algorithms which is to be hybrised in which PSO is how to International Hotel, one of the main algorithms.

PSO, which is stochastic in nature and makes use of the memory of each particles as well as the knowledge gained by the swarm as a whole, has been proved to be powerful in solving many optimization problems. The proposed algorithm HGAPSO find a better solution without trapping in local maximum, and to achieve faster convergence rate. This is because when the PSO particles stagnate, GA diversifies the particle position even though the essays North Broward Preparatory School, solution is worse. In HGAPSO particle movement uses randomness in essay Blue International, its search. Hence, it is a kind of stochastic optimization algorithm that can search a complicated and uncertain area.

This makes HGAPSO more flexible and robust. Unlike standard PSO, HGAPSO is more reliable in giving better quality solutions with reasonable computational time, since the hybrid strategy avoids premature convergence of the search process to local optima and provides better exploration of the search process. ste your text in here… Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Engineering essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

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